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Secrets of the cosmetic industry revealed


to making your own natural skin, hair and
body care products

4th Edition

The Aromantic Guide to making
your own Natural Skin, Hair
and Body Care products

Kolbjrn Borseth

Precaution Disclaimer
The information published here is not This information is provided for our
intended as a substitute for personal customers and is obtained from a variety
medical advice. Before making any of sources, including the research,
decision regarding your personal health, knowledge and experience of Kolbjorn
please consult a GP, Medical Herbalist, Borseth. While we have obviously
qualified Aromatherapist, other qualified done our utmost to provide correct
health practitioner or a recommended information, there may be errors.
reference book before using Herbs,
USA: These statements have not been
Essential Oils or Absolutes. Pregnant
evaluated by the Food and Drug
women, the elderly, those with skin
Administration (FDA). These products
sensitivities or problems, or those with
are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure,
difficult medical conditions should be
or prevent any disease.
particularly careful when taking herbs
internally, or when applying the Herbs,
Essential Oils, Absolutes and other raw
materials externally. Its a good idea to
let your GP, Medical Herbalist, Qualified
Aromatherapist or Health Practitioner
know that you are considering the use
of Herbs or Essential Oils as some may
cross-react with conventional drugs
you are, or may be considering, taking.
Report any side-effects to your personal
Health Care Practitioner.

Published by Aromantic Ltd. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced
in any form including digital reproduction
without the prior written consent of the

17 Tytler Street, Forres, Moray, Scotland, IV36 1EL

Tel: +44 (0)1309 696900 Fax: +44 (0)1309 696911
Copyright 2011, Aromantic
ISBN No: 978-0-9554323-3-0

Welcome Aromantics mission is:

Welcome to the updated and expanded
natural cosmetics & skin care products
Fourth Edition of Aromantic Guide to
are made professionally.
making your own Skin, Hair and Body Care
products, specific to your own tastes and
Im very proud to share with you the result
skin care needs, from home - affordably,
of many years of work and dedication.
ethically and naturally.
Originally from Norway, I have 29 years
of experience in complementary health sTOOFFERYOUTHEOPPORTUNITYTOSTART
and had the pleasure of opening my first your own successful business, making
natural cosmetics manufacturing company and selling natural cosmetics, bath, hair
in Sweden 26 years ago. After working in or skin care products.
Sweden, often in partnership with leading sTOHELPAROMATHERAPISTS SALONOWNERS
complementary health experts, I decided beauticians and other therapists to tailor-
that I wanted to reveal the secrets of the make natural cosmetics specific to their
cosmetics industry to both professional clients needs. We have a wide range
therapists and lay people. This Guide is of different raw materials that you can
one of the ways I share this knowledge. use to make products for certain skin
Apart from our series of Guides, Aromantic and hair conditions and types, such as
offers this information in a number of essential oils, vegetable oils, vitamins,
other ways: Educational Courses, Recipe minerals, anti-aging and other active
Brochures, Newsletters and our website. ingredients suited to your clients. This is
After learning everything you need to bespoke cosmetology.
know about making these popular, sTOPROVIDEOURCUSTOMERSWITHTHE
natural products, you can then purchase most up-to-date natural raw materials
all of the raw materials and equipment and information as soon as it is possible.
you require from Aromantic. We have
strong ethical and environmentally sTOCONSTANTLYSEARCHOUT DEMAND
friendly policies and endeavour to source and consequently supply more organic
the finest quality natural raw materials. raw materials such as essential oils,
vegetables oils and herbs. This will
We are constantly improving the quality of encourage more growers to produce
what we offer and we hope you enjoy this organic produce and to be more
edition of the Guide and the opportunities ecologically aware.
it offers to you to make your own Natural
Skin, Hair and Oral Hygiene Care products. sTHROUGHOURWORK TOHELPASMANY
While I recommend that you attend an people as possible with their different
Aromantic Education Course, this Guide is skin conditions and skin problems.
packed with information, recipes and step- sTOSUPPORT ENCOURAGEANDGIVEADVICE
by-step methods so that you can make your to developers of organic raw materials
own natural, tailor-made products, whether and actives. Aromantic will always
for your friends, family or therapy clients. naturally be at the forefront of natural/
organic skin care progress.


I would like to thank Finn Andersen of Crearome in Sweden, who started me out on
this journey, when I attended one of his early courses in Stockholm in the mid-1980s.
To Lilly Johansson, with whom I worked for 10 years in Scandinavia, where she was
a health icon. Over 30, 000 patients attended her state-funded alternative hospital,
Follingegaarden, over a period of 30 years, from the mid-1960s.
To my wife Helena, and my family, who understand that for me teaching and sharing
this knowledge is not a hobby, or even workbut a mission.
To all my loyal and hard-working colleagues at Aromantic, who have always
supported me, with special thanks to my right-hand here at Aromantic, Monika
To Mike Harmon, for doing such a good job of teaching courses and doing
consultancies on Aromantics behalf.
To Susan Kemp, who is getting good at reading my mind! Thank you for your
excellent editing, rewriting and proofreading work on this Guide and my other
And last but not least, to my customers. Many of you are my friends; all of you
have inspired me to develop this knowledge further.
Enjoy the adventure!

Kolbjrn Borseth, Founder of Aromantic



Precaution ii
Disclaimer ii
Welcome iii
Aromantics Natural, Organic, Ethical and Fairly traded Purchasing Policy 1
Aromantic is certified by Organic Farmers & Growers 2009 2
Sensitivity & Allergy Tests on Raw Materials 3
Essential Oils, Absolutes and Manipulated Oils 3
Aromantics Purchasing & Sales Policy for Essential Oils 4
Vegetable Oils, Fats and Waxes 7
About Double Boilers/Bain-maries 9
Preservatives 9
An Introduction to making your own Creams and Cosmetics 13
Making your own Creams 13
Vegetable Oils and Fats for Health & Skin Care products 16
Natural Moisturisers & Preservatives 21
Moisturisers 21
Preservatives 24
Making Creams 27

Making Cleansers, Exfoliates, Peelers & Toners 35

Cleansers 35
Exfoliating, Peeling and Scrubbing Agents 36
Skin Toners 39
Making Gels 41

Making Ointments & Lip Balms 47

Ointments 47
Lip Balms 48

Making Lotions & Sun Creams 51

Lotions 51
Sun Creams 53
Making Skin & Massage Oils 59

Making 2-in-1 Shampoo & Conditioners, Liquid Soaps and Shower Gels 65
Base Recipes for 2-in-1 Shampoo & Conditioners, Liquid Soaps and Shower Gels 65
Making Face Masks 69
Clay Face Masks 69
Cream Face Masks 71
Gel Face Masks 73
Making Anti-Aging and Skin Rejuvenation Products 75

Making Toothpastes & Mouth Washes 79

Toothpastes 79
Mouth Washes 81
Essential Oils & Absolutes: How to Use Them 83

Making Natural Perfumes based on using only Essential Oils 91

Adding Fragrances to Creams & other Skin Care products 97

Recipes for Essential Oils & Absolutes in the Home 101

Conversion Tables 103

Raw Materials and Colours Conversion Table 103
Essential Oils Conversion Table 106
Metric-US Conversion Tables 106

Aromantics Natural, overall ethos and according to the

following criteria:
traded Purchasing Policy are as environmentally friendly and as
natural as possible.
Our policy on purchasing raw materials s4OTHEEXTENTTHATTHEYCANBEOBTAINED
is based on a holistic perspective, which and are of interest to our customers, we
considers the products we source and are committed to selling as many natural
stock in relation to nature and to people. and organic raw materials as possible,
AROMANTIC constantly monitors which are cultivated without artificial
the market to search, demand and fertilisers, chemicals and pesticides. All
consequently supply more organic, of our organic products are certified by
natural raw, ethically sourced materials the Organic Farmers & Growers (OF&G)
such as essential oils, vegetables oils, UK certifying body so that you can be
fats and waxes, herbs, and other raw confident that the organic raw materials
materials. We give priority to raw you purchase from Aromantic are indeed
materials that have been fairly traded organic. For more information about our
or ethically sourced from traditional Organic Certification and what it means
communities, modern community for you, see page 2 or our website.
projects or co-operatives. This demand
encourages and rewards growers to use s7EONLYSELLRAWMATERIALSWHICHARE
organic and co-operative/community synthetically produced where the natural
principles in their production, to be equivalent would be derived from
more ecologically aware and to ask for a animals (e.g. vitamin A); which cannot
fair deal when selling their produce. This (as it is now) be naturally produced (e.g.
in turn affects the cosmetics market and preservatives); or where the natural raw
so consumers awareness and demand material is very expensive and the cost
for such products. It is a positive cycle cannot be justified by the extent of its
of change that respects nature and use (e.g. allantoin).
people and improves the ability of future s4OTHEEXTENTTHATTHEYCANBEOBTAINED
generations to sustain themselves. and are of interest to our customers, it
Most importantly, we wish, through the is our aim to sell as many raw materials
information contained in our website that are fairly traded or are bought from
and in our publications to describe community projects and co-operatives as
exactly what our products contain and possible, which gives producers a better
how they should be used, so that you deal and enables them to improve their
yourself will be able to make informed position and have more control over
choices about raw materials based their lives. See our website for examples
on our standards, other peoples and of our products that are fairly traded or
your own. We dont, however, simply are bought from traditional or modern
supply raw materials to you; our aim community projects and co-operatives.
is to empower you with knowledge, s7EWILLNOTSELLRAWMATERIALSMADE
information and training. from animal sources, e.g. slaughterhouse
Raw materials of the best quality are by-products such as gelatine, collagen,
then selected in line with the companys and animal-based emulsifiers and

soap ingredients. These are by far the most Who are Organic Farmers & Growers
commonly used materials in the cosmetic Ltd?
industry and we want no part of that. The only Organic Farmers & Growers Ltd (OF&G)
animal by-product we stock is beeswax and is one of a number of control bodies
no bees were harmed in the harvesting of this accredited by Defra and is approved
natural product. to inspect organic production and
for cosmetics on animals. Where we are unable OF&G has its national headquarters in
to source raw materials which are not tested on Shrewsbury, Shropshire, and operates
animals we use raw materials that are at least across Great Britain and Northern
guaranteed not tested on animals after 1996, Ireland, as well as the Isle of Man and
thereby operating a fixed cut-off date system. the Channel Islands.
s!ROMANTICDONOTSELL6ASELINEORPARAFlN As a leader in organic certification for
based/mineral oils. well over a decade, Organic Farmers
s!ROMANTICDONTSELLPERFUMESTHATARE & Growers has turned its expertise in
synthetically produced. We sell only pure essential organic inspection and licensing to this
oils, absolutes, natural organic aromas and sector and has developed its Cosmetic
natural perfume concentrates (which are based on and Bodycare Standard.
whole essential oils and absolutes, fractionated This standard is based on the EU Organic
essential oils and botanical CO2 extracts). Regulation (EC2092/91) and the Nordic
the use of batch numbers, which enable us
What Aromantics organic status means
to trace them internally within the business
to you
from the point of delivery, through storage,
documentation, product information and You can be confident that the organic raw
analysis and externally through to our materials you purchase from Aromantic
customers and retailers. This is important to are indeed organic. It is unfortunate that
ensure the correct information is given and in many raw materials used in the cosmetic
the following up of any customer queries. and beauty industry are marketed as
organic when in fact they are not. More
all raw materials according to their botanical beauty products which are free from
(Latin) name, plant family, part(s) used, country harmful chemicals and that have not been
of origin, method of cultivation, method of genetically modified and Aromantic fully
extraction and any other processes. supports this. Aromantic is committed to
purchasing organic raw materials wherever
Aromantic is certified by Organic
Under EU rules you can call your health
Farmers & Growers 2009 and beauty products organic if the
product contains organic ingredients.
In May 2009, Organic Farmers & Growers Ltd This does not mean that your products
informed us at Aromantic that we have been are certified as organic because
successful in our bid for organic certification. your company has to go through the
We are inspected every year and a new certificate certification process because this process
is issued.

is also about your production methods, wish to test. Leave for 12-24 hours
packing, distribution, etc and not just and then look for any signs of allergic
about the ingredients. reaction. The test may even be repeated
the next day. Signs of an allergic reaction
If your company decides to go through
include red, warm skin, perhaps also
the process of certification, then the
itchy and/or with a rash. When testing
main advantage of Aromantic being
raw materials it is advisable to test
certified organic is that you can be
quantities in proportion to how they
absolutely sure that you are getting
will occur in the finished product. So, for
truly organic products and if you go for
example, to test a Preservative, it should
certification yourself, then you will have
be diluted in water in a ratio of 0.5ml-
Aromantics organic certificate to prove
1ml to 100ml water.
that the ingredients you are using are
really organic.
Essential Oils, Absolutes
Another advantage to you is that you
will be now using certified organic and Manipulated Oils
ingredients and can show Aromantics
Essential Oils
certificate to prove it. Aromantics
Certificate of Compliance is available for
Essential Oils are volatile, aromatic
downloading from our website.
substances, which have a long tradition
of use in natural medicine, perfume,
Sensitivity & Allergy Tests incense, skin and health care. Using the
Essential Oils of plants for therapeutic
on Raw Materials purposes is known as Aromatherapy
and has been practised for thousands
It is impossible to create Skin Care of years.
products which everyone will tolerate,
particularly in view of the fact that Essential Oils are mostly produced in
peoples sensitivity have increased. three ways:
Through testing Raw Materials and 1) Water/steam distillation from seeds,
Ready-Made Products on the area of roots, wood, leaves and flowers. This is
skin in the crook of the elbow where the most common method.
the skin is thinner and more sensitive 2) Pressing of the peel of citrus fruits.
youll be able to determine whether Citrus Oils are the only ones produced
or not you are likely to have an allergic in this way. These can also be produced
response to what you have applied. This, through distillation.
of course, can be done with any product
you purchase and it is particularly 3) Supercritical CO2 Extraction is
important to do this with anything you becoming popular now for producing
intend to use on your face. Essential Oils. The advantage of CO2
Essential Oils is really in their purity as
How to test yourself for an Allergy this extraction method provides a high
level of the active constituents of an
Choose an area in the crook of your Oil, and as so has a much cleaner and
elbow of a few square centimetres and purer aroma and improved therapeutic
apply the product or raw material you benefits.

Extraction through the use of Solvents is and food industries, tailoring it to

a method also used for certain Oils. We what they require. Examples of this are:
do not call these Essential Oils as they Lavender Oil, which smells the same year
do not contain true aromatic substances after year; Peppermint Oil with the same
such as Absolutes and Resinoids but menthol content year after year; and
contain substances which are not perfumes, which require standardised
volatile. ingredients. Low prices and standardised
products have become more important
Absolutes than quality but not to Aromantic.

The delicate nature of many flowers This means that many of the Essential
means that steam distillation, the usual Oils on the market today are
method of making Essential Oils, cannot Manipulated Oils, produced by mixing
be used to extract the Oil because the Oils from different plant sources or
intense heat destroys the flowers, causing by mixing Oils with synthetically
them to become compacted into a solid produced aromatic chemicals. These
mass that the steam cannot penetrate. Oils may be good for the purpose for
which they were made to provide a
Therefore, a special process using solvents pleasant fragrance or aroma. You should
has been developed to capture the more be aware that many of these oils are
delicate fragrance without causing any sold under the guise of being genuine
damage to the fragrance. This process Essential Oils derived from a particular
does not use any heat or water so none of plant and therefore with particular
the water-soluble aromatic compounds therapeutic properties. This is simply
are lost the way they are in steam not true and they will not have any of
distillation. When an Oil is extracted this the desired effects of a genuine Essential
way, it is referred to as an Absolute rather Oil. In fact, if sold and used in this way,
than an Essential Oil. they may even do more damage than
good. Rest assured that Aromantic takes
Diluted Essential Oils and Absolutes
the quality of its Essential Oils as an
utmost priority.
Some of the Essential Oils and Absolutes
that Aromantic stock are diluted in either
alcohol or Vegetable Oil. This is because Aromantics Purchasing &
some Absolutes or Essential Oils, such
as Rose or Jasmine, are very concentrated Sales Policy for Essential
and have an overpowering aroma. Just
one drop in a pot of Cream can be too
much. They are also very expensive, so
diluting them makes these high quality Aromantics policy on purchasing
Absolutes more affordable for you too. essential oils is the same as our policy
on purchasing all of our raw materials,
Manipulated Oils which is based on a holistic perspective,
which considers the products we source
The trade in Essential Oils over the past and stock in relation to nature and to
100 to 200 years has modified its product people. We believe that we can make
to suit its customers the perfume, a difference in the world by sourcing
cosmetics, pharmaceutical, confectionery products and raw materials that nourish

and sustain both the producers and building up this direct contact with
our customers and to contribute to smaller growers and producers, whose
the demand for products that conserve methods are documented carefully,
our precious resources and are as either the distributors, or we at
environmentally friendly as possible. Aromantic, are able to guarantee where
the oils come from, what growing
In order to be part of a positive cycle of
methods have been used and how the
change that respects nature and people
oils have been produced.
and improves the ability of future
generations to sustain themselves, we 2) The main supplier of our organic
give priority to raw materials that have essential oils has direct contact in many
been fairly traded or ethically sourced. cases with the communities and projects
Most of our organic essential oils are that our organic essential oils are sourced
sourced from: from and personally visits these small
communities and projects around the
world and keep in close contact with
sMODERNCOMMUNITYPROJECTS them. This same supplier is one of the
sCO OPERATIVES first companies with Forestry Stewardship
Council (FSC) non-timber products
sORORGANISATIONSWHICHSEEKTO certification for essential oils. We accept
create a better and fairer world. fairly traded products from our supplier
Our policy is to sell 100% genuine even if the producer has not been certified
essential oils of good quality, extracted as being FairTrade. This is because our
from raw plants and parts of plants. hard-working and dedicated supplier
We are able to identify their chemical continually visits the projects and for us
constituents, indicate whether or not that is good enough. Small projects that
they have been altered, manipulated, are often rural as well are too burdened
or contain only a part of the original to cope with the paperwork required
oil (as can happen with e.g. ylang ylang to obtain and maintain the FairTrade
and camphor oils). We are also able certification. Aromantic, as a small
to indicate methods of growing and company understands this, we are too
country of origin - all those details which small just now to be certified either. See
you, the consumer, may require in order examples of community projects in Earth
to feel secure in your choice of us as your and Community Care on our website.
supplier of essential oils. 3) Before purchasing oils, our distributors
We have chosen our suppliers very are provided with batch samples. These
carefully and we work in close co- are tested for fragrance, appearance
operation with different high quality and consistency and the best one from
essential oil producers. Whether amongst those which can be sourced to
producers or distributors, or both, our a defined plant or plant part is selected.
suppliers all share the following codes of When purchasing organic oils, all
best practice: documentation is checked. If they are in
any doubt about the oils constituents,
1) Our suppliers are either the a sample is sent to the laboratory for
producers themselves and/or are analysis. Aromantic is supplied with
distributors who buy direct from extensive and detailed quality test and
producers all over the world. Through

analysis data from our suppliers who are physical tests which are carried out are
also the producers. those which determine the degree of
optical distortion the oil creates, its
4) When the oil either arrives at the
refraction index and density.
distributor or is ready for sale at the
producer, it is given a batch number, Tests are carried out which combine gas
which will remain the same and be chromatography with mass spectrometry:
recorded throughout their tests and one separates the molecules in the oil and
controls. At Aromantic, we continue determines how many there are, the other
this traceability with our own system establishes what chemical constituents are
of linking suppliers batch numbers to present. The oil is then assessed, based on
specific products that we stock. these tests and by studying data gathered
from hundreds of other tests carried out
5) Our suppliers who are distributors
on samples of the same type of oil. Are
also carry out their own quality control of
the constituents comparable and typical?
all essential oils they buy in and do not
Are the different samples similar? There
solely rely on what the data the producers
will often be a similarity between two
have given them.
out of three samples. In this way one
How our suppliers carry out the can determine whether or not the oil
Analysis of Essential Oils has been extracted from a raw plant and
other essential oils, artificial fragrances or
There are several methods for ascertaining cheaper, isolated constituents of oils have
whether or not essential oils are genuine been added.
i.e. that they are truly volatile essential Please see our website for the most up to
oils extracted from raw plants. Some of date information we have about each oil.
these methods make use of the physical
senses. The fragrance of an essential oil Safety & Storage Information for
will indicate its age, and comparisons are Essential Oils and Absolutes
carried out with other samples of oils of
the same type. Do they smell the same? Warning! Essentials Oils and Absolutes
Are they volatile to the same degree? Do contain the active ingredients of a plant
they smell synthetic? Do they smell of in highly concentrated form i.e. small
alcohol? The ability to detect the subtle amounts of Essential Oils are capable
differences through smell is acquired only of huge effects. To obtain best results, it
with experience and training over a long is important to use them correctly and
period of time. sensibly. Overdosing can cause health
problems! They MUST NOT come into
Different essential oils have different
direct contact with mucous membranes
colours and consistencies which can
or, of course, with the eyes. Do not use
be seen and felt. An essential oil can be
Essential Oils undiluted directly on the
tested on a piece of paper to see whether
skin and do not take internally unless
or not it has been diluted with a vegetable
advised by a professional. Essential Oils
oil: an essential oil is volatile (which a
should be kept in a dark, cool place,
vegetable oil is not) and will not leave
out of reach of children and away from
an oil stain (which a vegetable oil will).
medicines. We recommend that you
Anyone working with essential oils
learn about the uses and effects/possible
can learn how to do this. The simplest
side-effects of Essential Oils before using

them yourself and Aromantic do offer gives a larger quantity of Oil than Cold
further Training Courses to help you. pressing does.
Certain Oils should be used with extra Cold pressing
care please see our website for more
Seeds, nuts and fruit pulp are crushed
detailed information.
and pressed. Although external heat is
not applied, heat is generated through
Vegetable Oils, Fats and the friction involved in the pressing. This
is our preferred source of Vegetable Oils.
Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction:
Methods of Extraction Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction is
becoming more and more popular as
Vegetable Oils, Fats & Waxes are the intention is to eliminate harmful
extracted from nuts, seeds, fruits, leaves, organic solvents used in the past for
as well as bees in the case of beeswax. the production of lipophilic (fat-
Extraction involving simple pressing in loving) Botanical Extracts, to avoid
small oil presses has now been replaced environmental pollution and to have
by large industrial operations, which a high grade extract composition very
involve sophisticated methods and close to the natural raw material. CO2
equipment and which now supply us, Extracts are much more pure and in a
the shops and the cosmetics industry concentrated form. They are free of any
with these raw materials and nourishing solvent residues and diluting agents and
ingredients. are composed almost exclusively of the
raw materials ingredients without any
There are several ways of producing dilution and accordingly can be used in a
Oils & Fats: fairly low dosage. This low dosage means
that a high quality, active cosmetic
Boiling product can be created at a reduced
Used primarily for the extraction of cost. Note: Although at Aromantic, we
animal fats such as lard and tallow. categorise products that that have been
Aromantic does not stock any animal fats. extracted in this way as Botanical CO2
Extracts, one could say that they are
Solvent extraction
Vegetable Oils, but with more of their
Seeds or nuts are crushed and mixed active constituents intact, so much more
with a solvent (e.g. Hexane) which draws concentrated and powerful. This affects
out the Oil. The Oil then undergoes their price and use i.e. you wouldnt
several stages of refinement to remove the use 100ml of Botanical CO2 Extract for
solvent and other ingredients present in Massage Oil you would only need to
the seeds or nuts. Heat is not necessary put a maximum of 3ml of the Extract
for the process. This is a very common into 100ml of a Carrier Oil that has been
method and is used to extract Rapeseed extracted by a more traditional, therefore
Oil as it yields a large quantity of Oil. cheaper, method.
Hot pressing See Table 1 on the following page
Seeds, nuts and fruit pulp are crushed for a better understanding of some
and heated and the Oil pressed out. This commonly used Oils, Fats & Waxes.

Table 1: Oils, Fats & Waxes

Wax & Fatty Saturated Mono- Polyunsaturated

Alcohols Fatty Acids unsaturated Fatty Acids (also
Fatty Acids called Omega 3) &
(also called Duo-unsaturated
Omega 9) Fatty Acids (also
called Omega 6)*

Vegetable Beeswax, Avocado Butter, Apricot Kernel Blackseed Oil, Borage

Oil or Fat Carnauba Wax, Cocoa Butter, Oil, Avocado Oil, Oil, Camelina Oil,
Cetyl Alcohol. Coconut Butter, Castor Oil, Hazel Chia Seed Oil, Evening
Mango Butter, Nut Oil, Jojoba Primrose Oil, Hemp
Palm Kernel Oil, Oil, Macadamia Seed Oil, Kiwi Seed
Shea Butter. Nut Oil, Olive Oil, Oil, Passionflower Oil,
Papaya Seed Oil, Pumpkin Seed Oil,
Peach Kernel Oil, Red Raspberry Oil,
Peanut Oil, Sesame Rosehip Oil, Sunflower
Oil, Shea Butter Oil, Thistle Oil,
Oil, Sunflower Oil Walnut Oil.
(High Oleic Acid

Consistency Firm, hard & Firm. Liquid-thick. Liquid.

waxy (some).

Feel on the Fatty & waxy. Fatty & soft. Semi-fatty. Dry to fatty.
Absorption Not absorbed by Takes a long Slow absorption Easily & quickly.
by the skin the skin. Creates a time for the skin that offers good absorbed by the skin.
protective barrier to absorb. lubrication for
on the top layer of Massage.
the skin.

