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Chronology of Ancient Philosophy

Thales (c.625- c.547; fl. 585)


Anaximander (612-545)
Anaximenes (6thc.; fl. 545)
Xenophanes (c.570-c.475)
Pythagoras (?570-?495)
Heraclitus (537-480; fl.c.500)
Parmenides (early 5thc.)
Anaxagoras (500-428)
Empedocles (c.492-432)
Hippasus of Metapontum (6th 5th century)
Zeno of Elea (?485-?430)
Ion of Chios (?485-?425)
Protagoras (c.490-c.420)
Hippias (5thc.)
Prodicus of Ceos (5thc.)
Gorgias (c.483-c.380)
Antiphon (c.480-411)
Melissus (5thc.; fl. 441)
Philolaus (c.470-390)
Archelaus (5th c.)
Hippocrates (5th c.)
Alcmaeon of Croton (5th c.)
Hippon(ax) (5th century)
Socrates (469-399)
Cratylus (younger contemporary of Socrates)
Thrasymachus (fl. c. 430-400)
Leucippus (fl. 440)
Diogenes of Apollonia (470-362)
Democritus (c.460-c.370)
Thucydides (?458-399?)
Critias (c.460-403)
Antisthenes (mid.5thc.-mid.4thc.)
Isocrates (436-338)
Xenophon (c.430-c.350)
Plato (427-348)
Archytas (f. c.400-350)
Aristippus of Cyrene (5thc.4thc.)
Speusippus (c.407-339, scholarch of Academy 347-339)
Diogenes of Sinope (c.412/403-c.324/321)
Anaxarchus (4thc.)
Aristotle (384-322)
Theophrastus (371-287, scholarch of Peripatetics 322-287)
Xenocrates (4th c., scholarch of Academy 339-314)
Aristippus of Cyrene (5thc.4thc.)
Theodorus (4th c.)
Hegesias (fl.c.290)
Anniceris (4thc.)
Crates (c.368/365-288/285)
Diodorus Cronos (d. 284), scholarch of Dialecticians, teacher of Zeno of Citium
Pyrrho(n) of Elis (c.365-275)
Epicurus (342-270)
Polemon (scholarch of Academy 314-270), teacher of Zeno of Citium
Crantor (c.335-275), student of Xenocrates
Metrodorus (c.331-278)
Hermarchus (4thc.-3rdc., scholarch of Garden after 271)
Polyaenus (4thc.-3rdc., d. before 271)
Straton (scolarch 287-269)
Zeno of Citium (335-263)
Cleanthes (331-232), scholarch of Stoa 263-232
Timon (c.320-230)
Arcesilaus (315-241), scholarch of Academy 268-241, founder of Middle Academy
Lyco (300/298-226/224), scholarch of Peripatetics 269-225
Pythocles (3rdc.)
Ariston of Chios (student of Zeno of Citium)
Chrysippus (c.280-206), scholarch of Stoa 232-206
Ariston of Ceos (scholarch of Peripatetics 225-c.190)
Carneades (213-128), founder of New Academy, scholarch <155, Academic emissary to Rome 156-155
Diogenes of Babylon (c.240-152), scholarch of Stoa <152, Stoic emissary to Rome 156-155
Critolaus (2ndc.), scholarch of Peripatetics, Peripatetic emissary to Rome 156-155
Panaetius (c.185-109), succeeds Antipater as scholarch of Stoa 129
Philo(n) of Larissa (159-84), last undisputed scholarch of Academy 110-88, teacher of Cicero
Poseidonius (c.135-c.51), taught by Panaetius
Antiochus of Ascalon (130-69), taught by Philo of Larissa, founder of short-lived Old Academy
Cicero (106-43)
Andronicus of Rhodes (1st c.), scholarch of Peripatetics in Athens, editor of Aristotelian corpus
Lucretius (91-51)
Philodemus (1st c. BC)
Quintus Sextius (b. 70 BC), Neopythagorean, Cynic
Aenesidemus of Knossos (fl. 43 BC)
Potamon (age of Augustus)
Philo(n) Judaeus of Alexandria (c.20 BC 40 AD) Jewish Neopythagorean, anticipates Neoplatonism
Eudorus of Alexandria (fl. 25 BC)
Seneca the Younger (c.1-65)
Dion Chrysostom (40 AD-?)
Epictetus (mid 1st2nd c.)
Demonax (2nd c. AD), student of Epictetus, Cynic
Plutarch of Chaeronea (<50->120)
Hierocles (fl. during Hadrians rule (117-138), Stoic
Marcus Aurelius (121-(161)-180)
Diogenes of Oenoanda (2nd c. AD)
Apuleius (b. c.125)
Nicomachus of Gerasa (fl. c.100), Neopythagorean
Atticus (c.150-c.200), Platonist
Celsus (fl. c. 180), Platonist opponent of Christianity
Maximus of Tyre (2nd c.), Middle Platonist
Albinus (2nd c. AD), Platonist, teacher of Galen
Galen (129-199/216)
Saturninus (2nd c.), Pyrrhonian Skeptic
Sextus Empiricus (2nd c. AD)
Albinus (2nd c. AD)
Numenius of Apamea (2nd half of 2nd c. AD), Platonist/Neophytagorean, influence on Plotinus & Origen
Diogenes Laertius (1st half of 3rd c. AD)
Ammonius Saccas (1st half of 3rd c. AD), teacher of Plotinus & Origen
Origen the Christian (184-254)
Plotinus (204-70)
Amelius Gentilianus (pupil of Pltotinus 246-269)
Porphyry (232-304)
Iamblichus (d. c. 330)
Aedesius (d. c.355), student of Iamblichus
Calcidius (1st half of the 4th c.), translator of Timaeus into Latin for the Middle Ages
Maximus Chrysanthius (tutor of Julian)
Sallustius (consul to Julian 363)
Julian the Apostate (322-(361)-363)
Marius Victorinus (4thc.) Latin Christian Neoplatonist
Hypatia of Alexandria (d. 415)
Augustine (354-430)
Plutarch of Athens (d. c. 431), teacher of Proclus
Syrianus (scholarch of Academy 431-437), teacher of Proclus
Hierocles of Alexandria (fl. >420), Middle Platonist
Macrobius (5thc.), Latin Christian Neoplatonist
Proclus (410/412-485), scholarch of the Academy 437-485
Marinus (scholarch of Academy after Proclus)
Asclepiodotus (2nd half of 5thc.), commentator on Plato and Aristotle
Ammonius (2nd half of the 5thc.), commentator on Plato and Aristotle
Olympiodorus (2nd half of the 5thc.), commentator on Plato and Aristotle
Boethius (480-524), Latin Christian translator and commentator on Aristotle
John Philoponus (490-570s), Christian Neoplatonist, Aristotelian commentator
Damascius (last scholarch of the Aacdemy 520-529), teacher of Simplicius
Simplicius (6th c. AD), Pagan Neoplatonist, Aristotelian commentator