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Drug Information

Charliemaign Stanley S. Cruz, R.Ph.
Drug Information Resource

Type of Resources




Alternate Resources
Drug Information Resources
Medical Information and Medical Literature

are continuously increasing in quantity

the TECHNOLOGY to which it is made available

grows EXPONENTIALLY at the same time

however, the process of providing drug

information has not improved as fast.
Drug Information Resources
Choosing the Information resources to use:

Chosen information resources are:

1. easy to find

2. most familiar to the user


1. possibility of missing new resources

2. limit completeness of the information

Tertiary >> Secondary >> Primary

Types of Resources
Tertiary Resources
provide information that has been summarized and distilled
by the author/editor to provide a quick, easy summary of a


1. fairly complete information

2. concise overview

3. easy to use/convenient

4. familiar to most users/practitioners

Tertiary Resources

1. lag time associated with publication

availability of information may be delayed

solved by the birth of E-copies

2. May be incomplete due to

space limitation

due to incomplete literature review

Tertiary Resources


3. transcription errors

4. human bias

5. incorrect interpretation

6. authors lack of expertise

Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

1. AHFS Drug Information

provides DI arranged in monographs both the

FDA approved and off-label uses of medication

dosing in specific population and some

compatibility and stability are also included

In the PH, we have the Philippine Pharmacopeia

Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

2. Clinical Pharmacology

Gold Standard,

electronic database for contains monographs for both

Rx and non-Rx products and some dietary supplement

designed with tools to check for drug interactions, IV

compatibility and searching for tablet imprint and codes
Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

3. Micromedex

contains FDA-approved indication, off-label uses, PK data,

safety information and pharmacology.

interactive tools allows assessment of drug-drug/food/

supplement interaction, incompatibilities, and PK adjustments

provides toxicology sections which allows identification based

on drug imprints and codes.

provides information of overdose management

Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

4. Facts and Comparisons

contains information about RX and non-RX drugs

organised by drug class

provides excipient information of specific ingredients

provides comparative monograph to compare agents

from the same class
Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

5. Drug Information handbook

data regarding clinical use and safety is organized in

brief monographs

has a tablet identification section

appendices for treatment options and comparison of

agents in the same class
Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

6. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An

interactive preach to Self-care

focused on body systems and disease states for

which self-care may be appropriate

covers information on efficacy of OTC products

Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

7. Physicians Desk Reference

compilation of Rx products package inserts

contact information of manufacturers, list of

poison control centers
Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

8. USP Dictionary

official resource for generic & chemical names

and even intl nonproprietary name (INN) of
drug products
Tertiary Resources
A. General Product Information

9. Epocrates

includes a variety of data about drugs

(monographs, interaction checker, safety data
and tablet identification) and diseases
(epidemiology, prognosis and treatment)
Tertiary Resources
B. Adverse Effect

1. Meylers Side Effect of Drugs


provides critical review of international literature in the

area of adverse events and its management

Chapters are organized by drug classification

ADE are organized by drug name and then by organ

Tertiary Resources
B. Adverse Effect

2. Side Effects of Drugs Manual: A Worldwide Yearly

Survey of New Data and Trend in Adverse Drug


serves as companion to Meylers Side Effects of Drugs

a team of reviewers looks into adverse drugs reports and

publications annually, reviews them and summarizes the
Tertiary Resources
C. Availability of Dosage Forms

1. American Drug Index, by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

organized by product & generic name

provides information on product use, dosage availability, &

manufacturer information

also has charts for sound/look-alike drugs, pregnancy

category, normal lab values and pharmaceutical calculation
Tertiary Resources
C. Availability of Dosage Forms

2. Red Book (Red Book Drug Topics), by Truven health Aanlytics

data is primarily about Rx and OTC product availability

and pricing

also has data on sugar/lactose/alcohol-free


available electronically within Micromedex

Tertiary Resources
D. Compounding/Formulations

extemporaneous preparation for pedia/geriatric, & special

needs patients

1. Merck Index, by Merck & Co., Inc.

provides chemical and pharmacological information about

chemicals, drugs, and biologicals

Ex: CAS number, chemical structure, MW and physical

Tertiary Resources
D. Compounding/Formulations

2. Remington: the Science and Practice of Pharmacy

contains information about all aspects of pharmacy


3. A Practical Guide to Contemporary Pharmacy Practice

information about compounding techniques,

calculations, and rationale behind excipients are also
Tertiary Resources
D. Compounding/Formulations

