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Primeros pasos del comercio

The Origins of Trade

Trade origins go back to the end of the Neolithic, when agriculture was discovered. An exchange of harvest's
surplus with other goods, that other communities specialized in, began. Some of these goods were weapons,
amphoras, hues, or luxury products (mirrors, earings, etc.)

This primitive trade not only meant the local exchange of goods and food, but also the global exchange /
interchange of scientific and technological innovations, such as iron and bronze working techniques, the wheel,
lathe, navigation, writing, new forms of town planning, among others.

Barter was the way that ancient civilizations began to trade. It consisted in exchanging goods for others of equal
value. This kind of trade was quickly shelved / given up when money / the coin appeared.

The use of money in commercial transactions was a breakthrough in the economy. The only
disadvantage/drawback was that, as it was/involved / being an agreement within a community, money might /
may not make sense out of that community. Therefore, the concept of currency was invented later on.


Emergence / The beginnings of banking

The noncombatant members of the Order of the Temple (the Knights Templar) (12th to 13th Centuries)
managed a large economic infrastructure throughout the Christian world, creating new / innovating financial
techniques promissory notes and the bill of exchange (draft (am engl)) that are an early form of modern

This service in particular (the bill of exchange) greatly favored international trade in fairs, where traders could
return to their countries of origin without putting their money at risk of being stolen by highwaymen.

Towards the end of Middle Age and the beginnings of the Renaissance, a bank was a monetary institution with
several services that made trade easier.

The discovery of America by the Europeans meant another great step in trade. The new flow of gold that the
Spaniards obtained nearly for free in South America reorganized and consolidated the European trade and
capital networks. The European banking grew exponentially and big European banks, such as the Bank of
Amsterdam, the Bank of Sweden or the England, appeared / emerged.


Trade Concept

Trade is the socioeconomic activity that consists of the exchange of some materials that are free in the market,
and the purchase and sale of goods and services, either / whether for their use, their sale or their transformation.
By commercial or industrial activity it is understood an exchange of goods or services that are sold through a
merchant or trader.

The trader is the natural or legal entity that is habitually engaged in commerce, such as trading companies. In
Spanish, the term comercio is also used to make reference to a commercial establishment or store.
Trade is a resource both for the businessmen and for the country he is established in. The more companies sell
the same product or provide the same service, the lower prices will be.

Wholesaler is the purchase and sale or goods whose purchaser is not the final consumer. Its aim is to
sell the goods to another merchant or to a manufacturing company that will use it as raw material to be
transformed into another good / merchandise or product.
Retailer is the purchase and sale of goods whose purchaser is its final consumer, i.e. the person who
uses or consumes said goods.
Internal / domestic trade takes place among people within the same country, subject to the same
Foreign trade takes place among people from different countries.
Land, maritime, air and river trade make reference to the way the goods are transported, and each
one belong to a branch of commercial law with the same denomination.
Proper try trade / Trading on ones own account is the one done for ones own benefit.
Trade on commission is done in account of another.

Trade is the countrys main income source, thus the government allows the creation of new companies. It is also
the best way of earning money.

International trade

International or global/foreign trade is the exchange of goods, products and services between two countries or
economic regions. The economies that are engaged in foreign trade are called open economies. This process of
opening began principally in the second half of the 20th century, and developed spectacularly in the 1990s, when
the economies of Latin American, Eastern Europe and East Asia were incorporated / included.