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Andorra

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Not to be confused with Andora.
For other uses, see Andorra (disambiguation).
Principality of Andorra
Principat d'Andorra (Catalan)a
Flag of Andorra
Flag
Coat of arms of Andorra
Coat of arms
Motto Virtus Unita Fortior
United virtue is stronger
Anthem El Gran Carlemany (Catalan)
The Great Charlemagne
Location of Andorra (center of green circle)in Europe (dark grey) [Legend]
Location of Andorra (center of green circle)
in Europe (dark grey) [Legend]
Capital
and largest city Andorra la Vella
4230'N 131'ECoordinates 4230'N 131'E
Official languages Catalan
Recognised languages
Spanish French Portuguese
Ethnic groups (2012[1]) 49% Andorran
24.6% Spanish
14.3% Portuguese
3.9% French
8.2% others
Demonym Andorran
Government Unitary parliamentary semi-elective diarchy
Co-Princes
Joan Enric Vives Siclia
Emmanuel Macron
Representatives
Josep Maria Mauri
Patrick Strzoda
Prime Minister
Antoni Mart
Legislature General Council
Independence
from Aragon
1278
from the French Empire
1814
Constitution
1993
Area
Total
467.63 km2 (180.55 sq mi) (179th)
Water (%)
0.26 (121.4 ha)b
Population
2016 estimate
77,281[2]
Density
179.8km2 (465.7sq mi) (71st)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
Total
$3.3 billion[3] (155th)
Per capita
$45,000[4] (9th)
Gini (2003) 27.21c
low
HDI (2015) Increase 0.858[5]
very high 32nd
Currency Eurod (EUR)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
Summer (DST)
CEST (UTC+2)
Drives on the right
Calling code +376
ISO 3166 code AD
Internet TLD .ade
Constitution of Andorra. In Spanish and Portuguese Principado de Andorra, in French
Principaut d'Andorre.
(in French) Girard P & Gomez P (2009), Lacs des Pyrnes Andorre. Andorra en xifres
2007 Situaci geogrfica, Departament d'Estadstica, Govern d'Andorra (PDF).
Retrieved 26 August 2012.
Informe sobre l'estat de la pobresa i la desigualtat al Principal d'Andorra (2003)
(PDF). Estadistica.ad. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
Before 1999, the French franc and Spanish peseta; the coins and notes of both
currencies, however, remained legal tender until 2002. Small amounts of Andorran
diners (divided into 100 centim) were minted after 1982.
Also .cat, shared with Catalan-speaking territories.
Andorra (n'd??r? (About this sound listen); Catalan [?n'dor?], locally [an'd?ra]),
officially the Principality of Andorra (Catalan Principat d'Andorra), also called
the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra[6] (Catalan Principat de les Valls
d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in
the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France. Created under a
charter in 988, the present principality was formed in 1278. It is known as a
principality as it is a diarchy headed by two Co-Princes the Catholic Bishop of
Urgell in Spain and the President of France.

Andorra is the sixth-smallest nation in Europe, having an area of 468 km2 (181 sq
mi) and a population of approximately 77,281.[2] Andorra is the 16th-smallest
country in the world by land and 11th-smallest country by population.[7] Its
capital Andorra la Vella is the highest capital city in Europe, at an elevation of
1,023 metres (3,356 feet) above sea level.[8] The official language is Catalan,
although Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken.[1][9]

Andorra's tourism services an estimated 10.2 million visitors annually.[10] It is


not a member of the European Union, but the euro is the official currency. It has
been a member of the United Nations since 1993.[11] In 2013, the people of Andorra
had the highest life expectancy in the world at 81 years, according to The Lancet.
[12]

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Prehistory
2.2 The Iberian and Roman Andorra
2.3 The Visigoths and Carolingians the legend of Charlemagne
2.4 Medieval Age The Parages and the founding of the Co-Principality
2.5 16th to 18th centuries
2.6 19th century the New Reform and the Andorran Question
2.7 20th century
3 Politics
4 Law and criminal justice
5 Foreign relations, defence, and security
5.1 Military
5.2 Police Corps
5.2.1 GIPA
5.3 Fire brigade
6 Geography
6.1 Parishes
6.2 Physical geography
6.3 Climate
7 Economy
8 Demographics
8.1 Population
8.2 Languages
8.3 Religion
9 Statistics
9.1 Largest cities
10 Education
10.1 Schools
10.2 University of Andorra
10.2.1 Virtual Studies Centre
11 Healthcare
12 Transport
13 Media and telecommunications
14 Culture
15 Sports
15.1 Major achievements
16 See also
17 References
18 External links
Etymology[edit]
The origin of the word Andorra is unknown, although several hypotheses have been
formulated. The oldest derivation of the word Andorra is from the Greek historian
Polybius (The Histories III, 35, 1) who describes the Andosins, an Iberian Pre-
Roman tribe, as historically located in the valleys of Andorra and facing the
Carthaginian army in its passage through the Pyrenees during the Punic Wars. The
word Andosini or Andosins (??d?s?????) may derive from the Basque handia whose
meaning is big or giant.[13] The Andorran toponymy shows evidence of Basque
language in the area. Another theory suggests that the word Andorra may derive from
the old word Anorra that contains the Basque word ur (water).[14]

Another theory suggests that Andorra may derive from Arabic al-durra, meaning The
forest (?????). When the Moors colonized the Iberian Peninsula, the valleys of the
Pyrenees were covered by large tracts of forest, and other regions and towns, also
administered by Muslims, received this designation.[15]

Other theories suggest that the term derives from the Navarro-Aragonese andurrial,
which means land covered with bushes or scrubland.[16]

The folk etymology holds that Charlemagne had named the region as a reference to
the Biblical Canaanite valley of Endor or Andor (where the Midianites had been
defeated), a name also bestowed by his heir and son Louis le Debonnaire after
defeating the Moors in the wild valleys of Hell.[17]