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PROJECT C-560

MINERA CHINALCO PERU S.A.

TOROMOCHO PROJECT

Document No. 000-GD-P-006

Piping Design Criteria


Aker Solutions Owner Approval: J. Wigle
333, E. Wetmore Road, Suite 600
Tucson, AZ 85705-1799 Date: 03 April 08

REV DATE BY CHK APPROVAL DESCRIPTION

A 02/14/08 DC BS ISSUED FOR INTERNAL REVIEW


B 03/20/08 DC BS RC ISSUED FOR CLIENT APPROVAL

0 03/31/08 DC BS AI ISSUED FOR CONSTRUCTION


1 12/29/08 HBC CGB EH/JO/AF RE-ISSUED FOR DESIGN
2 06/15/09 TG JBS RC RE-ISSED FOR DESIGN DETAIL ENGG.

DISTRIBUTION A B C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Client 03/24 4-3 6-15

Procurement

Field

Internal 02/14 4-3

4-3
Note: Signed originals on file
Project C-560
Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

INDEX
PAGE

1 SCOPE ...........................................................................................................................4

2 CODES AND STANDARDS ...........................................................................................4

3 PIPING DESIGN .............................................................................................................6

4 FITTINGS AND FLANGES...........................................................................................19

5 VALVES........................................................................................................................20

6 GASKETS.....................................................................................................................21

7 PUMPS AND COMPRESSOR PIPING ........................................................................21

8 COMPRESSED AIR LINES..........................................................................................22

9 INSULATION AND HEAT TRACING ...........................................................................22

10 STEAM LINES ..............................................................................................................22

11 UNDERGROUND PIPING ............................................................................................23

12 PIPING FOR CORROSIVE OR HAZARDOUS SERVICE............................................24

13 PIPING FOR SLURRY SERVICE.................................................................................24

14 UTILITY SERVICE PIPING...........................................................................................25

15 FUELS ..........................................................................................................................25

16 FIRE PROTECTION .....................................................................................................26

17 PIPE SLEEVES ............................................................................................................26

18 SEWERS AND BUILDING PLUMBING .......................................................................27


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Piping Design Criteria
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19 VENTS AND DRAIN .....................................................................................................28

20 PIPING LINE LIST ........................................................................................................29

21 PIPING MATERIALS AND COLOR CODING..............................................................29

22 TANKS..........................................................................................................................29

23 PIPING CALCULATION DESIGN CRITERIA ..............................................................30

24 ATTACHMENTS...........................................................................................................43

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Project C-560
Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

1 SCOPE

This Piping Design Criteria shall be used by design personnel as a guide for design of
process and services piping systems, preparation of drawings, preparing bills of material,
and writing of piping specifications for the Toromocho Project, property of Minera
Chinalco Per S.A.

Piping Material Classes, General Specification 000-GD-P-007, is a part of this Design


Criteria.

Special consideration must be taken for equipment and material at the plant site related
to the altitude and climatic conditions. (See Appendix A, Standard Technical and Site
Data).

2 CODES AND STANDARDS

All piping work shall conform to Peruvian Standards, applicable Norm Regulations,
codes and ordinances, if there are.

All material, fabrication, assembly and installation, where applicable, shall conform to the
current editions of the following codes and standards:

Standard Title
ANSI American National Standard Institute
A13.1 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems
A40.8 National Plumbing Code
API American Petroleum Institute Standards
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping (for piping
within plant boundary limits).
ASME B31.1 Code for Power Piping
ASME B31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping System
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
ASTM American Society for Testing Materials
ASTM A53 B Pipe Steel, Black and Hot Dripped. Zinc Coated, Welded and
Seamless
ASTM A105 Carbon Steel Forgings for piping Applications
ASTM A106 B Seamless Carbon Steel pipe High Temperature Service
ASTM A181 Carbon Steel Forgings For General Purpose Piping
ASTM A182 Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel pipe Flanges, forged
Fittings and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service
ASTM A193 Alloy Steel Bolting material high temperature
ASTM A194 Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts High-Pressure and High-
Pressure and High-Temperature Service