Shelf life 5-10yrs 2-5 years 2-4 years 1-3 years

Uses Protects; gives Protects, Protects, nourishes Softens & nourishes;

consistency nourishes & softens; Helps contains active
& stability to & softens; Ointments, Lip constituents similar
Ointments, helps Massage Balms, Creams, to Vitamins. Used
Lotions, Lip products to Lotions and in products, which
Balms & Creams. glide over Massage Oils to should be absorbed
skin. Used in glide over skin. deeply; and to render
Ointments, Lip (Particularly products less fatty.
Balms, Creams excellent for
and Lotions. adding lubrication
qualities to
Massage Oils.)

How to Dark and Room Dark & Cool. Dark & Cool. Dark and Refrigerated.
store Temperature.
*Also collectively known as Vitamin F.

About Double Boilers/Bain- supermarkets and never tap water,

except for shampoos/liquid soaps as the
maries detergent helps to preserve the products
as well. Here it is always a good idea to
When we refer to a double boiler, or a boil the water for at least 10 minutes
bain-marie, we are referring to a cooking beforehand.
vessel consisting of two nested pans,
designed to allow slow, even cooking Other challenges
or heating of ingredients in the upper
pan, without scorching or denaturing, by Other challenges to the preservative
the action of water boiling in the lower effect in products the German producers
pan. It is very important that the water of Preservative 12 have told us about
in the lower half of the double boiler is is when you use food products in your
actually boiling this will ensure that cosmetics e.g. ground almonds in an
the ingredients in the upper pan or bowl exfoliating cream, etc.
will melt successfully. You can improvise
Too many Ingredients can spoil the
a double boiler, if you dont already have
Preservative Effect
one with two saucepans or a saucepan
at the bottom and an ovenproof or
The more active ingredients one has in
stainless steel bowl at the top. It is not
a product, the more challenging it is to
essential to buy specialist equipment if
preserve it. Having said that, the Anti-
you are making products for your own
Wrinkle Cream we make on Courses
has a maximum amount of actives in
it and we have used a dosage of 0.6%
Preservatives Preservative 12 without any problems.

Taking responsibility
Weve expanded this section on
Preservatives to help you use them in At the end of the day, you, as a producer,
your products more effectively. We also need to take responsibility for how much
have a handy table on what dosages to preservative you choose to put into your
use for the different Preservatives and products. I would recommend doing
whether you are using herbs in your basic stability testing for anyone selling
products or not. products to the general public and so
Using the Right Kind of Water that they get an idea of their shelf life.
The basic standard industry method is
to put into a glass jar at 45C in an oven
What weve seen from feedback from
for 3 months, check it every 2 weeks,
two of our customers whose creams
note their observations including colour,
went off using Preservative 12 is that
smell, texture and skin feel.
they used normal tap water, which is an
unnecessary challenge to the product. If it survives 3 months with no changes
Other customers have used osmosis then it is deemed to be probably stable
water, and that too can be a challenge. for 12 months at room temperature.
More elaborate industry methods involve
I have always recommended using
putting the product through temperature
reputable bottled spring water from
cycles of cooling and heating.

The minimum that you should do is to products is to weigh them on a very good
put samples in clear glass jars on sunny scale that weighs down to 0.1 grams. If
window sills and test them as above. The you still decide to continue using drops
longer you have seen it stay stable, the to measure our Preservatives, we now
longer the shelf life you can write on the recommend using different quantities
label. depending on which of our Preservatives
you are using in your products. In
At least make sure it is stable for 1
our recipes that you may have from
month in this way before you start
old Newsletters, our books and recipe
selling to the general public. If possible,
brochures, youll often find that we dont
you should also store and observe
say which preservative to use, we simply
samples in the airing cupboard. But
say x number of drops of Preservative
ideally, it would be good to invest in a
in the recipe. As I mentioned before,
45C oven.
you need to decide how much of a
The best weigh to measure Preservative you will put into your own
Preservatives! products, but shown in Table 2 are
my new recommendations. For more
The best method for measuring the information on each of the preservatives
Preservatives when adding to your see Tables 2&3.

Table 2: Recommended dosage for Aromantics Preservatives

New recommended
amounts per
suggested New recommended
100ml/g of product
amounts per amounts per 100ml/g
containing herbal
100ml/g of of product
infusions or

22 drops using
20 drops using small
Preservative Eco - small 0.7mm
0.7mm dropper/1g/1%

20-25 drops using large 25 drops using large

Preservative 12 12 drops 2mm dropper/0.8- 2mm dropper/0.9ml/
1g/0.8-1% 1g/1%

12-15 drops using large 25 drops using large

Preservative K 12 drops 2mm dropper/0.5- 2mm dropper/0.9ml/
0.6g/0.5-0.6% 1g/1%

Still 12 drops using 20 drops using large

12 drops large 2mm dropper/ 2mm dropper/0.72ml/
(Aromantic Blend)
0.5g/0.5% 0.8g/0.8%

Table 3: Conversion Table for Aromantics Preservatives

1 gram of Aromantic Approximate no. of Density/Specific Gravity (grams

Preservative drops* per cubic centimetre)

approx. 20 drops using

Preservative Eco 1.018-1.118g/cm3 at 21Celsius
small 0.7mm dropper

approx. 25 drops using

Preservative 12 1.09g/cm3 at 20Celsius
large 2mm dropper

approx. 25 drops using

Preservative K 1.105g/cm3 at 20Celsius
large 2mm dropper

Parabens approx. 25 drops using

1.125g/cm3 at 25Celsius
(Aromantic Blend) large 2mm dropper

sNB Drops refers to drops from Aromantics bottles with dropper lids we supply our
Preservatives in.

An Introduction to
making your own
Creams and Cosmetics

In this chapter we will look at the basics process of following recipes and trying
of making your own Creams, give an the results out on ones own skin. Any
overview of some of the more commonly of the theory that one might require
used Vegetable Oils, Moisturisers and about raw materials, Herbs or Essential
Preservatives used in making Creams and Oils can be acquired through reading
other Natural Skin Care products. This relevant books. All of this information
chapter can be referred to as you move is equally important. See The Aromantic
on through the Guide and try your hand Guide to the use of Herbs in Skin, Hair
at making other products. and Health Care products for detailed
information on how to use herbs in
Making your own Creams
your products.
Vegetable Oils
Moisturisers & Preservative Creating your own Cream Recipe

The following description of how to

Making your own Creams plan your own recipe can be used as a
guide to help you get creative. Begin by
As you will have gathered, any Cream considering what the Cream is needed
consists of many different ingredients for. What sort of Cream will it be - for
which, depending on how these interact which skin type or skin problem? Lets
with each other, create a particular effect. say we want to make a Cream for dry,
Some ingredients are essential, such as sensitive skin, which is easily irritated.
a Vegetable Oil, or give Creams their Is there a main ingredient or Herb that
consistency, such as Emulsifiers, while should dominate the Cream?
other ingredients are added for their Chamomile is an excellent Herb to treat
cosmetic or healing effects on skin, such this sort of skin type. In order to gain
as CO2 Extracts. the maximum benefit of all of the active
In order to be able to mix a Cream, all ingredients in Chamomile it is best to
that is required is the ability to read use an Infusion (soaked for 1-12 hours),
a recipe and to weigh and measure Chamomile CO2 Extract or Essential
ingredients accurately. Composing and Oil of Chamomile or maybe even all
creating your own Creams requires three: the Infusion, the CO2 Extract and
more knowledge and experience. Some the Essential Oil. For sensitive skin we
knowledge is acquired through the recommend Apricot Kernel Oil.

Sensitive skin will also benefit from

Base Cream Recipe
nourishment and vitamins that can help
strengthen the skin. For this purpose, one
would add Avocado Oil and undiluted t'BU4UBHF $

Vitamin E Oil. Shea Butter is added to 10ml Avocado Oil

give the Cream a smooth texture. As dry 9ml Apricot Kernel Oil
skin needs moisture, one would also
add NFF Moisturiser, which promotes 3g Shea Butter
moisture retention in the deeper layers of 2g Cetyl Alcohol
the skin. When youve selected the main 3g VE Emulsifier
ingredients, then the next stage is to mix
the Cream. Always work to a Recipe that t8BUFS4UBHF $

will give you 100ml/g once everything 4.5g MF Emulsifier

has been mixed together. This will make
62ml Water infused with
it easier to measure the ingredients (i.e.
Chamomile flowers
1ml/g = 1%).
Start with the Fat Stage. How much t5IJSE4UBHF $

fat should there be? Your Cream will Preservative (for amount, see Table
be fattier or oilier the more you make 2 on page 10)
at this stage in relation to the rest. 1ml/g Chamomile CO2 Extract
The Cream in our example is for dry,
sensitive skin, which is deficient in 2ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
fats so for this one choose a Fat Stage 3ml NFF Moisturiser
amounting to 35% (i.e. 35ml/g of the
total 100ml/g will consist of Fats, Oils t'PVSUI4UBHF $

and oil-soluble Vitamins). Essential Oils (8 drops of Roman
Chamomile, 8 drops of Lavender, 4
The last item to calculate is the amount
drops of Bergamot or Mandarin -
of water. In our example we are going
these Oils are added to enhance the
to use water infused with Chamomile
Creams fragrance and effect).
flowers. The Infusion in this case will
need to be 62ml as the rest of the Note: remember to increase the
ingredients amount to 35ml but you amount of Preservative when you
actually start out the infusion process use Herbal Infusions in place
with up to double the amount of water of Boiling Spring Water. This is
(130ml) as some of the water will be because Herbal Infusions naturally
evaporated and some will be absorbed contain a lot of bacteria and fungi.
by the dried flowers. Note: the amount Table 2 shows the correct amount
of Preservative will be increased, as we of Preservative to use for products
are using a Herbal Infusion, and not containing herbs. For Basic Method
just water. for making Creams, see page 30.

Basic Tips and Suggestions for something else? Try warming the Cream
Making Creams again to 75C and, after placing the pan
or heat-proof bowl containing the Cream
s)FTHE/ILYOUUSEFEELSMOREhOILYv THE in a hot water bath, whisk for 5 minutes,
resulting Cream will also feel more oily. and then remove the bowl from the hot
Also, the more Oil, of whatever type, that water bath, and allow to cool whilst still
you add, the oilier the Cream will feel. If stirring it.
more water is added, the Cream will feel
less greasy. Cream is too hard
Too many solid fatty ingredients have
s4HEMORESOLIDFATTYINGREDIENTSYOU been added or perhaps inaccurately
add like Cetyl Alcohol, Beeswax, Cocoa measured. Adjust the other ingredients
Butter or Shea Butter), the harder the so that the proportions comply with the
Cream will be. Without these solid fats Recipe, or stir in cold water, adding a
most Creams would be liquid or milky. little bit at a time, and continue stirring
s7EIGHANDMEASUREALLTHEINGREDIENTS until the Cream has reached the right
carefully. If making up larger quantities consistency.
than specified in the Recipe, calculate
quantities for all ingredients thoroughly Cream is too thin
and write these down. Not enough of the solid fatty ingredients
have been added. The Fat and Water
Stages may have been mixed too
cosmetics at the Fat Stage. Then you will
quickly, or the Cream may have cooled
be able to ensure that the temperature
too quickly as a result of poor beating
never rises above 100C. Hot Oil is
technique. Too little Emulsifier may
flammable and can cause serious skin
have been added or may even have been
damage if you get it on your own skin.
forgotten. Sometimes the Stages can get
If the water in the larger pan boils away,
mixed together in the wrong order e.g.
add more.
Water into the Fat Stage instead of the
Note: It is difficult to measure small other way around. The wrong ingredients
quantities under 5ml/g accurately. To may have been added at the wrong stage
ease this problem it helps to multiply e.g. NFF during the Water Stage. Try
the Recipe. warming the Cream again to 75C and
then whisk the mixture for 5 minutes.
How to rectify common mistakes Allow it to cool down. If your original
when making Creams measurements were correct, then your
Cream should now be thicker.
Water or Oil separates from the Cream Cream is grainy
This can arise through careless mixing
The Fats, Wax and Emulsifier have not
of the Fat and Water Stages or one of
melted and dissolved properly. Can be
the Stages may not have been beaten
caused when temperature differences
thoroughly enough or may have been
between ingredients are too great at the
made at the wrong temperature. The
point at which they are mixed. Make sure
Cream may also have cooled too quickly,
the MF Emulsifier is mixed well with the
or not been stirred to room temperature.
water (especially around the edges). If
Perhaps you left the Cream to go and do
there is Lactic Acid in the product this

may have been added too early. Use an oil, which is especially good for dry,
electric stick blender and see if you can mature and sensitive skin. The Oil is
dissolve the graininess or, if that doesnt semi-fatty and is easily absorbed by
succeed, try warming the Cream again the skin. (Peach Kernel Oil has similar
to 75C and stir for 5 minutes in hot properties).
water bath and then allow to cool while
continuing to whisk the mixture. Avocado Oil (extracted from the dried
fruit pulp of Persea gratissima)
Avocado Oil is a mild, nourishing,
Vegetable Oils and Fats semi-fatty Oil, rich in Vitamins;
Carotene (provitamin A), Vitamins B5
for Health & Skin Care (Pantothenic Acid), D and E. It also
products contains Fatty Acids, Phytosterols, and
Lecithin. Avocado Oil is used when the
For thousands of years humankind has skin is dry, tired and lacklustre. It can
used Vegetable Oils and Fats in health be used in Face, Skin and Massage Oils.
and skin care and for massage. Different A good Treatment Oil for injured or
Oils and Fats have been used, depending damaged skin.
on where people lived, e.g. Olive and
Blackseed Oil (extracted from seeds of
Sweet Almond Oils in Southern Europe,
Nigella sativa)
Shea Butter and Coconut Butter in West
Africa and Sesame Oil in India. The main benefits of Blackseed Oil are
that it is an anti-inflammatory. High in
It has been, and still is, natural to use Omega 6 Fatty Acids, the Oil can be used
these Oils as they protect the skin, in the treatment of eczema and psoriasis
keep it soft and supple and help it to and it also has skin softening and anti-
remain strong, healthy and beautiful. aging benefits. Blackseed Oil can be used
All Vegetable Oils nourish, soften and in Lip Balms, Face Creams and Lotions,
protect the skin. Healing Creams, Eczema and Psoriasis
As a result of the increase in trade between Products, After-Sun Products and in
different countries we now have access to Soaps. The suggested dosage is 110% in
many different Oils and can choose which Lotions and Creams.
one to use, depending on the need, skin
Borage Oil (Starflower Oil) (extracted
type and skin problem involved.
from the tiny seeds of Borago officinalis)
This is a brief introduction to the most This is a very unusual Oil with its high
common ones. See Aromantics website content of Gamma Linolenic Acid
for more Publications and also for free (GLA), a substance the body needs to
information in our Natural Skin Care create prostaglandins. Borage Oil has
Library. similar properties to Evening Primrose
Oil but contains 20-24% GLA compared
Commonly used Fats and Oils
with Evening Primrose Oil, which only
contains 8-12%.
Apricot Kernel Oil (extracted from the
kernel of Prunus armeniaca) Prostaglandins are needed by the skin
in order for it to function properly.
A mild Oil which most people are
Prostaglandin deficiency affects the
able to use. It is a softening and stable

skins suppleness and will cause it Evening Primrose Oil (extracted from
to age more quickly, become more the seeds of Oenothera biennis)
sensitive to light and to become dry For properties and uses, see Borage Oil.
and wrinkled more easily. Borage Oil
can be added to other blends of Oil in Hemp Seed Oil (extracted from the
a concentration of 5-30%. Eczema and seeds of Cannabis sativa)
psoriasis respond well to Borage and Apart from its excellent cleansing and
Evening Primrose Oils. moisturising properties, Hemp Seed
Oil is unique in its make up and rivals
Castor Oil (extracted from the seeds of Oils such as Flax Seed Oil as a dietary
Ricinus communis) supplement. Hemp Seed Oil has a well-
Is very fatty and thick and is very slowly balanced ration of 3:1 of Omega 6 and 3
absorbed by the skin. Good for Lip Essential Fatty Acids respectively. It is the
Balms, Cleansing Creams and Massage presence of these Essential Fatty Acids in
Oils. Add up to 10%. It adds shine to this particular ratio that helps improve
Lipsticks. Castor Oil makes very good skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis
cold processed Soap and also makes the and acne.
Soap transparent. A stable Oil which
does not easily go rancid. It is also a rich source of Gamma
Linolenic Acid (GLA), the main
Chia Seed Oil (extracted from seeds of valued content of Borage and Evening
Salvia hispanica) Primrose Oils, which is believed to
Chia Seed Oil is a thin, dry and very help premenstrual tension (PMT),
soft Oil, with a silky soft skin feeling & menopause and arthritis. Hemp Seed
a pleasant smell. It has a very similar Oil may also benefit other inflammatory
Omega 3 & 6 content to Kiwi Seed Oil, diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis,
but is much cheaper to buy (about osteoporosis, Crohns disease and
one-third less at the time of writing). ulcerative colitis. Hemp Oil is a very dry
It soothes fine wrinkles and improves and mild Oil and is good for normal to
skin elasticity, so add the Oil to Serums, oily skin.
Creams and Lotions for these purposes. It
Jojoba Oil (extracted from the seeds of
is good for treating acne-prone, oily and Simmondsia chinensis)
large-pored skin and as it is so silky &
soft, it is excellent for sensitive skin too. Actually a Liquid Wax, but known
as Jojoba Oil, has been used for
Coconut Butter (extracted from Cocos hundreds of years by the American
nucifera) Indians. Provides slightly more cover
Extracted from the inner layer of the or protection as it contains wax-like
Coconut shell. It remains solid at room substances. It softens, protects and helps
temperature but melts easily when in the skin to hold its moisture. It contains
contact with the skin. It is traditionally a natural Sun Protection Factor of 4. Also
used as Hair Oil but has also been used good as a Hair Oil for e.g. Dandruff. It is
as a Sun Oil. Another use for Coconut good for all skin types and especially for
Butter in Skin and Massage Oils is that it conditions such as acne and dry eczema.
makes them slightly thicker or fattier and It will keep for 4 to 5 years without
also prevents them from being absorbed going rancid.
too quickly by the skin.

Kiwi Seed Oil (extracted from seeds of as a source of nutrition (it is very high
Actinidia deliciosa) in Vitamin C), as well as an effective
An unique Oil as it contains a very high treatment for many skin problems. Pure
level of Omega 3 Fatty Acids (up to Rosehip Oil has a high composition
65%) and other micronutrients. Skin of Essential Fatty Acids: Linoleic and
studies have shown that it improves Linolenic, which help maintain healthy
skin condition & protects against skin. As far as we know, Rosehip is
moisture loss. The Oil has an excellent one of the best vegetable source of
after-feel and absorbs easily making it Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids and also
the perfect ingredient in Face Creams a good source of Omega 6 Essential
and Hair Conditioning Creams. Being Fatty Acids. Rosehip Oil also contains
so soft and smooth, it is also suitable natural tretinoin, a derivative of Retinol
for sensitive skin. (Vitamin A), which replenishes and
helps rebuild skin tissue. Rosehip Oil
Macadamia Nut Oil (extracted from the helps to reduce pigmentation and raised
kernel of Macadamia tetraphylla) scar tissue, even on non-recent scars,
A fatty Oil, which is soft and nice to and can be used to treat skin damaged,
use. Despite its fattiness, it is readily marked or scarred by: surgery, minor
absorbed by the skin. It is especially burns, stretch marks, acne, and sun
good to use for mature and dry skin as exposure. Good for oily skin, sensitive
well as skin which has difficulty retaining skin, skin problems, and skin with large
its moisture. pores.

Olive Oil (extracted from the fruit of Sesame Oil (extracted from the seeds of
Olea europea) Sesamum indicum)
Extracted from ripe olives. It is best to A very fine culinary oil, especially for stir-
only use Cold Pressed Virgin Olive Oil. fried foods, but it is important to note
Olive Oil is somewhat thicker than most that this is not the toasted sesame oil
other Vegetable Oils. Olive Oil is a fatty generally sold for cooking, which should
Oil with a long tradition of use in Skin not be used on the skin. Sesame Oil also
and Hair Care. A good Oil for infusing/ has good Skin Care properties and has a
macerating herbs and flowers in. Very long tradition of being used as a Sun Oil,
softening and protecting. Good to use with a Sun Protection Factor of 2-3. It is
for dry skin, preferably together with good for Skin Care, as Hair Oil, and as
dry Oils such as Thistle or Sunflower a Baby or Massage Oil. It is a semi-fatty
Oil for use on the legs and feet. Use in Oil. Nearly everyone tolerates this Oil
Ointments and Massage Oils intended to very well and it can even be used around
increase circulation. the eyes.

Rosehip Oil (extracted from the seeds of Shea Butter (extracted from the 3-5cm
Rosa canina) kernel of Butyrospermum parkii
If a flower is left on a rose bush, the In Skin Care products it has good anti-
petals will fall off after it finishes inflammatory properties and is useful
blooming, and a small red fruit will for treating stretch marks, smaller
form: that is the Rosehip. Rosehips have wounds, dry skin and skin infections
been used for centuries by the Incas such as eczema. It has excellent softening

properties, making the skin soft and Thistle Oil (Safflower Oil) (extracted
supple. It also gives consistency to from the seeds of Carthamus tinctorius)
Ointments, Massage Bars, Creams, There are two types of thistle oil on the
Massage Oils, Lip Balms and Body market and Aromantic only sells the type
Butters. It protects the skin against high in omega 6. Aromantics Thistle
dehydration and has a Sun Protection Oil contains up to 81% Linoleic Acid,
Factor of 2-3. Contains Phytosterols, an Omega 6 Essential Fatty Acid which
which stimulates the formation and plays a vital part in the body and skins
growth of new cells. Shea Butter works ability to maintain health. Linoleic Acid
well in combination with Thistle Oil. deficiency will result in different skin
problems. A very useful Oil for the skin
Shea Butter Oil (extracted from the 3-
and face and as a Beauty Oil. Good for
5cm kernel of Butyrospermum parkii)
oily skin. It is thin and runny, belongs
Shea Butter Oil is produced by reducing to the family of dry Oils and is easily
the amount of stearic acid in the Shea absorbed by the skin. Thistle Oil is good
Butter. For properties, see Shea Butter to include in most blends of Oil in
above. different proportions to render them less
fatty and therefore more easily absorbed
Sunflower Oil (extracted from the seeds
by the skin.
of Helianthus annuus)
Like Thistle Oil, Sunflower Oil contains
a high level of Linoleic Acid, an Omega
6 Essential Fatty Acid, so it can be used
in all kinds of products. It spreads easily
and is absorbed relatively quickly by the
skin. It can be used for all skin types, but
because it is a dry Oil, it is best suited
to oily skin. It also has excellent pore-
reduction qualities, so good to use on
skin with large pores. It is used in the
same way as Thistle Oil.

Sweet Almond Oil (extracted from the

kernel of Prunus amygdalus)
A classic, mild, semi-fatty Oil, which
spreads nicely, makes the skin soft,
smooth and supple. It is good for most
skin types and can be used in Skin, Face
and Massage Oils. Be sure not to buy the
Bitter Almond Oil, which is not suitable
for use on the skin. That particular Oil
is never used in Skin Care, Massage or
Aromatherapy as it may cause prussic
acid poisoning. Aromantic do not stock
Bitter Almond Oil.

