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Theory and Design

of Air Cushion Craft

Liang Yun
Deputy Chief Naval Architect of the Marine
Design & Research Institute of China

Alan Bliault
5hell International Exploration and Production
Hollan

A member of the Hodder Headline Group


LONDON
Copuhlibhcd in North, Central and South America by
John Wilcy & Sons Inc.. New York . Toronto
Contents

duction to hovercraft
Hovercraft beginnings
ACV and SES development in the U K
ACV and SES development in the former USSR
IJS hovercraft development
ACV and SES development in China
SES and ACV developments in the 1990s
Applications for ACVISES
The future
SES and ACV design

2. Air cushion theory


2.1 Introduction
2.2 Early air cushion theory developments
2.3 Practical formulae for predicting air cushion performance
2.4 Static air cushion characteristics on a water surface
2.5 Flow rate coefficient method
2.6 The 'wave pumping' concept
2.7 Calculation of cushion stability derivatives and damping
coefficients

3. Steady drag forces


3.1 Introduction
3.2 Classification of drag components
3.3 Air cushion wave-making drag ( R , )
3.4 Aerodynamic profile drag
3.5 Aerodynamic momentum drag
3.6 Differential air momentum drag froln leakage under bowlstern
seals
3.7 Skirt drag
viii Contents

3.8 Sidewall water friction drag


3.9 Sidewall wave-making drag
3.10 Hydrodyna~nic~noinentumdrag due to engine cooling watcr
3.11 Underwater appcndagc drag
3.12 Total ACV and SES drag over watcr
3.13 ACV skirtlterrain interaction drag
3.14 Problems concerning ACVlSES take-off
3.15 Effect of various Factors on drag

4. Stability
4.1 lntroduction
4.2 Static transverse stability of SES on cushion
4.3 SES transverse dynamic stability
4.4 Calculation of ACV transverse stability
4.5 Factors affecting ACV transvcrsc stability
4.6 Dynamic stability, plough-in and overturning o r hovercraft
4.7 Overturning in waves

5. Trim and water surface deformation under the cushion


5.1 lntroduction
5.2 Water surface deforination inlbeyond ACV air cushion over
calm water
5.3 Water surface deformation inlbeyond SES air cushion on
calm water
5.4 Dynamic trim of ACVlSES on cushion over calm water

6. Manceuvrability
6.1 Kcy ACV and SES manceuvrability factors
6.2 Introduction to ACV control surfaces
6.3 Differential equations of motion for ACV manceuvrability
6.4 Course stability
6.5 ACV turning performance

7. Design and analysis of ACV and SES skirts


7.1 lntroduction
7.2 Development and state of the art skirt configuration
7.3 Static geometry and analysis of forces acting on skirts
7.4 Geometry and analysis of forces in double or triple bag stern
skirts
7.5 Geometry and forces for othcr ACV skirts
7.6 Analysis of forces causing the tuck-under of skirts
7.7 Skirt bounce analysis
7.8 Spray suppression skirts
7.9 Skirt dynamic response

8. Motions in waves
8.1 Introduction
Contents ix

8.2 Transverse motions of SES in beam seas (coupled roll and heave)
8.3 Loilgitudinal SES motions in waves
8.4 Longitudinal motions of an ACV in regular waves
8.5 Motion of ACV and SES in short-crested wmes
8.6 Plough-in of SES in following waves
8.7 Factors affecting the seaworthiness of ACVISES

9. Model experiments and scaling laws


9.1 Introduction
9.2 Scaling criteria for hovercraft models during static hovering tests
9.3 Scaling criteria Tor tests of hovercraft over water
9.4 Summary scaling criteria for hovercraft research, design and tests

10. Design methodology and performance estimation


10.1 Design methodology
10.2 Stability requirements and standards
10.3 Requirements for damaged stabiliiy
10.4 Requirements for seaworthiness
10.5 Requirements for habitability
10.6 Kequirements for manauvrability
10.7 Obstaclc clearance capability

11. Determination of principal dimensions of ACVISES


11.1 The dcsign process
11.2 Role parameters
11.3 Initial weight estimate
11.4 First approximation of ACV displacement (all-up weight),
and estimation of weight in various groups
11.5 Parameter checks [or ACVISES during dcsign
11.6 Determination of hovercraft principal dimensions

12. Lift system design


12.1 Introduction
12.2 Deterinillation of air flow rate, pressure and lift system power
12.3 Design of fan air inletloutlet systcms
12.4 Lift fan selection and design

13. Skirt design


13. l Introduction
13.2 Skirt damage patterns
13.3 Skirt failure modes
13.4 Skirt loading
13.5 Contact forccs
13.6 Selection of skirt material
13.7 Selection of skirt joints
13.8 Assembly and manufacturing technology for skirts
13.9 Skirt configuration design
X Contents

14. Structural design


14.1 ACV and SES structural design features
14.2 External forces on hull introduction to the strength
calculatio~lof craft
14.3 Brief introduction to the structural calculation used in
MARIC
14.4 Calculation methods for strength in the former Soviet Union
14.5 Safety factors
14.6 Considerations for thickness of plates in hull structural design
14.7 Hovercraft vibration

15. Propulsion system design


15.1 Introdnction
15.2 Air propcllcrs
15.3 Ductcd propellers and fans
15.4 Marine propellers
15.5 Waterjcts
15.6 Power transmission
15.7 Surface contact propulsion

16. Power unit selection


16.1 lntroductio~l
16.2 Powering estimation
16.3 Diesel engines
16.4 Gas turbines
16.5 General design requirements
16.6 Machinery space layout
16.7 Systems and controls
16.8 Operation and maintellancc
Index

