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Joyful Learning

Non-interactive, chalk and talk methods used in classrooms end up producing children able to replicate but not create knowledge.

In the last 14 years, joyful learning has emerged as a powerful concept to change the way we manage schools and classrooms.

Central to the success of the programme is teacher empowerment. Teachers use songs and games as well as a variety of locally available materials, such as leaves, stones and trees, as teaching tools. A joyful classroom is an active, bright and cheerful place.

Whether it is in Nalli Kalli of Karnataka, the Quality Education Schools in UP or elsewhere-- joyful learning classrooms can be characterised by the glow on children's faces as they come willingly to school.

UNICEF has collaborated with central and state governments and NGOs to support joyful learning initiatives.

How To Create Joyful Learning in the Classroom

by Amita Puri, PhD | Nov 4, 2014 | Articles |

As teachers, we always want to create joy in the classroom as it facilitates more learning and certainly faster learning. The challenge is HOW do we create joyful learning in the classroom? HOW do we infect our students with enthusiasm? How do we bring fun and JOY in the classroom? Here are some simple techniques which will help us have the most joyful learning possible.

  • I remember my English teacher Ms. Kalha in college quite vividly and her wonderful

statement “Education is what is left behind after the textbooks have been forgotten”.

If this IS indeed so, then lets embark on the journey of making education a joyful

experience. What happens inside schools has a deep and lasting effect on the mind-sets that children develop toward lifelong learning. A teacher affects eternity and one can never tell when his influence stops.

JOY 1: Find the Pleasure in Learning

If we want students to be charged with enthusiasm, if we want them to see school and

learning as joyful, we need to rethink how and what we teach. Let them enjoy learning as well as they enjoy games. Find ways to increase laughter in the classroom.

JOY 2: Music and Rhythm

Many of the things I remember most easily were learned with song. Ask your students to

create songs and rhythm when learning something new and they will remember much longer and have an easier time retrieving the information for a test.

JOY 3: Give Students Choice

  • I tell my students to decide on the topic they want to study for that week and then as

“experts” they will teach the next week. Try this in your classroom.

JOY 4: Let Students Create Things

People like to create things. The list of what students can create across the curriculum is

virtually limitless: newspapers and magazines, brochures, stories, picture books, posters, PowerPoint presentations, interviews, oral histories, models, diagrams,

blueprints and floor plans, plays and role-plays, mock trials, photographs, paintings, songs, surveys, graphs, documentary videos etc.

JOY 5: Show Off Student Work

  • I tell my teacher education students that the walls of their classrooms should speak to

people; they should say exactly what goes on in that space throughout the school day. I can tell what teachers value by simply walking into their classrooms and looking at the

walls.

JOY 6: Towards Holistic Learning

The new challenges that we face in the 21st century with the advent of information technology necessitate a systemic change towards a model of holistic learning that is experiential and linked to real-life situations. Find situations that help students incorporate what they learned in their everyday lives.

JOY 7: Get Outside

We adults know all too well that fresh air, trees, and a sunny day can do miracles for the human spirit. In an era where recess and playgrounds are being taken away, get your classes, no matter what the age, outside to reinvigorate and rejuvenate their learning. As a teacher, I often take my students outside to read, write, or have a class meeting. It is delightful for a student to sit under a tree and read or for a class to sit in a circle on the grass and talk. Ecosystems are all around us.

JOY 8: Read Good Books

Everyone loves a good story. All students enjoy a good story so allow books beyond your texts simply for the sake of student enjoyment!

Teaching As Joyful Experience

A teacher is like a candle who burns itself to give light to others. Here is an Indian scripture which personifies my view of teachers. Even If I make the paper of Entire Earth; And I turn all the forests into a huge pen; And convert all the seven oceans as Ink for this pen;

  • I will not be able to THANK MY TEACHER ENOUGH!

Amita Puri, Ph.D. is a teacher and teacher trainer with Army Institute of Education, New

Delhi, India. She has been conducting workshops for preservice and inservice teachers for the last 20 years and specializes in educational psychology and guidance counseling

UNIT STRUCTURE

  • 1. Learning Objectives

  • 2. Introduction

  • 3. Formation of the Committee

  • 4. Major Proposal of the Committee as a National Scheme of Education

  • 5. Suggestions of the Sargent Committee

    • 1. Pre-primary Education

    • 2. Primary or Basic Education

    • 3. Secondary Education

    • 4. University Education

    • 5. Technical and Vocational Education

    • 6. Other Suggestions

  • 6. Evaluation of the Sargent Report

  • 7. Implementation of the Recommendations

  • 8. Let Us Sum Up

  • 9. Further Readings

    • 10. Answers to Check Your Progress

    • 11. Possible Questions

    • 12. References

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    After going through this unit, you will be able to:

    • Expalin the reason for appointing the Sargent Committee in 1944

    • Illustrate the structure of Education Proposed in the Report

    • Describe the Suggestions made by the Committee in different aspects of education.

