Anda di halaman 1dari 10

DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING


IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS IN BRASS CASTING


Gagan Deep1, Vijender Rajora2, Ishbir Singh3
1, 2, 3
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technology, Baddi-173205, H.P, India
Modgilgagan012@gmail.com1, rajoravijenderrajora@gmail.com2, ishbir@rediffmail.com3

ABSTRACT
In the present world, with the increasing use of brass casted sanitation, the brass casting foundry
is to focus on the quality of the products. The quality of a foundry industry has increased by
minimizing the casting defects during production. Optimal levels of parameters were selected
through parametric design such that the influence of uncontrollable factors causes minimum
variation of the system response. It was concluded from the result that the rejection rate was
decreased after using optimized values. As pouring temperature increases, both shrinkage and
casting marks defects (%) increases whereas in case of die temperature shrinkage and casting
marks defects (%) also increases. However, upto 6 seconds pouring time, both shrinkage and
casting marks defects (%) decreases. After that shrinkage defects (%) increases rapidly but
casting marks defects (%) neither increase nor decrease after 6 seconds pouring time.
KEYWORDS: Brass casting process; Taguchi technique; Shrinkage and casting marks defect;
Optimization.

1. INTRODUCTION
Casting is the process in which molten metal is poured into die cavity. There have been number
of parameters which affects the quality. Taguchi technique has been implemented in this
process. The purpose of our study is to improve the quality and performance according to
customer needs. There has been number of factors which affected on quality of casting
controllable, others are uncontrollable. Die casting process involves a number of parameters
that affect the various casting quality features of products.

2. BACKGROUND AND REVIEW


Kumar et al (2011) investigated study on optimization of process parameters by using
Taguchis technique for green sand casting. The parameters behind this process such as pouring
temperature, moisture content, green strength and mould hardness horizontal and vertical. It
has been found out that there is improvement in production as well as stability in casting
process.
Kumaravadiel et al (2012) conducted study on process parameters optimization using
Taguchis technique in green sand casting. The process variables behind this study were
pouring temperature, permeability, compressive strength, moisture content, mould pressure,
vent holes, loss on ignition, pouring time and volatile content. It has been verified from the
result that the significant effect on casting defect of selected parameters for cast iron flywheel.
Senthil et al (2012) investigated research on parametric optimization in AC2A aluminium alloy
casting. Factors behind this study were squeeze pressure, compression holding time, die
preheating temperature, melt temperature and die insert material. It has been concluded that the
optimized parameters values were die preheating temperature: 200oc squeeze pressure: 100
mpa,melt temperature: 725oc compression holding time : 45 seconds and die insert material:
hot die steel.
Upadhye et al (2012) conducted study on process parameters in sand casting. The parameters
considered in this study were pouring time, sand particle size, moisture, green compression
strength, permeability, mould hardness, pressure test and pouring temperature. It has been
concluded form the result that the selected process parameters significantly affect the casting