Moisturisers &

Moisturisers Add the Extract when your recipe

ingredients are less than 40C or add it
directly to cold products. Use at a dosage
The skin needs more than just Fats and
of 3-6% (3% contains 2% Glycerine and
Oils. It is also important for the skin to
6% contains 4% Glycerine). At the time
maintain a certain level of moisture in its
of printing this Guide, Aromantic stock
outermost layer. Moisture applied from
two Botanical Glycerol Extracts, namely
the outside will only affect the outermost
Comfrey and Witch Hazel.
layer of the skin. In order to moisturise
skin cells on the living inner layers it is Carbamide INCI name: Urea
necessary to approach these from within
Urea, also known as Carbamide, is an
i.e. to drink lots of water, to ensure
organic compound of carbon, nitrogen,
healthy, functioning skin. There are a vast
oxygen and hydrogen. It occurs in
number of substances, which are capable
human urine in an average concentration
of binding water in the outermost layer of
of 2.4%, and in sweat in a concentration
the skin, including these that Aromantic
of 0.5-1%. For use in the cosmetic
recommend and stock:
industry, it is synthetically produced
Botanical Glycerol Extracts using Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide.
Pure Carbamide forms into colourless,
These are exciting Herbal Moisturising
odourless crystals, which have a cold,
Extracts in Vegetable-based Glycerine.
bitter, and salty taste. These crystals are
70% vegetable Glycerine together with
easily dissolved in water and alcohol.
30% water is used to extract the plant
Carbamide is used at a strength of 3-5%
material. This method extracts most of
as a moisture-retaining and antiseptic
the water and fat-soluble ingredients
agent in Deodorants and Foot and Hand
from the plants. This is therefore a
Creams. It can be used at a strength of
combination product, which has a
10% in Creams for softening the feet. It
moisturising effect on the skin as well as
has no known toxicity.
the benefit of the herbal properties.
As Glycerine is water soluble it is very D-Panthenol INCI name: Panthenol
convenient to use in water-based Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) is
products. Use in Shampoos, Liquid destroyed at temperatures over 50-60C.
Soaps, Deodorants, Creams, Lotions, D-Panthenol binds moisture in surface
Gels, Face Masks, Hair Packs and layers of the skin, is also active in the
Toothpastes. deeper layers as well as in the surface

layers of nails and in the roots and around the eyes. It is excellent for facial
strands of hair. It creates a protective and eye care products such as face and
film on hair and makes it soft and eye creams and face and eye gel serums
supple. D-Panthenol is used in Creams as it is both a moisturiser (glycerine)
and Hair Products (particularly for and active raw material (cucumber
dry, thin hair and sensitive scalp) in a extract) in one. Also excellent for adding
concentration of 2-5%. to cleansers as cucumber is a natural
cleanser. It is a good replacement for
Research carried out on D-Panthenol
plain glycerine moisturiser in sensitive
shows that it: speeds up cell regeneration,
skin products. You can also mix it
which means that e.g. burns, acne
together in hydrolates to make toners
and sores heal more quickly; soothes
for sensitive skin. Cucumber helps to
itchiness and infections; is antibacterial;
bleach the skin so it is helpful in skin
increases skin pigmentation during
lightening products. Dosage: 2-4% in all
sunbathing; and reduces the damaging
water-based products during water stage
effects of exposure to the sun.
or when product is under 40C or mix
Comfrey Glycerol Extract INCI name: in directly to already-made water-based
Glycerine, Symphytum officinalis products.
From Organic Comfrey Root extracts. Glycerine INCI: Glycerine
Contains mucilage, tannins and
allantoin. Has soothing, moisturising, Glycerine is a cheap, simple Moisturiser,
antiseptic and other well known healing which is used in a concentration of 3-
properties. Good to use in Compresses, 5%. Both animal and vegetable-based
Shaving Creams, Shaving Water, Glycerines are available. (Aromantic only
Shampoos, Foam Baths and Toners. Has stock vegetable-based, guaranteed Kosher
a faint herbal smell and has a beige/ Glycerine.)
yellow colour. Dosage: 3-6%. Honey Moisturiser INCI Name Hydroxy
Propyltrimonium honey
Cucumber Extract INCI name:
Glycerine, Cucumis sativus, Aqua Honey has been used in cosmetics since
Traditionally cucumber slices have been the beginning of time for its ability to
used in homemade Eye Compresses moisturise the skin and hair. However,
and Face Masks as cucumber naturally natural honey, a 75% active solution of
contains ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) disaccharides, is sticky in consistency
and caffeic acid. These nutrients help and its moisturising properties are poor
to soothe skin irritations and reduce compared to other more commonly
swelling, which is why it has been used used materials such as Glycerine. Honey
directly on the skin. This method of Moisturiser is a quaternised Honey; i.e.
extraction that has been developed is Honey converted to having its atoms
the first I know of that has been used bonded to four carbon atoms giving a
to transform whole, fresh organic low viscosity, 50% solid, clear, almost
cucumber into a qualified organic active colourless liquid which has a pleasant
raw material at an affordable price. It feel on the skin and hair.
soothes, cools and reduces under-eye It has excellent moisture-binding
bags and helps to reduce dark circles properties, having twice the moisturising

ability of Glycerine, a well-known a non dairy Lactic Acid suitable for

and much used ingredient. Efficacy vegans.)
testing has shown that it has the ability
to moisturise the hair, penetrate the NFF Moisturiser INCI name: Sodium
endocuticle region and help to repair Lactate and Sodium PCA and Urea
split ends. Dosage: 2-5% in hair and skin and Hydrolysed Vegetable Protein and
care products. Sodium pH
A Natural Moisturiser Factor, NFF
Hyaluronic Acid INCI name: varies Moisturiser is a pure, vegetable-
depending on the form it takes based alternative to animal-based
Hyaluronic acid is what gives the skin collagen or elastin. It is called NFF
its volume and fullness. Aging can result as an abbreviation of the Swedish
in the loss of hyaluronic acid, which in term meaning Natural Moisturising
turn results in skin that has less volume Factor but trust me when I tell you
and the formation of wrinkles and that NFF is much easier to say! It
folds. Its hydrating properties result in consists of Sodium Lactate, Sodium
increased skin smoothness, softening PCA, Carbamide, Sodium Phosphate,
and decreased wrinkles. Its rejuvenating extracts from asparagus and vegetable-
properties result in increased skin based Soy Bean Protein, and a number
smoothness and softness. It is a common of different substances, some of which
ingredient in skin care products. The occur naturally in the skin and help to
product is available as a colourless gel or bind moisture in the skin at deeper levels
as a powder. Dosage and which stage to than Glycerine. NFF has been double-
add it varies see our website. blind tested on people and results show
that Creams containing NFF achieve a
Add to Hand and Body Lotions and
60-70% better rate of moisture retention
Creams, Night Creams, Cleansers, Gels,
in the skin than Creams without it.
Eye Gels and Serums, Foundations,
NFF is used in Creams and Lotions in a
Colour Cosmetics, Shaving Creams, Sun
concentration of 2-5%, depending on
Care and Hair Care products.
how much of a moisturising effect is
Both Aromantics Hyaluronic Acid Gel required. Add NFF when temperature is
and Powder are made by producing less than 40C (Third Stage).
enzymes from a bacteria-based
biofermentation process and NOT Pomegranate Glycerol Extract INCI
sourced from poultry (roosters combs), name: Glycerine, Punica granatum
as are many others. Pomegranate seed is a by-product
of the juice extraction process. It
Lactic Acid E270 INCI name: Lactic Acid contains mainly ellagic acid, which
(vegan) is a polyphenol antioxidant and has
Use 1-3% in your products for its many health benefits, for example, it
moisturising effects. To lower the pH is a powerful scavenger of free radicals,
value of the product to below 5.5 so and extremely effective in increasing
that it can contain Preservative K, use the bodys own built-in antioxidant,
between 0.3-0.6% in your products. For glutathione, which in turn helps protect
use as a peeling Agent (the AHA effect), the DNA in cells from free radical
use 3% in Creams & 1% in Lotions and damage. By inhibiting specific enzymes,
Skin Toners. (Aromantic only stocks ellagic acid and other polyphenols

regulate cell turnover and give the the skin. Carbamide in large quantities
cell time to divide normally and form will dissolve the outermost layer of skin
completely. Ellagic acid is also thought consisting of dead skin cells.
to strengthen the cell membrane,
making it less susceptible to free radical
damage and preventing water loss from Preservatives
the cell.
Clean water and good hygiene are
Use it as a replacement for plain
unfortunately not enough if a product
glycerine moisturiser in skin products
is to keep for more than a few weeks. In
as well as in after shave facial toners/
this respect, Creams are as susceptible
waters/spritzers/sprays; a moisturiser
to bacteria as food is. So it is necessary
in aftershave creams and gels; in facial
to use some sort of Preservative. It is
toners and spritzers; sun care products;
important to choose a Preservative,
shampoos; moisturising and antioxidant
which will cover as wide a range as
creams and lotions; gels and bath care
possible of the different sorts of bacteria,
products. Dosage: 3-6% in all water-
fungi and moulds which might apply.
based products.
Preservative Eco INCI name: Benzyl
Sorbitol (E 420) INCI name: Sorbitol
Alcohol, Salicylic Acid, Glycerine, Sorbic
Like alcohol, Sorbitol occurs naturally Acid.
in many types of fruit and berries. It
This preservative is new in 2011. Its
is chemically synthesised from starch
four components are all well accepted
and glucose. Sorbitol can be used as a
in a wide range of personal care
moisture retainer instead of Glycerine
products. This novel composition of
and gives a velvety feel to the skin. It is
this antimicrobial blend offers broad
used at a strength of 2-5% in all sorts
spectrum protection in a diverse range
of Skin and Body Care products such
of products, against gram-positive
as Creams, Liniments, Mouth Washes,
and gram-negative bacteria, yeast and
Toothpastes, Hair Sprays, Face Masks and
moulds. It is clear liquid. Natural Odour
Deodorants, etc.
Reducer may be needed for fragrance-free
Witch Hazel Glycerol Extract INCI and fragrance-sensitive formulations.
name: Glycerine, Hamamelis virginiana Advantages to using Preservative Eco are:
Extracted from the leaves of organic s4HEMOSTNATURAL0RESERVATIVE
Witch Hazel, which contains tannins and Aromantic stock (at time of printing).
saponins. Works as an astringent and
antiseptic. Use in Toners, Creams, Gels s.ON PARABEN NON FORMALDEHYDE NON
and Deodorants. Has the faint smell of isothiazolone based preservative system.
Moisturisers - Safety Information s"ROADSPECTRUMACTIVITYONBACTERIA
Moisturisers should not be used in large yeasts and moulds.
quantities. Glycerine and D-Panthenol s3UITABLEFORUSEINOIL IN WATER
should not be used in concentrations water-in-oil and anhydrous (non-water
of more than 8-10%. Beyond this level containing) formulas.
they can cause itchy, syrupy feelings on

s#OMPATIBLEWITHAWIDERANGEOFSKIN improving the preservative activity of

hair and sun care formulations. phenoxyethanol. Preservative 12 reduces
the contact angle of water significantly.
The wetting of surfaces is improved.
range of pH values (3-8).
With ethylhexylglycerin the contact of
s%XCELLENTSAFETYPROlLE phenoxyethanol with the cell membrane
Recommended dosage and usage: of microorganisms can also be
optimised. The antimicrobial efficacy of
The recommended use level is 1% and phenoxyethanol is therefore improved.
for products containing herbal infusions
or decoctions, it is 1.1%. However, About using Preservative 12:
please see the section on preservatives on s3TABLEINVARYINGTEMPERATURES
pages 9-11. Always add Preservative Eco disperse into products at low and high
in the Third Stage or when ingredients temperatures.
are under 45C. It is always important
to ensure that every newly developed or s3TABLEINVARYINGP(VALUESnYOUCAN
altered formulation be challenge-tested use it in products with a pH value up to
to guarantee proper preservation. 12.
Preservative 12 INCI: Phenoxyethanol,
to a pH of 4.5 (as with Preservative K),
therefore no Lactic Acid is needed.
This Preservative was introduced to
the general cosmetics marketplace in s#ANALSOTOLERATEAHIGHSALTCONTENT
early 2007 and was the most natural s#ANBEDISSOLVEDINWATER #REAMS
Preservative available to us at that time. Gels, Hydrolates, etc. and is broad
Aromantic have had it challenge-tested spectrum, equally effective against
and we have found it works very well for bacteria, yeasts, mould and fungi.
people with sensitive skin. People who
have previously reacted to the Potassium s$OESNTIMPARTANYSMELLTOTHE
Sorbate in Preservative K seem to tolerate product.
this Preservative. Another advantage s)DEALFORPRESERVATIONOFCLEAR
of this Preservative over Preservative K transparent Gels based on Carbomer
is that you dont need to think about (not used by Aromantic) or cellulose
the pH reduction and can use it up to a powder. Parabens give Gels a cloudiness,
pH of 12. The only limitation is that it while using Preservative 12 keeps the
doesnt work in products that contain Gels clear and transparent.
Detergents, such as Shampoos, Liquid
Soaps, Shower Gels, and Foam Baths, etc.
and Hair Care products, except for
As in Preservative K, Preservative 12 products containing Detergents so never
also contains phenoxyethanol but the use in Shampoos, 2-in-1 Shampoo
producers have broken new ground here. & Conditioners, Shower Gels, Liquid
An innovative multi-functional additive Soaps, and Foam Baths where a high
enhances the efficacy of phenoxyethanol. percentage of Detergents results in loss
The addition of ethylhexylglycerin of efficacy of Preservative 12.
affects the interfacial tension at the
cell membrane of microorganisms,
that treat sensitive skin.

s4HEEASIESTISTOADDITTOTHE4HIRD with the Cream and scrape it off after 1

Stage in products. Use from 0.8% to 1%. minute to reveal the pH. If you have a
For example, for 100ml/g, use 0.8ml/g liquid product e.g. Shampoos, simply
or for 1000ml/g, use 8ml/g. When dip the litmus paper in for 30 seconds
using Herbal Infusions in your Recipes, and the colour will be easily revealed.
I would recommend adding 1% of
Preservative 12. See Table 2 on page 10 Parabens INCI name of Aromantics
for dosage recommendations. blend: Phenoxethanol (and)
Methylparaben (and) Ethylparaben
Preservative K INCI name: Benzyl (and) Propylparaben
Alcohol, Phenoxyethanol, and Potassium Different types of Parabens, often a
Sorbate mixture of a few, are probably the most
A relatively natural Preservative used by frequently used Preservatives and are
green cosmetics companies worldwide, tolerated by most people. Aromantics
it is a liquid Preservative based on blend of Parabens is used by the food
Potassium Sorbate and Alcohols. The industry and it does not contain the
fungicidal and fungistatic properties of controversial Butylparaben. Parabens
Sorbic Acid (found in the totally natural have a liquid consistency, which makes
Potassium Sorbate) form the basis of the them easy to use. Use in a concentration
effectiveness of Preservative K. Potassium of 0.5-0.8%, depending on the raw
Sorbate is also added for the its qualities materials you are using. As a rule,
of stability and solubility. The spectrum the more Herbal Infusions used in a
of activity is supplemented and balanced product, the more Preservative one
by the use of Benzyl Alcohol (effective will need to use. See Table 2 for dosage
against Gram-positive bacteria) and recommendations.
Phenoxyethanol (effective against Gram- If one is allergic to Preservatives, or
negative bacteria). would rather not use them for other
Preservative K offers a broad, balanced reasons, then it is necessary to make
spectrum of effect against bacteria, yeasts small quantities of products and
and mould fungi. It will only work in keep them refrigerated. One can also
cosmetic products with a skin-friendly experiment with Essential Oils as
pH value up to 5.5. See Table 2 for Preservatives, such as Tea Tree, in which
dosage information. case the Oils will need to be used in a
concentration of at least 2% (50 drops to
As a result of the Potassium Sorbate in
100ml). Note: this dosage may make the
the formulation, Preservative K raises
Cream very strong, which may irritate
the pH of the product. After it has been
the skin. Also it will give the Cream a
incorporated into the cosmetic product,
very strong odour of the Essential Oil
the pH value of the product therefore
that you used.
has to be adjusted. After having added
all of your Raw Materials, Essential Oils
and Preservative K, then test the pH.
If over 5.5, add from 0.3-0.5% Lactic
Acid and retest the pH. When under
5.5pH, your products will keep for 1.5-3
years, depending on the product. When
testing a Cream, smear the Litmus Paper

Making Creams

Making your own Creams & Moisturisers order to mix oil and water you will need
is simple, easy and interesting. There an Emulsifier a medium that enables
are a few simple rules, which must be normally non-mixable ingredients to
followed but beyond these there are mix together. Aromantics MF and VE
endless possibilities for inventing and Emulsifiers are both used as ingredients
making your own unique Creams for in the Scandinavian food industry to
different purposes and youll know make bread and vegan ice cream. This
exactly what the Creams contain. If there shows that they are both very safe
is an ingredient you or your client is Emulsifiers to use as they are edible. The
allergic to, you can often leave it out or VE Emulsifier added during the Fat Stage
replace it with something else. and the MF Emulsifier during the Water
A Cream is an emulsion of oil and
water. One liquid is held suspended in NB: We never recommend using Paraffin-
another and it makes it easier to think based Emulsifiers such as Emulsifying
of mayonnaise as a good example. In Wax or Pola Wax.

Table 4: Conversion Table for ingredients in Creams

Shea Butter 1g = 1.5ml

Cetyl Alcohol 1g = 3ml

MF Emulsifier 1g = 2.5ml

VE Emulsifier 1g = 2ml

Essential Oil 0.5 ml = 12-15 drops

For metric-US Conversion Tables, see pages 106-108. For more
comprehensive product conversion tables see pages 103 & 104. For a
more comprehensive Essential Oil conversion table, see page 106.

Equipment required for making Calendula Cream


2x Double boilers (bain-maries) t'BU4UBHF $

Spatula 6ml Vegetable Oil

Whisk 2g Shea Butter
Measuring jug 2g Cetyl Alcohol
Measuring spoons 3g VE Emulsifier
Thermometer (for up to 100C) t8BUFS4UBHF $

You will also need weighing scales but 4.5g MF Emulsifier

if you dont have one, you can use the 75ml Boiling Spring Water
Conversion Table on the previous page
to find an alternative way of measuring 4ml/g Glycerine
your ingredients. It is important to be t5IJSETUBHF$

particularly careful with hygiene when

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
using water in products.
1ml Calendula CO2 Extract
Recipes for Base Creams
0.5ml Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
NB All Recipes add up to 100ml/g. t'PVSUI4UBHF $

12-20 drops Essential Oil

Simple Moisturiser
Note: remember to increase the
amount of Preservative when you use
Herbal Infusions in place of Boiling
6ml Sweet Almond Oil Spring Water. This is because Herbal
3ml Thistle Oil Infusions naturally contain a lot of
bacteria and fungi.
2g Cetyl Alcohol
2.5g VE Emulsifier

4g MF Emulsifier
76ml Boiling Spring Water
2ml/g Glycerine

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)

2ml NFF Moisturiser
1ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)

12-20 drops Essential Oil

Recipes for other types of Creams Highly effective Moisturiser

These can be created by making t'BU4UBHF $

adjustments to the Base Recipe.

8ml Jojoba Oil
Vitamin Cream for Dry/ 2g Shea Butter
Sensitive Skin 1g Cetyl Alcohol
2.5g VE Emulsifier


8ml Apricot Kernel Oil

4.5g MF Emulsifier
2g Shea Butter
74ml Boiling Spring Water
2g Cetyl Alcohol

2.5g VE Emulsifier
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
1-3 drops Carotene
4ml NFF Moisturiser

1ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)

4g MF Emulsifier

68ml Boiling Spring Water

12-20 drops Essential Oil
4ml/g Glycerine

Cleanser Cream
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
5ml Borage Oil t'BU4UBHF $

2ml Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) 8ml Castor Oil

1ml/g Vitamin A Palmitate 8ml Jojoba or Sweet Almond Oil
2g Cetyl Alcohol
12-20 drops Essential Oil 1g Cocoa Butter
3g VE Emulsifier

5g MF Emulsifier
62ml Boiling Spring Water
5ml/g Sorbitol/Glycerine

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)

4ml Beta Detergent
1ml/g Vitamin E (undiluted)

12-20 drops Essential Oil

lumps. Then allow the mixture to heat to

Dry Skin Cream

4) When both Fat and Water Stages are
over 75C, remove both double boilers
2g Cocoa Butter from the hob, keeping the Water Stage
3ml Olive Oil mixture hot by leaving it on the top half
7ml Sweet Almond Oil of the double boiler.
3ml Thistle Oil 5) Now pour the melted Fat Stage into the
Water Stage in a thin, steady stream, while
2g Cetyl Alcohol
continuously whisking the mixture from
2.5g VE Emulsifier side to side for 5 minutes. If necessary, use
a spatula to scrape the mixture from the

sides of the saucepan (or bowl).

4.5g MF Emulsifier
6) Allow the mixture to cool, stirring
70ml Boiling Spring Water all the time. You can speed up by the
2ml/g Glycerine cooling process by replacing the hot
water in the double boiler with very

COLD water. In the process of cooling

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) down, the mixture becomes a Cream and
0.5ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) will reach its thickest consistency when it
is has cooled down to room temperature.
2ml/g NFF Moisturiser
7) Third Stage: Stir in the Third Stage
ingredients when the mixture has cooled
12-20 drops Essential Oil to under 40C.
8) Fourth Stage: Continue stirring until
the mixture has cooled to under 35C,
Basic Method for making all Creams then thoroughly mix in the Essential Oils.

1) Fat Stage: Heat the Fat Stage 9) Pour the Cream into one big jar or
ingredients in a double boiler until smaller jars and label.
all of the ingredients have melted and
Tips for making Creams successfully
the temperature has risen to 75-80C.
There is no need to use a whisk at this
Cream fluffier, add 20-30ml Aloe Vera
2) Water Stage: After boiling the Spring Gel to this amount of Cream and reduce
Water in a Kettle, measure it according the Boiling Spring Water accordingly (see
to the Recipe and pour it over the MF Recipe for Gels on page 41).
Emulsifier, the Glycerine and Sorbitol,
which you have put into a separate
Decoctions in place of Boiling Spring
double boiler.
Water, then you will have to add more
3) Whisk the Water Stage ingredients Preservative; please see Table 2 for more
well together, making sure that the MF details. This is because Herbal Infusions
Emulsifier powder is fully dissolved in naturally contain a lot of bacteria and
the water and that you dont have any fungi.

s4OENSUREASMOOTH#REAM USEAN Adding value to your Creams

electric stick blender to blend the and Lotions by adding other raw
ingredients for 1 minute after adding materials
the Fat Stage to the Water Stage, then
continue whisking, as directed in the
Essential Oil Blends for Creams
Method, for 4 more minutes.
Examples of Essential Oil Blends which
s4OENSUREASMOOTH#REAM USEAN can be used to enhance 100ml of your
electric stick blender to blend the Cream (25 drops=approximately 1ml/g):
ingredients for 1 minute after adding
the Fat Stage to the Water Stage, then Blend 1 - Good All Rounder
continue whisking, as directed in the 15 drops Lavender
Method, for 4 more minutes.
5 drops Geranium
important to touch the bottom of the Blend 2 - Young Skin
saucepan, or bowl, so as not to introduce 15 drops Orange
air into the mixture. 5 drops Ylang Ylang
Blend 3 - Mature or Mens Skin
Cream, you dont need to add the
Essential Oils to the whole amount 6 drops Rosewood
straight away; you can add Essential Oils 7 drops Sandalwood
when putting the Cream into smaller jars.
Blend 4 - All Skin Types 1
15 drops Rosewood
Cosmetic Information, Making your
own Creams on Aromantics website. Blend 5 - All Skin Types 2
combine the Creams with Essential 3 drops Orange
Oils and other ingredients suited to the
special needs of their clients. Blend 6 - Oily Skin
15 drops Orange
Adapting Cream Recipes and Method
5 drops Geranium
to make Lotions
Examples of Essential Oil Blends that
If you have made a bigger amount of a can be used to enhance 1000ml/1 litre of
Cream Recipe and you would now like to your Cream:
make a Lotion, you can take 100ml of the
Blend for Dry Skin (Orange)
Cream and add 100ml cold Spring Water,
little by little, whisking all the while. 60 drops Orange

As the last step, add approximately 2 40 drops Geranium

drops of Preservative for each 10ml of 40 drops Lavender
water you added. For example, if you 10 drops Benzoin
added 500ml extra water, you would
need to add 100 drops of Preservative.

Blend for Dry Skin (Mandarin) Our most frequently asked questions
90 drops Mandarin about making Creams and Lotions
30 drops Sandalwood
Q) Is it necessary to add Preservatives
15 drops Neroli (undiluted)
to Aromantic Creams and Lotions?
8 drops Jasmine (undiluted) A) Yes, you must always add Preservatives
when there is water in the product. We
Cream Recipe variations - Vegetable
recommend dosages of the Preservatives
we sell when adding them to products
with or without Herbal Infusions or
Using the DRY SKIN CREAM Recipe on
Decoctions. Please see pages 9-11 for
page 30 as a basis, see Table 5 below to
more information. Herbs contain a lot
make different Creams for different types
of bacteria, which is why you need to
and conditions.
add extra. It can be dangerous not to add

Table 5: Dry Skin Cream Recipe Variations

To change it to a Sensitive Skin Cream

Replace with
3ml Olive Oil & 8ml Apricot or Peach Kernel Oil
7ml Sweet Almond Oil 2ml Macadamia Nut Oil
To change it to a Luxury Cream for Sensitive Skin

Replace with
3ml Olive Oil & 6ml Apricot or Peach Kernel Oil,
7ml Sweet Almond Oil 1ml Macadamia Nut Oil & 5ml Rosehip Oil, (Add
the Rosehip in the Third Stage).
NB Reduce the water content by 2ml
To change it to a Cream for Mature Skin

Replace with
3ml Olive Oil & 6ml Macadamia Nut Oil
7ml Sweet Almond Oil 4ml Apricot or Peach Kernel Oil
Cream for Oily or Large-pored Skin
(NB Use the SIMPLE MOISTURISER Recipe on page 24 as a basis)

Replace with
6ml Sweet Almond Oil 5ml Rosehip Oil (but add it in the Third Stage)

Preservatives to water-based products, an electric mixer but be careful not to

as the bacteria are invisible when they introduce air bubbles to your cream.
grow. Fungi, on the other hand, are You could also add some aloe vera gel
obvious by their green/blue colour at the to your cream, which makes it fluffy and
top of the Cream. Without Preservatives, has a very nice feeling on the skin.
the products will keep in a cold fridge for
up to 2 weeks. Just treat them like dairy Q) My Cream is too grainy and lumpy.
products and you wont go wrong. A) This is most likely caused by not
mixing in the MF powder thoroughly.
Q) Can I use Grape Seed Extract as a Blend with an electric stick blender for 5
Preservative? minutes to create a smooth consistency
A) No. This has been tried by the food or if that doesnt work, heat the Cream
industry and it has been found that the up to 75C and repeat the process in the
protection it gives is not broad enough Method again.
to prevent many bacteria forming. Our
clients who have tried it usually find Q) The Cream or Lotion I make
fungi growths on top of their Creams becomes greyish.
within 3 months. A) This sometimes happens when you
use Herbal Infusions or Decoctions in
Q) My Cream became too runny!
your Cream or Lotion. Add 2 drops of
A) With a VE/MF Cream, this is usually Carotene during the Fat Stage to mask
caused by too little MF added to the this effect. Be aware that the yellow
water and other ingredients. Often it colour of the Carotene will fade if
is not mixed thoroughly and the MF exposed to direct sunlight. If you want
powder is left at the bottom or around your Cream to be white, try adding the
the edges. Using an electric stick blender whitener, Titanium Dioxide. Mix it into
can prevent this and help the Cream a little Glycerine and then add it to the
thicken by itself. It is also very important Cream at the end.
that both the Water and Fat Stages are
over 75C and that the Fat Stage is Q) The Cream has an unpleasant smell.
poured little by little into the Water A) Several things can cause this. Firstly,
Stage. Both Stages need to be kept in you may have used a smelly Vegetable
hot water when stirred together for 5 Oil such as Borage, which naturally has
minutes. One tip is to sprinkle some a mouldy smell. Organic Rosehip has a
Xanthan Gum (maximum 0.5%) on stronger smell than the non-Organic Oil.
to the top of the Cream as you blend You may have used Vegetable Oil such as
it with an stick blender. Bear in mind Wheatgerm Oil, which has gone rancid.
that Creams will also thicken naturally Vitamin A Oil also has an unpleasant
until they have reached normal room smell. Most raw materials have a smell,
temperature (20C in Northern Europe). some more than others. One way is
to use Vegetable Oils such as Evening
Q) My cream is too thick! Primrose instead of Borage Oil and
A) After your cream is made, you can use Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) instead
whisk in more cold water, little by little, of Wheatgerm Oil. You could also use
until you achieve the consistency you deodorised Thistle Oil instead of the
want. If you want to make a lighter Organic one. You could also try to mask
cream you can try blending it with

the smell by adding base note Essential Q) What kind of water should I use in
Oils such as Benzoin, Sandalwood, my products?
Cedarwood or Patchouli. A) I like to use a well-known brand of
bottled Still Spring Water in my Creams.
Q) The Cream is too heavy. How can I
In the cosmetic industry they use
make it lighter?
distilled water but to me that is a lifeless
A) You could add a little more water to product.
the Cream if it is not too runny. Using
a stick blender to mix your Cream will Q) Can I use an electric stick blender to
make it lighter. Next time you make it make my Cream?
you could also reduce the amount of A) Yes. Use it to mix the Fat Stage and
water at the Water Stage by 10-25% and Water Stage together for 5 minutes. You
then replace it with 10-25% light Aloe can also use it when the Cream cools
Vera Gel after the Third Stage. The Gel down. The result will be a smoother
needs to be thin so that you can pour Cream with a lighter, finer texture.
it into a bottle. If it is too thick it will Commercial companies use large electric
create a Cream with the consistency of blenders to make their products. Note:
chewing gum. Gel will make the Cream Our Starter Pack No 1 How to make
lighter and fluffier. You can also make your own Skin Care Creams contains
a Vegetal Cream. This is slightly trickier pre-measured quantities of ingredients
to make but Vegetal Creams are much so ingredients so that you do not need to
lighter. See Recipe No 18 Vegetal in Creams use scales.
and Lotions (not included in this Guide).
Be sure that the amount of Preservative is
correct for the finished volume of Cream.