    • Evaluate the Recommendations, and

    • Familiar with the Measures taken by the Government to implement the resolutions.

    INTRODUCTION

    INTRODUCTION

    In the previous unit we have discussed Gandhiji’s Wardha Scheme of Basic Education, 1937. Before that, the reports of the various committees and commissions suggested significant educational reforms in regard to national development. Government of India resolutions, 1913 was followed by Sadler Commission’s Report of 1917, and the Hartog Committee Report in 1929 and then by the Wardha Scheme, 1937. Keeping in view the reforms suggested by all these reports, the British Government had begun to understand the seriousness of the situation in the area of education. Ultimately in the middle forties the Government of India realised that it could no longer be indifferent to the problem of education of the Indian people and there was the need of bringing about radical reform in all aspects of Indian education. So it advised Sir John Sargent, the Educational Advisor to the Government of India, to prepare a comprehensive scheme of education for educational reform in India.

    In this unit we will discuss the major points of recommendations regarding pre-primary, primary, secondary, university and other aspects of education in our country as proposed in the Sargent Report, 1944. We will also evaluate the recommendations of this report.

    FORMATION OF THE COMMITTEE

    FORMATION OF THE COMMITTEE

    It has been mentioned above that Sir John Sargent, the Educational Adviser to the Government of India was asked to prepare a comprehensive report on education. For the purpose, the government formed a Committee of Enquiry with 22 members. The report of the committee was submitted to the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) in 1944. The Board accepted it in ‘toto’ and recommended its enforcement. The scheme was known as ‘Sargent Scheme of Education’ as it was prepared by John Sargent. It is

    also known as ‘Report by the Central Advisory Board of Education’ and also as the plan for post-war educational reconstruction in India. This scheme has a historical importance as it was the first attempt to develop a National System for Education in India. The report of the Committee consisted of 12 different chapters covering from pre-primary to university education. It was a full fledged educational plan for the future educational reconstruction in India. The report had diagnosed every problem critically and had given definite and clear-cut solutions. It deals with almost all types of education for all classes of people in India. This was the first report that present a comprehensive picture of education in our country at that period of time. The report is undoubtedly a valuable educational document. Hence, it deserves a careful study.

    It must be mentioned here that this plan is not entirely a new plan. It is rather the summery of different resolutions, minutes and proceedings of the CABE since 1936.

    MAJOR PROPOSAL OF THE COMMITTEE AS A NATIONAL SCHEME OF EDUCATION

    MAJOR PROPOSAL OF THE COMMITTEE AS A NATIONAL SCHEME OF EDUCATION

    Let us discuss the major proposal of the committee

    The report had maintained that in a period of not less than 40 years, the standard of Indian education will be made equivalent to that of England. It had made certain policy decisions, the implications of which may have far reaching consequences. They may be outlined below

    Pre-primary education for children between 3 to 6 years of age.

    Universal, compulsory and free primary or basic education for all children between the ages 611 (junior basic) and 1114 (senior basic).

    High school education for six years for selected children between the years 1117. Degree course for three years beginning after the higher secondary examination for selected students

    Technical, commercial, agricultural and art education for full time and part time students, girls schools are to teach domestic science.

    The liquidation of adult illiteracy and the development of public library system in about 20 years. Full provision for the proper training of teachers. Educational provision be made for the physically and mentally handicapped children. The organisation of compulsory physical education. Provision be made for social and recreational activities. The creation of employment bureaus. The creation of department of Education in the centre and in the states. The use of mother tongue is to be used as the medium of instruction in all high schools.

    CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    1. Fill in the blanks

    • a) The Sargent Committee constituted of

    members.

    • b) The report of the committee contains

    ___________

    chapters.

    • c) The Sargent report is also known as ___________.

    d)

    e)

    Pre-primary education for children

    ___________

    years.

    Degree course for 3 years after completion of

    _________

    education.

    f)

    Educational provision be made for physically and mentally

    children.

    ___________

    • g) ___________

    is to be used as a medium of instruction in all high schools.

    SUGGESTIONS OF THE SARGENT COMMITTEE

    SUGGESTIONS OF THE SARGENT COMMITTEE

    We have already discussed the structure of the committee and a broad outline of its policy decisions regarding the different aspects of education. Now we will discuss the suggestions of the committee one by one.