Page numbers in bold rzfcr to figures and charactcristics 72


page numbers in italic indicate tablcs. characteristics curves 70. 71
craft, classilication 6
AALC 150 50 !node1 350 flow rdtc due to mass change rate of S01
Acceleration 124, 468 pcrfortnance
Acceleration/frequency tolrrat~onlimits 369 on rigid surface 51
Accidents 185 prediction 55-65
ACVs 13 pressure distribution 472, 472
hovercrat-t 13, 13, 14 stability 76-83
Accommodation space requirements 399 supported vehicles, see ACV
ACV system 2824. 299-301, 313-17
accidents 13 theory 48-83
applications 41-5 early developments 50 5
calculation ol' transverse stability 163 8 . Air duct 70, 71,424
166-8 calculation 410-12
development in UK 9-21 charactcristics 78
dimensions of 386-7, 389-YO configuration 413
dynamic trim 190 loss coelficicnt 411
Factors affecting transverse stability non-dimensional charactcristic curves
168-72 345-6
longitudinal motion in regular waves for non-dimensional characteristics 350
308 22 system 412,413
manceuvrability 206 valves 2 16
moving over deep water 190 3 Air flow coellicient 64
operation modes over ground terrain 122 Air tlow rate 1 3 3 4 , 339,340
over shallow water 1 9 6 6 coefficient 149
water surfacc deformation inlbeyond air determination 407 10
cushion over calm water 190-3 distribution effect 339
weight of 389-90 Air gap 83,128
Aerodynamic force and momcnt 221, 223 Air inlet
Aerodynamic momentum drag 96 inclination angle 417
Aerodynamic profile drag 95-6, 96 of integrated liftipropulsior~systems 414
Aerodynamic yawing moment 226 pressure losses 414
Air clearance 50, 62, 65 Air jet momcnt from cushion to atmosphere
characteristic curves 424 286 7
Air cushion 2, 42 Air jet propulsio~~ 5067
adiabatic stiffness coefficient S48 Air jet strean~lines54
Index 619

Air leakage 79 Bag stern skirt, geometry and analysis of


flow rate of 300, 3 14 1 5 forces in douhlc or lriple 258-60
under SES sidewall 67 Bag to cushion pressure ratio 62, 65. 251
Air lubricatio~l2-3, 9. 48 coefficient 60
Air propellers 507 14 Beam seas, difkrential equations of coupled
blade erosion and its mitigation 514-15 roll and heave motion o l SES in 291
blade types and efliciency 5 0 9 10 Rearings 571
construction 513 Bell Aerospace Corporation 25, 29
diamctcrltip speed relationship 51 1 Bcll-Halter Corporation 29
selection 510, 51 1 Bell Tcxlron Jeff (B) 599
weight 51 3 Bending 469
Air propulsors 21 1-14 Bending moment 470. 470, 471
Air rudders 217 acting on midship section 469-70
Air streamlines 55 cushion-bornc operation 470
Air supply to bow skirt arca 328 hull-borne operation 471
Aluminium alloy 459 transverse 471
Amphibious capability 41,48 Bernoulli cquation 53,412, 495
Amphibious hovercraft 1, 3, 4.4, 274 Bernoulli theory 67
Anti-plough-in BH.7 14, 15.239
hydrofoils 327 BH.11029 30, 29
requirements 453 Blade element theory 499-500. 501, 524
Anti-roll systems 335-6 Blade velocity vector diagram 496
Anti-spray plate 335 Bliss, Demlis l l , 233
Anti-submarine vessels 41, 42 Blohm and Voss 40
AP1.RR 15, 20, 21. 40. 41, 213, 507, 520, 592, Boundary layer thickness 54
594 Bow acceleration 307
API .88400 44 Bow finger tip linc 327
Aprons 271 Bow hydrofoils 3334.334
Archirnedes' principle 66 Row seal during take off, watcr contact
Arctic transport 45 phenomenon of 105
Axial flow pumps 559 Bow skirt
etnergencc 302
Bag and linger bow seal 247 tuck-in 326
Bag and finger bow skirt 153,247,249 Bow skirt area
Bag and finger skirt 49. 52, 55, 59, 62. 71. air supply to 328
129,238,243. 262,451 relative to stern 327
equations for static geometry and force Bow skirt finger tip 258
analysis 251 5 Rowistern acceleration. frequency response
forces aclirig on 263 for 32 1
model tests 250-1 Bowistern seal
static geometry 250-7 and basc-line gap 149
supporting forces acting on joints 2 5 L 7 during heeling, righting moment of 155
Bag and nozzle skirt equipment 326-7
chain connection lor 237 heave stiffness for 328
flexible diaphragm connection 237 relative gap 150
Bag and periccll skirt 243, 244, 261 Bowlstcrn seal drag 102 3
Bag chord length 251 B A . Kolczacv method 103
Bag cushior~pressure ratio 63, 262 MARIC method 102
Bag pressure 59 Rin-lchi Marao mcthod 103
Bag skirt 49 Bowlstern seals 246-9
Bag stern seal 248 interaction 188
620 Index

