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AC-machine with frequency converter with immunity

to voltage dips
Vaclav Kus, Martin Pittermann, Jiri Fort
Department of Electromechanics and Power Electronics
University of West Bohemia
Pilsen, Czech Republic
kus@kev.zcu.cz, pitterma@kev.zcu.cz, fort@kev.zcu.cz

Abstract This paper solves problematic of supply voltage dips semiconductor devices. In industry they are mostly the
and their influence to modern electric drive (i.e. induction semiconductor converters.
machine supplied from indirect frequency converter). The paper
presents the control algorithms for basic variant the most used Interesting is the standard reference [13], which says that:
drives (with non-controlled rectifier and without additional The producer must the behaviour of the device during the
converter) and variants with more complicated power circuits voltage drops set in documentation for users.
(with active rectifier respectively with special additional step-up
boost converter in DC-link).

Index Terms AC machines; AC power converters; Power


distribution faults; Variable speed drives;

I. INTRODUCTION
In terms of immunity of device to supply voltage dips see
e.g. [1-5]. For elimination of supply voltage dips on the AC
side is very often the use of DVR (dynamic voltage restorer),
see e.g. [6-8]. For additional power source see e.g. [9-10].
Figure 1. Measured example of voltage dips.
Voltage dip is defined as a drop of the voltage, which is
followed by a renewal of voltage during a short period of time. Example for the short-term drop of a voltage is shown in
The problem of measuring the supply voltage dips in the Fig. 1. or in other (see for example [14] or [15]). During the
network and at the same phenomena in the inverter is not easy measuring of the supply voltage at the industrial plant was
see e.g. [11], [12]. recorded unbalanced voltage dip, which has duration about
120 ms and which is followed by voltage oscillations after the
Conventional short-duration voltage drop is from 10 ms till voltage restoring.
1 minute. The depth of short voltage drop is defined as the
difference between the minimum effective value in the short Supply voltage dips may cause unwanted decreases of
term voltage drop and nominal voltage. Voltage drops can be output power (decrease of speed of motor etc.) and even a
caused by operations, when the large loads are being switched dangerous state for drive with inductive machine (current and
on or by short-circuit and subsequent protection function. torque surges see e.g. chapter II or Fig. 14 in chapter V).
These failures come from the networks customer or from the
public grid or can be caused by atmospheric effects. Dips are II. MEANS OF ENSURING SURGING GREATER RESISTANCE
caused by changes in active and reactive line current to the AGAINST INFLUENCES OF VOLTAGE DIPS
loads, which is connected to the network. Because the network Increased resistance against negative influences mentioned
impedance is not a zero, the dips cause the voltage drops. In in chapter I can be implemented as follows:
some cases should be the voltage drop caused by the changes
of the short-circuit power network, or by changes in network Using a more complicated power circuit of the
configuration. drive (see chapter IV or see [16]).
The depth of the voltage drop depends on the closeness of Using an advanced control algorithms for the drive for
the place to the point network, in which the fault occurs. In rapidly decreasing of output power (see chapter III
terms of powered devices are a "threatened" mainly all subchapter A or see [17]).

978-1-4673-6487-4/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE

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Ensuring appropriate and rapid return to original
working condition (see chapter III subchapter B).
Other methods for example increased tolerance of
the drive in terms of allowed values higher voltage dip
on the capacitor, or other using external device in
distribution network (see for example [18]) etc.

Figure 2. Basic variant of drive (induction motor supplied by indirect Figure 4. Time chart of scalar control algorithms.
frequency converter with voltage sourced inverter and non-controlled
rectifier without additional converter). B. Control algorithms for rapid return to original working
III. CONTROL ALGORITHMS FOR INDUCTION MOTOR condition after recovery of supply voltage
If the inverter has been switched off (e.g. due to the large
A. Control algorithms for induction m and its possibility of drop in voltage on the capacitor due to the intervention or
rapidly reducing output power protection), it is necessary to ensure that restoration work did
The drive according to Fig.2 (with the basic variant of not occur inadmissible the inverter current or torque of
power circuit) is not able to operate continuously with full induction machine. Torque shock could occur for example n
power during the voltage dips (because deep supply voltage the event that during the very time when the inverter
dips can cause discharge of capacitor in DC-link in frequency decreased motor speed (i.e., the inverter would have a higher
converter). Therefore it is necessary to rapidly reduce the recovery rate than your current value of engine speed).
output power of drive. It is also necessary to respect the residual value of
Fig. 3 shows the transient phenomena corresponding to magnetic flux in the machine. Fig. 5, Fig. 6, Fig. 7 and Fig. 8
requirements of the rapid decrease of reference of output show the waveforms after recovery power supply to the
power for drive with simple control algorithm of induction induction motor (e.g. after the end of the voltage supply dip).
motor (e.g. so called scalar control algorithms). The actual
process output is slow. Therefore, it could cause a danger
large discharge of capacitor in DC-link.

Figure 5. Recovery of power supply to induction machine after long time


supply voltage dips - induction motor already without magnetic flux.

Figure 3. Time chart of scalar control algorithms. Fig. 5 shows the case that the induction machine could
magnetic flux disappear. Then jump of the supply voltage as
Fig. 4 shows the same transient - but with the rapid control well as "correct frequency and size" (i.e. with regard to the
algorithm of induction motor (e.g. vector control algorithms). new steady state) results in current and torque surges (motor is
The transient time was reduced. excited to form oscillating happening).