    Pre Primary Education

    Pre Primary Education

    For the first time in India, official attention was given towards the pre-primary stage of education. The major suggestions of the report in this regard may be summarised below

    Provision should be made for pre-primary education in the form of nursery schools for the success of National Scheme of Education.

    Children from 36 years of age should be admitted in these schools.

    The basic aim of these schools should be to impart social experience and education of general behaviour rather than giving formal education.

    The nursery schools may be attached to junior basic schools in the rural areas.

    In the urban areas where there are sufficient numbers of children, nursery schools should have separate existence.

    Pre-primary education should be free.

    It was estimated that the pre-primary education will require annually Rs. 3, 18, 40,000/- for ten lakh people.

    Basic or Primary Education

    Basic or Primary Education

       

    The report has adopted the scheme of basic education with some modifications, which gave theofficial recognition to Gandhiji’s Basic Education. The principle of education through craft was advocated but it did not agree with the idea that the things manufactured by the students should meet the expenses of the education. Regarding primary education the scheme contains the following suggestions

    Basic schools should be divided into two categoriesJunior Basic Schools and Senior Basic Schools.

    Junior basic stage should be from 611 years of age and education in these schools should be compulsory for all.

    Senior basic schools should be for children of 1114 years of age. Only such student should be sent to senior basic school who cannot continue their studies for high schools.

    In the junior basic schools, there should be one teacher for every 30 students. In senior basic schools there should be one teacher for every 25 students.

    Instead of external examination, there should be internal examinations. Certificates should be issued after the completion of the studies.

    Provision should be made for physical education and organised game for children.

    The medium of instruction should be the mother tongue of the pupils.

    Basic schools should be started only when suitable trained teachers are available

    CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    • 2. What is pre-primary education?

    .............................................................................................................

    .............................................................................................................

    • 3. Mention the age level of pre-primary schools.

    .............................................................................................................

    • 4. What are the categories of primary schools?

    .............................................................................................................

    .............................................................................................................

    • 5. What should be the student teacher ratio in primary school?

    .............................................................................................................

    • 6. What are the subjects recommended for girls?

    .............................................................................................................

    .............................................................................................................

    High School Education

    High School Education

    Let us discuss the view of the Committee in respect of High school education.

    In the opinion of the Sargent Committee, high school education should not be considered simply as a preliminary to university education but as a stage complete in itself. The suggestions of the committee regarding high school education may be summarised below

    Only those students, who are well above the average ability and have exceptional aptitude for higher studies, should be sent for secondary schools.

    The duration of high school education should be six years and the age group is 1116 years.

    Students below the age of 11 should not be allowed to enter these schools. Their abilities, aptitudes and interests should be borne in mind while giving them admission.

    Students have to study at least upto the age of 14 years. In these schools they should not be allowed to leave schools before this age.

    Fee shall be charged from the students for receiving education of this age but 50% of the pupils will be provided with free studentship.

    It has also been recommended to give scholarships to the poor students so that they may not be deprived of this stage of education.

    The high school should be of two typesAcademic and Technical and curriculum should be prepared accordingly.

    The Academic high schools will impart instruction in the Arts and pure sciences, while the Technical high school will provide the training the applied sciences and Industrial and Commercial subjects. Art and Music should form an integral part of the curriculum in both and all girls should take a course in Domestic Science.

    lThe curriculum should be diversified as far as practicable in order to provide a wide range of choices.

    The medium of instruction in all high schools should be the mother tongue of the pupils. English should be a compulsory second language.

    The aim of education should be to make the boys self dependent and able to stand on their legs.

    University Education

    University Education

    We are already familiar with the suggestions given by the committee regarding pre-primary, primary and high school education; let us discuss what suggestion it has offered for university education. The Sargent Committee pointed out the defects of university education in the following way

    • University education has failed to relate their activities to the practical needs of the community as a whole. There is no systematic attempt to adjust the output to the capacity of the employment market to absorb it.

    • A great deal of importance is attached to examinations.

    • In the absence of suitable selection machinery, a large number of incapable students get entry into the universities.

    • Probably nowhere among the universities of the world is there so large a proportion of failures in examinations as in Indian universities.

    • Indian universities do not fully satisfy the requirements of a national system of education.

    The Committee has offered the following suggestions for the improvement of university education

    • The duration of degree course should be of 3 years.

    • The present intermediate course should be abolished. The first year of the course should be transferred to high school and the second year to the universities.