Bowlstern skirts. height determination 453 static 224-5


Brodrene Aa 3 9 4 0 vertical fins for 208. 209
British Hovel-craft Corporation 10 see also Stability
Britten-Norman 12 Cushion air
compressibility 321, 322-3
Cabin 370, 373 How rate and pressure 71
volu~ne41 2 Cushion altenualion coefficient vs. craft
Captured air bubble 2 3. 246 spccd 465
Cargo vessels 40 Cushion-hornc uperd I'lon
Catamarans l , 42-3, 113 bending nmlnent 470
Cavitation 522 4. 523, 531. 537, 545. 561 in high wews 3 3 6 8
water jets 556 7 Cushion compartmentation l63 4. 169,170
Cavitation tunnel 552 Cushion depth, damping effect of 323
Centrifugal fans 4 2 5 9 , 507 C:ushion dcpthfbcam ralio 359
aerodynamics characteristics 426 Cushion flow coefficient 401
Centrifugal pumps 558 Cushion llow 1-ate334
CG 359,359,461,463,464,469, 564 Cushion fluw rate coefficient 62
China. ACV and SES dzvelopment 32-9 Cushion force 214-16, 222-3, 284
Chong Cheng Shipping Company 35 Cushion geometry 49
Cirrus 39 Cushion height 359
Cohblcstnnc effect 322, 323, 324 Cushion heightlwidth ratio versus transvel.sc
Cockerell. Sir Christopher 3, 7, 9. 48, 233, roll stiffness 360
275 Cushion lcngtbibeani ratio 87. 101, 132,
C:oeHicient f SO 150-1, 330-1,332,357,400
Coefficient of addcd mass 278 Cushio~llift power coefficient 62
Cocfficicnt of clongation 347 Cushion mome11t222 3 . 284
Commercial design parameter5 378 Cushion pi-cssure 41, 50, 5940, 73, 79, 80,
Co~npulerprogram for dilrerential equations 89
of rnolion 290 analysis of forces acting on fingers under
Constant cushion volume 74 264
Constr~~ction cost per unit seat 398 and heave amplitude R1
Contact forces 441 - 2 during plough-in 326
C:ontinuity equation of Iiow 282 tluctuations 277. 324
Control equipment 208 spatial distribution 278
Control surfaces 207-17 trends 401
fcatures 21 6 Cushion prcssure coefficient 60, 62
state of the art 2 1 6 17. 216 Cushion pressure distribution 472, 473
Control bystem colnponeiits 563 \S. ship speed 181
Controllable pitch air propellers (ducted Cushion przssurcllengtl~ratio 89, 132, 149.
propellers) 21 1-13 400
Coordinate system 297-8, 298, 308, 309 Cushion pressure ratio 344
Correction coefficient of wetted surface 109 Cushion stalic prosure 506, 506
Correction coefficient of wetted surface arca Cushion system fans 507
of sidewalls 110 Cushion wave-making drag 98
Couplings 571 Cushioncraft CC1 12
Coursz-keeping ability Cushioncraft CC2 12
and handling 374 Cushiollcraft CC5 12, 507
under qua~.tcringor beam winds 375
Course stability 224-7 Damping coelficienl 7 6 83, 278
analysis 225-7 calculation 77-80
dynamic 225 cxperimer~talmethods 80 2
Index 621

I Damping effect in waves 338


i of cushion depth 323
on seaworthiness 333-5
of non-flush sca-watcr strainers 116 17
of rudders 1 15-1 h

l Dcck area 41-2


Deck plates, dcsign load 473
of shafts (or quill shafts) and boss I l h
of strut palms 116

l1 de Laval, Ciustav 2
Dcsign 4 6 7
concepts 190
inertial loads 461-3
over calm water 120, 130
srr nlsu llydrodynamic drag: Kesidual
drag; Seal dn->*g;Skirt drag; Total drag:
Wave-making drag
leading particulars selection prior to 402 1~)ragIweightratio 94
loads 469 Drivcr tcchniquc 185
i D-shape hags 184,184,25 1
I lnethodology 353-5
parameters 354, 377. 378-9 diaphragms of 2 6 6 5
I checks during design 397 9 DTNSRDC 28
process 377 Duct system characteristic 3 2 3 4
sequence 377 Ilucted falls 515-20
!
Detachable bowistcrn scals 249 duct dcsign 518-19
Lliaphragms 251 fan selection 5 17
installation 451 stators 518
of D-shape bags 264 5 Ductcd propcllcrs 21 1 13. 507. 515
Diesel engines 579,581, 588-96 Ducted propulsors 274. 520
cooling systems 590-4 Dynamic motions 273-341. h04
exhausts 595 historical rcvicw 2 7 4 6
lubrication system 595 Dynamic transverse righting moment of SES
maintenance 610-1 1 159
number of engines and layout 588-90.589 Dynamic trim 156
operation 607-10 on cushion over calm water 200 4,201
reliel' valves 595 over calm water for ACV 308-12
vibration 5 9 4 5 prediction over calm water 200-3
Differential air momentum drag from
leakage under howlstern seals 97 Elastic n~odulus347
Differential equations of couplcd roll and Electrical cquipmcnt, wcight of 396
heave motion in beam seas 291 Elevons 208-10
i
! DilTerential equations of longitudinal Energy equation 141
nlotion in wavcs, block diagram 297. 305 Enginc
Differential equations of motion 223 4, cooling water, hydrodynamic momentum
281-90. 304-7, 317-18 drag due to 115
con~putcrprogram Sor 290 lhilurc modes and clkcts 606
formation 219-20 heating for suh-zero temperatures 584-5
in regular waves 313 monitoring and control systern 6U8
Dimcnsions operating characteristics 581-2
determination 354, 377404 power ranges 579
limitations 399 starting 605
of ACV 386 7. 389-90.403 systclns and controls 607
Disc loading 498 Equations of motion 217
Displacement, ACV 384-97 Equilihrium equation
Docking. strcngth calculation 473 USlbrccs 2 6 5 6
Drag static forces 309-10
components, classification 84-5 Euler number 344
forccs 84-134 Extended szgment skirts 245, 244. 260
in head seas 338 External air stream lines 180
622 Index