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Active rectifier (left side of Fig. 9) is used for the most
complicated application for purposes of enabling regenerative
braking and for purposes to minimize the negative influence
of its converter to power net (minimize THDI).
Another advantage of this more expensive variant is higher
resistance against dips in the supply voltage, because active
rectifier is able to create an increased voltage on capacitor in
DC-link (therefore the drive can compensate dips).

Figure 6. Recovery of power supply to induction machine - induction motor


with magnetic flux.

Fig. 6 shows the condition when the induction machine


kept mg. flux but is used in the restoration of a different phase
shift inverter voltage than would correspond to the mg. flux
Figure 9. Variant of drive with active rectifier.
(i.e., even a "error only" in the angle can lead to oscillating
action). So for the restoration of power with minimal current
Fig. 10 shows the one of variant of using special additional
and torque must be respected and the current value of the
converter (step-up boost converter) in DC-link of frequency
angle of mg. flux (e.g. see Fig. 7), where transient minimized.
converter with non-controlled rectifier (see Fig. 2). This
variant is impossible to working in regenerative regime, but it
is cheaper (in comparing to variant according to Fig. 9) and
use induction in DC-link (reducing of voltage drop according
to reactance in comparing with variant according to Fig. 9
with inductances in input AC-side of rectifier).

Figure 7. Recovery of power supply to induction machine - adhered to the


voltage angle mg. flux, which remained in the motor after a power failure
(induced voltage precision) and immediately set to zero torque. Figure 10. Variant of drive with additional converter in DC-link.

Fig. 8 shows the transition process, which is also respected Fig. 10 shows the positions of sensors which are possible
mg. flux angle (as in Fig. 7.), but immediately set the full to use for control algorithms. Paper [11] presents the some
value of torque. variants of control algorithms for this additional converter in
DC-link. Fig. 11 presents the best variant of control
algorithms that have been tested (by simulation on PC and
measure on laboratory).

Figure 8. Restoration work of work of inverter - adhered to the voltage Figure 11. Control circuits for additional converter with control algorithm
angle mg. flux, which remained in the motor after a power failure (induced with two controllers and pre control algorithms (voltage controller and
voltage precision) and immediately set to full torque. current controller).

IV. MORE COMPLICATED POWER CIRCUIT Fig. 12 presents simulation results of transient phenomena
during long-time voltage supply dip. In time t = 0.15s occur
Fig. 9 shows the more complicated variant of electric drive
the voltage supply dip from 100% to 42% (voltage ud in
drive with indirect frequency converter with active rectifier
output terminals of non-controlled rectifier decreases from
(instead non-controlled rectifier for comparison see Fig. 2).
value 235V to 100V).

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For basic variant of drive (according to Fig. 2) this voltage The Fig. 14 and Fig. 15 show the results of measurement
supply dip means danger of discharge of capacitor in DC-link. of transient phenomena of supply voltage dips in laboratory.
Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the power of drive (with Voltage dip is from value 120V to 40V. Time of voltage dip is
other problems described in Chapter III). 700ms. Voltage dips was realized by switching of additional
supply transformer (see [19] for other method). Channel Ch1
For variant of drive with special additional converter in and Ch3 are measured (by current probes) and directly
DC-link (according to Fig.10) voltage uC on capacitor in DC- displayed. Channel Ch2 and Ch4 are recomputed on DSP:
link have approximately constant value even during supply
voltage dips (because is additional converter is able to create Ch1 (light blue) = ia [A] current in first phase of
an increasingly voltage). Constant output power during supply induction machine (e.g. output from frequency
voltage dips means increasing of values of input supply converter), frequency of its inverter is 25Hz (in Fig.
currents (e.g. see current id in DC-link in Fig.12). 14) or 15Hz (in Fig. 15).
Ch2 (cyan or dark blue) = UC [V] voltage on
capacitor on DC-link (Fig. 15 shows the comparing of
several variants of control algorithms).
Ch3 (violet)= id [A] current flow through DC-
inductance in DC-link (output current from input
rectifier).
Ch4 (green) = Ud [V] supply voltage from input
rectifier (re-computing from AC-side to equivalent
value according to case of non-controlled rectifier
without additional converter).
The Fig. 17 shows the results of measurement on basic
variant of drive (according to Fig.1) i.e. without additional
step-up converter.
When supply voltage dip occurs (i.e. Ud < UC), then input
current id is set to zero value. Voltage UC on capacitor on DC-
link starts very rapidly decrease (because output inverter
discharge capacitor in DC-link).
Figure 12. Voltage in DC-link during long-time voltage supply dip. The voltage UC on capacitor on DC-link is reduced to
Simulation results of drive with additional converter in DC-link (see Fig. 10) actual value of supply voltage (after approximately 80ms) and
with control algorithm with two controllers pre control algorithms (see input current id increasing to value corresponding of this
Fig.11). voltage and output power (flow to induction machine).

V. RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT IN LABORATORY SYSTEM Recovery of supply voltage produces a big current peak
and return to nominal value of voltage UC on capacitor in DC-
The Fig. 13 shows the photography of electric drive in link. This increasing and decreasing of value UC (in start of
laboratory (according to Fig. 10 and Fig. 11). voltage dip) produce unwanted transient phenomena of current
The control algorithms (according to chapter IV i.e. and torque in supplied induction machine.
Fig. 11) were implemented into DSP Texas Instruments
TMS320F2812. The power circuit consists of the voltage
source inverter with 4 IGBT half-bridges SEMIKRON
SKM100GB12T4 (three half-bridges for inverter and one for
step-up boost converter) with diode-rectifier, inductance
10mH, capacitance 3.25 mF and induction motor 3kW.

Figure 13. Real laboratory system (inductance, converter, DSP, machines. Figure 14. Variant without additional converter in DC-link.

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