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iliL tf *A.~ 100~~lt k~±J)11g 1-:Af~~~~~ 33 f1T : ~A:f: 33 ;f.#§~~#:tJ{ - ~~;W-~T ?'l"=-~ ~A•••• .& ~ ~ A tJ!J ~ • .&. Jit. J'JT .& 1:. tJ!J • jf rt ~ 0 (10 ~) .. ~~ •• ~.:%~'~~~-.~-m8A~ ~ , ~~ if ~ Thermal summation (~. y ~ ill1~ J'JT ~o i! ~ n~ thermal summation tJ!J -0- ~ , ~ Jij =W*4~*Jf •• ) 0 (10 ~) , -1=' ~~~fT.f.t Climate exerts powerful effects on the distribution and abundance of the earth's insect species, and we should expect climate warming to generate changes for many insect populations and the ecosystems they inhabit. Warmer temperatures generally lead to more rapid development and survival in insects in mid- to high latitudes, which can account for detectable and unambiguous shifts in a range of insect species over the past half century. Increased warmth also advances the onset of insect life cycles for the many species that use thermal cues to match the timing of life history events with the changing seasons. Owing to their relatively short life cycles, high reproductive capacity and high degree of mobility, insects' physiological responses to warming temperatures can also generate particularly large and rapid effects on species population dynamics. (1 0 ~) »:> ~~' ill T 1 1 ~ftJbA~~ 71*,,-"'.6. "'::"J5iF-i#i. ~* 5c. eLt : 1.+ *~. 2.~ ~ 1: lIf. 3. ~tt~~. 4. "::"1t.~. 5..... .. 7. .li*~. 8. a~m~. 9. ~~~!tl. lO.A{X#s t .. X*l 0 (4ij;-~-1t-) it' What are the differences between insects and mites? (~Jij *.5C.@1 $)(10 ~) +' ~~~JF .. : AA"';W-~T?u~~~ii] 1. Disk equation. 2. Central limit theorem. 3. Poisson distribution. 4. Allelopathy. 5. Pyrethrins. 6. Dyar's rule. 7. Water strider. 8. Scientific debate. 9. Exoskeleton. Census and sampling. (~- ~) " id="pdf-obj-0-6" src="pdf-obj-0-6.jpg">

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Climate exerts powerful effects on the distribution and abundance of the earth's insect species,

and we should expect climate warming to generate changes for many insect populations and

the ecosystems they inhabit. Warmer temperatures generally lead to more rapid development

and survival in insects in mid- to high latitudes, which can account for detectable and

unambiguous shifts in a range of insect species over the past half century. Increased warmth

also advances the onset of insect life cycles for the many species that use thermal cues to

match the timing of life history events with the changing seasons. Owing to their relatively

short life cycles, high reproductive capacity and high degree of mobility, insects'

physiological responses to warming temperatures can also generate particularly large and

rapid effects on species population dynamics.

(1 0 ~)

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What are the differences between insects and mites? (~Jij *.5C.@1 $)(10 ~)

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1. Disk equation. 2. Central limit theorem. 3. Poisson distribution. 4. Allelopathy. 5.

Pyrethrins. 6. Dyar's rule. 7. Water strider. 8. Scientific debate. 9. Exoskeleton. 10. Census

and sampling. (~- ~)