Making Cleansers,
Exfoliates, Peelers
& Toners

Cleansers can be mixed into Cleansing Creams,

Lotions, or Gels. Be cautious with the use
of Detergents for people with sensitive
Cleansing the skin is the essential first
skin as these agents can irritate the skin.
step in the basic 3-step beauty routine
of Cleansing, Toning, and Moisturising. Recipes for Cleansing Lotions
Cleansing with a good quality Cleanser
twice a day once in the morning and This type of Recipe is based on using
once before going to bed at night high quantities of Vegetable Oils as
assures the removal of surface impurities, Cleansing remedies. In order to use these
traces of make-up, and excessive oiliness quantities of Vegetable Oils, we need to
and enhances the skins ability to breathe. use a special Emulsifier called Emulsifan
Cleansing is necessary for all skin types. CB. Emulsifan CB is used when we need
Raw materials that are used in Skin to add a lot of Oils to our products.
Emulsifan CB is a water-to-fat Emulsifier.
(VE & MF are fat-to-water Emulsifiers).
Vegetable Oils absorb fat-soluble dirt.
The fattier Oils such as Castor Oil or
Cleansing Lotion
Macadamia Nut Oil are not absorbed A good natural Lotion for non-
as quickly by the skin and are therefore sensitive skin (if using a mild
ideal for this purpose. Vegetable Oils Detergent), which can be easily
can be used on their own (as Cleansing removed with water.
Oils), or as part of a Cleansing Cream,
Lotion, or Gel. Vegetable Oils also t'BU4UBHF $

restore Oil to the skin and can be 2g Beeswax

used where Surface Cleansing Agents
6g Emulsifan CB
(Detergents) are included in your
product as Detergents remove fats and 26g/ml Sweet Almond Oil
oils from your skin. 10g Castor Oil
Surface Cleansing Agents (Detergents) t8BUFS4UBHF $

have, as the description suggests, a

3ml/g Sorbitol or Glycerine
cleansing effect and, in the appropriate
quantity, are an excellent ingredient to 49ml Boiling Spring Water
include in Cleansing products. They contd over/

Exfoliating, Scrubbing and
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) Peeling Agents
3g Beta Detergent
Exfoliating, Scrubbing & Peeling Agents
are completely natural ingredients for
15-20 drops Essential Oils of your gentle or more thorough exfoliating
choice or peeling, which you can add to your
homemade or shop-bought products such
as Creams, Gels, and Shower Gels, etc.
Method for making Cleansing Lotions Add the Agent by stirring it evenly into
your product with a clean, dry teaspoon,
1) Heat the Fat Stage in a double boiler adding a little at a time until you are
until all the ingredients have melted and happy with the texture. Exfoliating or
the temperature has risen to 75-80C. peeling is normally done before toning
2) Heat the Water Stage in a saucepan to and then moisturising the skin.
the same temperature. These are the Exfoliating/Scrubbing Agents
3) Add the Water Stage to the Fat Stage, that we stock:
pouring slowly in a thin, steady stream Dead Sea Salt (Fine)/Sea Salt (Fine)
while whisking the mixture all the time.
An Exfoliating Agent to remove dead
4) Keep the Lotion mixture warm (keep skin cells, help to draw out toxins & to
water in the bottom pan of double boiler stimulate growth of new skin. Use from
hot) and whisk the mixture from side to 2 tablespoons in Baths. For Healing
side in the bottom of the saucepan for Baths use 500g-1kg per bath. The
a further 5 minutes, using a spatula to granules are fine and round and dont
scrape the mixture from the sides of the tear and damage the skin.
Exfoliant Cupuau
5) Allow the Lotion to cool (you can
speed this up by immersing the pan into These fine bio-scrub particles with a faint
a large pan of COLD water), stirring all smell of chocolate provide a stimulating,
the time. It is important to touch the yet gentle scrub action with low abrasion
bottom of the pan as you stir so as not to on the skin and is therefore gentle
introduce air into the Cream. enough to use on the face. Add 1-10% in
your products, according to the desired
6) Starting at 40C, add the Third Stage feel on your skin. It can be applied to
ingredients. face and body daily.
7) Continue stirring until the mixture From the seeds of the Cupuau tree,
has cooled to 35C, and then mix in the harvested in a sustainable development
Essential Oils thoroughly. managed within the South American
8) Pour into bottles and label. rainforest. Approved by Eco-Cert as an
Organic product. The manufacturer
works with nature, obtaining its
precious resources with care and

Cupuau fruits are oblong, brown, and Cleansers

fuzzy, 20cm (8in) long, 1-2 kg (2-4lb) Peelers
in weight, and covered with a thick (4-
7mm) hard exocarp. Several aspects Massage Oils
of Cupuau make it interesting. The and Hand and Feet preparations.
flowers, for example, are the biggest of
the genre. They do not grow on the log, Apricot Kernel Powder
as the Theobromine, but in the branches. Use in a concentration of 1-5%. To add
Their seeds are industrialised for the thorough exfoliating and scrubbing
production of a Wax Butter with excellent properties to Creams & Soaps. It is
quality, from which an Oil is refined and best used for body parts that need and
filtered and which has fantastic properties tolerate vigorous peeling such as the
for the cosmetic industry. Exfoliant hands, the feet, legs and bottom. NB Do
Cupuau has a faint smell of chocolate not use on the face!
as the tree is related to Cacao.
Chondrus Crispus Flakes
Properties For gentle exfoliating and Skin
The seeds contain phytosterols, which Protection. The Flakes will help to
act at a cellular level by regulating the activate blood microcirculation,
lipids on the superficial layer of the skin. eliminate toxins and improve the process
Phytosterols are also used for skin and of weight reduction. Use 1-6% in Solid
ulcer treatment by local application, Soaps, Liquid Soaps, Shower Gels and
order to stimulate the scarring process. Gels.
The structure of the phytosterols is
formed by beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, Jojoba Exfoliating Grains
and campesterol. The beta-sitosterol Are extracted from the waxes of the
properties are similar to the chemical Jojoba plant. The grains are smooth and
structure of cholesterol. It represents do not irritate the skin. The fine grain
more than 70% of the unsaponifiable size is excellent for exfoliating dead skin
fraction of the Cupuau Butter. and improving circulation. Use between
2-10% in Shower Gels, Oils, Gels and
Benefits Creams. Dont heat over 60C. Never
Improves circulation whisk the product that youve added
Removes dead skin cells Jojoba Exfoliating grains to; stir into the
Rejuvenates the skin product at the end of the Recipe instead.
You can also add the Grains after youve
Physically stimulates skin through made your products just make sure you
massage stir them in evenly without breaking up
Removes dirt from pores the Grains.
Leaves a soft feeling to the skin These are the Peeling Agents we stock:
Revitalisation properties AHA Natural Fruit Extract
For use in Skin and Body Care A natural Peeling Agent that has 12-17%
Shower Gels Glycolic Acid. AHA Natural Fruit Extract
Liquid and Solid Soaps is a concentrated blend of five botanical
extracts: bilberry, sugar cane, sugar

maple, orange, and lemon, making it a Recipes for Exfoliating Creams

natural source of several AHAs (Alpha
Hydroxy Acids). Alpha Hydroxy Acids An Exfoliating Cream is abrasive and
have been shown to promote smoother, removes dead skin cells. The Base in
younger looking skin by increasing the this case consists of a Cream made
rate of cell renewal and have excellent with Castor Oil with the addition of
moisturising properties. Maximum vegetable-based exfoliating granules such
efficacy with minimum irritation. AHA as Jojoba Exfoliating Grains. To use the
Natural Fruit Extract is 55% active at Exfoliating Cream, wet the face first then
a pH of 4. Dosage in products: 5-15% apply the Exfoliating Cream. Massage it
added to your recipes at the third stage, in well then wash off with water. These
or under 40C. Recipes make 100ml.
NB Never use around the eyes and do
a skin sensitivity test on a patch of skin Exfoliating Cream - All Skin
if you are a first-time user of any AHA Types

Lactic Acid 8ml Thistle Oil

Often used for lowering the pH value of 10ml Castor Oil
product to below 5.5 so that it can be
used in combination with Preservative K. 3g Shea Butter
Lactic Acid can be used as a Peeling agent 2g Cetyl Alcohol
for its AHA effect. Use 3% in Creams and 3g VE Emulsifier
1% in Lotions. It also has moisturising
qualities. t8BUFS4UBHF $

5g MF Emulsifier
Beta Detergent
63ml Boiling water
A Detergent for Shampoos, Shower
Gels & Liquid Soaps, Beta Detergent is 3ml/g Sorbitol
produced from coconut oil, is often used

a Secondary Detergent, and can be used

as a mild Peeling ingredient in Peeling Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
and Cleansing Creams, Lotions & Gels. 1g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) or
Ground Loofah Flakes
Sugar Detergent
A secondary help Detergent made from t'PVSUI4UBHF $

sugar, Sugar Detergent can also be used 10 drops Lemon Essential Oil
as a mild Peeling ingredient in Peeling 8 drops Geranium Essential Oil
and Cleansing Creams, Lotions & Gels.

3g Jojoba Exfoliating Grains


Exfoliating Cream - Dry/Mature 3) Whisk the Water Stage ingredients

well together, making sure that the MF
Emulsifier powder is fully dissolved in
the water and that you dont have any

lumps. Then allow the mixture to heat to

10ml Castor Oil 75-80C.
6ml Macadamia Oil 4) When both Fat and Water Stages are
2g Shea Butter over 75C, remove both double boilers
2g Cetyl Alcohol from the hob, keeping the Water Stage
mixture hot by leaving it on the top half
3g VE Emulsifier of the double boiler.
5) Now pour the melted Fat Stage
5g MF Emulsifier into the Water Stage in a thin, steady
stream, while continuously whisking the
67ml Rose Water
mixture from side to side for 5 minutes.
3ml/g Sorbitol or Glycerine If necessary, use a spatula to scrape the
mixture from the sides of the saucepan

(or bowl).
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
6) Allow the mixture to cool, stirring
2ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) all the time. You can speed up by the
cooling process by replacing the hot
water in the double boiler with very
10 drops Geranium Essential Oil
COLD water. In the process of cooling
5 drops Petitgrain Essential Oil down, the mixture becomes a Cream and
5 drops Lavender Essential Oil will reach its thickest consistency when it
is has cooled down to room temperature.

7) Third Stage: Stir in the Third Stage

2-5g Jojoba Exfoliating Grains
ingredients when the mixture has cooled
to under 40C.
Method for making Cleansing and 8) Fourth Stage: Continue stirring until
Exfoliating Creams the mixture has cooled to under 35C,
then thoroughly mix in the Essential
(Same Method as MF/VE Emulsifier Oils.
9) Fifth Stage: Finally stir in the Jojoba
1) Fat Stage: Heat the Fat Stage
Exfoliating Grains. Note: Dont whisk
ingredients in a double boiler until all
the Grains too vigorously as they may
of the ingredients have melted and the
disintegrate if you do so.
temperature has risen to 75-80C. There
is no need to use a whisk at this stage.
2) Water Stage: After boiling the Spring Skin Toners
Water in a Kettle, measure it according
to the Recipe and pour it over the MF Like Cleansers, Skin Toners are an
Emulsifier and the Glycerine, which you essential part of the basic 3-step beauty
have put into a separate double boiler. routine of Cleansing, Toning, and

Moisturising. Skin Toners are applied General Method for making Skin
after using a Cleanser and before Toners
applying a Moisturiser.
They act as astringents, cleaning and 1) Simply measure all raw materials in a
reducing the size of the pores and measuring cylinder or beaker.
wrinkles so that dust and dirt will not 2) Pour into a 100ml bottle.
enter as easily avoiding further skin
3) Secure the cap and label.
Toners can also be used to disinfect and Tips for making Skin Toners
freshen up the skin, leaving a trace of
Essential Oil. They are easily applied s4HESHELFLIFEOFTHESE3KIN4ONERS
with cotton wool or can be sprayed on without added Preservatives is 6 months-
and then wiped off with cotton wool. 1 year. If Preservatives are added, the
shelf life is increased to 2 years. If
Dry/Mature Skin Toner you choose to add a preservative, see
Table 2 for recommended dosages of
80ml Rose Water Aromantics Preservative.
5ml Witch Hazel Glycerol Extract or condition.

Sensitive Skin Toner

60ml Neroli Water

20ml Rose Water
14ml Geranium Water
3ml Comfrey Glycerol Extract
3ml Aloe Vera Concentrate

Making Gels

Gels are fun and easy to make and easy Carrageen (extracted from the seaweed
to apply to the skin. A Gel is made Carrageen)
from water and a Thickening Agent.
Alginates (extracted from different algae)
Other ingredients are added for various
purposes, depending on what the Gel is Pectin (extracted from citrus peel)
used for. Gels are usually either clear or Cellulose Gum (extracted from wood
semi-opaque. A Gel is used in products fibre). Makes clear Gels.
where it is desirable to have little or no
Fats or Oils and is best mixed using a Xanthan Gum (produced by
water-based medium. If a small amount Xanthomonas campestris bacteria
of Fat is required in the Gel, up to 5% through the fermentation of glucose - no
Vegetable Oil can be added. Gels are also bacteria are left in the finished product).
able to carry an Essential Oil content of We prefer Xanthan Gum but any of the
up to a maximum of 5% but be aware other Thickening Agents may be used.
that the Oil may make the Gel cloudy. Too Xanthan Gum is used as a Thickening
much of either of these ingredients can Agent in medical, food and cosmetic
result in an uneven distribution in the Gel. products.
The thicker the Gel is, the more Vegetable
or Essential Oil it will be able to carry. Recipes for Gels
Which Thickening Agents to use in the
These Recipes make approximately
manufacture of Gels is a question of taste,
or rather of feeling i.e. how the Gel feels 100ml.
when applied to the skin and then how
it feels when its moisture has evaporated.
The Thickening Agents retain moisture, Base Aloe Gel
protect the skin and can also be astringent.
The skin does not absorb them. t4UBHF

These Thickening Agents can either be 88ml Spring Water

wholly synthetic, such as a polymer, or 1g/2ml/ tsp tsp Xanthan Gum
wholly natural, such as a polysaccharide.
Natural polysaccharides are extracted 10ml Aloe Vera Concentrate
from plants or algae and are found in
large quantities in: Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)

Cellulite Gel Tea Tree Gel*

97ml Spring Water 82.5ml Spring Water
1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum 1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
20 drops Rosemary Essential Oil 10ml Aloe Vera Concentrate
5 drops Sweet Fennel Essential Oil 2ml D-Panthenol Moisturiser
5 drops Juniper Oil 3ml Tea Tree Essential Oil
1ml Lavender Essential Oil

Scrubbing Gel *NB: Before using the Strong Muscle

and Tea Tree Gels
t4UBHF Because of the high quantities of
94ml Spring Water Essential Oils in these products, be sure
to do a skin allergy test. See page 3 for
1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum
how to do the test. Once youre satisfied
t4UBHF that your skin is not reacting adversely
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) to it, you can apply the Strong Muscle or
Tea Tree Gel on small patches of the skin
3g Apricot Kernel Powder such as in the crook of the arm, or (for
7 drops Cypress Essential Oil the Tea Tree Gel) pimples and athletes
10 drops Grapefruit Essential Oil foot, etc.

7 drops Lavender Essential Oil

After Sun Gel
3 drops Spearmint Essential Oil
80ml Spring Water
Strong Muscle Gel*
1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum
92ml Spring Water Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum 10ml Aloe Vera Concentrate
t4UBHF 2ml NFF Moisturiser
2ml NFF Moisturiser 5ml St. Johns Wort Oil
5ml White Crystal Essential Oil/ 20 drops Lavender Essential Oil
Crystal blend (or an Essential Oil 10 drops Spearmint Essential Oil
blend of Peppermint, Lavender and

Foot Gel Method for making Gels

t4UBHF 1) Stage 1: Measure the water in a jug

90ml Spring Water and pour into a bowl.
1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum 2) Weigh 1g or measure a level 2ml
Measuring spoon with Xanthan Gum
t4UBHF Powder.
2g Carbamide crystals
3) Sprinkle the Xanthan Gum Powder
2ml NFF Moisturiser over the water little by little, whisking
2ml Lactic Acid vigorously. If your Gel gets lumpy, blend
until smooth with a stick blender. When
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
there are no more lumps, stop whisking
35 drops Tea Tree Essential Oil or blending immediately.
5 drops Sage Essential Oil 4) Stage 2: Add all of the pre-measured
5 drops Lavender Essential Oil Stage 2 ingredients and mix in to the
Gel. All the Recipes will keep for 1.5-2
Rosemary Gel
Tips for making Gels
1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum consistency, sprinkle more Xanthan
Gum, little by little, into the finished
t4UBHF product until you get the consistency
2ml NFF Moisturiser you want. Remember to make the Gel
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) of a pourable consistency if you want to
bottle it.
20 drops Rosemary Essential Oil
10 drops Lavender Essential Oil
in the Recipes by 10, simply use 10g of
Xanthan Gum. Otherwise use a 2ml
Measuring spoon (ten times).
Haemorrhoid Gel
t4UBHF so much that the mixture becomes white.
84ml Spring Water Beat hard and fast to remove the lumps
1g/2ml/ tsp Xanthan Gum and then stop as over-beating makes the
Gel go runny.
10ml Witch Hazel Water have a drying effect on the skin. Add 1-
3ml Comfrey Glycerol Extract 3 % Vegetable Oil to the Gel to counter
this as the Vegetable Oil acts as a Fat
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
Restoring Agent in a Gel similar to the
20 drops Tea Tree Essential Oil effect Omega Fat Restoring Agent has
20 drops Cypress Essential Oil in a Shampoo. Note: you can add the

Vegetable Oil to an already-made Gel, the Cellulose into it, while whisking
simply stir it in briefly (dont overdo it constantly until the Gel thickens. Adding
as it will change your Gel to a whitish up to 4% Cellulose to a Gel Recipe will
colour) or you can add the Vegetable Oil give it a consistency suitable for use as
the next time you make a Gel. a Hair Styling Gel. As a food additive, it
has the E number, E460-466.
the Gel, add Marigold or Carrot CO2 Xanthan Gum INCI name: Xanthan
Extract to make it yellow-orange or Sea Gum
Buckthorn CO2 Extract for an orange
A wholly natural polysaccharide
colour. Pearlescent Colour (PC) Blue or
which is produced by special bacteria
Green is good for Foot Gel. To use PC
Xanthomonas campestris through
Colours, add 1 teaspoon (tsp) of the
the fermentation of glucose. It is grown
Colour little by little to 1-2 tablespoons
under laboratory conditions and no
(tbsps) of Glycerine, until you have the
bacteria are left in the finished product.
Colour you desire. Add to the Gel at
It replaces the gluten in yeast breads and
Stage 2. Remember to match the Colour
other baking, is widely used in the food
you add to the Gel with the Essential
industry as Thickener for salad dressings,
Oils that youve used in the product, for
and is also used as a Thickening Agent
e.g. add a blue Colour to a Foot Cream
in medicines and cosmetics. Its ADI
when youve used a cooling Peppermint
(Acceptable Daily Intake) value is 10mg
Essential Oil.
per kg body weight. You cannot make
s7HENADDINGLARGERQUANTITIESOF very thick Gels with Xanthan Gum so
Essential Oils (over 2%) to Gels, you can it is not suitable for making thick Hair
reduce the quantity of Preservatives used, Styling Gels. As a food additive, it has the
especially when adding Aromantics E number, E415.
White Crystal, Tea Tree, or Rosemary
Essential Oils. Konjac Glucomannan Powder INCI
Name: Amorphophallus Konjac Root
Defining Cellulose Gum, Xanthan Powder
Gum and Konjac Glucomannan
Powder This is a polysaccharide made out of
the tuber of Amorphophallus Konjac
Cellulose Gum INCI name: Cellulose that creates a see-through gel that has
a very soft and pleasant skin feeling. In
Cellulose is extracted from plant
fact it stabilises and feels like polymers
fibre, primarily from trees, wood pulp
that we couldnt create before now
and cotton. The different kinds of
with natural polysaccharides. The gel
cellulose-based Gels are often much
becomes homogenous, transparent and
more stable and better tolerated than
odourless. You can use the same method
other Thickening Agents. Cellulose is
as for making gels with xanthan gum.
used in the food industry and in Skin
However, the Konjac Glucomannan Gel
Care products in Toothpastes, Aloe
Powder doesnt form lumps as easily
Vera Gels, as a stabiliser for Creams,
as the xanthan gum does. It is ideal as
etc. When using Cellulose in your
a thickener in all kinds of gels e.g. aloe
Recipes, you need to have heated the
vera gels, eye gels, gel serums, healing
water to around 50C before sprinkling
gels and as a help emulsifier in creams,

lotions and facial masks. Glucomannan

is the natural main component of the
Konjac tuber and its structure is similar
to pectin. When using boiling water
it thickens more & faster than if using
cold water. This yields a very strong
gel structure. Konjac Glucomannan
Gel Powder is dispersed best with a
minimum of 2% glycerine in the blend
to avoid the formation of hydro colloidal
Dosage: 0.5 gives same consistency of
approximately 1% xanthan gum recipe;
1% Konjac Glucomannan Gel Powder
makes a thick gel. As a help emulsifier in
creams, lotions and facial masks, dosage:
0.05 -0.5%.