1
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

defects in the foundry. The improvement in minimization of casting defects was found to be
37.66 %.
Mariajayaprakash et al (2013) published research on Failure detection and optimization of
sugar mill boiler using FMEA and Taguchi method. They described the failures of the fuel
feeding system frequently occurred in the cogeneration boiler and gives the solution to rectify
the failures like mechanical failure, electrical failure and temperature sensors failure by using
three important tools, namely, cause and effect diagram, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and
Taguchi method.
Prabhu et al (2013) conducted study on parameters in high pressure die casting. Parameters
behind this study were tool temperature, cooling medium, pouring temperature and pouring
time. It has been concluded that the main cause of blowholes is Pouring temperature as
compared to tool temperature, pouring time and cooling medium and signal to noise ratio has
been increased as pouring temperature increases which increased defect rate blowholes.
Hemalatha et al (2014) studied on cast metal flow analysis of intermediate flange. The molten
metal behaviour at different stages of time such as temperature variations, pressure variations
were analysed. It has been concluded that fluid flow was progressed as the molten metal
temperature after drop is still above the solidus temperature. Injection of molten metal at 640-
670c results in proper filling and solidification of molten metal.
Mu et al (2014) Conducted study on casting defects and fatigue behaviour of aluminium
AS7G06-T6. It has been shown that the critical defect size that does not lower the fatigue
strength is close to the grain size of the material.
Patil et al (2014) studied on Optimization of Process Parameters in green sand casting. Process
parameters behind this study were moisture content, permeability number, mould hardness
number and green strength. It has been concluded that the optimized levels of process
parameters in the green sand castings were moisture content4.75%, mould hardness number
90, permeability number135 and green strength1400 gm/cm2.
Prasad et al (2014) conducted study on air entrapment analysis of casting for shell moulding
process by using simulation technique. This paper describes the benefits of casting simulation
for air entrapment analysis to understand the possibility of area where air might be entrapped
during solidification. It has been concluded that upper part of the product was more likely to
have air bubble entrapment defects (Blow hole) because it is filled last, this predictable defect
can be avoided by providing proper vents.
Rajkohle et al (2014) conducted study on green sand casting. The optimum level of process
parameters has been conducted. Factors behind this study were mould hardness, permeability,
green compressive strength and sand particle size. Optimum levels of Taguchis method have
increased % of acceptance in casting from 91.66% to 94.5%.
Smith et al (2014) conducted a case study of Using Visual Data Mining to Enhance the Simple
Tools in Statistical Process Control. Many of the commonly used SPC tools, including
histograms, fishbone diagrams, scatter plots, and defect concentration diagrams, were proposed
prior to the advent of microcomputers as efficient methods to record and visualize data for
single (or few) variable(s) processes.
Tsoukalas et al (2014) conducted study on porosity formation in pressure die casting. Factors
behind this study were Die temperature, holding furnace temperature, Multiplied pressure,
Plunger velocity for first stage, Plunger velocity for second stage. It has been concluded that
improvement in minimization of porosity was 48.6 per cent.
Carlberg et al (2015) conducted study on surface segregation and surface defect formation
during aluminium billet casting. The author has been conducted a study on the shell zone depth
and the compositions of aluminium.
Gulagoudar et al 2015) researched on Robust Design Approach to analyze Casting Defects in
Foundry Industry. The cause and effect diagrams are used to analyze blowholes and sand drop

2
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

defects. Taguchi method was applied to conduct the experimental work and L9 orthogonal
array used. The major factors that lead to blowhole were amount of sodium silicate, CO2
gassing time and mixing time for CO2 core.
Gupta et al (2015) studied on optimum process parameters in al-alloy casting. Three process
parameters moisture content, binder percentage and pouring temperature were optimized by
using the Taguchis design of experiment method. The result showed that by using Taguchi
method the factor levels when optimized will result in reduction of casting defects and increase
the yield percentage of the accepted castings without any additional investments.
Kaewkongkha et al (2015) Investigated study on parameters which affecting the Blow Holes
in Casting. Parameters behind this study were high injection speed, low injection speed, casting
pressure, vacuum pressure and high speed starting position. It has been proved that the amount
of blow holes can be reduced by using the experimentally obtained optimum conditions, which
are the casting pressure of 85 mPa, the die casting low injection speed of 0.30 m/s, the high
injection speed of 2.49 m/s, the high-speed starting position of 326.81 mm and the vacuum
pressure of -97.28 kPa.
Sandhya et al (2015) investigated study on parametric optimization in foundry. Main defects
in casting rejections were blow hole, shrinkage, mismatch, and oversize. Process parameters
used in this study were clay content %, silica sand %, moisture content, scratch hardness,
pouring temperature and compression strength. It has been concluded that the quality improved
by Six Sigma approach of parameters at the lowest possible cost. Two defects Blowholes and
Shrinkage which have higher percentage in the total rejection were reduced.
Sarawana et al (2015) conducted study on optimization of process parameters by Taguchi
method. The parameters behind this study were green strength, sand particle size, moisture
content and mould hardness. Parameters have been optimized by Taguchis design and
rejection rate decreased upto 20-30%.
Suryawanshi et al (2015) Conducted study on improvement of quality in centrifugal casting.
Parameters behind this study were temperature, speed and type of cooling. Centrifugal casting
of an alloy produced minimum defects for mould speeds of 500 and 550 rpm.
Raghupathy et al (2016) conducted a case study on optimization of grey cast pump adapter
casting parameters. Parameters behind this study were moisture percentage, clay percentage
and mould hardness. It can be concluded that after applying the optimal parametric values, the
defects that appeared on external surface in the castings were mostly reduced. CAE simulation
is carried out to investigate internal defects by designing the gating and feeding parameters.
The results of DOE as well as CAE have been recommended for implementation in industry
that can produce shrinkage porosity-free castings.