    • The standard of university education must be raised. The condition of admission must be revised so that capable students can take the advantage of the university course.

    • Competent teachers should be appointed in the university and steps should be taken to improve the conditions of service including remuneration.

    • The tutorial system should be widely extended for closer personal contacts between teachers and students.

    • Adequate financial assistance must be provided for poor students.

    • Emphasis should be given on establishing a high standard in post-graduate studies and in pure applied research.

    • For coordination in the activities of the different universities an All India Organisation like University Grants Committee of England should be set up.

    CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    • 7. What type of students should be admitted in high schools?

    .............................................................................................................

    .............................................................................................................

    • 8. Mention the type of high schools and their functions.

    .............................................................................................................

    .............................................................................................................

    • 9. What are the defects of university education?

    ............................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................. 10. What are suggestions of the committee regarding improving the standard of university education? ............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................

    Technical and Vocational Education

    Technical and Vocational Education

    Sargent Committee laid a good deal of stress on technical and vocational education. It suggested for the full time and part time instructions in order to fulfil the requirement of all the different categories of the skilled hands. The report divides the workers into four categories

    Higher Category of Workers :

    According to the Sargent Report there was a need for higher category of workers for the industrial and vocational fields. They will

    have their preliminary training in a Technical high school and then will pass from Technological Department of some university or from full time Technological Institute and will serve as Chief Executive, Research Workers etc.

    Lower Category of Workers :

    This category includes foreman, charge-hand and other ordinary executive and administrative officers. They should be given

    training in the Technical high school for Diploma or Certificate Course.

    Skilled Craftsman:

    Skilled craftsman are very much needed for successful execution of industrial and occupational schemes. Students should have

    passed Technical high school course or Senior basic or Junior Technical or Industrial school course.

    Semi skilled or unskilled workers :

    Students who have studied in Senior basic middle schools with some basic craft, shall be admitted to this category of workers.

    These persons should get facilities both for continuing their general education and for improving their skill.

    Other Suggestions

    Other Suggestions

    The report has touched some other branches of education also. These are as follows:

    • A. Adult Education :

    The role of adult education, according to report is to make every possible member of a state an effective and efficient citizen. It is very much essential for the success of the ideal democratic way of life. The problem of adult education in India connotes adult literacy. The normal age range of adult education should be 10 plus to 40. This scheme envisaged two types of education for adultsgeneral education and technical or vocational education. Separate classes should be organised for boys and girls between ten to sixteen years of age. In order to make adult education interesting, it is necessary to use visual aids, mechanical aids such as pictures, charts, cinema, gramophone, radio, folk dancing, music etc.

    • B. Training of the teachers :

    There should be an army of trained teachers for the rapid progress of education and the successful execution of the plans of education. For graduate teachers Sargent Committee recommended to impart training to them by training colleges. For the training of undergraduate teachers, there should be three types of training institutionspre-primary, basic and high school. Teachers for technical and industrial education may be taken to the institutions for the purpose and other industrial courses. Refresher courses should be started for all the categories of teachers. Free training should be provided in training colleges and schools. In order to attract proper type of persons to the teaching profession, the report proposes to revise the scales of pay to be given to all grades of teachers, particularly to the teachers at the primary stage who are paid very low salaries at present.

    • C. Health Education :

    The Sargent report suggested that in order to look after the health of school Children health committee should be set up in schools. Every student should be medically checked up and if any defect is found appropriate follow-up measures should be taken. Minor

    treatment can be provided in school clinics. Physical training should be compulsory.

    • D. Education of the Physically Handicapped :

    Provision for special education should be made for physically handicapped and mentally retarded children. Here the educands may engage themselves in such productive activities that may be of use to them in the future life.

    • E. Employment Bureaus :

    The scheme made the following recommendations in this regard in order to provide the students with requisite employment(i)Under the control of the education department a number of employment bureaus should be established.

    (ii)Universities should have their own employment bureaus. (iii) These bureaus should discharge the following functions

    • (a) contact with educational institutions,

    • (b) advise the outgoing students about openings for employment,

    • (c) contact with employers and arrangement for trade apprentices.

      • F. Administration of Education:

    For proper implementation of the new schemes of education at all India level a strong department of education should be set at the

    centre. The state should also have their department of education. More cooperation and coordination needed between the centre and the states for successful implementation of a National System of Education. The report indicated that the implementation of the whole scheme would involve a total expenditure of Rs. three hundred crores every year.

    CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    11. Name the categories of workers mentioned in the Sargent Report. ............................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................ 12. Write short notes on

    • (a) Adult Education.