Healing Balms
& Lip Balms

Healing Balms *There are many Vegetable Oils to

choose from, everything from a simple
Olive or Sunflower Oil to a more
Healing Balms are used to protect the
luxurious Avocado, Apricot Kernel or
skin. They are for use on dry, cracked
Peach Kernel Oil.
skin and for minor injuries to the skin.
To make Healing Balms you will need a Method for making Healing Balms
stainless steel saucepan, a bowl, a whisk,
1) Melt the Beeswax and Vegetable Oil
a spatula, and a thermometer (optional,
together in a double boiler.
up to 100C) as well as the ingredients.
2) When the Beeswax is completely
A simple Base Healing Balm can be
melted, remove the bowl or saucepan
made from Vegetable Oils and Beeswax.
the ingredients are in from the double
The Vegetable Oils nourish the skin
while at the same time softening and
protecting it. The Beeswax protects the 3) Whisk the Healing Balm until it has
skin while giving the Healing Balm its cooled to approximately 40-45C.
consistency. The more Beeswax you add,
4) Whisk, or stir in, any other ingredients
the harder the Healing Balm will be and
you wish to include.
the more Vegetable Oil you add, the
softer it will be. 5) Pour into jars.
An Healing Balm has no water in it How to add heat-sensitive or
therefore it needs no Preservative the way Vitamin-rich Vegetable Oils cold to
Creams do. It does however, benefit from your Healing Balm
the addition of an antioxidant such as
Vitamin E Oil (undiluted). Once you have some experience of
Recipes for Healing Balms making Healing Balms, youll be able
to add certain Oils to the Healing Balm
without melting them. You can add
Base Healing Balm up to 50% of the overall Vegetable Oil
content of heat-sensitive Oils such
15g Beeswax as Evening Primrose and Borage, or
85ml Vegetable Oil of your choice Vitamin-rich Oils such as Avocado, in
(e.g. Sweet Almond Oil*) your Healing Balm when the Beeswax
has melted. This saves a lot of work

heating and cooling the Oils, as well Lavender Essential Oil plus 1ml Vitamin
as preserving their nutrients, especially E (undiluted).
when making large quantities.
Liniment (for sore muscles)
1) Slightly adapt the Base Recipe by
Add 3ml Aromantics White Crystal
using 15g Beeswax and 35g Vegetable Oil
Blended Essential Oil plus 2ml Vitamin
e.g. Sweet Almond.
E Oil (undiluted).
2) Follow steps 1 and 2 as described in
the Method for making base Healing Zinc Healing Balm
Balms. Add 4g Zinc Oxide plus 1ml Vitamin E
3) Without waiting for the mixture to Oil (undiluted). NB Do not reduce the
cool down, add pre-measured remaining Vegetable Oil in this Recipe accordingly!
Vegetable Oils cold, or rather, room Foot & Leg Healing Balm (for tired or
temperature, such as Borage or Avocado cold feet and legs)
Add 3ml Rosemary Oil plus 2ml Vitamin
4) Once the mixture has cooled down E (undiluted).
to between 45-40C (NB because it is a
Healing Balm and it will harden, dont Tea Tree Healing Balm
wait until the usual 35C), then add pre- Add 4ml Tea Tree Essential Oil and 1ml
measured (1-5%) Essential Oils of your Lavender Essential Oil plus 1ml Vitamin
choice. E Oil (undiluted).
5) Lastly, add pre-measured (1-5%) St. Johns Wort Healing Balm
undiluted Vitamin E Oil.
Add 30ml St. Johns Wort Oil Instead of
Healing Balm Recipe Variations 30ml Vegetable Oil plus 1ml Vitamin E
Oil (undiluted).
When adding other liquid raw materials,
reduce the Vegetable Oils accordingly.
Tips for making Healing Balms

Healing Balms: fatty and sticky. You can make them less
fatty by reducing the amount of Beeswax
Arnica Healing Balm and also by using more of the dry
Add 5ml Arnica Tincture and 1ml feeling Vegetable Oils, such as Thistle
Vitamin E Oil (undiluted). Note: To and Hemp Seed Oil. Read more about
avoid the tincture (alcohol-based) from this and about Vegetable Oils versus
separating from the Healing Balm, dont the petroleum industrys Vaseline and
add more than 5% of the tincture to the Paraffin Oils in our section on Making
Healing Balm. You could also add 20ml Skin & Massage Oils.
of Arnica Macerated Oil to the blend and
reduce the other vegetable oil by 20ml.
Lip Balms
Calendula Healing Balm (for cracked &
dry skin) Lips can be sensitive to the effects of
Add 2ml/g Calendula CO2 Extract or the sun, wind, dry air, bacteria and salty
5ml Calendula Tincture and add 1ml foods. They often require a little extra

protection. Through the use of natural Method for making Lip Balms
Fats and Waxes, lips can be cared for
without Lip Balms having to be applied 1) Heat all the ingredients, except any
over and over again. The need for Essential Oils, in the beaker or stainless
continual applications can be the result steel cup immersed in a pan of hot water
of using Lip Balms containing Vaseline or (double boiler style).
Paraffin Oil from the petroleum industry.
2) Stir and melt fully.
There are many different Fats, Waxes
3) When everything has melted, add up
and Vegetable Oils which can be used
to 25 drops of each Essential Oil (or up
to make a Lip Balm base and different
to 50 drops of one Oil).
Active Ingredients which can be added
to create particular kinds of Lip Balms. 4) Pour into the cylinders up to 3/4 full,
The Waxes protect the lips while the allowing it to cool for 10 minutes and
Vegetable Oils soften them. shrink slightly. Then, keeping a steady
hand, top the cylinders up until full.
The shelf life of the Lip Balms is 1.5-2
years, depending on which Essential Oils 5) Leave for a few minutes before putting
you use. e.g. any Citrus Oil will last for on the lids.
1.5 years but Tea Tree and Lavender Oils
6) Customise the labels with a felt tip pen
will last for 2-3 years.
and youre ready to sell or give to friends.
Recipe for Lip Balms Tip for making Lip Balms
NB This Recipe doesnt add up to 100g/
ml. It is a Recipe for 20x 4.5ml Lip Balm
half of your double boiler boiling so
cylinders, therefore make it as accurate as
that you can immerse the beaker in it for
reheating the solidified raw materials.
Base Lip Balm Lip Balm Recipe Variations

28g Beeswax Add Value to your Lip Balms by adding

20g Cocoa Butter other raw materials. Different kinds of
Lip Balms can be made through the
50ml Vegetable Oils
addition of other fat-soluble ingredients.
1-2ml Essential Oils (25-50 drops*) For every, say 5ml, of any liquid
ingredient you add, you will need to
*Orange Lemon, Mandarin, Lime, remove 5ml of the Vegetable Oil. All of
Grapefruit, Spearmint or a small amount the additional ingredients apart from
of Peppermint. (We use large amounts Essential Oils will need to be heated
of Essential Oils to compensate for heat with the main ingredients.
Why not try adding the following raw
Note: If you dont have scales buy materials to the Base Lip Balm Recipe:
Aromantics Starter Pack No 3 Lip Balms
as it contains pre-measured ingredients Lip Balm for Sun Protection
for the Base Lip Balm Recipe. Add Tiosol, 16ml for Sun Protection
Factor (SPF) 12, or 5ml for SPF 5-6.

Lip Balm with Zinc

Add 2.5g Zinc Oxide (do not reduce the
amount of Vegetable Oil).

Tea Tree Lip Balm (for Sore Lips)

Add 1-4ml Tea Tree Oil and up to 1ml
Lavender Oil as your Essential Oils.
NB Only use this Lip Balm for treating
problems it should not be used for
regular use.

Vitamin Lip Balm

Add 2ml/2g Vitamin E and 5 drops of
Read more about Vegetable Oils and Fats
in the section Vegetable Oils for Health &
Skin Care products.

Making Lotions
& Sun Creams

Lotions Soothing Chamomile Lotion

Lotions are, in principle, runny Creams. t'BU4UBHF $

Because of their consistency and because

3ml Jojoba Oil
they are less fatty than Creams, Lotions
are easier to apply to the whole body 2g Shea Butter
in order to add moisture and a hint of 0.5g Cetyl Alcohol
Fat or Oil to the skin. Lotions contain
1.2g VE Emulsifier
smaller quantities of Emulsifiers and
Vegetable Oils, which are replaced t8BUFS4UBHF $

instead by water. Because they are 2g MF Emulsifier

runnier they are usually stored in bottles,
however, Lotions are made in the same 82ml Chamomile Infusion or Still
way as Creams. Spring Water

They are most often used for special 2ml/g Glycerine

conditions such as rashes, or for areas t5IJSE4UBHF $

of the body which get dried out through Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
bathing, such as the hands, feet and
elbows. One can also, of course, make 2 ml NFF Moisturiser
Lotions by making Creams runnier (see 1g/ml Chamomile CO2 Extract
page 31) where there is a wish to store 2ml D-Panthenol
them in a more hygienic way, which
would be to store them in bottles. 1ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
10ml Chamomile Flower Water
Recipes for Lotions

All Recipes make approximately 100ml. 17 drops Lavender Essential Oil

The following Lotions are great to use
3 drops Roman Chamomile Essential
every day or can even be used as After
Sun Lotions.
Note: It is difficult to measure small
quantities under 5ml accurately. To ease
this problem it helps to multiply the

Aloe & Avocado Lotion t5IJSE4UBHF $

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)


3ml/g Vitamin E (undiluted)

5ml Avocado Oil
2ml D-Panthenol
2ml Thistle Oil
1ml/g Vitamin A Palmitate
0.5g Cetyl Alcohol

1.5g VE Emulsifier
12-20 drops Essential Oil

2.5g MF Emulsifier
72ml Spring Water (62ml if you are Carrot Lotion
adding the optional 10ml Base Aloe
Gel in the Fourth Stage) t'BU4UBHF $

4ml/g Glycerine 3ml Thistle Oil

3ml Avocado Oil

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) 0.5g Cetyl Alcohol

1ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) 1.5g VE Emulsifier

10ml Aloe Vera Concentrate t8BUFS4UBHF $

2.5g MF Emulsifier

12-20 drops Essential Oil 81ml Spring Water

10ml Base Aloe Gel (optional, but if 4ml/g Glycerine

used remember to only use 62ml of t5IJSE4UBHF $

Water in the Water Stage)

Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
1ml Carrot CO2 Extract
Vitamin Lotion 2ml/g Vitamin E (undiluted)
2 drops Carotene

4ml Thistle Oil t'PVSUI4UBHF $

12-20 drops Essential Oil

2g Shea Butter
0.5g Cetyl Alcohol
Tip for making Lotion
1.2g VE Emulsifier
If the Lotion separates, add 0.5-1%
Xanthan Gum Powder and whisk in with
2g MF Emulsifier
an electric stick blender.
82.5ml Spring Water

Basic Method for making all Lotions Protection Factor (SPF) are possibly
too fatty or oily to use on the whole
Use the Basic Method for making all Creams body but are appropriate for use on
on page 30. The quantities in the Lotion those areas particularly vulnerable to
Recipes will ensure that the resulting exposure. It follows from this, then,
product is a Lotion rather than a Cream. that low factor Sun Creams are more
suitable for more extensive use on the
whole body. It is possible to make the
Sun Creams Cream slightly runnier if required. In
this case, subtract 1g MF Emulsifier and
The Base Cream is for normal to dry add 1ml more water.
skin. Sun Creams with a high Sun

Table 6: Recipes for Sun Creams with varying Sun Protection Factors (SPF)
SPF: 20 10 7 4

Tiosol (includes Jojoba) 26ml/g 13ml/g 9ml/g 5ml/g

Shea Butter 1g 2g 2g 3g
Sesame Oil 5ml 10ml 13ml
Cetyl Alcohol 1g 1g 1g 1g
VE Emulsifier 3g 3g 3g 3g

MF Emulsifier 5g 5g 5g 5g
Spring Water 58ml 65ml 64ml 64ml
Glycerine 2ml/g 2ml/g 2ml/g 2ml/g
Cellulose Gum Powder 1g 1g 1g 1g
Preservative See Table 2 on page 10

Vitamin E Oil 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g

D-Panthenol 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g

Essential Oils 12-15 drops 12-15 drops 12-15 drops 12-15 drops
(0.5ml/g) (0.5ml/g) (0.5ml/g) (0.5ml/g)

Making Sun Creams with VE/MF Recipes for Sun Creams

Using the same Method for making all
For the basic method of Making Creams, Creams, you can make a Sun Cream
please see the Recipe for Creams section, by adding different ingredients and
Basic Method for making all Creams quantities to it according to your own
on page 30. See Method for Sun Creams liking (see Table 6).
with Microfine Titanium Dioxide on The following Base Sun Creams can be
page 55 for how to use the Cellulose used to make thinner, almost Lotion-
Gum. like Creams. They contain different
quantities of Tiosol (see Table 7 below).

Table 7: Recipes for Sun Creams and Lotions

SPF: 5-6 12 5-6 12
(Cream) (Cream) (Lotion) (Lotion )


Tiosol (includes Jojoba) 8ml 16ml 8ml 16ml

Shea Butter 3g 2g 3g 3g
Sesame Oil 1ml 1ml 1ml 1ml
Cetyl Alcohol 1g 2g 0.5g 0.5g
VE Emulsifier 2g 2g 1g 1g

MF Emulsifier 3g 3g 2g 2g
Spring Water 75ml 68ml 79ml 70ml
Glycerine 2ml/g 2ml/g 2ml/g 2ml/g
Cellulose Gum Powder 1g 1g 1g 1g
Preservative See Table 2 on page 10

Vitamin E Oil 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g

D-Panthenol 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g 1ml/g

Essential Oils 12-15 drops 12-15 drops 12-15 drops 12-15 drops
(0.5ml/g) (0.5ml/g) (0.5ml/g) (0.5ml/g)

Recipe for Sun Cream with Microfine Table 8: Recipes for Sun Creams with Microfine
Titanium Dioxide Titanium Oxide
SPF: 12-16 15-20
(Note: the Recipe and Method contains
two Fat Stages this is not a mistake.) 'BU4UBHF" $

See Table 8 on this page. Sesame Oil 7ml 7ml

Method for Sun Cream with Shea Butter 3g 3g
Microfine Titanium Dioxide
Thistle Oil 10ml 14ml
1) Fat Stage A: Heat the Fats and Microfine Titanium 8g 10g
Vegetable Oils to over 75C in a Double Oxide
Boiler. Then add the pre-measured

Microfine Titanium Dioxide Powder,

while whisking vigorously so that all the Cetyl Alcohol 1g 1g
powder is absorbed and dispersed evenly
in the liquid. Use a stick blender if you VE Emulsifier 3g 3g
wish. 8BUFS4UBHF $

2) Fat Stage B: Add the Cetyl Alcohol &

VE Emulsifier, making sure that all of the MF Emulsifier 4g 4g
ingredients are melted properly and that Boiling Spring Water 54ml 50ml
the whole mixture reaches a temperature
of 75C. Glycerine 2ml/g 2ml/g

3) Water Stage: After boiling the Spring Cellulose Gum Powder 1g 1g

Water in a Kettle, measure it according Preservative See Table 2
to the Recipe and pour it over the MF
Emulsifier and the Glycerine, which you 5IJSE4UBHF $

have put into a separate double boiler.

Vitamin E Oil 2ml/g 2ml/g
4) Whisk the Water Stage ingredients
well together, making sure that the MF D-Panthenol 2ml/g 2ml/g
Emulsifier powder is fully dissolved in
NFF Moisturiser 2ml/g
the water and that you dont have any
lumps. Then allow the mixture to heat to 'PVSUI4UBHF $

Essential Oils 12-15 12-15
5) When heating the Water Stage to 75- drops drops
80C in the double boiler, add the pre-
measured Cellulose Gum when whisking (0.5ml/g) (0.5ml/g)
or beating it in, until it becomes
7) Now pour the melted Fat Stage
6) When both Fat and Water Stages are
into the Water Stage in a thin, steady
over 75C remove both double boilers
stream, while continuously whisking the
from the hob, keeping the Water Stage
mixture from side to side for 5 minutes.
mixture hot by leaving it on the top half
If necessary, use a spatula to scrape the
of the double boiler.

mixture from the sides of the saucepan Table 9: Percentages of Microfine

(or bowl). Titanium Oxide to add to products to
give them varying SPFs
8) Allow the mixture to cool, stirring
all the time. You can speed up by the Sun Protection Factor
cooling process by replacing the hot %
water in the double boiler with very
COLD water. In the process of cooling 1% 1.5-2
down, the mixture becomes a Cream and 5% 10
will reach its thickest consistency when it
is has cooled down to room temperature. 10% 15-20

9) Third Stage: Stir in the Third Stage Moisturisers, Powdered Make-up, Lip
ingredients when the mixture has cooled and Baby products and virtually any Skin
to under 40C. Treatment product. It is also compatible
10) Fourth Stage: Continue stirring until with low pH formulations.
the mixture has cooled to under 35C, Titanium Dioxide protects against 90%
then thoroughly mix in the Essential UVA, UVB and UVC radiation.
The surface of Microfine Titanium
11) Pour the Cream into one big jar or Dioxide is modified to render it
smaller jars and label. extremely hydrophobic, making it a Fat
Defining Microfine Titanium Dioxide Stage ingredient.
and Tiosol In products you add the Titanium
Dioxide to the Fat Stage (without Cetyl
Microfine Titanium Dioxide INCI: Alcohol and VE) when it is over 75C,
Titanium Dioxide, Dimethicane whisk it into the heated Oils vigorously.
You can also use a stick blender. Then
Titanium Dioxide both absorbs and
add the Cetyl Alcohol & VE Emulsifier.
scatters UV radiation. Which process
Make sure that everything is melted and
dominates is dependent on the
over 75C.
particle size and the wavelength of the
incident light beam. Titanium Dioxide The better the Titanium Dioxide is
primarily absorbs in the UVB range dispersed in the product, the higher
and scatters in the UVA. Microfine the SPF. It is therefore important to use
Titanium Dioxide, by virtue of its very a stick blender during the whisking
small particle size, scatters visible process.
(longer wavelength) light poorly. It is
because of this that Microfine Titanium Tiosol INCI: Titanium Dioxide,
Dioxide can appear transparent in Simmondsia chinensis (Organic Jojoba
formulations. Oil)
Tiosol is a medium for Sun Protection
It is accepted as a Sun Screen around based on old knowledge. It is based on
the world. This is because it is inorganic Titanium Dioxide, a natural mineral
and has a record of having no adverse which, like Zinc Oxide, has been used
reactions to it. This makes it ideal effectively for sun protection: they both
to use for products used on a daily reflect and absorb ultraviolet light.
basis. It can be used in Sun Screens,

Tiosol protects against UVA and UVB

rays. It is very easy to use, withstands
heating and can attain a Sun Protection
Factor of between 2-20. Tiosol consists
of 25% Microfine Titanium Dioxide (no
nanoparticles) in 75% Organic Jojoba
Oil. It is a natural product made with
75% Organic ingredients. Creams with
Tiosol and little Fat/Oil have a tendency
to become grainy or even to separate. By
adding a small quantity of a thickener
such as Cellulose Gum Powder this can
be prevented and the Creams become
lighter and more pleasant to apply to
the skin.

Vitamin E Oil and Sun Products

Studies carried out in 1990 show that

using a Skin Care product containing
2.5% Vitamin E at the same time as
using Sun Care products can increase the
Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of that Sun
Care product if used for 10 days e.g. the
SPF of a commercial Sun Care product
was increased from 2 to 4 when the skin
was pre-treated for 10 days with a 2.5%
Vitamin E Gel.

Making Skin &

Massage Oils

For a long time people have used natural skin to function better and create better
Oils and fats for skin, health care and circulation. They soften the skin and
Massage. These cannot be replaced by the make it pliable, helping it to retain its
synthetic Oils extracted from petroleum own moisture more effectively. Contain
(Vaseline and Paraffin). The following the Essential Fatty Acids. Go rancid
comparison explains the reasons for this. after a time. So it is clear from this that
Natural Vegetable Oils can actually help
Mineral Oils (Vaseline & Paraffin) the skin to function better. Often they
Cannot be absorbed by healthy skin. will even help to resolve some of the
Create a thin film on the surface of the simpler skin problems, e.g. irritation of
skin, blocking the pores and preventing the skin caused by Soaps, Cosmetics,
the skin from functioning normally. Do clothes or deficiencies in Fats or
not contain any Vitamins and disturb Vitamins in the skin. Vegetable Oils and
or even stop the skin from being able Fats consist of Glycerine, Fatty Acids, fat-
to absorb fat-soluble Vitamins. Are soluble Vitamins (where applicable) and
detrimental to the skin with long-term other Fat soluble ingredients.
use. Mineral Oils appear to moisturise
The Fatty Acids can also be subdivided
the skin but in reality they suppress its
into four categories:
normal, healthy functioning. The skin
then becomes dependent on constant Saturated Fatty Acids
applications of Mineral Oil which, in Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
turn, result in a deterioration of the
skins character and ability to keep itself Duounsaturated Fatty acids
healthy. Do not contain any Fatty Acids. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Do not go rancid.
Saturated Fatty Acids
Vegetable Fats & Oils These are solid at room temperature
Are readily absorbed by the skin. Are (e.g. Stearic acid) and become a thick
used to nourish (give energy to) the skin liquid inside our bodies. These Fatty
and body. Needed to create new cells Acids are the ones which are supposed
and for other important processes in to be responsible for vascular and
the body. Most Vegetable Oils contain heart disease when consumed in large
Vitamins, which are necessary and quantities. They are absorbed slowly by
good for the skin (such as provitamin the skin and are added to give Massage
A, D, and E). They can stimulate the and Skin Oils more lubrication. In face

Oils they make the skins own Oils of one or other Oil. Get to know the
even oilier. With Oily skin the presence different Oils and their characteristics.
of these Fatty Acids will mean that the Test them on your own skin to learn
pores become more easily blocked which how they feel and how quickly the skin
will cause them to enlarge. These Fatty absorbs them. Then try making your
Acids keep well and do not go rancid so own blends, test them in the crook of
quickly. Saturated Fatty Acids are found your arm first to test for any possible
primarily in Animal Fats such as Lard allergic reaction and then use on those
and Tallow but they are also found in body parts you have made them for.
Coconut Butter, Cocoa Butter and Shea Store your Vegetable Oils in the fridge.
Butter. Make up small quantities of your blends
so they dont have to stand for too long
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (Omega 9) before being used. Store these at room
These are liquid at room temperature. temperature. Always add a little (0.5%)
The most common Monounsaturated undiluted Vitamin E to blends of Oils
Fatty Acids are those Oleic Acids found which contain a lot of Polyunsaturated
in most Oils. Oleic Acids keep well. Fatty Acids (Omega 3).

Duo (Omega 6) and Polyunsaturated Some examples of Vegetable Oil

(Omega 3) Fatty Acids Blend Recipes
Amongst these we find Linoleic (Duo-)
and Alpha Linolenic Acid (Poly). Alpha These Recipes make 100ml.
Linolenic Acid is the one most disposed
to becoming rancid. They are thin Normal Skin Oil
liquids, which are quickly absorbed by
the skin. They are drier than the other 38ml Jojoba Oil
Fatty Acids. Because they have a tendency 30ml Sweet Almond Oil
to go rancid easily they often need added
Vitamin E (as an antioxidant). Duo- and 30ml Thistle Oil
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids combine 2ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
with the fats and oils in the skin to make
them thinner and help in reducing the
size of pores. Therefore they are very Dry and Mature Skin Oil
important to use for oily skin and skin
with large pores. They act like Vitamins 40ml Apricot Kernel Oil
for the skin. The most important Fatty
Acids are the Essential ones, i.e. Alpha 30ml Macadamia Nut Oil
Linolenic and Linoleic Acids, which in 20ml Thistle Oil
some countries are known as Vitamin F. 5ml Borage Oil
They are called Essential because they
are essential to the proper functioning of 5ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
the skin and indeed the whole body. 5 drops Rosemary CO2 Extract
Mixing the different Vegetable Oils can
create a blend of Oils, which is better
suited to the particular purpose for
which it is intended than the simple use

Oily/Acne Skin Oil Swedish Massage Oil (Blend 2)

50ml Thistle Oil 48ml Sweet Almond Oil

28ml Jojoba Oil 30ml Grape Seed Oil
20ml Avocado Oil 20ml Shea Butter Oil
2ml/g Vitamin A Palmitate 2ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)

Body Oil
Sensitive Skin Oil
40ml Sunflower Oil
69ml Apricot Kernel Oil
30ml Macadamia Nut Oil
10ml Sweet Almond Oil
27ml Jojoba Oil
10ml Sesame Oil
3ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
10ml Shea Butter Oil
5 drops Rosemary CO2 Extract
1ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)

Pre-Sun Oil (SPF2)

Baby Oil 50ml Jojoba Oil
40ml Shea Butter Oil 35ml Sesame Oil
38ml Avocado Oil 10ml Shea Butter Oil
20ml Thistle Oil 5ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
2ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) 5 drops Rosemary CO2 Extract

Method for making the Vegetable Oil

Swedish Massage Oil (Blend 1)
1) Measure all of the Vegetable Oils
33ml Olive Oil in the Blend in measuring beaker or
20ml Sweet Almond Oil cylinder. Add the Vitamins and finally,
the Rosemary CO2 Extract.
15g Coconut Butter (pre-melted)
15ml Jojoba Oil 2) Stir together.

15ml Apricot Kernel Oil 3) Pour into a bottle.

2ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) 4) Secure the cap on the bottle and label.

Table 10: Fatty Acid Content and Absorption Note of some common Vegetable Oils

Type of Fatty Mono

Duo Poly
Acids Absorption
Saturated unsaturated unsaturated
Vegetable (Omega 9 Note
(Omega 6) (Omega 3)
Oil/Fat & 7)

Chia Seed 11% 7% 21% 63% Top

Kiwi Seed 8% 12% 15% 65% Top
Linseed 17% 38% 13% 58% Top
Camelina 14% 48% 25% 42% Top
Rosehip Seed 11% 21% 48% 36% Top
Red Raspberry 4% 11% 56% 32% Top
Hemp Seed 10% 13% 80% 25% Top
Evening Primrose 10% 11% 85.5% 1% Top
Passionflower 14% 19% 74% 5.4% Top
Borage 14% 31% 62% 0.4% Top
Walnut 11% 20% 65% 14% Top
Thistle 11% 18.5% 81% 1% Top
Grape Seed 18% 22% 80% 1% Top
Sunflower 14% 36.5% 70% 0.5% Middle
Blackseed 18% 25% 56% 0.2% Middle
Pumpkin Seed 22% 45% 50% 15% Middle
Mustard Seed 5% 51% 30% 15% Middle
Sesame 18.5% 47% 45% 1.5% Middle
Argan 18% 44% 40% 0% Middle
Rice Bran 20% 44% 40% 2% Middle
Avocado 24% 80% 14% 1% Middle
Hazelnut 10% 85% 19% 1% Middle
Jojoba 3% 97% 0.3% 0.2% Middle
Apricot Kernel 9% 69% 34% 0.5% Middle
Peach Kernel 11.5% 66% 30% 1% Middle
Almond, Sweet 10% 80% 28% 0.5% Middle
Sunflower, High
12% 90% 17% 0% Middle
Shea Butter Oil 16% 71% 12% 1% Base

Olive 22% 86% 9% 1.5% Base

Macadamia Nut 20.5% 89.5% 5% 2% Base
Moringa Oil 27% 72% 1.1% 0.2% Base
Papaya Seed 26% 78% 3.5% 0% Base
Castor 3% 97% 6% 0% Base
Neem 40% 54% 16% 0% Base
Shea Butter 50% 45% 7% 0.5% Base
Cocoa Butter 65% 34% 3% 0.5% Base
Palm Kernel Oil/
83% 15% 2% 0% Base
Coconut Butter 92% 7% 2% 0% Base
Coconut Oil, Liquid
100% 0% 0% 0% Base

Adding Essential Oils to Vegetable

Oil Blends

Essential Oils can be added to these

Blends to enhance their effect. Add
approximately 15 drops for Face Oils,
25-30 drops for Body/Massage Oils. Read
more about Vegetable Oils in the section,
Vegetable Oils for Health & Skin Care
Products on page 12 and about Essential
Oils in the chapter dealing with these,
which starts on page 83. NB It is difficult
to measure small quantities under 5ml/g
accurately. To ease this problem it helps
to multiply the recipe.