3. OUTCOME OF LITERATURE REVIEW


It has been pointed out that the possible defects like shrinkage, mis-run, blowholes, cold shuts,
hot tears etc that are could arise in the die casting process if the parameters are not properly
controlled and optimized. In the direction of this research, the available literature was found to
locate papers deals with casting process parameters optimization. It has been pointed out that
there is not much research work carried out in the field of brass casting. Mostly research work
has been carried out in the field aluminium and iron.

4. OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The objectives of this research are as follow-
To identifying critical process parameters in the brass casting that affect filling
process including controllable factors and uncontrollable (or noise) factors.
To minimize the rejection rate of brass casting in the foundry.
To find out the main causes of defects by using fishbone diagram.

3
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

To implement the data using Minitab software for optimizing the process
parameters.

5. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY


5.1 Materials
Material used in this experimental work is brass. Brass ingots used as raw material for melting.

Table 1. Composition of metals in brass ingots


Metal Cu Zn Pb Sn
% of composition 59.5-60 40 0.09 0.04
Brass ingot constitute different composition of metals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb)
and tin (Sn).

5.2 Methodology

Figure 1. Process Flow Methodology

Methodology has been described by process flow diagram in the figure 1. The methodology
has been described as follows:
Rejection data has been collected from foundry.
Sink mixer spout fast has been selected for defect minimization due to its
maximum shrinkage and casting marks defect.
Analyze with quality tools for defect minimization. Find out the main causes of
these defects.
The following three parameters have been selected control array-
Pouring temperature
Pouring time
Die temperature.
Defects have been taken as noise array. L9 orthogonal array has been selected
for Taguchis approach.

4
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

Analyse with Taguchis methodology. Graphs have been plotted for average
mean and S/N ratio.
Analyse with ANOVAs technique. Optimum levels and value have been
selected from number of levels and values (smaller average value means
minimum % of defects has been selected for optimization).
Results and conclusions.

5.2.1 Pareto Chart of Rejection (%)


With the use of quality tools, the pareto chart of the defects has been plotted for find out the
major defects in the foundry. Pareto chart is a vertical bar graph in which values are plotted in
decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right.

Figure 2 Pareto Chart of Casting Defects

Pareto charts are extremely useful for analyzing what problems need attention first because the
taller bars on the chart, which represent frequency, clearly illustrate which variables have the
greatest cumulative effect on a given system. Shrinkage and casting bars shown the major
rejection % in the pareto chart.

5.2.2 Cause and Effect Diagram


Cause and effect diagram has been made to find out the main causes of casting defects. Cause
and effect diagram has been made to find out the main causes of casting defects.

Figure 3. Cause and effect diagram

5
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

Shrinkage and casting marks have been identified as major defects. It has been necessary to
find out the actual reasons behind these defects, to find the reasons behind the defect use of
cause and effect diagram has been made which is also known as fishbone diagram. There has
been number of causes behind the defect in process of mould, metal, die and silica sand,
moisture content, mould hardness has been significantly effect on moulding process.