    .....................................................................................................

    .....................................................................................................

    • (b) Education for physically and mentally handicapped.

    .....................................................................................................

    .....................................................................................................

    • (c) Employment Bureau.

    .....................................................................................................

    .....................................................................................................

    EVALUATION OF THE SARGENT REPORT

    EVALUATION OF THE SARGENT REPORT

    We have already discussed the suggestions given by the Sargent report in all aspects of education in India. Now we will make an attempt to evaluate the report.

    The Sargent report had been the outcome of the experience of the British Government that in education, India was behind the other advanced countries of the world.

    The chief merits of this report are discussed below

    This was the first comprehensive scheme embracing all aspects of educationpre-primary, primary, high school and university education. Technical, vocational and professional, all types of education had been given attention by way of providing useful suggestions for their improvement.

    Secondly, it recommended the provision of equal opportunities to all the students at various stages of education.

    Thirdly, due importance was given to the teaching profession. Recommendations were made for the improvement of the salary scales and the service conditions of the teachers.

    Fourthly, for the first time the attention of the Government was drawn towards the education of the handicapped.

    Fifthly, the report gave importance on providing education in such a manner as to make one self depended. It foresaw the importance of the employment problem in the country and thought that education could be instrumental in solving it.

    Let us examine the shortcoming and defects of the report

    The report is criticised on the ground that it was not an original report. It was only a patch-work of the recommendations of different committees.

    The report outlined an educational development in India which would require 40 years to be implemented. This time limit did not satisfy any ardent educationist. An acceptable plan of educational development in India had been spread over a much shorter range of time, not exceeding 15 years.

    It had been pointed out that it would be wrong to call it a national scheme of education because it was only a copy of the pattern practised in England. This pattern could not serve as a model to India because the social, political and economic conditions in the two countries are vastly different.

    The proposal for selective admission in schools, colleges and universities was undemocratic.

    IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RECOMMENDATION

    IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RECOMMENDATION

    It is necessary for us to see how the recommendations of the Sargent Committee was implemented.

    The Government of India accepted the recommendations of the report in principle and tried to implement some of them in the following manner

    In 1945 an education department was established at the centre to increase administrative efficiency.

    According to the recommendations of the committee 40 crores of rupees were given to the provincial Governments for implementing certain aspects of the scheme in their areas.

    The Provincial Governments were advised to make five year plans for education. In 1946 these plans were made in some provinces.

    l It was decided that the scheme should be implemented within 16 years instead of 40 year.

    According to the recommendations of the committee University Grants Committee was constituted in 1945 which later on became University Grants Commission in 1956.

    The aim of providing compulsory and free education to children between 611 years of age was accepted.

    Efforts were made for adult education and also for improving the economic condition of teachers.

    The committee of polytechnic school and the All India Technical Education Committee were established in Delhi.

    CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    13. Mention the merits and demerits of the Sargent report. ........................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................... 14. How far were the suggestions of the report implemented? Name a few suggestions which were implemented. ........................................................................................................... ...........................................................................................................

    LET US SUM UP

    LET US SUM UP

    In the beginning of this unit we focused our attention on the formation of the Sargent Committee. The committee constituted of 22 members headed by John Sargent, Educational Advisor to the Government of India. For the first time the committee tried to develop a National System of Education for India. The report prepared by this committee is not entirely a new plan but the summary of resolutions, minutes and proceedings of the Central Advisory Board of Education.

    For the first time in the educational history of India the report paid attention towards pre-primary education and suggested that children from 3 to 6 years should be admitted in schools. The report had adopted the scheme to basic education with some modifications and divided the basic schools into two categoriesjunior and senior basic. As for high schools, the Committee suggested that these schools should be of two typesacademic and technical. Academic high schools will impart instruction in the Arts and pure science, while the technical high school will provide training in industrial and commercial subjects. The curriculum should be diversified as far as possible and the aim of high school education should be to make the boys self-dependent and able to stand on their own legs.

    Regarding university education the Report said that higher education had failed to relate their activities to the practical needs of the community and a large number of incapable students get entry into the universities due to lack of proper selection procedure. A great deal of importance had been attached to examinations and proportion of failure was very high. For improving the condition, the report suggested that the standard of university education should be raised, the condition of admission should be revised, competent teachers should be appointed and tutorial system should be extended for closer personal contact between the students and the teachers. A University Grants Committee should be established.