External fol-ccs on hull 461-5 Flexible bow seal 135


External response 327 Flexible bowlstern seal 153 4
Flexible skirt 11, 28, 47-9. 52, 56, 91, 100,
Fan air duct 127, 173,232,235
characteristic 323 advantages 232
charactcristic equation 310 development 233
Fan air inletloutlet system 413-19 Flow coefficient 407, 408
Fan blade regulation 21 6 Flow continuity equation 78. 141
Fan characteristic cquatiotl 142 for small perturbations 315-17
Fan charactcristic~284 Flow modes in heaving motion 77. 78
Fan curve gradient 327 Flow rate
Fan flow rate 172 air lcakage 300
Fan inlet air leakage and cross-llow, small
loss coefficient 412 perturbation equation Cor 314 15
pressure recovery coefficient at 412 coefficient 49, 71-3. 345
system 413-17 continuity equation 310-12
Fan outlet system. SES 419 due to mass change ratc of air cushion
Fan overall pressure 412-13 301
Fan speed 148 equation 141
Fans minimum calm water drag 409-10
aerodynamic characteristics 423 Flow rate-pressurc head linear equation with
air How rate 430 small perturbation 313-14
centrifugal 425-9, 507 Flullering 437
cushion system 507 Foil-shaped appendages l l S
efficiency-flow rate characteristics 431 Footprint pressure 41
horizontal arrangement 418-19 France 40
HVAC systems 423 Frequency response
impellcr diameter 428-9 bowistern acceleration 321
noise reduction 430 cushion prcssure 293
non-dimensional characteristic curves heave acceleration 292,319
345-6 heave amplitude 318-19,318
non-dimensional characteristics 350 heave motion 77
off-design operation 422 pitch amplitude 319-20. 319. 333
overall pressure-tlow rate characteristics roll amplitude 293
431 wave exciting force 320
overall pressure head 410 13 wave exciting moment 320
pressure-How characteristic curve 430 Froude Krilov hypothesis 276-7,296
selection of type 420 5. 421 Frotide number 85, X7,91.92, 102, 103, 109,
by means of specific speed 426-8 110, 115, 177,181, 196,338, 348-9
vertical arrangement 418 and wiwe profile 189
see also Ducted fans; Lifl fans Froude scaling relationship 342
Fast Attack SES 44 Fuel and oil, weight of 396
Fast vessels 42 Fuel consumption 397-8
Fatigue endurance of transmission shafts Fuel filtering 606
569-7 1 Fucl system 505
Finger bow skirt 247
Finger height ratio 454 Gap height 12.1
Finger inclination angle 454 Gas turbines 579,583, 596-603,597,602
Fins 217 air intake filtration 601-3, 603
Flagellation 437 air intake How requirements 600
Flat lilt fan 323 4 alarms 605
inflow distortions 600 restoration moment 145
layout and engine sclcction issues 598-9 restoring moment during 223
maintenance 610 l l righting arm 147
noise 603 righting moment of howlstern seal during
operation 610 155
protection from foreign object damage with air cushion compartmentation on
600-1 rigid surface 164
Gearbox 572-3,575 with air cushion compartmcntation on
power flow diagram 574 waler 164
Generators 595 without air cushion compartmentation on
Geometrical dimensions 297-8, 298, 308, 309 water 164
Germany 40 High-performance marinc vehicles,
Goldstein factor 525, 526 classification 2
Corko~~rhunin 127 High-speed marine vehicle typcs I
GriKon Hovercraft 25 HM-2 14-15,20, 330, 356,408
GRP 38,38, 39,459 bow scal 17
Guide wheels on laud 210-11,211 glass reinforced structures under
construction 16
Habitability requirements 365-74 stern seal 17
Halter Marine Inc. 29 HM-5 20
Harbin Shipbuilding Engineering Institute HM-218 16
(HSEI) 32,48 HM-221 18
HD-I 12 Holland 40
HD-2 194 Horizontal air rudders 2 0 8 1 0
Head winds, performance 341 Hovercraft
Hezt generation 28 accidents 13, 13, 14
Heave 273 classification 6
Heave acceleration, frequency response 292, future 45-6
319 historical background 1 4
Heave amplitude 75, 80 principal particulars for carly Chinese and
and cushion pressure 81 British 7
frequency response 318-19.318 see alro ACV: SES
Heave attenuation system 335-6 Hovercraft Development Ltd 10, 11, 275
Heave displacement 81 Hovering damping 76-83
Heave frequency 80 Hoverlloyd 16
Heave motion 76, 76. 81, 306, 341 Hovermarine Limited 14, 18
flow modes in 77,78 Hull
frequency response for 77 design 185
Heave position 83 efficiency 544
Hcavc stability 80, 83 external forces on 461-5
derivatives strength of 464
calculation 77-80 structural design 474. 476
experimental methods 80-2 weight of 393, 397
Heave stiffness for howlstern seals 328 Hull-borne operation, bending moment 471
Heave velocity 8 1. 83 Hump drag 132
HEBA high efficiency fan 431-2 Hump transition speed 364
Heeling 138, 141 HVAC 515
angle 361-2 Hydrodynamic coel'ficients 222
moment 361 Hydrodynamic drag 274
regulation using weight of persons and due to engine cooling water 115
water (oil) ballast 215 see ulso Drag
624 Index