4. Trissels Stability of Compound Formulations

provides information about preparation of sterile and

non-sterile dosage forms

also provides general stability concerns/data


contains data on official substances and products

Tertiary Resources
E. Dietary Supplements

1. Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database

provides summary of information on dietary supplements and

rates its relative safety & efficacy

2. Natural Standard

provides extensive evidence-based information regarding safety

and efficacy
Tertiary Resources
E. Dietary Supplements

3. PDR for Herbal Medicines

4. Review Natural Product

found within facts and comparison website

provides chemistry, pharmacology, and

toxicology of a number of natural products
based on primary literature documents
Tertiary Resources
E. Dietary Supplements

5. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy

textbook which contains classic ph-cog, crude

plant - based drug classification and

Also provides data on clinical applications,

pharmacology and phytochemistry
Tertiary Resources
F. Drug Interaction

1. Hansten & Horns DI Analysis and


provides summaries of mechanism &

management options for DI
Tertiary Resources
F. Drug Interaction

2. Drug Interaction Facts

incorporated in facts and comparison website

provides information on drug-drug/drug-food


discusses significant interaction and

suggestions for management
Tertiary Resources
F. Drug Interaction

3. Food-Medication Interactions

focuses on the impact of food on medication efficacy

highlights a list of food

discusses significant interaction and suggestions for

Tertiary Resources
G. Geriatric Dosage Recommendations

1. Geriatric Dosage Handbook

2. The Merck Manual of Geriatric

both focuses on specific discussion on factors related

to geriatric care
Tertiary Resources
H. Pediatric Dosage Recommendations

1. The harriet Lane Handbook

2. Pediatric Dosage Handbook

both focuses on specific discussion on factors related

to pediatric care
Tertiary Resources
I. Incompatibility and Stability

1. Handbook on Injectable Drugs

2. King Guide to Parenteral Admixtures

3. Trissels 2 Clinical Pharmaceutics Database

provides detailed information regarding stability profile and compatibility

issues of ingredients for IV medication
Tertiary Resources
J. International Drug Equivalency

1. Index Nominum: International Drug Directory

2. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference

contains information on several drug in over 130 countries,

local and international.

Other resources would be BP, Rote Liste, Dictionary Vidal

Tertiary Resources
K. Pharmacokinetics

1. Basic Clinical Pharmacokinetics

provides basic principles of PK esp. interpretation and implications of

plasma concentration

2. Applied Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics

provides information on PK and its relation to drug development and

patient care

also addresses the impact of Pharmacogenetics on drug

metabolism included in Access Pharmacy e-subscription

Tertiary Resources
L. Pharmacology

1. Goodman & Gilmans: The Pharmacological Basis of


2. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology

3. Brodys Human Pharmacology: Molecular to Clinical

4. Modern Pharmacology w/ Clinical Applications

provides thorough information on PK, PD and

Pharmacology of drugs and its impact in the clinical setting
Tertiary Resources
M. Pharmacy Law

1. Pharmacy Practice and the Law

provides information regarding federal laws and regulations on

Pharmacy practice

2. Nelson Tubons Jurisprudence Book

a detailed and comprehensive source of information regarding

PH law that has impact in the practice of pharmacy
Tertiary Resources
N. Teratogenicity/Lactation

1. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation

often referred to as Briggs textbook

focuses on information regarding use of drugs during pregnancy or

for a lactating mother

also looks into the impact of drug usage on the developing infant

2. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents

provides information about a list of chemical, pharmaceuticals,
food additives, household products, and viruses and their
Tertiary Resources
O. Therapy Evaluation/Drug of Choice

1. Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs

contains text on disease states and treatment options

information is presented in a clinical case-based format

2. Goldmans Cecil Medicine

information is organized by disease states and color coded to

speed usage

info on etiology, manifestation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis

is provided as well
Tertiary Resources
O. Therapy Evaluation/Drug of Choice

3. Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine

comprehensive information on pathophysiology,

differential diagnosis, and disease management is

4. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy

provides quick summary of disease state information

Tertiary Resources
O. Therapy Evaluation/Drug of Choice

5. Medscape

provides up-to-date info on disease states and management

contains monographs on Rx and OTC medications

6. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiological Approach

7. Pharmacotherapy Principles and Practice

8. Textbook of Therapeutics
Tertiary Resources
P. Toxicology

1. Casarett and Doulls Toxicology: The Basic Science of


textbook on extensive organ and non-organ directed toxicity

2. Goldfranks Toxicological Emergencies

provides a case study approach on the maangement of

toxicological emergencies

provides info on common drugs, botanicals, pesticides, and

occupational hazards management
Tertiary Resources
Q. Veterinary Medicine

is growing specialty practice in the US.

Uses the concept of One Medicine.

1. Plumbs Veterinary Handbook

most useful resource on human and veterinary drug information

2. Textbook on Veterinary Internal Medicine

3. Compedium of Veterinary Products (

4. FDA/CVM Homepage

5. AVMA Reference Material on Veterinary Compounding

Tertiary Resources
Q. Veterinary Medicine

6. Animal Poison Control Center

focus on animal toxicology and safety

7. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

8. Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

9. The Merck Veterinary Manual

10.Pet Place/ Pets with Diabetes
Secondary Resources
refers o references that index or abstract the
primary literature

aims to direct user into finding primary literature

multiple database search must be utilized in order

to perform comprehensive search for literature
Secondary Resources

provides bibliographic information

title, author, and citation of the primary literature


includes a short description or abstract of the

primary literature
Secondary Resources
Search Strategies

1. Identify search terms/keywords

key terms are used to narrow down returns

may be different among different search



Secondary Resources
Search Strategies

Boolean Operators

Secondary Resources
Search Strategies

3. Set Limit Fields

allows returns to restricted

ex: human study, review, case reports, type of journal, date of publication

Content Filter

specific on the drug/disease state being researched

returns with the most appropriate content

Validity Filter

method of narrowing down returns to only of the highest quality

Secondary Resources

comprehensive database of biological sciences,

covering from biological to biomedical

useful when searching for basic science

information on compound activity on a cellular
Secondary Resources


maintained by the National Cancer Institute (US)

most useful when searching for information on

oncology therapies and QOL issues
Secondary Resources



primarily useful when searching for literature in

the filed of nursing and allied health

provides information on patient care

Secondary Resources

3 parts:

Index of Cochrane reviews on medical

treatments, conditions and alternative treatments

Abstracts of Intl systematic reviews

Bibliography of systematic reviews in worldwide

Secondary Resources

Thompson Reuters Medical

offers very recent published literature as it

relates to scientific information

contains carrying subsets inclining clinical

medicine and life sciences
Secondary Resources

covers basic and clinical sciences, nursing and



comprehensive abstracting service for biomedical

literature worldwide

has more international coverage than MEDLINE

Secondary Resources

a search engine designed to target scholarly

materials online


abstracting service including recent information

summarized by physicians from a pool of
medical literature
Secondary Resources

Division of Drug Information, University of Iowa

indexing service for a variety of biomedical literature


Thompson Reuters Medical

covers drug related information on usage and development,

pharmacy administration and clinical services
Secondary Resources

LexisNexis Academics and Library Solutions

indexing and abstracting service for medical, legal and

business news


Aids International

summarizes information on ADE, DI, Drug dependence

and toxicology
Secondary Resources



covers recent publications on the economic use

of health care resources

also provides prescribing trends, recent health

care news and regulatory updates
Primary Resources

consists of clinical research and reports bot

published and unpublished

review article and editorial are NOT primary

Primary Resources

1. access to detailed information

2. chance to personally assess the validity and applicability of



1. misleading conclusions

2. require high-level skill in medical literature evaluation

3. require time for evaluation

Alternative Resources
A. Internet searches

use of search engines to complete search data prior to using

standard resource material

B. News wires

C. Consumer Health Information

mostly government sites with free access information

Informatics Pharmacist must always be open in helping consumer the

contents of such resources