5.2.3 Selection of Orthogonal Array (OA)


Before selecting orthogonal array, the two most important points should be considered:
The number of parameters and interaction of interest.
The number of levels for the parameters of interest.
So, L9 OA (a standard 3-level OA) having 8 (=91) degree of freedom were selected for the
present analysis.
The experimental results were then transformed into signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Taguchi
recommended the use of S/N ratio to measure the quality characteristics deviating from the
desired values. The quality characteristic in surface roughness was taken as of lower the better
type. The S/N ratio for the lower the better type of response can be computed as:
Where Yj, j=1, 2, n are the response values under the trial conditions repeated R times.
So, there are 3 parameters used in our study upto 3 levels. L9 used in our study.

Table 2 Process Parameters and their Values at Different Levels


Symbol Process parameters Units Range Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
A Pouring temperature 1020-1080 1020 1050 1080
B Die temperature 950-990 950 970 990
C Pouring time Sec 4-8 4 6 8

Three trials have been taken for each level of experiment. There have been 10 pieces lot for
each trial has been taken for checking rejection (%).

Table 3. Orthogonal array for L9 with defects (%) (raw data and S/N ratio)
Sr. No. Input Parameters Responses Defects (%) S/N Ratio
Pouring Die Temperature Pouring Time Shrinkage Casting
temperature (B) (C) Marks
(A)
1 1020 950 4 20 20 -26.02
2 1020 970 6 10 20 -23.97
3 1020 990 8 30 20 -28.12
4 1050 950 6 20 30 -28.12
5 1050 970 8 40 30 -30.96
6 1050 990 4 30 40 -30.96
7 1080 950 8 50 40 -33.11
8 1080 970 4 50 50 -33.97
9 1080 990 6 50 40 -33.11

Table 4. Average values of casting defects and S/N ratios at different levels
Levels Level1 Level 2 Level 3
Casting S/N Ratio Casting Defects S/N Ratio Casting Defects S/N Ratio
Defects
A 20.00 -26.09 31.67 -30.02 46.67 -33.40
B 30.00 -29.09 33.33 -29.64 35.00 -30.74
C 35.00 -30.32 28.33 -28.41 35.00 -30.74

Analysis of variance for the response shrinkage and casting marks has been tabulated in Table
5 and 6. Table 5 shows the data for Shrinkage defect having input parameters like Pouring
temperature, die temperature and pouring time.

6
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

Table 5. Analysis of Variance for Shrinkage Defect (%)


Sources DF Adj SS Adj MS F value P value
Pouring temperature 2 1400 700.00 21.00 0.045
Die temperature 2 66.67 33.33 1.00 0.500
Pouring time 2 266.67 133.33 4.00 0.200
Error 2 66.67 33.33
Total 8

Table 6 tabulated the analysis of variance for defects (%) for casting marks. Each parameter
has 2 degree of freedoms. So, the total degree of freedom is 8.

Table 6. Analysis of Variance for Casting Marks Defect (%)


Sources DF Adj SS Adj MS F value P value
Pouring temperature 2 822.22 411.11 37.00 0.026
Die temperature 2 22.22 11.11 1.00 0.500
Pouring time 2 88.89 44.44 4.00 0.200
Error 2 22.22 11.11
Total 8
The optimized value of casting parameters has been tabulated in Table 7. At different levels,
casting parameters value has been optimized. There parametric value give result to use these
by which casting defects has been minimized.

Table 7. Optimized Parametric Value of Brass Casting


Sr. No. Parameter Level Value
1. Pouring temperature 1 1020
2. Die temperature 3 990
3. Pouring time 2 6 sec

For the minimization of the defects, parametric value is concluded from the result for
optimization which is tabulated in table 7. 1020 at level 1 is optimized value for pouring
temperature. 990 at level 3 is the optimized value for die temperature. 6 seconds is optimized
pouring time at level 2 for pouring of molten brass. From these parametric optimized values
shrinkage and casting marks defect are reduced.