Hydrodynamic forces and moments 221-2 balancing 429


acting on sidewalls 285-6. 295, 303 basic data 427
acting on skirts 294, 301-3 characteristics at small flow rate 429
acting on stern seal 303 impellor speed and diatllctcr 429
Hydrodynamic resistance 1, 178 installation 430, 430
Hydrofoil patrol boat (PHM) 32 prcssure-llow or 296
Hydrofoils 42, 43 selection and design 420 32
anti-plough-in 327 statistics 427
Hydrostatic pressure acting on bottom and tcchnical issues 429-32
sidewalls 473 Lift power 51, 54 5_ 148
Hyperbolic distribution 89 output coefficient 65
versus air inlet location 415
Ice breaker 45 Lift system
Inducer pumps 559 design 406-32
lnllatable diaphragms, tenlion calculation distribution of pressure 406
252 ducting problems 326
lti~ierdraft 132, 133 insufficieticy 326
Inneriouter water lints 126 layout 406
lnncrloutcr watcr surfaccs 188 powcr 412 13
Insulation 370 simulated pressure distribution 411
Internal air stream lines 180 Lining situation, strength calculation 473
Internal wave profiles 177 Limiting roll angles versus relative cushion
Italy 40 height 362
Limiting atress design 564
Japan 40 Liquid load 396 7
JEFF(A) 25.164,241,436,463 Load transporters 45
JEFF(B) 25,96,463 Local loading 471-2
Jct cxtcnsions 49 Longitudinal ccntrc of gravity; see LCG
k t velocity 498 Longitudinal metacentric height 356 60
Jetted air rudder 208 Longitudinal motion
Jcttcd bag typc skirt 235 in rcg~tlarwavcs for ACV 308-22
.Jetted extensiotis 128 it1 waves 296307
Jetted nozzle skirts 236 principal parameters 298
Jcttcd skirt 127 Longitudinal stability kccl (LSK) 139
.Iin Snh River 5. 35 LSD-I 26

3K-SES 28 M10 44
Kaario, Toivio 3 Machinery
Korea 40 control 604-5, 604G.5
space layout 606
LACV-30 26 Maticeuvrability 205-31
Laplace transformation 317 ACV -206 ~

LCAC 25-6.43. 241. 507 basic assumptions and nomenclature 218,


LCAC-001 207 218. 219
LCG 94, 130-2, 130, 131, 185 diflerential equations of motion 217-24
LEBED 23 fcaturcs of ACVISES 205-6
LHD-4 26 key factors 205-7
Life-saving equipment. weight of 395 on ice 376
Lift drag 185 rcquirzments 374-6
ratio 134 MARIC 3, 33-8, 56, 62, 84, 88, 102, 104-6,
Lift fans 2 8 2 4 111. 117. 119, 125, 143,465-7
Index 625

Marine Design & Research Institute of Model 719 433


China. xec MARlC Model 719-11 43,460
Marine propellers Model 7202 35
bladc pitch 529 Model 7203 36
blade sections 521 Model 7205 199
design 520-37 Model experiments 342-52
efficiency 520 Moment of inertia 463
example propeller and shaft layouts for Momentum exchange principle diagram 496
SES 533 Momentum theory 97,493-8, 524, 548-55
fbr SES 535-6 Motion pumping 274
installation 521 Motion standards 360
K, and Ku diagrams 53U Motions in waves 273-341
sclcction proccdurc 526 31, 528 characteristic features of ACV and SES
types 522 2768
Market development 17-22 historical review 2 7 6 6
Matzrials 28 key craft paranlctcrs 278
Mayer velocity distribution 54 short crested waves 3 2 2 4
MCM 31-9,44 MTBO (Mean Time Between Ovzrhaul) 577
dctail dcsign and construction 3 1 2 Multi-bag stern skirt 247
primary design 31 Multi-cell skirt system 165
MCMH 31,40 Multiple engines 579-81
MCR (Maximum Continuous power Rating) MVPP5 15,19,226
577 MVPP15 15
Medium sized patrol SES 32
MEKAT 40 NACA 16 scrics 524
Metacentric height NACA h3 series 51 9
longitudinal 356-60 NACA 66 series 524
transverse 356-60. 3.58 National Rcscarch Dcvclopmcnt
Military applications 43 4 Corporation 10
Military design parameters 378 Needham, C.H. Latimer 11.232
Military SESiACV 32 Nct positivc suction hcad (NPSH) 544, 547,
Military transport vehicles, time interval 561-2
from invention to first application Y Newton's formula 53
Mine countermeasures 11. 30-9 Noise
Mine swccpcrs 41 fans 430
Mixed flow pumps 558 gas turbines 603
Model 711 127, 173 lzvcls 369-72. 370, 372 4. 372
Modcl711 3 138 water jets 539, 540
Model 71 1-1 33,33, 235, 236 Non-flush sea-water strainers, drag of 11G17
Model 711-11 34. 34,214.257.441 Norway 3 9 4 0
Modcl 71 1-111 34, 34,326, 327 Nozzles 546-7
Model 713 189, 327 elevation 547
Model 716 36
Model 71641 37.37 Obstacle clearance capability 375, 376
Model 717 35, 145, 151,151, 188, 189 Oil exploration 22, 39
Model 717-71 36, 356 Oil field applications 4 6 5
Model 717-111 356 Open loop and segment skirt 243, 261
Model 717A 156. 158 Operating modes 136
Model 717C 121, 130, 131, 156, 158, 159, Outline design procedure 535
160, 357 Ovcrdll propulsive efficiency (OPC) 538, 554,
Model 719-11 36 562
626 Index