    In technical and vocational education the committee suggested for full time and part time instruction in order to fulfil the requirements of all different categories of the skilled workers, such as, chief executive, research workers, foreman, craftsman for industrial occupations etc. Beside, the report suggested different measures to improve adult education, the training of teachers, health education, education for physically and mentally handicapped and for establishing employment bureau etc. We have evaluated the recommendation of the committee and discussed the merits and demerits towards the end of the unit and also how far the recommendations were implemented.

    FURTHER READINGS

    FURTHER READINGS

    Naike, J. P. & Nourellah, S.: A Student’s History of Education in India, MaCMillan India Ltd., 1996.

    Rawat, P. L.: History of Indian Education, Ram Prasad & Sons, Agra, 1991.

    ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

    1.

    • (a) 22,

    • (b) 12,

    • (c) Report by the central advisory board of education/plan for post

    war educational reconstruction,

    • (d) 3-6,

    • (e) Higher secondary,

    • (f) Handicapped,

    • (g) Mother tongue.

    2.

    Pre-primary education means nursery education meant for small children. The Sargent Committee provided attention towards the pre-primary education for the first time in India.

    3.

    The age level for pre-primary education is 3-6 years.

    4.

    Categories arejunior basic and senior basic.

    5.

    According to the Sargent committee there should be one teacher for every 30 students in junior basic and one teacher for every 25 senior basic schools.

    6.

    The subject recommended for girls arecookery, laundry work, needle work, handicrafts, child care and first aid.

    7.

    Only those students should be given admission in high schools who are well of the age group and have exceptional aptitude for higher studies.

    8.

    The high school should be of two typesAcademic and Technical. The function of the Academic high school is to impart instruction in the Arts and Pure-Science, while technical high school will provide training in applied sciences, industrial and commercial subjects.

    9.

    The defects of the university education as pointed out by the Sargent committee were the failure of the university education to relate their activities to the practical needs of the community, the absence of suitable selection machinery, over importance on examination and large scale failures.

    10.

    The suggestions of the committee regarding improving the standard of university education arecondition of admission must be revised, competent teachers should be appointed, closer personal contact between teachers and students to be established and steps should be taken to importance the service condition of the teacher and their recommendation.

    12.

    (a)

    Adult education meant for those in the age group of 10-40 years and both general and vocational education were

    prescribed. In order to make adult education interesting the use of audio-visual aids was also advocated .

    • (b) The Sargent Report suggested that provision should be made for the education of the physically and mentally retarded

    children. Training should be provided in productive activities so that it may help them in their future life.

    • (c) The Sargent committee recommended the setting up of employment bureaus for students who would complete their

    education. The state governments and universities should have employment bureaus of their own.

    • 13. The Sargent report was the first comprehensive report on Indian education covering all aspects of education. It recommended the provision of equal opportunities to all students and due importance was given on the teaching profession, adult education, health education, salary and service conditions of teachers and including the education of the physically handicapped. But the scheme was criticised on several grounds such as it was not an original report, 40 years time limit was too long for implementing any educational scheme and it was a copy of the pattern practised in England. Therefore this pattern cannot be a model for India because the social political and economic conditions in the two countries are vastly different.

    • 15. An Education department was established at the centre; 40 crores of rupees were given to the provincial governments for implementing the scheme; the University Grants Committee was constituted and a committee for polytechnic school as well as the All India Technical Education committee was established in Delhi.

    POSSIBLE QUESTIONS

    POSSIBLE QUESTIONS

    Outline the main recommendations of the Sargent Committee, 1944.

    What were the recommendations of the Sargent Scheme of Education with regard to primary and secondary education? On what has ground the scheme been criticised?

    Discuss the views of the Sargent Committee in regard to technical and vocational education, adult education and education for physically handicapped.

    Describe the proposals made by the Sargent Report on higher education. On what ground has the report been criticised? How far were these recommendations implemented?

    REFERENCES

    REFERENCES

    Aggarwal, I. C: Landmarks in the History of Modern Indian Education, Vikash Publishing House, New Delhi, 2004 Mukerjee, S. N.: Education in India : Today and Tomorrow, Acharya Book Depot, Vadodara, 1976 , ll Purkait, B.R.: Milestones in Modern Indian Education, New Central Book Agency, 2005, Kolkata. Naike, J. P. & Nourellah, S.: A Student’s History of Education in India, MaCMillan India Ltd., 1996. Rawat, P. L.: History of Indian Education, Ram Prasad & Sons, Agra, 1991.