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


It has been observed from figure 4 that the defects (%) increases with the increase in
temperature in the main effect graph. 20% of rejection takes place at the pouring temperature
of 1020, 30% at 1050 and 50% at 1080.

Figure 4. Main effect plot between parameters and Shrinkage defect (%)
7
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

There is increase in the Shrinkage defects (%) with the increase the die temperature. At 950 ,
defects (%) was very low i.e. 30% shrinkage defect (%) take place. Whereas defects (%)
maximum at 990 .However, in the case of pouring time, at the pouring time of 6 seconds
defects (%) rate is less as compared to 4 and 8 seconds. 25 % defects (%) take place at the
pouring time of 6 seconds.

Figure 5. Main effect plot between parameters and casting marks defect (%)

In the case of casting marks defects, the defects (%) increases as the pouring temperature
increases. At 1020 , 20 % casting marks defects were found, 33 % defects (%) were found at
1050 and at the 1080 , 43 % defects (%) has been found. However, in this case defects
(%) increases upto 970 and after that there was no increment or decrement in the rate of
defects (%). So, at the die temperature of 950 it has lowest defects (%). But in the case of
pouring time, defects (%) was less from 6 to 8 seconds as compared to 4 seconds. At (6-8)
seconds pouring time, defects (%) was found 30 %.

7. CONCLUSIONS
In this research work an attempt was made to optimize the process parameters in brass casting.
The effect of parameters was taken for consideration of minimizing defects in brass casting. In
this research work, casting parameters like pouring temperature, die temperature and pouring
time were selected for optimization. On the basis of Taguchi design, experimental data was
analyzed in the Minitab 16 software.
The following conclusions were drawn from the present research work:
Critical parameters like pouring temperature, die temperature and pouring time were
optimized in the brass casting.
Rejection rate may be reduced and there may be increase in profit.
As the pouring temperature increases, Shrinkage defects (%) increases. At 1020,
minimum defects (%) were found and at 1080 maximum defects (%) take place.
Whereas in case of casting marks defect (%), it increased continuously as increment in
the pouring temperature from (1020-1080) .
As the die temperature increases, Shrinkage defects (%) increases. At 950 , minimum
defects (%) and at 990 maximum defects (%) was found. Whereas in case of casting
marks defect (%), it increased rapidly upto 970 and then at the constant rate defects
(%) get increased.

8
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

As pouring time increases, shrinkage defects (%) decreases from 4 seconds to 6 seconds
and then rapidly increase in defects (%) upto 8 seconds. Whereas in case of casting
marks defects (%), it get decreased upto the time of 6 seconds and further increase
in pouring time there is no increment or decrement in defects (%).

8. FUTURE SCOPE
The research can be extended further as follows:
More number of casting parameters can be taken and multi objective optimization can
be applied for further improving process performance.
Scanning electro micro scopy or X- ray micro analysis can also be used to find out
microstructure of brass casting defects.
Parameters range can be increased to find out more results.