Overturning 173-85. 175. I82 test dala 180


and yawing angles 183 Anti-plough-in
see al,~o
at high speed 177 85 Position determination 220-3
at low speed 176 Post-hump spced 374
in waves 185-6 Power augmented ram wing (PARWIG) craft
measures for improving resistance to 5-9,6
1835 Power consumption
principal reasons 18&3 in head winds and waves 406
SR.N6 186 per ton-knot 20
Power loss with increased temperature 5 8 4 5
Parabola-shaped sidewalls 114 Power pcr unit seat 398
Parabolic water plancs 114 Power plant
Passenger accommodation 42 limitations 399
Passcnger ferries 44 weight of 395 6
Patrol vessels 40 Power transmission 564-73
Payload factor 397 design criteria 564-~6
Payload fraction 38493 Power unit selection 577-61 1
Peripheral Interfacc Module (PTM) 609 design requirements 604-6
Peripheraljct air cushion 50-1 Powering estimation 585-7, 586, 587
Peripheral jet hovercraft 48 Pressure coefficient 345, 462
Pitch Prcssure-flow of lift fans 296
amplitude, frequency response 319-20, Pressure head equation 283
319,333 Pressureilength ratio 86, 87
angle 306 Propulsion devices, turning tracks ibr 229
damping 333 4 Propulsion system 28, 37, 37, 41, 42
exciting moment 307 design 487-576
motions 340-1 ACV 487
Pitching 273 basic theories 492-504
Planing craft 1,42 methodology 508-9
Planing stern seal 154 SES 488-92
Plate thickness in hull structural design 474, PUC-22 592
476 Puff ports 213-~14.214, 231
Platforming 7 3 4 , 74 Pump
analysis 7 4 6 characteristics. types and selection 555-6
Pleasure craft 44 eficiency 559
Plenum chamber
cushion 8. 52 Quill shafts, drag due to 116
on rigid surface 5 1-2
theory 72 Radial flow pumps 558
Plough-in 173-85, 174, 182, 325 Ram air pressure recovery 417
at high speed 177-85 Range determination 399
boundary 181 Recreation design parameters 379
SR.N6 186 Reduction drives 572-3
cushion pressure during 326 Relative air gap 65
in following waves for SES 324-8 Relative initial static transverse metacentric
internal reasons 326 7 height 148-9.148, 149,150
measures for improving resistance to Relative sidewall thickness 1 4 8 9 , 148
183 5 Relative transvcrse righting arm 150
methods for prevcnting 327-8 Remote monitoring 604-5, 604-5
principal reasons 180-3 Residual drag 84-5
progression 178-80, 179 coellicient of sidewall 115
Index 627

Restoring moment during heeling 223 plough-in in following waves for 3 2 6 8


Retractable water rudder 210. 210 static transverse stability on cushion
Reversing gcar 562-3 1 3 7 52
Reynolds law 342 transverse dynamic stability 152 63
Reynolds number 100, 104, 344,345,349 water surcace deformation inlbeyond air
Ride characteristics 367 cushion on calm water 197-200, 198
Ride control system (RCS) 30, 336, 336, 337 SES-100 86
Ridz quality 43 SES-100A 27,27,28, 30, 85,85. 175, 337
Righting moment of howlstern seal during SES-100B 27, 28
heeling 155 SES-200 30, 30, 39, 86, 336, 336
Rigid body dynamics 277 Shafts and boss, drag due to 116
Rigid bow seal l35 Shallow watcr drag 91
Role naramcters 378-9 Shanghai Hu Ilong Shipyard 35
Roll amplitude, frequency response curves Shaw, R.A. 10
for 293 Shear forces 471
Rolling 273, 280, 285 Sidewail 109
stiNness 359 air leakage 280, 281-2
Rolling angle and craft speed 178 chines 335
Rolls-Royce 'Marine Proleus' gas turbine configurations 66
englnes 13 depth 333
Rotatable nozzles 562 depth ratio 400
Rotating ducted thrusters 213 draft 280, 281-2
Rotating thruster unit 508 geometric configuration 145-8
Rotation derivatives 220-3 hydrodynamic forces and moments acting
Rudders 208-1 1 on 285-6, 295,303
drag of 115-16 inner draft 333
Running attitude 156 9, 158 thickness 66, 357
thickness ratio 332-3, 4 0 2 4
Safety factors 4734. 474, 475 wetted surface of 110
Saunders-Roe Limited 10, 11 Sidewall hovercraft 4, 5
Scaling criteria 351 development in UK 9 22
during static hovering tests 343-8 Sidcwall water friction drag 104-10
over water 348-52 B.A. Kolezaev method 109
Scaling laws 342-52 MARIC method 104-6
Sea Action Group (SAG) 44 mcthod used in Japan 106-8, 108
Seakeeping quality 43 NPL method 109
Seal drag 121 Sidewall wave-making drag l 11-14, 113
coefficient 103 B.A. Kolezaev method 114
Seasickness 368 equivalent cushion beam method 111-13
Seaspeed 16 Hiroomi Ozawa method 1 13-14
Seaworthiness 90, 273-4, 321, 32841,454 Single wall theory 52-5
effcct of principal dimensions 33&3 Skirt
key observations 33941 abrasion and corrosion 434
requirements 3645, 399 abrasion force 441
scaling conditions 352 air feed holes 449-50
Service speeds 43 assembly and manufacturing technology
SES 449 51
applications 41-5 attachments 449
dynamic transverse righting moment of bounce analysis 267-70,268,269,270
159 clearance 79, 82, 171
location of inlets and appendages 188-90 coating 439, 4465, 444
628 Index

