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QUIZ 2 CTB EPID Sept 08 2014 Value<0.0001).

What can you conclude

Faculty of Medicine, UPH from these results?
Lecturer: Veli Sungono, M.S. A. Statins significantly lower the risk of
death from prostate cancer
Name: ______________________________ B. Statins have no effect on cancer
NIM :______________________________ mortality
Tutor: ______________________________ C. Statins do not significantly lower the
TOTAL SCORE : (0-100 Point) _____ risk of death from prostate cancer
D Statins do not significantly increase
the risk of death from prostate cancer
Table 1 for No. 1
E. Statins significantly increase the risk
of death from prostate cancer

4. A major difference in a case-control study

and a cohort study is that the case-control
study starts with exposed study subjects and
1. An outbreak of gastritis occurred on a the cohort study starts with study subjects
cruise ship. The data in the following table who have the disease.
were obtained shortly after the outbreak, A. True
from a questionnaire completed by everyone B. False
on board the ship. What is the relative risk
of developing gastritis from herring 5. A potential bias in using group data in
consumption? Outcomes Research includes self selection.
A. 0.5 A. True
B. 2.0 B. False
C. 2.3
D. 8.0 6. All of the following are important criteria
E. 1.0 when making causal inferences except:
A. Consistency with existing knowledge
2. In a study of 500 cases of a disease and B. Dose-response relationship
500 controls, the suspected etiological factor C. Consistency of association in several
is found in 400 cases and 100 controls. studies
What is the absolute risk of disease in D. Strength of association
people with the factor? E. Predictive value
A. 80%
B. 40% 7. Exposure must always occure before the
C. 16% disease it causes.
D. 20% A. True
E. 70% B. False

3. Researchers investigated the relationship 8. If the relative risk is equal to 1, then

between the use of statins and prostate A. The risk in the exposed is less than the
cancer mortality by examining the records of risk in the nonexposed.
patients who died from prostate cancer as B. The risk in the exposed equals the risk in
well as records of matched controls. They the nonexposed
report an odds ratio of 0.49 (95%
confidence interval, 0.34-0.70 (P
C. The risk in the exposed is greater than the B. Is the ratio of incidence rates in the
risk in the nonexposed. exposed and in the non-exposed.
D. None of the above. C. a/a+b divided by c/c+d
D. All of the above
9. In a cohort study, the relative risk can be
calculated directly. 15. The relative risk and the odds ratio are
A. True important measures of the strength of an
B. False association.
A. True
10. Most causal relationships that operate in B. False
chronic diseases involve multiple exposures.
A. True 16. The relative risk is the incidence in the
B. False nonexposed divided by the incidence in the
For No 11-12 (look at Table 2x2) A. True
B. False
17. Which of the following could cause
selection bias?
A. the use of volunteers
B. paid participation
C. data from hospitals and clinics
D. using working populations
E. all of the above
11. Odds ratio for cohort or case control: 18. ___ results from differences between
A. ad / bc the study subjects in a sample and the
B. bc / ad population which they are selected to
C. a/b represent.
D. d/c A. selection bias
B. information bias
12. Relative risk = C. confounding
A. risk in nonexposed / risk in exposed D. interaction
B. c / (c+d)
C. a / (a +b) 19. ____ is a non-causal association
D. (a/(a+b)) / (c/(c+d))) between an exposure and outcome due to the
influence of a third variable.
13. The guidelines for judging whether an A. selection bias
association is causal includes B. information bias
A. all of the above C. confounding
B. strength of an association D. interaction
C. temporal relationship
D. dose-response relationship 20: Obtaining information about exposures
that occurred in the past is considered a/an:
14. The Relative Risk A: Prospective Approach
A. Can be calculated directly when using the B: Retrospective Approach
cohort study design. C: Ecological Fallacy
1. B
2. A
3. A
4. B
5. A
6. E
7. A
8. B
9. A
10. A
11. A
12. D
13. A
14. D
15. A
16. B
17. E
18. A
19. C
20. B