REFERENCES
S. Kumar, P. S. Satsangi, and D. R. Prajapati (2011) Optimization of green sand casting
process parameters of a foundry by using Taguchi s method. International Journal
Advances Manufuring Technology, 55, 23-34.
A. Kumaravadivel, U. Natarajan, and C. Ilamparithi (2012) Determining the optimum green
sand casting process parameters using Taguchi s method. Journal Chinese Institute of
Industrial Engineering, 29, 148-162.
P. Senthil and K. S. Amirthagadeswaran (2012) Optimization of squeeze casting parameters
for non symmetrical AC2A aluminium alloy castings through Taguchi method. Journal
of Mechanical Science Technology, 26, 1141-1147.
R. A. Upadhye (2012) Optimization of Sand Casting Process Parameter Using Taguchi
Method in Foundry. International Journal of Engineering Research Technology, 1, 1-
11.
A. Mariajayaprakash and T. Senthilvelan (2013) Failure detection and optimization of sugar
mill boiler using FMEA and Taguchi method. Engineering Failure Analyses, 30, 17-262.
R. B. K. Dasaratha Prabhu (2013) Investigating the significance of parameters affecting the
defects in HPDC component using design of experiment method. IOSR Journal
Environmental Science Toxicol Food Technology, 4, 4-9.
S. Hemalatha and N. R. Ramesha (2014) Cast Metal Flow Analysis of Intermediate Flange.
International Journal of Research Engineering Technology, 3, 947-951.
P. Mu, Y. Nadot, C. Nadot-martin, A. Chabod, I. Serrano-munoz, and C. Verdu (2014)
Influence of casting defects on the fatigue behavior of cast aluminum. International
Journal of Fatigue, 63, 97-109.
G. G. Patil (2014) Optimization of Casting Process Parameters using Taguchi Method.
International Journal of Engineering Design and Research, 2, 2506-2511.
Lagad and P. P. M. (2014) Air Entrapment Analysis of Casting ( Turbine Housing ) for Shell
Moulding Process using Simulation Technique. International Journal Engineering
Research General Science, 2, 2-8.
R. Rajkolhe and J. G. Khan (2014) Process Factor Optimization to Enhance Productivity of
Green Sand Casting Process by Using Taguchi Methodology. International Journal of
Research Advent Technology, 2, 2-6, 2014.

9
DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR-144011, INDIA
DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AND PRODUCTION ENGINEERING
IVTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PRODUCTION AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, CPIE-2016

Huw D. Smith and L. A. J.-F. and M. C. , Fadel M. Megahed (2014) Using Visual Data Mining
to Enhance the Simple Tools in Statistical Process Control: A Case Study, Quality and
Reliability Engineering Interanational, 30, 905-917.
V. D. Tsoukalas, S. A. Mavrommatis, N. G. Orfanoudakis, and A. K. Baldoukas (2014) A
study of porosity formation in pressure die casting using the Taguchi approach. Journal
of Engineering Manufuring, 218, 7786.
Carlberg and N. B. and M. E. Torbjorn (2015) Surface Segregation and Surface Defect
Formation During Aluminum Billet Casting. Transactions of the Indian Institute of
Metals, 68, 1065-1069.
A. Gulagoudar, R. Nikhil, G. Chate, S. Kusgal, and M. A. Kori (2015) Robust Design
Approach to Analyze Casting Defects in Foundry Industry. International Journal of
Applied Science, 5, 53-58.
S. Gupta and N. M. Suri (2015) Optimization of Process Parameters to Minimize the Defects
in Al-Alloy Casting. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2,
1774-1777.
P. Kaewkongkha and S. Tangjitsitcharoen (2015) Investigation of factors affecting the Blow
Holes in Die Casting Process. IOSR Journal of Engineering, 5, 47-51.
M. S. Sandhya, H. Ramakrishna, and Y. S. Rajalu (2015) Optimization of Foundry Parameters
for Reducing Casting Defects. International Journal Science Research Development, 3,
2673-2676.
K. Saravana, M Jeya (2015) Optimization of Casting Process Parameters Using Taguchi
Analysis. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, 5, 134-136.
A. Suryawanshi and Chandra.H and Shiena Shekhar (2015) Optimization to Improve the
Quality of Centrifugal Casting by Grey Fuzzy Method. International Journal of
Advanced Engineering Research and Studies, 4(2), 164-166.
R. Raghupathy and K. S. Amirthagadeswaran (2016) Parametric optimization and
solidification analysis of grey cast pump adapter castings using DOE and CAE - a case
study. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 21, 1-9.

10