Fatty Acid Content of some

Vegetable Oils and Fats

Table 10 shows generally accepted

maximum percentages of Fatty Acids that
can be found in these Oils and Fats, so
totals for each Oil may add up to more
than 100%. The Oils and Fats are listed
in the order of their Absorption Note i.e.
Top, Middle or Base.

Making 2-in-1
Shampoo & Conditioners,
Liquid Soaps and Shower Gels

Ingredients commonly used in Other ingredients such as Essential Oils,

Shampoos, Liquid Soaps & Shower Herbal Infusions, Botanical CO2 Extracts,
Gels Vitamins & Conditioners have a direct
effect on the skin and hair.
Its simple to make your own Shampoos,
Liquid Soaps & Shower Gels with our
mild and mostly natural ingredients: Base Recipes for 2-in1
Detergents (Alpha, Beta & Sugar)
Shampoo & Conditioners,
these are the most important ingredients, Liquid Soaps and Shower
as they release the surface tension,
loosening oil and dirt. They are mild
and kind to the skin and have a gentle
cleansing effect. The Recipes shown in Table 11 make 1 litre.

Fat Restoring Agent (Omega) Method for Base 2-in-1 Shampoo &
Conditioner Recipes
redresses the Detergents drying-out
effect, replacing necessary fats to the hair
1) Measure up the Alpha and Sugar or
& scalp.
Beta (Detergents) in a jug and then pour
pH Regulating ingredient (Lactic Acid) into a big heat-resistant bowl. Scrape out
as much of the Detergent as possible as it
adjusts the pH to match the natural pH
is very thick.
of the skin to around 5.5-6.
2) Measure up the boiling Water (or
Gelling Agent (Guar Gum) the boiling Herbal Infusion or Herbal
gives the correct consistency. Guar Gum Decoction) and pour it into the Alpha,
also acts here as an effective Conditioner. Sugar or Beta mixture. Stir it together
until it is dissolved.
3) Measure up the Omega and the Guar
prevent bacteria, moulds and fungi from Gum, and mix well together in a smaller
developing in the product. bowl - make sure that there is no Guar
Gum powder left around the edges of the
bowl. Not doing so may result in lumps
in the products.

Table 11: Base Recipes (all recipes make approximately 1 litre)

Dry Hair Oily Hair
Shower Liquid Scalp/
2-in1 2-in1
Shampoo & Shampoo & Baby 2-in-1
Gel Soap
Conditioner Conditioner Shampoo &
Alpha 200ml 300ml 200ml 250ml 160ml
Beta 100ml 70ml
Sugar 100ml 50ml
Omega 30ml/g 30ml/g 30ml/g 10ml/g 30ml/g
Guar Gum 5g 5g 5g
655ml 650ml 655ml 675ml 725ml
Sea Salt 5g
Preservative see Table 2
Essential 60-80 60-80 60-80 60-80 40-50
Oils drops drops drops drops drops

4) Little by little, pour the Detergent and Method for making Base Shower Gel
water mixture from the big bowl into the and Liquid Soap Recipes
Omega/Guar Gum blend in the smaller
bowl, while stirring continuously. Fill 1) Measure up the boiling Water (or
up the smaller bowl and then pour the the boiling Herbal Infusion, Herbal
contents of it all back into the bigger Decoction) and pour it into a big bowl.
bowl. Stir well together.
2) Measure the Sea Salt (only relevant to
5) Place the big bowl in a sink with cold Liquid Soap Recipes) and dissolve it into
water, stirring the mixture occasionally. the boiling water in the big bowl.
6) When the mixture has cooled to 3) Measure up the Alpha or Beta
35C-25C, blend in the Essential Oils, (Detergents) in a jug and then pour into
Preservative or, if using, other Active the big bowl containing the salt and
Ingredients. If the Shampoo is too thin, boiling water.
stir in Sea Salt little by little until you get
4) Stir the mixture thoroughly until it
the desired consistency.
7) Bottle and label while mixture is still
5) Place the big bowl in a sink with cold
water, stirring the mixture occasionally.

6) When the mixture has cooled to liquid at 45-50C. You can even mix this
35C-25C, blend in the Essential Oils, together with an electric stick blender as
Omega Fat Restoring Agent, Preservative there are no detergents at this stage. Leave
or, if using, other Active Ingredients. If the Guar Gum/Omega/Liquid mixture
the product is too thin, stir in more Sea to swell up to 5-6 hours. Then stir in the
Salt little by little until you get the desired detergents and other active raw materials,
consistency. This works for Shower Gels preservatives, essential oils, etc and bottle.
also. There is no need to reheat the GuarGum/
Omega/Liquid mixture before stirring in
7) Bottle and label while mixture is still
the detergents, etc.
Shampoo, Shower Gel and Liquid The best option from what we stock are
Soap Recipe Variations the Colours for Water-Based Products
(WB). Pearlescent Colours (PC) will fall
Add value to your Shampoos, Shower to the bottom of a bottle because of the
Gels and Liquid Soaps by customising Shampoo or Liquid Soaps low viscosity.
the Base Recipe to suit different hair
types and conditions. Choose effective s4HESHELFLIFEOFTHEPRODUCTSMADE
raw materials, such as Herbal Infusions from these Recipes is 2-3 years.
and Decoctions, Essential Oils, Vitamins, s5SING)NFUSIONSINYOUR2ECIPE
Clays, Moisturisers and other Active if using a Herbal Infusion instead of
Ingredients from Table 12 over. NB Dont Boiling Water make it as follows: allow
use all of the ingredients for a certain 2-3g Dried Herbs per 100ml water; pour
condition in the same product select a boiling water over the herbs; allow to
maximum of three from each category. stand for 10-20 minutes; strain and use
according to the Method.
Tips for making Shampoos, Shower
using Horsetail, or the tougher parts
s.EVERUSEAWHISKWHENUSING of a plant like the roots, seeds or the
Detergents in a Recipe because it will bark, make a Decoction rather than an
create a lot of foam and make the Infusion. Making a Decoction involves
mixture difficult to work with. boiling the herbs. Put around 2-3g or
more of the herb parts into 100ml of
s)FYOUHAVEANYLUMPSINYOURMIXTURE water and cover the pot. Bring the mixture
use a strainer to get rid of them. to a boil and simmer for about twenty
s3HAMPOOSAND,IQUID3OAPSTHICKENUP minutes. Steep and strain the mixture and
gradually until they reach normal room use according to the Method.
temperature (20C in Northern Europe). s)FUSINGA(ERBAL)NFUSIONOR(ERBAL
s)FYOUFEELTHATYOUR3HAMPOO 3HOWER'EL Decoction instead of Boiling Water,
or Liquid Soap is too runny, add Fine Sea remember to increase the amount of
Salt little by little and stir until it thickens to the Preservative and reduce the Water
a con-sistency that youre happy with. volume by the same amount.
s/NEWAYTOSOLVEAVOIDINGSEPARATIONIN For more information about using Herbs in
Shampoos is to stir together the Guar Gum Shampoos, see The Aromantic Guide to the use
with the Omega, then add all of the water/ of Herbs in Skin, Hair & Health Care Products.

Table 12: Different Raw Materials for different Hair and Skin Types and problems

Hair and Skin Herbal Infusion Essential Oils Active

Type or problem or Decoction Ingredients

Normal Hair Chamomile, Lime Lavender, Geranium, D-Panthenol, Honey

Blossom Ylang Ylang, Moisturiser
Dry Hair/Skin Nettle, Willow Bark, Lavender, Rosemary, Jojoba Oil, D-
Marigold, Carrageen Sandalwood, Panthenol, Green
Rosewood, Clay, NFF, Kaolin,
Geranium, Ylang Borage Oil,
Ylang Phytokeratin, Honey
Oily Hair/Skin Nettle, Yarrow, Lavender, Citrus, D-Panthenol, Green
Soapwort Root, Rosemary, Cypress, Clay, NFF, Kaolin,
Sage, Horsetail Ylang Ylang, Honey-Moisturiser
Lifeless, Sensitive Horsetail, Coltsfoot, Chamomile, Thyme D-Panthenol, Sea
Hair/Sensitive Skin Thyme, Nettles, Silk, Vitamin E Oil,
Marigold Phytokeratin, Honey
Damaged Hair Carrageen, Chamomile, Aloe Vera, Vitamin
Horsetail, Sandalwood, E Oil, Phytokeratin,
Chamomile, Patchouli, Benzoin, Lecithin, Jojoba Oil,
Marigold Myrrh, Lavender D-Panthenol, Honey
Dandruff Nettle, Willow Bark, Cedarwood, Jojoba Oil, Vitamin E
Marigold, Carageen, Rosemary, Lemon, Oil, Honey-
Rosemary Lemongrass, Tea Moisturiser
Hair Loss Nettle, Yarrow, Rosemary, D-Panthenol, Bio-
Soapwort Root, Ginger, Lavender, energiser, Vitamin
Sage, Horsetail, Cedarwood, Ylang E Oil, Vitamin A
Birch, Rosemary Ylang, Grapefruit Palmitate, Honey-
Irritation of Scalp/ Marigold, Yarrow, Ylang Ylang, Tea D-Panthenol,
Skin Carageen, Wild Tree, Lavender, Vitamin E Oil,
Pansy, Witch Hazel, Chamomile, Vitamin A Palmitate,
Ladys Mantle, Sandalwood, Aloe Vera,
Chamomile, Peppermint Honey-Moisturiser,
Coltsfoot, Aloe Cosmetic Prebiotic,
Vera, Horsetail Comfrey Glycerol

Making Face

Face Masks will contain different from the skin; and stimulate lymph
ingredients depending on the skin type circulation and thereby more efficient
and purpose for which they are used. waste handling and boosting of cell
You may have spots or bad circulation nutrients.
in the skin or your skin type may need
Different Clays for different skin types
moisturising, or a boost of vitamins
and conditions:
and minerals. You may have exposed
it to too much sun, or stress, or too Green Clay
little sleep, or you may have been ill
for normal, oily and problem skin
or have neglected your skin altogether.
Face Masks are ideal to use when your Pink Clay
skin needs that extra bit of care. A Face for dry & sensitive skin
Mask can also be applied to freshen
up the skin before going to a party or Red Clay
other event. More and more people are for normal skin
including Face Masks in their daily or
weekly beauty routine. White Clay
In this chapter we will discuss and make: for sensitive skin
Clay Face Masks Yellow Clay
Gel Face Masks for normal & oily skin
Cream Face Masks
Recipes for Clay Face Masks

Clay Face Masks These Recipes for Face Masks are based
on Clay and water, to which other
The use of Clay Face Masks goes back Active Ingredients may then be added.
to ancient times. Aromantic stock Apply the Face Mask onto clean skin.
Clays, which are sourced from caves in NB These Recipes make more than
France and then dried in the sun. Clays, 100ml/g.
in general: are rich in minerals and For a very simple Clay Face Mask:
active enzymes; contract and tone the
skin; strengthen the connective tissue; 1) Mix equal amounts of water and Clay.
stimulate blood circulation; draw toxins

2) Then add a small quantity of Essential Stimulating Clay Mask

Oil (1-10 drops per 100ml).
3) Apply to the face and wash off after t4UBHF
15 minutes with warm water. 10ml Peppermint Water
Tips for simple Clay Face Mask 30ml Spring Water
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
amount of Vegetable Oil such as Apricot
or Peach Kernel can be added to the t4UBHF
Recipe, or the Face Mask can be applied 4ml D-Panthenol
to dry skin, which has been covered
with a thin layer of Oil. Wash the Face 5ml Aloe Vera Concentrate
Mask off before it is fully dry. Another 5 drops Lemon Essential Oil
alternative is to apply the Face Mask to 3 drops Peppermint Essential Oil
clean skin, which has been moistened
with water. Wash off after 15 minutes.
the Face Mask to dry completely (when
it starts to crack) before washing off. t4UBHF
Grimacing before washing off the Face 50ml Rose Water
Mask is an effective way of removing Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
dead skin cells.
50g Clay
NB! Moisten the lips before applying the
Face Mask. t4UBHF
1.5ml/g Vitamin E (undiluted)
Cleansing Clay Mask 2ml Hemp Seed Oil
5 drops Sandalwood Essential Oil
7ml Lavender Water
Clay Mask for Sensitive Skin
43ml Spring Water
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) t4UBHF
50g Clay powder 6ml Chamomile Water
40ml Spring Water
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
3 drops Tea Tree Essential Oil
50g Clay (White or Pink)
3 drops Lavender Essential Oil
2 drops Lemon Essential Oil t4UBHF
6ml Apricot Kernel Oil
1 drop Roman Chamomile Essential
Oil (optional)

Method for Face Masks with Clay Cream Face Masks

1) Stage 1: Pour the Water into a bowl In this section we make two types of
and add the drops of Preservative. Cream Face Masks:
Sprinkle the pre-measured Clay powder
over and allow it to sink into the water Cream Face Masks
without stirring. Moisturising Cream Face Masks
2) Stage 2: Stirring can begin when the A Cream Face Mask begins with a Base
uppermost layer of Clay powder has Cream, which becomes a Face Mask with
begun to absorb the water. Add the other the addition of more active ingredients
ingredients at this point. Mix together and Essential Oils than would normally
well. be required for a Cream. Normally the
recommended dosage of Essential Oils
3) Finally, spoon into a jar or tub and
for a Cream would be 0.5ml but in a
Face Mask, this is increased to 1ml. This
Tips for making Clay Face Masks produces the curative effect that a Face
Mask can be designed to have.
s)FYOUR&ACE-ASKPRODUCTBECOMESTOO The Oil and Fat content provides a matrix for
dry, just add water - especially if it has the Essential Oil so that it wont irritate the
been stored for more than 1 year. skin. Normally, if too much active ingredient
s4HESHELFLIFEOFTHESEPRODUCTS is added at Stage 3, the Cream will separate
is approximately 1.5 years. If you and the emulsification (blending) process
want to increase the shelf life, add will fail. Xanthan Gum counteracts this. It
0.5% undiluted Vitamin E Oil as an helps to bind the active ingredients together
antioxidant. and stabilises the emulsification process.
Make sure to beat the Xanthan Gum Powder
quantities of liquid so, once youve made
your product, you may need to add How to use Cream Face Masks: Apply the
varying amounts of water and Hydrolates Face Mask onto clean skin and wash off
(Herbal or Floral Waters) to it to get the after 15 minutes.
consistency right. Recipes for Cream Face Masks
of Clay for different skin types. These Recipes make approximately 100ml.
you will create more of a Cleanser but
remember to add approximately 2 extra t'BU4UBHF $

drops of Preservative for every extra 10ml

5ml Castor Oil
of liquid that you add. Check Table 2 for
dosage. 4ml Macadamia Nut Oil
1g Shea Butter
1.5g Cetyl Alcohol
2.5g VE Emulsifier
contd over/

10ml Geranium Water if using Still
4g MF Emulsifier Water in Water Stage
64ml Orange Blossom Water or 5m/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
Boiling Spring Water 2ml/g Vitamin A Palmitate
1g/2ml/1/2 tsp Xanthan Gum 5ml/g D-Panthenol
5ml Borage Oil or Evening Primrose
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2) Oil
5ml NFF Moisturiser t'PVSUI4UBHF $

5ml Honey Moisturiser 15 drops Mandarin Oil

5ml D-Panthenol 5 drops Ylang Ylang Oil
1ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted) 5 drops Geranium Oil

15 drops Lavender Oil Method for making Cream Face

5 drops Geranium Oil
5 drops Clary Sage Oil 1) Fat Stage: Heat the Fat Stage
ingredients in a double boiler until all
of the ingredients have melted and the
Vitamin Cream Face Mask temperature has risen to 75-80C. There
is no need to use a whisk at this stage.
2) Water Stage: After boiling the Spring
5ml Castor Oil Water in a Kettle, measure it according
to the Recipe and pour it over the MF
4ml Avocado Oil Emulsifier, which you have put into a
1g Cocoa Butter separate double boiler.
1.5g Cetyl Alcohol 3) Whisk the Water Stage ingredients
2.5g VE Emulsifier well together, making sure that the MF
Emulsifier powder is fully dissolved in
the water and that you dont have any
4g MF Emulsifier lumps. Then allow the mixture to heat to
53ml Boiling Still Water or 63ml 75-80C.
Calendula Infusion 4) When both Fat and Water Stages are
0.5g/1ml/ /4 tsp Xanthan Gum
1 over 75C, remove both double boilers
from the hob, keeping the Water Stage
mixture hot by leaving it on the top half
Preservative (for amount, see Table of the double boiler.
2, column three or four - if you are 5) Now pour the melted Fat Stage
using the Calendula infusion) into the Water Stage in a thin, steady
contd/ stream, while continuously whisking the
mixture from side to side for 5 minutes.
If necessary, use a spatula to scrape the

mixture from the sides of the saucepan

Rose Gel Mask
(or bowl).
6) Allow the mixture to cool, stirring A soothing, calming Mask with Rose
all the time. You can speed up by the petal fragrance.
cooling process by replacing the hot
water in the double boiler with very t4UBHF
COLD water. In the process of cooling 98ml Rose Water
down, the mixture becomes a Cream and 1g/2ml/1/2 tsp Xanthan Gum
will reach its thickest consistency when it
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
is has cooled down to room temperature.
7) Third Stage: Stir in the Third Stage t4UBHF
ingredients when the mixture has cooled 7 drops Rosewood Essential Oil
to under 40C. 7drops Palmarosa Essential Oil
8) Fourth Stage: Continue stirring until 5 drops Geranium Essential Oil
the mixture has cooled to under 35C,
1drops Rose de Mai Absolute
then thoroughly mix in the Essential
9) Pour the Cream into one big jar or
smaller jars and label.
Lavender Gel Mask
Gel Face Masks A cooling, stimulating Mask, good for
soothing sunburnt skin.
Xanthan Gum and water are what form
the Base for Gel Face Masks. Xanthan t4UBHF
Gum is a gelling agent which is easy to 74ml Spring Water
use. Xanthan Gum powder is stirred into 1g/2ml/1/2 tsp Xanthan Gum
water, while beating briskly all the time
(Stage 1). To this mixture are then added t4UBHF
different Active Ingredients, depending 10ml Lavender Water
on the skin type and purpose for which
10ml Aloe Vera Concentrate
the Gel Face Mask is being used (Stage
2). See the Recipes section, Gels for 2ml St. Johns Wort Oil
more information. Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
Recipes for Gel Face Masks 2ml NFF Moisturiser
10 drops Lavender Essential Oil
How to use the Gel Face Masks: Apply 1 drop Roman Chamomile Essential
the Face Mask onto clean skin and wash Oil
off after 15 minutes.

Method for making Gel Face Masks orange or Sea Buckthorn CO2 Extract
for an orange colour. To use Pearlescent
1) Stage 1: Measure the water in a jug Colours, add 1 teaspoon (tsp) of the
and pour into a bowl. Colour little by little to 1-2 tablespoons
(tbsps) of Glycerine, until you have the
2) Weigh 1g or measure a level 2ml
Colour you desire. Add to the Gel at
Measuring spoon with Xanthan Gum
Stage 2. Remember to match the Colour
you add to the Gel with the Essential
3) Sprinkle the Xanthan Gum Powder Oils that youve used in the product.
over the water little by little, whisking
vigorously. If your Gel gets lumpy, blend
until smooth with an electric blender.
4) When there are no more lumps, stop
whisking or blending. Add the Vegetable
Oil in the end.
5) Stage 2: Add all of the other pre-
measured ingredients and mix well in
to the Gel. Spoon into a jar or tub and

Tips for making Gel Face Masks

consistency, sprinkle more Xanthan
Gum, little by little, into the finished
product until you get the consistency
you want. Remember to make the Gel
of a pourable consistency if you want to
bottle it.
in the Recipes x10, simply use 10g of
Xanthan Gum. Otherwise use a 2ml
Measuring spoon (ten times).
so much that the mixture becomes white.
Only beat to remove the lumps.
may become dry on the skin. Add 1-3 %
Vegetable Oil to the already made Gel to
counter this.
Gel Face Mask, at Stage 2 add Marigold
or Carrot CO2 Extract to make it yellow-

Making Anti-Aging &

Skin Rejuvenation

We would all like to stay forever can occur. Of particular importance is

young and keep our skin like that of a that free radical damage accumulates
newborn baby, but it is not possible. with age and some studies suggest that
We can however reduce the skins aging free radical damage is the cause of aging.
process which starts as soon as we are If left unchecked, free radicals may cause
born when the free radicals start the heart damage, cancer, cataracts, and a
oxidation (destruction) process of all weak immune system.
our connective tissues. We slow this
On the skin level, free radicals damage
process by using antioxidants like
cells found in the connective tissue such
Rosemary Antioxidant CO2 Extract and
as elastin and collagen. Left untreated,
Vitamins A, C & E.
this will cause wrinkles. By applying
What are Antioxidants? an Antioxidant through the medium
of Creams, Lotions or Oils on the skin
Antioxidants are substances that may every day, this damage can be halted.
protect cells from the damage caused So, ideally, the best way to protect the
by unstable molecules known as free skin from aging is to start applying
radicals. Oxygen, an essential element Antioxidants to the skin when we are
for life, can create damaging by-products children!
during normal cellular metabolism.
Recipes for Skin Rejuvenating Toners
Antioxidants counteract these cellular by-
products, called free radicals, and bind
with them before they can cause damage. Rose Rejuvenating Toner
When Antioxidants perform this cellular
repair, or transform the free radicals into 80ml Rose Water
non-damaging compounds, they are said
to scavenge the free radicals. This is why 5ml/g Ginseng Tincture
Antioxidants are known as free radical 5ml/g Siberian Ginseng Extract
scavengers. 5ml/g Aloe Vera Concentrate
Normally, the body can handle free 4ml/g NFF Moisturiser
radicals, but if Antioxidants are
unavailable, or if the free-radical Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
production becomes excessive, damage

Neroli Rejuvenating Toner t5IJSE4UBHF $

3ml Kiwi Seed Oil

84ml Neroli (Orange Blossom) Water
4ml/g Vitamin E Oil (undiluted)
6ml/g Aloe Vera Concentrate
1ml/g Vitamin C
5ml/g Hyaluronic Acid Gel
2ml/g Hyaluronic Acid Gel
2ml/g Pseudocollagen
1ml/g Vitamin A Palmitate
2ml/g NFF Moisturiser
2ml/g NFF Moisturiser
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
2ml/g Remodelling Intense
Preservative (for amount, see Table 2)
Method for making Rejuvenating

10-15ml Aloe Vera Gel
Simply measure all of the ingredients t'JGUI4UBHF $

and pour into bottles/spray bottles,

12-15 drops Essential Oils
secure the cap or spray cap, label. Tip:
If the toner is for use at home, you can 8 drops Lactic Acid
leave out the Preservative, but use the
toner within 6 months of making it.
Method for making Anti-Wrinkle/
Recipe for an Anti-Wrinkle/Skin Skin Rejuvenation Creams
Rejuvenation Cream using Base
Emulsifier 1) Fat Stage: Heat the Fat Stage
ingredients in a double boiler until
This Recipe makes 100-105ml. all of the ingredients have melted and
the temperature has risen to 75-80C.
There is no need to use a whisk at this
Dry/Mature/Sensitive Skin

2) Water Stage: After boiling the Spring
Water in a Kettle, measure it according
4ml Sunflower Oil
to the Recipe and pour it over the
3ml Apricot Kernel Moisturiser, which you have put into a
2ml Macadamia Nut Oil separate double boiler. Then allow the
mixture to heat to 75-80C.
2g Cetyl Alcohol
3) When both Fat and Water Stages are
5ml/g Base Emulsifier
over 75C, remove both double boilers
from the hob, keeping the Water Stage
56ml Boiling Spring Water mixture hot by leaving it on the top half
of the double boiler.
2ml/g Glycerine
contd/ 4) Now pour the melted Water Stage into
the Fat Stage in a thin, steady stream, while
continuously whisking the mixture from
side to side for 5 minutes. If necessary, use

a spatula to scrape the mixture from the An Oil Serum will feel dry on the skin
sides of the saucepan (or bowl). as it is usually absorbed quickly by the
skin. This is because Oil Serums should
5) Allow the mixture to cool, stirring
contain thin, dry Oils rich in Omega 3
all the time. You can speed up by the
& 6 Essential Fatty Acids combined with
cooling process by replacing the hot
Antioxidants. And so important Oils
water in the double boiler with very
for making Serums are Kiwi Seed, Chia
COLD water. In the process of cooling
Seed, Camelina, Rosehip Seed, Hemp
down, the mixture becomes a Cream and
Seed, Evening Primrose, Borage and
will reach its thickest consistency when it
Thistle. Serums are used on specific parts
is has cooled down to room temperature.
of your skin to effect an intensive cure.
6) Third Stage: Whisk in the Third Stage
Table 13 on the following page shows
ingredients, little by little, when the
the ingredients of a range of Extra
mixture has cooled to under 40C.
Intensive Rejuvenating Face Oil Serums
7) Add the Preservative. for various skin types.
8) Then add the Aloe Vera Gel until you
get the right consistency.
9) Fourth Stage: Continue stirring until
the mixture has cooled to under 35C,
whisk in up to 15ml Aloe Vera Gel
(based on 1% Xanthan Gum) little by
little until smooth.
10) Fifth Stage: When the mixture has
cooled to under 35C, thoroughly mix
in the Essential Oils and the Lactic Acid.
11) Pour the Cream into one big jar or
smaller jars and label.