Skirt (contd) evolution 235


cumponcnts, force acting on 264 S R N 6 241
contact drag 277-8 state of the art 23549
damage patterns 433 4 Skirt design 232, 433~57
deformability 455 main issues 234
deformation 242 Skirt drag 98-103, 124
delamination 4 3 3 4 , 438 Skirl drag coefficient 134
drag ibrcc 44 1 Skirt fingers 436, 439, 441, 442, 442. 445. 450
dynamic response 271-2 inward inclination angle 454
effect on seaworthincss 328 30 Skirt force (morncnt) 284
Ihilurc modes 435-6, 435 Skirt friction drag 99-101
gcometric features 451. 452 Skirt geometry 453
ground interference drag 124 design 323
hydrodynamic foi-ces acting on 294, 301-3 clastic deformation and hysteresis etTect
impact force 442 250-1
manufacture flow chart 450 Skirt height 328-9, 359
observation under water 238 and cushion beam ratio 358
pressure drag 101-2 ratio 400-1
processing 450 statistics 356
service lik 433 Skirt joints, selection 447-9, 447, 448
shifting installation 215 Skirt lift apparatus 214-15. 215
shifting system 165 Skirt loading 437-41, 437
stiKness 455 prcssure force 437
systcni 184 vibration forces 437
tailoring 449-50 Skirt material 64, 64, 347
tearing 434 open wcavc cloth 443
tcst boxes 343 selection 442-7
test rig 5 6 8 , 5&9. 59. 60 specific weight 44.5, 446
total drag 99 tension and tear strength 443
luck-in at bow skirt 326 test facilities 440
tuck-under 261-7 thickness effect 330
tuck-under boundary 453 Skirtiterrain intcraction drag 121-3
type cffcct on seaworthiness 329-30 SKMR-I 25,463
wave-making drag coellicicnt 101 Slamming 1. 46G7
weight 265-7, 396 forces in wavcs 364-5
weight pcr unit area 346, 349-50 Slipstream jet velocity 497
with extended flexible nozzle 236 Small waterplane thin hull vcsscls (SWATH) 1
Skirt analysis 232. 452-7 S-N curve 569.570
forccs acting on 262-3 Speed
forces analysis for deformed fingcrs 266 degradation 330, 331, 341, 364
hydrodynamic forccs acting on skirts delerrnination 399
running on water 265 improvement 332
Skirt bag Spray suppression skirts 270-1, 272, 456 7
D-type 184, 184 SK.N1 7.7. 10. 11,48-9, 507
tension acting on curved sections 262 SR.N2 11, 13
Skirt configuration 53, 134, 165, 233, 233, SR.N3 11, 12, 13
242-5,244,245, 249.250 SK.N4 11. 12, 13. 14, 16, 17, 239, 330, 330,
amphibious ACV 235 42 331, 331. 333, 361, 368, 418, 441, 463,
BH.7 241 520
design 451-7 drag and thrust curves 119
development 235 49 skirt configuration 240
Index 629

SR.N5 13,76, 173 without cushion compartmentation


SR.N6 13, 14.15, 86, 173, 174. 176, 214,361, 1 70-1
418 transverse stability moment of hcclcd SES
overturning 186 al spccd 160
plougli-in boundary 186 transverse stability trunks 456
SR.N6-012 185 Standing's formula 197
Stability 135 86 Static air cushion characteristics on water
acceptable 137 surface 66-71
and cushion height Static air cushion performance of ACVs on
ACV 355 water surfilcc 68-71, 68, 69
SES 356 Slatic hovering performancc of SES on water
coordinate system of craft l67 66-8
criteria and standards for stability of SES Static hovcriiig tests 343-8
stability in turns 162 Static thiust 5 0 1 4
stability in wavcs 162 Stator systems, design 518
static stability 161-2 Steel 459
damagc requirements 363 Stern bag skirts, geometric parameters 259
design requirements 355 62 Stern double planing bag 247
dynamic stability of ACV travelling ovcr Stern planing rigid seal 247. 249
watcr 173 Stern scal 12S-9. 154
effect of fan flow rate on transverse hydrodynamic forcc acting on 303
stability 01- ACV 172 with air bag 248,248
eflect of stability skirt clearancc on Stern skirt, pressure distribution acting on
transverse stability 171 inner surface 260
effect of various parameters on transvcrse Streamline
slability 14&51 analysis 60-2
in waves 364 diagram 61
internal stability skirts 190 Strength calculation 461
longitudiiial stability trunks 456 Strength of hull 464
rcquirements 399 Strouhal number 346
for large hecling angles 361-2 Structural design 458-86
skirt configurations 261 ACV 459 60
standards 355-62 current state 460
static transversc i~lltialstahility of ACV features 458-60
360 hull 474, 476
static transverse stability of ACV l69 SES 459
static transversc stability on cushion Structural strength
137-52; 143 analysis. former IJSSK 467-73
static transverse stability without LSK calculation 465-7
141-2 Strut palms, drag of 116
transversc dynaiilic stability 152-63 Subcavitating propellers 520. 526
transverse stability 358 Subsystem design 354-5
as function ol' Froude number 177 Supercavitating propcllers 522, 531-7
during lake-off 159-61 outline dcsign procedure 535
effcct of VCG 171-2 Supports 571
factors affecting ACV 168-72 Surface contact propulsion 5 7 6 6
for ACV 163-8 design considerations 574-6
in waves 161 Surhcc cffect ships (SES) I
on cushion in motion 154 9 Sway 273
with flexible bowlstern seals 154-5 Swivelling pylons 211, 212
with rigid stern seal 155-6 Systems 28
630 Index