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

Standard Title
ASTM A234 Piping Fittings of Wrought Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel for
Moderate and Elevated Temperatures
ASTM A240 Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for
pressure Vessels and for General Applications Seamless,
Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel
Pipes
ASTM A312 Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic
Stainless Steel Pipes
ASTM A403 Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings
ASTM A536 Ductile Iron Casting
ASTM D3350 HDPE
AWS American Welding Society
AWWA American Water Works Association Inc
CGA Compressed Gas Association
FM Factory Mutual Engineering Division Recommended Practices
HI Hydraulic Institute
IAPMO International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials,
Uniform Plumbing Code
IBC International Building Code, 2006
MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and
Fittings Industry
NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers (RP0294-94 for
sulphuric acid tanks)
NFC National Fire Codes
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
UBC Uniform Building Code
UFC Uniform Fire Code
UL Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. Standards

As indicated above the following specifications are applicable to this document and shall
be used in conjunction with this Design Criteria:

000-GD-T-001 , Process Design Criteria


000-GD-P-007, Piping Material Classes
000-GD-P-106, Fire Protection Design Criteria
140-GD-P-001, Truck Shop piping Design Criteria
000-GD-S-002, Civil, Structural and Architectural Design Criteria
Appendix A, Standard Technical and Site Data

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

2.1 Specialty Piping Items

Where specialty piping items are not adequately covered in the above
documents, they shall be designed and engineered to meet the requirements of:

EJMA Expansion Joint Manufactures Association Design Standards


MSS Manufactures Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings
Industry standard Practices
PFI Pipe Fabrication Institute Standards
SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioner Contractors National Association

Equivalent standards of other countries may be accepted subject to Aker


Solutions review and written approval.

In the event of conflict between the applicable codes and standards, or with
drawings and specifications, the primary referenced code shall govern. Unless
otherwise indicated on the specific section of this specification, the primary code
shall be ASME B31.3.

3 PIPING DESIGN

3.1 GENERAL

Piping design and arrangement shall follow the appropriate section of the latest
edition of the Standard Code for Pressure Piping ASME B31.1 and the job
specifications and instructions. Where there is a conflict between this guide and
the specific job instructions, the latter shall prevail.

Process design conditions, commodity, pressure and temperature, corrosion


allowances, etc. shall be used to classify each pipeline in accordance with the
material specifications prepared for the project.

Material class specifications have been assigned according to the service,


commodity in the line, the pressure, the temperature, and the corrosion
allowance required. See Piping Material Classes, General Specification 000-GD-
P-007.

Dynamic loading may be expected when high velocity flow, fluctuating


temperature or pressure, or mechanical vibration (including wind and seismic)
conditions exist. Piping subject to dynamic loading will be designed to ensure
that its size, configuration, mechanical strength, supports, and restraints will
prevent excessive stress or vibration.

For start-up, shutdown, or abnormal operation, the pressure or temperature or


both may be allowed temporarily to exceed the basic design pressure. The effect

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

of water hammer shall be verified. Allowances for pressure and temperature


variations shall be in accordance with the applicable ASME Code, B31.1, B31.3,
or B31.4.

Cathodic protection for buried steel pipes shall be included in a separate field
sub-contract services documents. Details are shown on electrical drawings.

Where a line with a lower pressure rating connects to a line or equipment with a
higher pressure rating, it shall take the specification of the higher rating and
including the first block valve, or and including the second valve when double
block valves are used. All class breaks shall be shown on both the P & IDs and
the piping drawings.

No reduction in line size shall be made on the downstream side of control valves.

Consideration shall be given to the possibility of water hammer occurrence in


pipeline systems. A complete and detailed hydraulic analysis shall be done on
the system. The application and use of slow closing valves, surge arrestors,
bleeding of liquid, vacuum relief valve and even the slowing of the fluid velocity
with the use of larger pipe shall be considered to minimize water hammer.

All branch lines shall be provided with block valves at or near the header.

When design pumps manifolds or other particular facilities, including lined pipes
and fittings, the maximum of uniformity and interchangeability of pieces shall be
considered and spare or replacement parts shall be supplied.

Process yard pipes shall have flanged joint each 250 meters and for process
areas each 36 meters.

All piping work shall be designed according to the wind seismic conditions and
parameters in Appendix A.

3.2 FLEXIBILITY

Thermal expansion and contraction of HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) and


other plastic pipes shall be considered in the design based on fluid temperature
and/or environmental conditions.

In order to prevent excessive stresses in any piping system, allowance for


thermal expansion and/or contraction shall be made by the use of bends, loops,
offsets and adequate supports. Welded long radius forged fittings may be used
where bends are not practicable. Packed slip joints shall not be used.
Expansion provisions shall conform to ASME B31.3 limited as herein specified.

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Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

Expansion joints along the pipe systems shall be avoided, but if required based
on layout restrictions, they shall be fully capable of withstanding at least 1-1/2
times the normal movement and all working stresses imposed on them by the
pressure and temperature of the contained fluid and the expansion of the pipeline
and anticipated transient.