Rejuvenating/Anti-Aging Oil Serums

for the Face

You can help reduce the signs of aging

in the face and around the eyes by using
super potent active raw materials in an
Oil Blend called a Serum. A Serum is best
applied in the evenings after you have
cleansed your face and applied Toner.
Serums prevent premature signs of
aging as they contain high doses of
antioxidants, which work on the skin
if used regularly and thereby reducing
damage caused by the aging of the
connective tissue such as elastin and

Table 13: Recipes for Extra Intensive Rejuvenating Face Oil Serums

Dry/ Dry/ Mature Mature/ Sensitive Sensitive Oily/

Raw Material Sensitive Sensitive Black Sensitive Black Sensitive
1 2 Skin Skin

Chia Seed Oil 15 10 20

Vit. E Oil 25 30 25 30 25 29 10
20 10 10 10
Primrose Oil
Hemp Seed
10 20
Kiwi Seed Oil 30 30 20 24 32 20 24
Squalane 10 10 10 10
Rosehip Oil 30 10 18 15
Vit. A
1 2 1 1 2 2 2
Nut Oil
Avocado Oil 30 5 30
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Buckthorn 1 1 1 1
CO2 Extract
10dr 10dr 10dr 10dr 10dr 10dr 10dr
Essential Oils 0.5ml 0.5ml 0.5ml 0.5ml 0.5ml 0.5ml 0.5ml
Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Toothpastes &
Mouth Washes

This section contains instructions froth!) But it also has a surface-active

on how to make 3 different types of effect, which improves the contact
Toothpastes plus 2 types of Mouth Wash, between the teeth and the mechanical
each of which can be personalised using action of the toothbrush. The lathering
different Blends of Essential Oils. content should not be too high and
should range from 5-10% (maximum).
Sodium Lauryl Sulphate is often used
Toothpastes but this is a dusty irritant, which we
dont recommend. A better substance to
The purpose of Toothpaste is to cleanse use is Sodium Stearate or Betaine.
the teeth of residual food particles and
To give the Toothpaste a pleasant taste,
other deposits, as well as preventing the
different Essential Oils, which are also
build-up of plaque. Most Toothpastes
antibacterial, can be added. These leave
cleanse mechanically through the
a refreshing taste in the mouth and kill
inclusion of soft minerals, which must
bacteria. The Oils, which taste good and
be extremely finely ground so that they
are suitable, are Spearmint, Peppermint,
dont grind or scratch the teeth. These
Menthol, Eucalyptus, Lemon, Orange,
soft minerals are mixed with different
Lime, Mandarin, and Sweet Fennel.
substances to create a paste. This can
The stronger antibacterial Oils are
be Glycerine on its own or Glycerine
Sage, Thyme, Myrrh, Clove (which also
mixed with water plus a substance
anaesthetises) and Tea Tree Oil. Sorbitol
such as Xanthan Gum, Cellulose
can be added as a sweetener. Sorbitol
Gum, Carrageen, etc, which gives the
does not affect the teeth (sugar creates
Toothpaste a good consistency. When
cavities). Other safe sweeteners include
adding these, it is possible to make a
Xylitol and Saccharine.
Toothpaste with fewer soft minerals in
it or to make what is known as Tooth If water is added, then a Preservative will
Cleanser, which has no soft minerals in need to be added. Colouring can also be
it at all. Soft minerals include, amongst added and naturally one would use safe
others, Chalk, Kaolin and Talcum. food colouring, such as blue or green.
The Toothpaste lather must be mild, The most difficult thing about making
neutral and, as far as possible, without Toothpaste is getting it mixed together
taste or smell. The lather has a cosmetic without any lumps and with the soft
function (Toothpaste is supposed to minerals evenly distributed throughout

the paste in such a way that clumps do

Cool Blue Toothpaste with
not occur. This normally requires special
mills as used within the industry. At Peppermint
home a large mortar can be used. Good
porcelain mortars, (size 1 litre), can be 34gr White Clay
bought from laboratory suppliers. 15gr Chalk

Recipes for Toothpaste 48gr Glycerine (Add a few drops of

Blue Azulene Colour)
2ml Myrrh Tincture
Basic Toothpaste
8 drops Peppermint Essential Oil
50g Chalk 10 drops Spearmint Essential Oil
10g Kaolin 2 drops Sage Essential Oil
1g Sea Salt
39ml Glycerine General method for making
15 drops (approximately) Essential
1) Mix all dry ingredients together,
add enough Glycerine to make a
stiff toothpaste consistency, mixing
Kaolin Toothpaste preferably in a mortar or other bowl,
possibly using a food processor.
Milder than the Basic Toothpaste, 2) Mix well.
which contains a higher percentage of
Chalk. 3) Flavour with Essential Oil.

40g Kaolin
20g Chalk Toothpaste with Thickening/
40ml Glycerine Gelling Agents 1
15 drops (approximately) Essential
1) Mix together 2g Cellulose Gum
Powder with 20ml Glycerine, ensuring
there are no lumps.
2) In a separate bowl, mix together
Orris Root Toothpaste
36g Chalk, 3ml/g Betaine Detergent
(lathering agent), 4g Kaolin, 15 drops
10g finely ground Orris Root powder
Essential Oil.
(Iris Florentina)
3) Blend step 2 into step 1.
50g Chalk
4) Add 35ml Still Spring Water
40ml (approximately) Glycerine
gradually in small quantities & mix
15 drops (approximately) Essential in with Preservative (for amount, see
Oil Table 2).

Myrrh Tincture
Toothpaste with Thickening/
antibacterial and enhances circulation.
Gelling Agents 2
Recommended Essential Oils for
1) Mix together 2g Cellulose Gum Toothpastes
with 10ml Glycerine.
2) In a separate bowl, mix together 5g The following blends of Essential Oil
Orris Root, 20g Chalk (finely ground), Blends can be used in your Toothpastes.
15g Kaolin, 5ml/g Betaine Detergent Blend 1
and 15 drops Essential Oil.
8 drops Peppermint
3) Blend step 2 into step 1.
2 drops Sage
4) Add 40ml Still Spring Water
4 drops Benchmark Thyme
gradually in small quantities & mix
in with Preservative (for amount, see Blend 2
Table 2). 10 drops Peppermint
2 drops Myrrh
Toothpaste with Low Abrasive Blend 3
Content 15 drops Spearmint
1) Mix together 3g Cellulose Gel with Blend 4
30ml Glycerine. 20 drops Tea Tree Oil
2) Mix together 10g Chalk (or Orris Recipes for Mouth Wash
Root or Kaolin), 15 drops Essential
Oil. Mouth Washes
3) Blend step 2 into step 1.
4) Add 56ml Still Spring Water These can be used for many different
gradually in small quantities & mix reasons. The most common is to simply
in with Preservative (for amount, see freshen the breath by killing bacteria
Table 2). and preventing the growth of bacteria or
fungus. Mouth Wash should be neutral
in pH (about 7), taste good, feel good in
Recommended Herbal Tinctures for the mouth and the taste should stay in
Toothpastes the mouth for some time.

Mix in 2-4% into the final paste: In these Recipes we use Tinctures with high
quantities of tannins and antibacterial
Tormentilla Root Tincture and Sage properties along with Essential Oils
Tincture which stimulate the gums and help with
which are astringent and antibacterial. gingivitis. Mouth Wash consists of Water,
Tinctures, and Essential Oils.
Arnica Tincture
for healing inflammation and mouth sores. Recipes for Mouth Washes

Calendula Tincture These Recipes dont always add up to

for inflammation. 100ml.

Astringent Mouth Wash General Method for making and

using Mouth Washes
Good for bleeding gums, gum
infection and for killing bacteria. 1) Whisk all the ingredients together.

Mix together: 2) Use a few drops in a half glass of

water gargle and spit out. NB! Do not
45 ml Tormentilla Root Tincture
swallow the Mouth Wash.
15 ml Sage Tincture
15 ml Marigold Tincture
10ml Myrrh Tincture
3 ml Peppermint Essential Oil
3 ml Tea Tree Essential Oil
9 ml Lemon Essential Oil

Healing Mouth Wash

Good for inflammation and healing

Mix together:
20 ml Marigold Tincture
5 ml Arnica Tincture
3 ml Lemon-scented Tea Tree Essential
1 ml Peppermint Essential Oil
2 drops Myrrh Essential Oil

Freshen-up Mouth Wash

A freshening Mouth Wash.

Mix together:
30 drops Lemon Essential Oil
10 drops Lime Essential Oil
10 drops Peppermint Essential Oil
measuring spoon of Menthol

Essential Oils &

Absolutes: How
to Use Them

What are Essential Oils? What are Absolutes?

Essential Oils are a source of great The delicate nature of many flowers
pleasure and give a sense of well being, means that steam distillation, the usual
both to body and soul. An Essential method of making Essential Oils, cannot
Oil is a concentrated, aromatic, be used to extract the Oil because the
volatile liquid composed of small intense heat destroys the flowers, causing
oil-like molecules. They consist of a them to become compacted into a solid
complicated combination of naturally mass that the steam cannot penetrate.
occurring chemicals, which the plant
Therefore, a special process using
itself produces through photosynthesis.
solvents has been developed to capture
They are called Essential Oils but in fact
the more delicate fragrance without
contain no fatty substances in the same
causing any damage to the fragrance. This
way that, e.g. Almond Oil does. Because
process does not use any heat or water
they are volatile, they do not create oil
so none of the water-soluble aromatic
compounds are lost the way they are
Essential Oil is created in small cavities in steam distillation. When an Oil is
in the cellular structure of plants, either extracted this way, it is referred to as an
in the roots, petals, seeds or peel (as Absolute rather than an Essential Oil.
in the case of Citrus Oils). The Oil is
extracted either by distillation or cold Use of Essential Oils and Absolutes
pressing. Essential Oils occur at different
levels in different plants, with some s4OMAKE.ATURAL0ERFUMES
plants producing more than others do. s4OADDFRAGRANCETO3KIN#AREAND
For instance, 100kg of petals are required Natural Cosmetic products
to produce 20ml of Rose Oil, while
100kg of leaves will yield 1-1.5 litres of s!SDROPSTOADDTOA6APOURISERORFOR
Peppermint Oil. This means that the cost use in a Spraying Flask to create a certain
of Oils will vary but that doesnt make atmosphere, to prevent a cold or simply
Peppermint Oil less effective than Rose to freshen the air
Oil. This section is a brief introduction s)N"ATHS &OOT"ATHS OR(AND"ATHS
to the most commonly used ones. e.g. to warm or relax cold limbs or, when
slightly colder water is used, to create a
stimulating effect

s)N#OMPRESSESEGTOCOOLSUNBURN Properties of some commonly used

e.g. to increase blood circulation
Bay Leaf
a Vapouriser, or to use in a Facial Steam Latin name: Laurus nobilis
Bath e.g. to aid relaxation or to clear Parts used: leaves
congested air passages.
Perfume: Herbaceous, round, green
Safety Guidelines for using Essential aroma, smelling of the woods and
Oils and Absolutes slightly minty.
Skin care: Antiseptic, good for oily
When using Essential Oils and Absolutes skin and acne. Strengthens hair.
it is very important to adhere to the Vapouriser: Mood stabiliser, increases
recommended dosage to achieve the self-confidence, uplifting and relaxing.
desired effect. The wrong dosage (there
is often the temptation to use too much) Safety: Do not use when pregnant.
can result in skin damage, headache, Benzoin
nausea or similar. Some Essential Oils
Latin name: Styrax tonkinensis
and Absolutes are not suitable for use
during pregnancy or in conjunction with Parts used: resin
high blood pressure, while some should Perfume: Warm, well-rounded, soft
be used sparingly on the skin. (See aroma with a touch of vanilla.
directions for individual Oils).
Skin care: Chapped and cracked skin.
Remember that if you are not a Vapouriser: Warming and comforting
qualified Aromatherapist, you should in difficult circumstances, good for
always consult a qualified practitioner sadness and loneliness. Relaxing.
or consult a recommended reference Gives a cosy aroma when used in
book before using Essential Oils and combination e.g. with Orange and
Absolutes. Lavender.
Safety: Can be irritating to the skin in
high doses.
Latin name: Citrus bergamia
Parts used: peel
Perfume: Sweet citrus aroma with a
floral/fruity undertone.
Skin care: Good for oily skin and acne.
Vapouriser: Uplifting, increases self-
confidence, good for stress relief.
Safety: Increases the skins sensitivity
to sunlight.

Cedarwood Geranium
Latin name: Cedrus atlantica Latin name: Pelargonium graveolens
Parts used: wood Parts used: leaves
Perfume: Soft, round, sweet, woody, Perfume: Mixture of rose and citrus
resiny aroma. aroma, quite direct and slightly green.
Skin care: Astringent on oily skin, Skin Care: Regulates production
antiseptic with acne. of sebum (oil from glands in the
Vapouriser: Relaxing, harmonising, skin). Good for oily and dry skin.
helps one to focus and to find For treating cellulite - stimulates the
integrity. Good Oil for meditation. lymphatic system.

Safety: Do not use when pregnant. Vapouriser: Uplifting, stabilising,

combats stress and mood swings.
Latin name: Eugenia caryophyllus
Latin name: Citrus paradisi
Parts used: flowers/ buds
Parts used: peel
Perfume: Deep, very warm and spicy
aroma. Good for mens perfumes. Perfume: Slightly sour but refreshing
citrus aroma with a bitter touch.
Skin care: Not commonly used for
treating acne but can be used for this Skin care: Good for oily skin and
purpose. acne. Helps to break down cellulite.
Stimulates hair growth. Vapouriser:
Vapouriser: Warming, stimulating Mentally refreshing.
effect. Very antiseptic.
Safety: Increases the skins sensitivity
Safety: Very irritating to the skin. Must to sunlight.
be used in concentrations of less than
1% in Vegetable Oil and even less in Jasmine (Absolute)
other products. Do not use in Baths. Latin name: Jasmin grandifolium
Cypress Parts used: flowers
Latin name: Cupressus sempervirens Perfume: Hypnotically sweet, floral
Parts used: needles aroma with a hint of green and herbs.
Be careful with dosage, as it can be
Perfume: Smell of needles, with a very dominant.
herbaceous, woody, resinous tone.
Skin care: Good for sensitive and very
Skin Care: Astringent, good for oily dry skin.
skin and skin with broken capillaries.
Good for cellulite - tightens up the Vapouriser: Uplifting, euphoric,
skin, diuretic. warming; helps in the release of
feelings, is aphrodisiac, good for
Vapouriser: For those who need clearing apathy.
structure in their lives or for those
who need to depend on themselves in Safety: Dose with care. Can be
difficult situations. suffocating and irritating to the skin
if dosage is too high. Do not use if

Lavender Parts used: flowers

Latin name: Lavandula angustifolia Perfume: Very warm, floral and
Parts used: flowers slightly fruity aroma
Perfume: Typical lavender aroma, Skin care: Mature skin, broken
floral, herbaceous and green. capillaries, sensitive and dry skin.
Tones the skin.
Skin care: Good for all skin types
including mature, sunburnt and Vapouriser: Good for restlessness,
irritated skin and skin with acne. Acts anxiety and shock. Soothing where
as an effective synergist to many other there is sorrow or fear. Relaxing and
Oils. uplifting.
Vapouriser: Relaxing, good for stress Orange
relief, tension and nervousness. Latin name: Citrus sinensis
Harmonises and stabilises, good for
nightmares. Parts used: peel
Perfume: Sweet, warm, citrus. Goes
Lemon well with most other fragrances.
Latin name: Citrus limonum
Skin care: For mature skin, swollen
Parts used: peel skin or acne. Good in Foot Creams for
Perfume: Fresh, sweet and sour citrus dissolving hard skin. Brightens dull
aroma with a touch of green. and oily skin.
Skin care: Good for oily skin and acne. Vapouriser: Uplifting, relaxing, creates
Helps to break down cellulite. a sunny, warm disposition, good for
tension and stress relief.
Vapouriser: Cleansing, slightly cooling
and refreshing. Use when confused, Patchouli
indecisive or irritable. Increases Latin name: Pogostemon patchouli
concentration. Antiseptic.
Parts used: leaves
Safety: Increases the skins sensitivity
to sunlight. Perfume: Earthy, soft aroma with a
with a rich, herbaceous touch.
Mandarin Skin care: Astringent. Use for chapped
Latin name: Citrus reticulata and cracked skin, oily and mature
Parts used: peel skin. Tightens up tired, loose skin.
Combats wrinkles and large pores.
Perfume: Soft, warm, kind citrus
aroma with slightly floral fragrance. Vapouriser: Aphrodisiac, grounding,
stabilising effect whilst effectively
Skin care: Skin toner, good for all skin
taking the weight off the shoulders.
Vapouriser: Gently refreshing, full of Petitgrain
care and delight. Gentle and effective Latin name: Citrus aurantium
for children and elderly. Parts used: leaves
Neroli Perfume: Warm, slightly over-ripe
Latin name: Citrus aurantium citrus aroma with a hint of flowers.

Skin care: Oily and dry skin, acne. amounts of dry and mature skin.
Skin toner. Strengthens hair.
Vapouriser: Good for stress relief. Vapouriser: Stimulating, invigorating,
refreshing. Good for memory and
Peppermint concentration, for apathy and
Latin name: Mentha piperita indecisiveness.
Parts used: leaves. Safety: Do not use when pregnant or
Perfume: Cooling, direct, lively, at the same time as homoeopathic
invigorating scent. Be careful with treatment. Use with care where there
dosage as it can be very dominant. is high blood pressure. Do not use if
Skin care: Cooling, refreshing.
Vapouriser: Cooling, refreshing, Sandalwood Mysore/Sandalwood
good for tiredness and to extend Caledonia
concentration. Latin name: Santalum album/
Safety: Use with care. Can cause Santalum austrocaledonicum Viell.
itching when used in concentrations Parts used: wood
higher than 1%. Only 1 drop is Perfume: Sweet, warm, woody smell.
recommended for use in one Baths.
Do not use in conjunction with Skin care: Good for dry and sensitive
homoeopathic remedies as it can act skin. Antiseptic for acne.
as an antidote. Vapouriser: Relaxing, harmonising,
gives a feeling of sensuality.
Rose de Mai (Absolute) Aphrodisiac. Stabilises and protects
Latin name: Rosa centifolia where there is fear. A good Oil for
Parts used: flowers meditation.
Perfume: As rose should be, very Tea Tree
floral, slightly citrus and spicy. Latin name: Melaleuca alternifolia
Skin care: Good for dry and mature Parts used: leaves.
skin as well as broken capillaries.
Perfume: Cleansing, herbaceous and
Vapouriser: Aphrodisiac, good for slightly woody aroma.
stress relief, strengthens femininity.
Skin care: Use for acne, sunburn,
Rosemary fungal infections, psoriasis, sweaty
Latin name: Rosmarinus officinalis feet, insect bites etc.
Parts used: leaves Vapouriser: Room cleansing.
Perfume: Herbaceous, spicy, Vetivert
stimulating, minty aroma. Be Latin name: Vetiveria zizanoides
careful with dosing, as it can be very
dominant. Parts used: root.

Skin care: Good for bad circulation in Perfume: Juicy, earthy, smoky aroma
the skin and cellulite. Warming. Good with a sweet undertone. Good for
for oily skin and acne as well as small mens Eau de Colognes.

Table 14

Massage Oil

Massage Oil

Massage Oil
Face & Skin

Face & Skin

Face & Skin

Spray Flask

One Bath



Max. dosage
1.0% 2.5% 1% 2% 1.5% 3% 10 dr 2.5% 6 dr
for mixtures
Bay Leaf 0.5% 1% 0.25% 1% 0.5% 1.5% 10 dr 1% 2 dr
Benzoin 0.5% 1% 0.5% 1% 0.75% 1% 6 dr 1% 2 dr
Bergamot 0.5% 1% 1% 1.5% 1.5% 2% 10 dr 2% 2 dr
Cedarwood 0.75% 1% 1% 2% 1% 2% 6 dr 1% 3 dr
Clove 0.2% 0.5% 0.1% 0.2% 0.25% 0.75% 3 dr 0.5% X
Cypress 0.75% 1% 0.75% 2% 1.5% 3% 14 dr 2% 4 dr
Geranium 0.75% 1% 0.75% 2% 1.5% 2% 10 dr 1% 3 dr
Grapefruit 0.75% 1% 1% 1.5% 1.5% 2% 10 dr 2% 3 dr
0.75% 1% 1% 1% 14 dr 1% 3 dr
Lavender 0.75% 2% 1.5% 3% 1.5% 3% 9 dr 2.5% 6 dr
Lemon 0.75% 0.5% 1% 1.5% 1.5% 2% 14 dr 2.5% 3 dr
Mandarin 0.75% 1% 1% 1.5% 1.5% 2% 9 dr 2% 4 dr
Neroli * 0.75% 3% 1% 2% 14 dr 1% 6 dr
Orange 0.75% 1% 1% 1% 1.5% 3% 9 dr 2% 3 dr
Patchouli 0.75% 1% 1.5% 1% 1% 1.5% 5 dr 1% 3 dr
Peppermint 0.25% 0.75% 0.25% 0.75% 0.5% 1% 6 dr 1% 1 dr
Petitgrain 0.75% 1% 1% 2% 1.5% 3% 6 dr 1.5% 6 dr
0.75% 3% 2% 1% 13 dr 1% 6 dr
Rosemary 0.75% 1% 0.5% 2% 0.5% 2.5% 5 dr 1% 3 dr
Sandalwood 0.75% 1% 1% 2% 1% 2% 5 dr 1% 3 dr
Tea Tree 1.5% 3% 1.5% 3% 1.5% 3% 9 dr 2.5% 6 dr
Vetivert 0.5% 1% 1% 1.5% 1% 3% 5 dr 0.5% 3 dr
Ylang Ylang 0.5% 1% 0.75% 1.5% 1% 2% 5 dr 1% 3 dr
dr = drops *Diluted in 9 parts alcohol

Skin care: Good for mature skin, 2.5% = 62 drops per 100ml
astringent and softening with chapped 3% = 75 drops per 100ml
and cracked skin.
4% = 100 drops per 100ml
Vapouriser: Good for those who
need grounding or who lack security. Larger Droppers
Deeply relaxing. Strengthens the Vetivert, Sandalwood and Benzoin are
nervous system. thicker Oils and require a larger dropper,
which releases larger drops. Percentage
dosing for these Oils will be:
Latin name: Cananga odorata genuina
1% = 10 drops per 100ml
Parts used: flowers
2% = 20 drops per 100ml
Perfume: Floral, exotic, slightly
banana scented, narcotic aroma. 2.5% = 25 drops per 100ml
Skin care: Stabilises production of 3% = 30 drops per 100ml
sebum (oil from glands in the skin), 4% = 40 drops per 100ml
good for oily skin and acne. Classic
hair Oil in Asia.
Vapouriser: Aphrodisiac, uplifting,
relaxing, good for anger, restlessness &
Percentages Related to droppers (for
Essential Oil bottles)

The size of the drops depends on the

lining in the neck of the small bottle
containing your Essential Oil. This
regulates the size of drops individually
dispensed from the bottle.

Smaller Droppers
Most Essential Oils are thin and require
a smaller dropper where percentage
dosing is as follows:
0.1% = 2 drops per 100ml
0.2% = 4 drops per 100ml
0.25% = 6 drops per 100ml
0.5% = 12 drops per 100ml
0.75% = 18 drops per 100ml
1% = 25 drops per 100ml
1.5% = 32 drops per 100ml
2% = 50 drops per 100ml

Making Natural Perfumes

based on using only
Essential Oils

The word perfume comes from the Latin and base Notes. When creating a
per fumum, meaning through smoke. Perfume one should therefore always
Traditionally, the Catholic Church, use a selection of Oils from all three
native peoples and shamans burn categories.
different parts of plants and resins which
then, through the agency of the smoke, Balancing Your Perfume
give off their fragrance. The development
of scent and perfume making goes Even though you may not feel drawn
forward, for better or for worse. to the lighter, fresher scents you should
always include some Essential Oils from
The beginning of the 1900s saw the the Top Note range to ensure a balanced
development of industrially produced Perfume. Similarly, even though you
synthetic components for perfumes and may not feel drawn to the heavier scents,
today nearly all perfumes on the market you should include some Oils from the
will contain a percentage of synthetically Base Note range so the perfume doesnt
produced fragrances. However, an evaporate too quickly and to give it
increase in the demand for natural consistency.
products has also increased the demand
for naturally produced fragrances and, in Top Note
particular, Perfumes. Consists of Essential Oils, which
create feelings of freshness and vigour.
An Enjoyable Hobby
They tend to be very volatile and the
first to evaporate from Perfume. Top
Making your own Perfume with Essential
Note Oils are usually extracted from
Oils is exciting and is made possible
Citrus fruit. Essential Oils classified
through Natures fantastic, rich, variety
as Top Note include: Bergamot,
of fragrances. Not only that, it is also
Grapefruit, Lemon, Mandarin, Orange,
fun. You can create a Perfume which is
Peppermint, Petitgrain.
entirely yours. It can consist mainly of
your favourite Essential Oil or of Oils Middle Note
chosen to produce a particular effect, Consists of Oils, which give substance
e.g. relaxation, stimulation, or feelings and heart to a Perfume and are
of happiness, courage, creativity or often those which there are most
eroticism. A Perfume is nearly always of in a Perfume. Middle Note Oils
made up of a mixture of top, middle are usually extracted from flowers

and leaves. Essential Oils classified Citrus Notes

as Middle Note include: Bay Leaf, Bergamot, Grapefruit, Lemon,
Cloves, Cypress, Geranium, Jasmine Mandarin, Orange
(Absolute), Lavender, Neroli, Rose de
Mai (Absolute), Rosemary, Rosewood, Spicy Notes
Tea Tree, Ylang Ylang. Bay Leaf, Cloves
Base Note Rosy Notes
Consists of Oils which leave the Geranium, Rose de Mai (Absolute),
skin, and Perfume, last. They give Rosewood
the Perfume weight and consistency
and bind the Top and Middle Note Orange Notes
range Oils so they dont evaporate too Neroli, Petitgrain
quickly. Base Note Oils are usually Herbaceous Notes: Lavender,
extracted from woody stems and Rosemary
roots. Essential Oils classified as Base
Notes include: Benzoin, Cedarwood, Floral Note
Patchouli, Sandalwood, Vetivert. Jasmine (Absolute), Ylang Ylang
Fragrance Note Minty Notes
Essential Oils can also be classified
according to how they smell, e.g. rosy Method for making Perfumes
or minty. This method of classification
has nothing to do with which part of the 1) The number of drops indicated is
plant the Oil comes from but rather with for a 100% Perfume mixture, which is
how the Oil smells. If you want a lot of the concentrate you will need to make
Floral and Root Notes in your Perfume Eau de Parfum, Eau de Toilette or Eau
you can use a predominance of these de Cologne. You then add a carrier,
but do consider using some Citrus notes e.g. Alcohol, in different quantities,
so as to include a Top Note. Sometimes depending on which of type of Perfume
the difference between Woody and you are making.
Herbaceous or Spicy and Herbaceous
2) Pour the desired amount of Alcohol
Notes can be hard to define. You may
(at 96% strength) into a small cup and
also have your own ideas, which differ
add the Essential Oils you want to have
from what we are suggesting here. It is
in your Perfume. Mix together, pour into
naturally up to you and what you think,
a bottle and allow to mature for at least
as the creator of your own Perfume, that
3 weeks.
is most important.
NB High alcohol content at least 80%
Woody Notes Polish Vodka from the off-licence or
Cedarwood, Cypress, Sandalwood, Tea supermarket can be used if you cant find
Tree 96% strength.