Tacoma Marine Industries 40 Tuck-under 267


Take-off 1249, 159-61 Turning diameter 374
dynamic stability during 127 Turning pcrformancc 227 31
holes 71 Turning tracks
performance 72 between bank and non bank turn 230
water contact phenomenon of how seal for propulsion devices 229
during 105 Twin bag skirt 154, 451
TCG 162
Teeth 271 UH-15P 502
Thornycroft. Sir John 1. 2 UK 9 2 1 , 4 0
Thrust Underwater appendage drag 115-17
deduction 544 US 25-32
in head seas 338 amphibious craft 25
Thrustllift ratio 181 surface effect ship development 26-30
Torsion 469 USSR (formcr) 22-5,22-3
Torsion load 470, 470 Utility applications 44
Torsional stress 564 Utility craft 45, 590
Total drag 85 Utility design parameters 378-9
of ACV model 71 1-IIA 118
of ACV model 7202 118 VA.1 to 3 series 11
over water 1 17-21 Variable depth sonar (VDS) 32
ACV 117-19, 117,118 Variable-pitch ducted fans 516
SES 119 21 Variable-pitch propeller hub construction
skirt 99 and controlsystem 514
Total system weight 577-9, 578 VCG171 2
Transmission configuration 5 8 2 ~ 4 Velocitv streamlines 501. 502
Transmission shaft Vertical acceleration 320, 335. 336. 365-8,
design factors 566 366,367
design load case matrix 568 Vertical fins for course stability 208, 209
design stresses 566-8 Vertical rudder 208, 209
fatigue endurance of 569-71 Vessel trim 604
sections for analysis 567 Vibration 28, 31, 368, 47686
Transport eficiency 397 absorption 478-82
Transverse metacentric height 162, 356-60. acceptahle levels 480
158 analysis 479
Transverse motions of SES in beam seas assessment 485
279-94 critical operational frequencies 484
Transverse righting moment 160,295 damping 370-2
Transverse roll stiffness versus cushion design 481
heightlwidth ratio 360 detail design phase 4 8 3 ~ 5
Transverse shift of ccntrc of cushion area diesel engines 5 9 6 5
165-6, 165,166 during construction 485
Trim 187-204 exciting force 482
angle 181, 182. 185 high operational speed 477
calculation 153 4 TSO 2372 and I S 0 3945 standards 4 7 ~
factors influencing 188 low natural frequency 476
prediction above hump speed on calm malfunctions caused by 477
water 203-4 permissible rules 482
regulation using weight of persons and preliminary design phase 482-3
water (oil) ballast 215 severe and supcrharmonic excitation
TSL-A 600.601 source 476
1

Index 631

tests and trials 486 Wave impact


watcr jets 540 force distribution 472-3
Vickers 12 loading coefficient 462
Vortex theory 524 6 presrul-e 463-5,464
Viya,ycur 96 Wave interference 323
VT.2 14, 15 Wave-making drag 86-93, 90, 91.92, 94, 94,
97
Waban Aki 45 coefficient 88, 8 9 , 9 6 5
Wake factors 544 coeflicient of slender sidcwalls 114
Warner, D.K. 3 influence of water depth 92
Watcr contact plienomcnon of bow seal ratio 91
during take-off 105 Wave-making drag-lift ratio 89
Water jets 537 64 Wave profilc
advantages 538 and Froude number 189
cavitat~on556-7 bcyond cushion, 1ilodel7205 199
efficiency 492,521, 522, 548 54,549,551, inloff cushion due to moving rectangular
557 air cushion 193
flush-type inlet 538 Wave pumping 274, 278
geometries 541 concept 49,73-6
inlet losses 544 6 motion 74. 74
inlet velocity 560-1 rate 75-6
inlet with sccondary slow specd intake 546 WD-901 37.37, 3 8 , 189
integrated control systems 5 6 3 4 WD-902 38
KaMcWa 522 Wcapon systems 32, 42
noise 539, 540 Weber number 100, 349
overall propulsivc cficiency (OPC) 538, Weight
554, 562 components 379 80
performancc 540-1 distribution 38.5. 388
physical dimensions 540 equilibrium equation 142
prcssure effects around intake 553 of ACV 389~90,403
selection 543, 550, 559-62 of air propellers 51 3
steering 562 3 of deck equipment and painting 3 9 3 4
tlirusl vs. craft speed 558 of electrical equipment 396
vibration 540 of equipment 394
weight vs. inlet diameter 562, 563 of fuel and oil 396
Watcr propulsor types 491 of hull 393, 397
Water surfacc deformation 189, 192 of life-saving equipment 395
at inboard profile 194 of mctallic structure 393
HD-2 194 of power plant 395-6
inlbcyond ACV air cushion over calnl o f ship systems 395
water 190 6 of skirt systcm 265-7, 346. 349 50, 396
iniheyond SES air cushion on calm water of water-jet unit 562, 563
197-200. 198 vs, displacement 394
Water surface profile 192 Weight classilication
Wavc amplitude 1 9 6 7 former USSR 381-2
Wave equation 298-9, 312 high-speed boats 382 4
Wave exciting force, frequency response ibr MARIC 380
320 USSR 381
Wave exciting moment, frequency response Western countries 382
for 320 Weight estimate 379-84
Wave height 338,340 checklist 391-2
632 Index

West, A A . 52-5, 63 Wing in ground ell'cct machines (WIG and


Wcstland AircraSt Limited 1 1 PAKWIC;) I . 5 9 . 6
Wetted surlhcc Work boats 45
corrzction coefficierlt o l 109
of sidewalls 104. 106. 107, 110 XR-I 138
Wetted hurlhcc area, correction coefficient XR-IA 26, 26
107, 108 XR- I D 30
Wetted surface5 188 XR-S 29
Whirl speed 568 9
Wind direction and speed 228 Yaw 92. 9 6 5 . 273
Wind tunnel model lcsts 347 Yawing angles and overturning 183
Wind tunnel tcsts 343