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    Introduction

    Cultural and education can not be divorced from each other. They are interdependent. The cultural patterns of a society guide its educational patterns. As for example, if a society has a spiritual pattern of culture, then its educational procedures will emphasize the achievement of moral and eternal values of life. On the other hand if the culture of a society is materialistic, then its educational pattern will be shaped for the attainment of material values which promotes pleasures of senses and material comforts. A society devoid of any culture will have no definite educational organization. Hence, the culture of a country has a very powerful impact on its educational patterns. Education as a part of culture has the twin functions of conservation and modification or renewal of culture. It is the culture in which education germinates and flourishes and exerts a nourishing influence. Human being receives from society the gifts of family life, community life, education, vocation, legal rights, safety and protection in the same way he/she inherits from the culture the gift of cultural heritage.

    Meaning of Culture:

    In anthropological literature the term culture is used in many senses, but in general writing it is used to indicate social charm and intellectual superiority. Culture is a collective term for socially transmitted behaviour patterns. In ordinary language culture means good manners and good taste. Taylor defines culture as "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits, acquired by man as a member of society."

    Ellwood says that "culture includes man’s entire material civilization, tools, weapons, clothing, shelter, machines and even system of industry.”

    Kinds of culture:

    1. According to the subjects there are different kinds of culture:

    • Individual culture

    Each individual has some personal traits and qualities which guide the habits, thinking and behaviour of the person. These personal likes, dislikes, interests, modes of thinking and patterns of social behaviour constitute his personal culture.

    • Communal culture

    Different communities have their different customs, traditions, beliefs and styles of living

    which is known as community culture.

    • National culture

    Each nation has some distinct patterns of ideals, values, modes of thoughts and behaviour. Such national traits are known as national culture.

    • World culture

    With the rise in the means of transport and communication the whole world has shrunk into a small unit. The whole world are now supposed to be having common values of life such as

    cooperation, empathy, sympathy, social services, social awakening and social sensitiveness which is termed as world culture. According to contents there are two types of culture in every society:

    Material culture: It includes all those man made things and objects which human society has created for its physical welfare. As for example clothes, utensils, TV, radio, various machines•

    Non material culture: It includes those ideals, attitudes and values which modify the behaviour of an individual. Language, literature, art, music, religion, customs, traditions etc are some of the example of non-material culture. Characteristics of culture:

    Acquired traits: Culture is sum total of acquired traits. A new born baby acquires traits in the process of growing up. As the baby grows older he/she acquires different ideals, attitudes and

    values by imitation and social contacts. These experiences contribute to the formation of his personal culture. Distinct entity: Different societies of the world have different cultural patterns establishing the different identities of different nations. Transmission: Cultural traits and patterns are transmitted from generation to generation. Each generation is free to modify the cultural heritage and transmit it to the next generation. Cultural patterns are powerfully conditioned and influenced by the trends which appear from time to time according to different circumstances and conditions. The transmission is a continuous process. Utility: A culture is good if it has utility to the individual and to the society. If it does not fulfill this purpose then it decays and dies out in the long run. Cultural fanaticism promotes conflicts and chaos. Therefore, one should see and adopt cultural beauties and excellencies of all the culture that exist in the world. It will promote the world culture on the one hand where as on the other cultural integration will take place. Dynamism: Culture is not static but is dynamic. It changes and grows with the change of time. Due to rapid rise in transport and means of communication one culture adopts another culture and become composite culture. One can notice that our culture has traveled a long way and changed from its previous times in numerous ways. Our thinking patterns, values, beliefs, behavior ideals etc all has changed. The different cultures of the world are interacting among themselves and syntheses of culture are taking place.

    Education and culture:

    Education as a part of culture has the twin functions of conservation and modification or renewal of the culture. Education is conceived as a systematic effort to maintain a culture. "In its technical sense education is the process by which society, through schools, colleges, universities and other institutions, deliberately transmit its cultural heritage, its accumulated knowledge, values and skills from one generation to another." Education is an instrument of cultural change. Education can impart knowledge, training and skills as well as inculcate new ideas and attitudes among the young. It is culture in which education germinates and flowers. It is the culture also upon which education exerts, in turn, a nourishing influence. The intimate relationship between culture and education is evident from the fact the one of the major aim of education is to impart to the child cultural heritage and social heritage. Every individual is born into a particular culture which provides him with definite patterns of behaviour and values which guide his/her conduct in different walks of life. Thus, culture plays an important role in the life of a person. To understand the nature of its importance, it will be easy to understand how education of various elements of culture can help a person. It can be seen in the following manner:

    Adaptation to the natural environment:

    Adaptation to the social environment:

    Development of personality:

    Society and Need for Schooling:

    Transmission of culture heritage:

    Education is obviously reflection of the social, cultural and political conditions prevailing outside. It reflects the society but it has within it the seeds of dynamics of change and thus can keep pace with the fast changing world. The schools thus are not blind followers of the dictates of the society but when it degenerates they can improve it and enthuse it with new idea of thought and new horizons of desirable ideals.