Root Notes Eau de Parfum

Benzoin, Patchouli, Vetivert 2ml alcohol + approximately 40-60
drops of Essential Oil

Eau de Toilette
6ml alcohol + approximately 40-60
drops of Essential Oils
Eau de Cologne Mandarin (11 drops)
10ml alcohol + approximately 40-60 Orange (11 drops)
drops of Essential Oils
Petitgrain (6 drops)
Recipes for Natural Perfumes using
Essential Oils
Rose de Mai* (2 drops)
These are Recipes for Perfume Jasmine* (2 drops)
concentrates of approximately 50 drops Neroli* (8 drops)
(* = Diluted Essential Oils that are
diluted in 9 parts alcohol.) t#BTF/PUF
Sandalwood (4 drops)
Exotic Flower
Benzoin (6 drops)

Grapefruit (10 drops) Bright Day
Lemon (10 drops)
Orange (8 drops) t5PQ/PUF
Lemon (20 drops)
Cloves (2 drops) t.JEEMF/PUF

Ylang Ylang (8 drops) Jasmine* (8 drops)

Jasmine* (5 drops) Neroli* (13 drops)

Patchouli (5 drops) Sandalwood (4 drops)

Benzoin (2 drops) Benzoin (5 drops)

Petit Fleur Stimulating

Mandarin (20 drops) Lemon (11 drops)
t.JEEMF/PUF Grapefruit (11 drops)
Ylang Ylang (10 drops) Peppermint (5 drops)
Rose de Mai* (10 drops) t.JEEMF/PUF
t#BTF/PUF Tea Tree (5 drops)
Sandalwood (10 drops) contd over/

Rosemary (6 drops) Petit Lemon

Geranium (2 drops)
Clove (2 drops) t5PQ/PUF
Ylang Ylang (5 drops) Lemon (24 drops)

Patchouli (3 drops) Rosewood (13 drops)
Neroli* (10 drops)
Bouquet de Herbs
t5PQ/PUF Vetivert (3 drops)
Lemon (13 drops)
Bergamot (13 drops)
Young Flower
Mandarin (5 drops)
Lavender (5 drops) Orange (8 drops)
Rosemary (3 drops) Bergamot (8 drops)
Cypress (4 drops) t.JEEMF/PUF
Bay Leaf (2 drops) Rose de Mai* (10 drops)
Jasmine* (1 drops) Geranium (6 drops)
t#BTF/PUF Neroli* (9 drops)
Vetivert (1 drops) t#BTF/PUF
Cedarwood (3 drops) Patchouli (2 drops)
Sandalwood (7 drops)
Parfum de Luxe

Petite Lavande
Mandarin (11 drops)
Grapefruit (11 drops) t5PQ/PUF
Bergamot (10 drops) Bergamot (20 drops)
Rose de Mai* (3 drops) Lavender (20 drops)
Jasmine* (3 drops) Jasmine* (3 drops)
Neroli* (4 drops) Neroli* (4 drops)
Sandalwood (4 drops) Benzoin (3 drops)
Benzoin (4 drops)

Relaxing Perfume

Petitgrain (5 drops)
Mandarin (10 drops)
Orange (5 drops)
Lavender (5 drops)
Ylang Ylang (7 drops)
Geranium (5 drops)
Vetivert (3 drops)
Cedarwood (5 drops)
Sandalwood (5 drops)

Night Roses

Petitgrain (9 drops)
Grapefruit (5 drops)
Rosewood (5 drops)
Rose de Mai* (10 drops)
Geranium (3 drops)
Lavender (3 drops)
Sandalwood (8 drops)
Benzoin (5 drops)
Cedarwood (2 drops)

Adding Fragrances to
Creams & other Skin
Care products

The fragrance of a Skin Care product time having a positive effect on the
affects the way we experience it. The condition of our skin. Using Essential
smell of a product is very important. Oils and Absolutes, you can add your
If we are not attracted by the products own chosen fragrance to your Natural
smell then we will quite simply not be Creams and Gels yourself. Compose
drawn to the Cream itself either. When the fragrance of your Creams and Gels
we buy Skin Care products we do so very according to the effect you would like it
much guided by our noses and our sense to have, your skin type or whatever skin
of smell. problem you may have, and not least
of all, according to the scent which you
Artificially Synthesised Scents find most attractive. You can even add
different fragrances to the whole familys
Occur in nearly all Skin Care products Shower Gels and Shampoos.
currently sold in shops, department
stores, perfumeries, clothes shops etc. When adding scent to Skin Care
and, strangely enough, a lot of what you products, you need to consider which
buy in Health Food shops also contain products are the best to add Essential
artificially synthesised scents. No matter Oils and Absolutes to. In general,
how good a Skin Care product smells, because Fats are the best medium for
and because of this, how good we think binding Essential Oils and Absolutes
it may be for our skin, these synthetic without creating irritation to the skin,
scents can cause skin problems. Nor do you can add more Essential Oil and
they offer any therapeutic benefits to our Absolutes to Creams than to Gels. This is
skin. Their only reason for being there important particularly for preparations
is to appeal to our sense of smell and that are used for longer periods, such
to conceal the original fragrance of the as all day. On the other hand, with Gel-
product. based Face Masks, which will only be
used for a few minutes you can be more
Using Essential Oils and Absolutes in generous when adding your drops of
Skin Care products Essential Oil and Absolutes.
Also, dose carefully if you have oily
Essential Oils and Absolutes, through skin so it doesnt become dry instead.
our sense of smell, create an experience Add some of those Essential Oils and
of well being, which affects us mentally Absolutes that help to regulate sebum
as well as emotionally while at the same production.

Different Skin Types and Conditions forehead. If the skin is not too sensitive
you can use Rosemary to increase the
Dry Skin blood circulation in the skin. Mandarin
increases elasticity and tones up loose
is skin that needs both oils and moisture. skin. Lavender and Rosewood stimulate
To balance oil production (sebum cell regeneration so that fine, new skin
regulation) in the skin use Geranium, comes to the surface.
Lavender and Ylang Ylang. To balance
moisture content, use the Essential Oils Large Pores
of Lavender, Neroli and Sandalwood and are inherited but can be modified
the Absolutes of Rose and Jasmine. through the use of good products.
Oily Skin Lemon, Cedarwood, Geranium and
Cypress are astringent Oils, which help
produces a lot of sebum. Sebum- to contract and strengthen the skin.
regulating Essential Oils are the same
as those for regulating oil production Broken Capillaries
in Dry Skin and are used to achieve a are hard to cure but through regular
normal, balanced skin. You can also use treatment you can strengthen the
Essential Oils that have a drying effect, capillaries so they become smaller and
such as Lemon, Rosemary and Cypress. less visible. The Oils to use are Cypress,
Acne Rose and Neroli.
consists of blocked pores, which become Essential Oil and Absolute Blends for
infected, producing spots. Sebum Creams
regulating Oils work well here. To
disinfect the skin, use Tea Tree, Lemon NB We use Neroli Essential Oil and
and Bergamot. To prevent infection, use Jasmine and Rose Absolutes diluted
Tea Tree, Jasmine Absolute and Lavender. in alcohol so that you can add them
Cleansing Essential Oils are Lavender, to 15ml Jars without overpowering
Rosemary, Tea Tree and Lemon. the other Oils. If you are making large
quantities, you can use approximately
Sensitive Skin 1
/10th of the pure Oils instead.
reacts both to internal as well as external
factors, such as weather, wind, the wrong
Essential Oil Blends for Gels
Skin Care products, food and anxiety.
When using Essential Oils and Absolutes
Aloe Vera Gels usually contain no Fats
on very sensitive skin you should be very
and therefore do not nourish the skin
careful with dosages. Use 1-3 drops to
in any way. However, they are good for
30ml of Cream. Stick to the Recipes until
protection e.g. after shaving or to cool
you have become familiar with the Oils
the skin e.g. after sunburn. Gels work
strength and effects.
well as carriers for Essential Oils and
Mature Skin combined together with e.g. Peppermint
can make a Massage Gel which is good
begins to occur after the age of 40. The
for tired or hot feet, or for making a
skin begins to lose its elasticity and
Moisturising Mask.
there will be more or less sharp lines
around the eyes, mouth and on the

Table 15: Essential Oil and Absolute

Blends for Creams Bergamot 2 4
15ml 30ml Geranium 1 2
Acne 3
no. of drops Rosemary 2 3
Orange 2 4 Patchouli 1 2
Rosewood 2 3 Petitgrain 1 2
Dry Skin 1 Rose de
Lavender 2 3 Mature 2 4
Mai Abs*
Benzoin 1 1 Skin 1
Lavender 2 4
Mandarin 2 4
Vetivert 1 1
Neroli* 2 3
Dry Skin 2 Mandarin 1 2
Jasmine Abs* 1 2
Mature Rosemary 1 2
Sandalwood 1 2
Skin 2 Ylang Ylang 1 2
Petitgrain 1 2
Sandalwood 3 5
Lavender 2 4
Dry Skin 3 Orange 1 2
Geranium 1 2
Mature Ylang Ylang 1 2
Patchouli 1 2
Skin 3 Geranium 2 3
Lemon 2 4
Patchouli 1 2
Cypress 2 4
Oily Skin 1 Mandarin 1 2
Ylang Ylang 1 2
Cypress 2 3
Sandalwood 1 1 Broken
Rose de 2 3
Grapefruit 2 4 Capillaries
Mai Abs*
Ylang Ylang 1 1 Cedarwood 1 1
Oily Skin 2
Lavender 2 4 Mandarin 1 2
Cedarwood 1 2 Lavender 1 2
Bergamot 2 4 Skin Neroli* 1 1
Rosemary 2 3 Sandalwood 1 1
Oily Skin 3
Bay Leaf 1 2 Rosemary 6 12
Patchouli 1 2 Foot Lavender 6 12
Grapefruit 1 2 Cream Benzoin 2 4
Tea Tree 3 6 Lavender 3 6
Acne 1 Soothing
Ylang Ylang 1 1 Rosemary 2 4
Sandalwood After Sun
1 2 Sandalwood 2 3
Lemon 1 2 *Diluted in 9 parts alcohol
Lavender 2 4
Acne 2
Tea Tree 3 6
Cedarwood 1 1

Table 16: Essential Oil Blends for Gels

25ml 75ml
no. of drops
Peppermint 2 6
After Sun Tea Tree 10 30
Gel* Lavender 4 12
Massage Bergamot 5 15
Gel for
Tea Tree 7 21
Tired &
Warm Feet Peppermint 2 6
Massage Rosemary 10 30
Gel for Lavender 10 30
Muscles Bay Leaf 3 9
Bergamot 3 9

After Cypress 3 9
Shave Gel Ylang Ylang 1 3
Patchouli 2 6
Grapefruit 5 15

Cellulite Cypress 5 15
Gel Rosemary 8 24
Patchouli 5 15
* good for insect bites

Recipes for Essential

Oils & Absolutes
in the Home

Using Essential Oils and Absolutes Spraying Flask

to freshen up much used rooms is
an excellent and pleasant way of Used to create a short-term, immediate
enhancing everyday life as well as effect in a room or other space. Can be
creating atmosphere for festive or special used in the car to invigorate you or to
occasions. tone down the smell inside the car. When
Fragrances and blends of fragrances there are colds around you can spray with
can be used to create a special effect: Lemon or Lemon Myrtle for example
Romance Blend, for that sacred time or after vacuuming you can use your
with your partner, or Party Blend, to favourite Oil or blend of Oils. Another tip
make that party of yours unforgettable. is to spray covers, mattresses and pillows
Or why not enjoy the benefit of during airing with Lemon and Lavender
Concentration Blend when youre up to give them a clean, fresh smell.
late studying for your exams! Or simply Aroma Stones (Sand Stones)
use the Essential Oil you feel intuitively
drawn to use at that particular time, e.g. Used to emit fragrance over a longer
Lavender for serenity and Bergamot for period of time in smaller spaces such
self-confidence. To freshen up your home as cupboards, toilets, halls or chests of
or room, you can use an Essential Oil drawers. In the car, use Peppermint to
Fragrance Burner, a Spraying Flask or an help you concentrate and at the same
Aroma Stone. time counteract car-sickness. In the
Essential Oil Fragrance Burner home or at work an Aroma Stone can be
displayed as part of the dcor.
Used for larger spaces where the effect Undiluted Essential Oil Drops Used
needs to last for a while. The bigger the Directly
space, the more Oil will be required.
Because Essential Oils and Absolutes
In your rubbish bin or compost bucket
evaporate spreading their aroma around
to counteract bad odours, or put a few
the room, you may want to add more Oil
drops on your vacuum cleaner filter so
after a time to maintain the effect. Top
the air being blown out is filled with the
Note Oils such as Citrus and Peppermint
cleansing, antiseptic smell of Lemon, or
evaporate more quickly than the Middle
apply something uplifting and stabilising
and Base Note Oils.
like Geranium.

Table 17: Blends of Oils for Home Use Mandarin 7 24

Ylang Ylang 3 10

Spary Flask


1 4

Benzoin 4 14
Lemon 4 14
no. of drops Stuffed Cloves 3 10
Rosemary 4 14 Nose Tea Tree 5 17
Joy of Lemon Geranium 3 10
9 34
Work Lavender 3 10
Ylang Ylang 1 4
Heavy Peppermint
Grapefruit 9 34 3 10
Ylang Ylang 2 7 Rosemary 3 10
Party Petitgrain 7 24
Cloves 1 4
Wee Willie Rosewood
Patchouli 2 7 5 17
Ylang Ylang 5 17 Vetivert 3 10
Romance Mandarin 6 24 Cypress 7 24
Sandalwood 3 10 Grounding Patchouli 5 17
Bergamot 9 34 Vetivert 3 10
Happiness Jasmine Abs* 1 2 Geranium 4 14
Ylang Ylang 1 4 Woman Rose Abs 1 3
Lavender 4 17 Vetivert 1 4
Children Grapefruit 7 24
Mandarin 4 17
Lavender 5 17 Man Bay Leaf 5 17
Tranquility Ylang Ylang 3 10 Sandalwood 5 10
Geranium 6 24 Con- Rosemary 5 35
Orange 6 24 centration
Fitness Peppermint 2 8 Blend* Lemon 5 35
Rosemary 6 20 * helps with studying
Orange 9 34
Winter Cloves 2 7
Benzoin 3 10
Bergamot 4 17
Flowering Lavender 5 17
Time Geranium 3 10
Cedarwood 2 7
(An 15 55


Table 18 below is a quick reference

conversion table between grams and 1g 10g 2ml 10ml
Cellulose 1.9ml 18.8ml 1.1g 5.3g
Some customers ask how to convert
grams to ml when making their Recipes. Cetyl-
The easiest way is to invest in a sensitive 2ml 20ml 1g 5g
gram scale. However if you dont have
one, the table below shows equivalent Emulsifier 3ml 30.1ml 0.7g 3.3g
weights and volumes for our most
popular products. 0.9ml 9.2ml 2.2g 10.9g
Note: as an example, it is not a big Guar gum
difference between 2ml or 2g of 1.4ml 14ml 1.4g 7.1g
Glycerine, but theres a big difference
between 200ml and 200g of Glycerine. Hair Starch 1.6ml 15.8ml 1.3g 6.3g
The best solution is to invest in a
Cocoa Butter
sensitive gram scale and to convert all 1.1ml 11.2ml 1.8g 8.9g
of your Recipes in the future to grams.
This would make for the most accurate Carbamide 1.5ml 14.7ml 1.4g 6.8g
2.9ml 28.8ml 0.7g 3.5g
Raw Materials and Colours Coconut Oil
1.2ml 12.4ml 1.6g 8g
Conversion Tables Melted
Green Clay
0.9ml 9.1ml 2.2g 10.9g
Table 18 Rough
Green Clay
1g 10g 2ml 10ml 2.5ml 24.8ml 0.8g 4g

Allantoin 1.8ml 18ml 1.1g 5.5g Yellow Clay 1.3ml 12.7ml 1.6g 7.9g

Beeswax in 5x2 10x10 5x10 Pink Clay 3ml 29.9ml 0.7g 3.3g
sheets cm cm cm
Carrageen Red Clay 1.7ml 16.7ml 1.2g 6g
1.3ml 13.2ml 1.5g 7.6g

Table 19
1g 10g 2ml 10ml
scoops ml g
White Clay 3.5ml 35.2ml 0.6g 2.8g
Normal Pigment Colours
MF Classic
2.5ml 25ml 0.8g 4g 1 2ml 1.5g
Emulsifier Black
Microfine Coffee
Titanium 1.5ml 15ml 1.3g 6.7g 1 2ml 1.0g
Bicarbonate Sienna Red 1 2ml 1.4g
0.8ml 8ml 1.2g 12.5g
of Soda
Shea Butter 1 2ml 0.4g
1.2ml 11.8ml 1.7g 8.5g Ochre
Pearlescent Colours
Talc 1.8ml 18.4ml 1.1g 5.4g
Beige 1 2ml 0.9g
2ml 19ml 1.1g 5.3g
Blue 1 2ml 1.0g
Vegetal 2.3ml 22.6ml 0.9g 4.4g
1 2ml 0.8g
Xanthum Red
2.5ml 24.6ml 0.8g 4.1g
Copper Red 1 2ml 0.8g
Zinc Oxide 1.8ml 18.4ml 1.1g 5.4g
Gold 1 2ml 0.8g

Ochre 1 2ml 0.7g

Purple 1 2ml 1.0g

Pearl White 1 2ml 0.7g

Red Brown 1 2ml 1.0g

Silk Black 1 2ml 0.8g

Silk White 1 2ml 0.4g

Silver 1 2ml 0.8g

1 2ml 0.6g

Turquoise 1 2ml 0.9g


Method for Measuring Colours in 2ml Important note about cleaning the
spoons/scoops equipment and beakers containing
Colours and Waxes
To measure 1x 2ml scoop of Colour
Its very important to put your beakers
1) Immerse the 2ml measuring spoon
and implements* (put implements in
into the loose Colour in the tub. Tip: You
beakers not the boiling water!) back in
may need to shake the tub/plastic bag to
the double boiler so that the fats can
loosen up/de-compact the Colour.
remelt. Once they have, remove from the
2) Turn it up with the Colour heaped on double boiler and wipe them with paper
top. towels as much as possible, then wash in
3) Then level it with the straight edge of a dishwasher or very hot soapy water in
a knife held at a slight downward angle. the sink.
NB Do not press the Colour down into *Its easier if you use a disposable wooden
the spoon with the knife. spatula for stirring.

To measure a scoop of Colour

1) First get 1 level scoop by following
instructions in number 1 above.
2) Then, from the spoon handle end,
stick the knife down into the spoon,
removing half of the spoons contents
furthest away from handle. (Visualise
one-quarter being removed.)

To measure a scoop of Colour

1) First get 1 level scoop by following
instructions in no. 1 above.
2) Then, remove by following
instructions in number 2 above.
3) Then continue to stick the knife right
down into far corner of spoon (furthest
away from handle) and remove the
Colour. Half the Colour now remains in
the half closest to the spoons handle.

To measure a scoop of Colour

1) First get 1 level scoop by following
instructions in no. 1 above.
2) Remove half of the spoons contents
by following instructions in number 3
3) Now, with the knife point, remove
half of what is left.

Essential Oils Conversion Metric-US Conversion

Table Tables
10ml of each Essential Oil is equal to the These are for our American readers and
following weights in grams. customers or those who prefer American
measures. The millilitres and grams have
Table 20
sometimes been rounded off to make it
Vetivert 11.0g easier for you to work with the Recipes in
this book. I have used American spelling
Cloves and Cinnamon 10.5g in these tables.
Myrrh 10.2g If you get stuck, cant see the
measurement you need, or would like
Sandalwood 9.8g
to be more precise in your calculations,
Patchouli 9.5g a very useful metric conversion site
with online calculators for temperature,
Clary Sage, Ylang Ylang 9.3g
weight and volume is www.metric-
Cedarwood Atlas 9.2g
Eucalyptus, Rosemary, Note: I use grams to weigh raw materials
Geranium because its much easier to work with
Peppermint, Siberian Fir, and more accurate than measuring
9.0g cups and spoons. This is because the
volume (the space something takes up)
Bergamot, Lemongrass, Tea of different raw materials will vary in
Tree relation to weight e.g. 2 ounces of Shea
Lavender, Neroli 8.7g Butter in weight will be smaller in size
(take up less volume) than 2 ounces of
Melissa, Camphor, Lime,
Dried Herbs in weight (therell be a lot
Mandarin, Rosewood, Black 8.6g
more of the Herbs i.e. it would take up
more space in a measuring cup). This
Lemon, Citronella, Cypress, is why I always recommend that my
Juniper, Grapefruit students and customers buy a sensitive
gram scale.
Orange 8.4g

Volume (Dry) Volume (Liquid)

Table 21 Table 22
American Metric American American Metric
Standard (millilitres) Standard Standard (millilitres
(cups & (fluid & litres)
teaspoon 0.5ml
quarts) ounces)
teaspoon 1ml
teaspoon 0.5ml
teaspoon 2ml
teaspoon 1ml
teaspoon 4ml
teaspoon 2ml
1 teaspoon 5ml
teaspoon 4ml
1 tablespoon 15ml
1 teaspoon 5ml
cup 59ml
tablespoon fl.oz 8ml
cup 79ml
1 tablespoon fl.oz 15ml
cup 118ml
2 tablespoon 1 fl.oz 30ml
cup 158ml
cup 35ml
cup 177ml
cup 2 fl.oz 65ml
1 cup 225ml
cup 85ml
2 cups or 1 pint 450ml
cup 95ml
3 cups 675ml
cup 4 fl.oz 125ml
4 cups or 1 quart 1 litre
cup 160ml
gallon 2 litres
cup 170ml
1 gallon 4 litres
cup 190ml
cup 220ml
1 cup 8 fl.oz 250ml
1 cup 12 fl.oz 375ml
2 cups/1 pint 16 fl.oz 500ml
4 cups/1 quart 32 fl.oz 1 litre
1 gallon 128 fl.oz 4 litres

Weight/mass Temperature

Table 23 Table 24
American Standard Metric $FMTJVT $
Fahrenheit (F)
(ounces) (grams)
10 50
ounce 15g
15 59
1 ounce 30g
20 68
3 ounces 85g
25 77
3.75 ounces 100g
30 86
4 ounces 115g
35 95
8 ounces 225g
40 104
12 ounces 340g
45 113
16 ounces/1 lb 450g
50 122
60 140
65 149
70 158
75 167
80 176
85 185
90 194
95 203
100 212
The insider secrets to making your own natural creams
and cosmetics
including information on which vegetable oils, moisturisers and
preservatives to use
As well as information, recipes and step-by-step methods
for making your own natural
creams, lotions, cleansers, peelers, exfoliates, skin toners, gels, ointments,
lip balms, sun creams & lotions, skin & massages oils, 2-in-1 shampoo &
conditioners, shower gels & liquid soaps, face masks, toothpastes &
mouth washes
PLUS Information on essential oils & absolutes
How to use them safely, recipes for natural perfumes, using essential
oils and absolutes in the home and all you need to know about adding
fragrances to creams & gels!

About the Author

Originally from Norway, Kolbjrn Borseth is the founder of
Aromantic Natural Skin Care and has been working with
and developing natural skin, hair and body care products
since he started his factory in Sweden in 1985. His passion
is to reveal the secrets that the cosmetic industry would
rather hide from us. He now teaches others how to make
their own products using natural raw materials tailor-made
for their friends, family or clients. He does this by providing in-depth information about
raw materials on his website, in recipe brochures, press articles, educational guides such
as this one, and running educational courses. He is the author of The Aromantic Guide to
the use of Herbs in Skin, Hair and Health Care products,The Aromantic Guide to Unlocking
the Powerful Health and Rejuvenation Benefits of Vegetable Oils and Natural Spa Products:
How to make your own Professional and Home Spa Products using Natural Ingredients.

Aromantic Natural Skin Care

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