    Impact of culture on educational institutions:

    The aims and ideals of the educational institutions are influenced by the values and patterns of the society. Curriculum: The curriculum is prepared according to the culture of society. The system of education tries to realize the cultural needs of society through curriculum which conditions all educational activities and programmes. Methods of teaching: Culture and methods of teaching are intimately connected. The changing cultural patterns of a society exert its influence upon the methods of teaching. Previously teaching was teacher centered where teacher used to give knowledge to the child. Now it has become student centered. The teacher considers the needs, interests, aptitude, attitude, inclinations, behaviour etc before teaching. In this way education is a method pf preparing child for the future for effective living. In short we can say that cultural and social conditions generate the methods and techniques of teaching in a powerful manner. Discipline: Cultural values influence the concept of discipline. The present cultural patterns of thinking and living are directly linked to our concept of discipline where the democratic values are accepted all over the world. Text Books: Curriculum is contained in the textbooks. Textbooks are written according to the formulated or determined curriculum. Only those textbooks are welcomed which foster and promote cultural values and ideals. Teacher: Each individual teacher is imbibed with the cultural values and ideals of the society of which he/she happens to be an integral member. Only such teacher achieves his/her missions successfully. They infuse higher ideals and moral values in children. School: A schools is a miniature of a society. The total activities and programmes of a school are organized according to the cultural ideals and values of the society which establishes and organize the school. Hence, school is the centre of promoting, moulding, reforming, and developing the cultural pattern of the society.

    Impact of education on culture:

    Just as the culture influences education, in the same way education also influences culture of a country. It can be seen in the following manner:

    Preservation of culture: Every country has a distinct culture of its own. Hence, it tries to preserve its culture and its distinctiveness in its original form. Education is the only means through which this task can be accomplished. Thus, education preserves the culture of a society.

    Transmission of culture: The process of preservation includes the process of transmission from one generation to another. The famous sociologist Ottaway has rightly remarked ‘The function

    of education is to transmit social values and ideals to the young and capable members of the

    society.’

    Development of culture: The function of education is to bring the needed and desirable change in the cultural ideals and values for the progress and continued development of the society without which social progress can not take place. Education accultures an individual modifies cultural processes by research and deeper investigations into all areas of human requirements. Continuity of culture: Culture is a life breadth of a society. Without which a society is bound to decay. Education upholds the continuity of culture through its diverse activities and programmes. A society establishes schools to preserve and transmit its culture to the coming generations. Children should be motivated to learn more and more from cultural interaction among various cultures. Thus cultural integration and assimilation will enrich the composite culture of a society. Development of personality: Education aims at developing the personality of a child. It employs diverse cultural patterns of thinking, behaviour and cultural values so that children are physically, mentally, morally, socially and intellectually develop with the development of society to the maximum extent. Removal of cultural lag: While material cultural develop at a faster speed due to scientific and technological inventions non material culture consisting of ideas, values and norms lags behind and create a gulf between the two. Education is the only means by which these gaps can be bridged. Thus, education and culture are interdependent and complementary to each other. However the existing system of education in India has not evolved from its own culture. There is a need that education should be related to our own culture. Education system not related to Cultural Heritage. It has been rightly said. "The existing system of education is largely based on the ideals of spreading western science and literature and way of life among a small minority of the population and of training persons for services under the government. It is still academic and book-centered and fails to promote social, cultural, economic or political development on proper lines." A foreign system of education was introduced in India without taking into account the cultural heritage of India. It is cut off from Indian cultural traditions and is alien to masses.

    Modernization of education and cultural renaissance is needed to evolve education fro its own culture. India is on the move again with the promise of a new renaissance in the making. The most powerful tool in the process of this renaissance and modernization is education based on moral and spiritual values on the one and on the other on science and technology. In this context we cannot do better than to quote Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, "Can we combine the progress of science and technology with the progress of the mind and spirit also?" We cannot be untrue to

    science because that represents the basic fact of life today. Still less can we be untrue to those essential principles for which India has stood in the past throughout the ages. Let us then pursue our path to industrial progress with all our strength and vigour and at the same time, remember that material riches without toleration and compassion and wisdom may well turn to dust and ashes. Education should transmit the culture to the new generation and transform the outlook of the young towards life in the light of the past; in the context of cross-cultural influences and in the light of the future requirements of the individual and the society.