If expansion joints are used, piping upstream and downstream from expansion
joints shall be guided, anchored and supported so no misalignment can occur.

Expansion joints shall be installed on pump discharges to facilitate pump


replacement during maintenance and to relieve pipe stress on the pumps.

Where space permits, an offset-type of expansion bend shall be used and


designed in accordance with ASME B31.3

3.3 CLEARANCES

Minimum vertical clearance for overhead piping shall be as indicated below:

Over railroads 7,050 mm (23 ft)


Over main roadways 6,100 mm (20 ft) minimum
Over secondary 4,300 mm (14 ft)
roadways
Over access ways 3,700 mm with 2,800 mm along sides for
within project limits branches

Dimensions as indicated above shall be up to the bottom of the pipes or up to the


pipe racks supporting structures.

Platforms and main walkways shall have generally a minimum lateral clearance
of 900 mm 750 mm at man way covers, local walkways and elevated walkways.

Flanges and drain fittings shall clear the trench floors by 80 mm minimum.

Clearance between the sides of pipes to the equipment shall not be less than
1,500 mm.

Where an access way is required between adjacent equipment, a minimum


clearance of 750 mm shall be provided between the outside of flanges to units
and adjacent piping or support columns, etc. Where no access way is required
between adjacent units, 450 mm nominal clearance shall be provided.

Any deviations from the clearances mentioned above must be approved by Aker
Solutions and shown on the drawing.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
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Rev. 2

3.4 ACCESSIBILITY

Valves and control valve manifolds in overhead and under floor piping systems
and in piping at process equipment shall be located so they are readily and
safety accessible for operation and maintenance. All manual valves shall be
operable from grade or a platform, or be chain operated.

Passage between unit areas shall be kept free of piping at grade. Lines may be
laid below grade or a ramp may be provided for access.

Where maintenance access precludes the use of forklifts or similar lifting devices,
overhead cranes or hoists shall be utilized. Should piping restrict overhead
access, removable spools shall be provided.

3.5 SUPPORTS AND ANCHORS

Pipe supports, guides, hangers and anchors shall conform to ASME B31.3,
limited as herein specified.

Supports for plastic HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) pipes shall be adequate
to prevent sagging due to the weight of the pipe and its contents. The
manufacturers recommendation shall be followed.

Supports and bracing shall be designed to minimize vibration.

Lines for corrosive liquids and slurries that operate intermittently and require
draining shall be sloped from end to end. The sag at mid span between adjacent
supports shall not exceed the change in elevation between these supports.

Shoes, saddles or other adequate means of protecting insulation shall be


provided at all pipe supports on horizontal runs of insulated piping.

Piping and support systems shall be designed so that longitudinal expansion or


side thrust forces transmitted to structures are minimized.

Pipe guides shall be of the sliding shoe or roller type. Clips are acceptable for
small piping 50 mm (2 in.) nominal size and smaller.

Hangers shall be of the clamp type (preferred) or cleaves depending on size of


pipe. Supports shall provide a structural chair for piping in lieu of hangers where
practical. U-bolt supports attached to the underside of a structural member are
not acceptable.

Anchoring may be done by welding the web of a structural tee section to a


reinforced section of the pipe and the flanges of the T to the supporting

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
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Rev. 2

structure. Welded circumferential straps attached to the pipe and to the


supporting structure are also acceptable.

Anchors for HDPE pipes shall be designed to prevent lateral displacement and
movement at fittings. Anchors will be installed as close as possible to flanges
and changes in direction, in accordance with recommendations of manufacturers.

Alloy steel pipe, rubber or HDPE lined pipes and plastic pipes that cannot be
welded to carbon steel tee anchors shall be anchored by clamping in place.

Insulated pipe shall rest on supports or be suspended by hangers. A tee section


shoe or saddle shall be welded to the pipes to protect insulation.
Expansion bends and piping shall be designed so that flange bolting is not over-
stressed.

All lines shall be designed so that expansion forces and moments transmitted to
equipment is less than that allowed by the equipment. Expansion joints and
loops shall be provided as required.

Piping sections requiring frequent dismantling for maintenance, such as for the
installation of blinds or removal of equipment, shall be provided with permanent
supports for the dismantled conditions.

PVC or other plastic pipe shall be supported in accordance with the


manufacturers recommendations, or be continuously supported by the use of
cable trays or structural angles in Vee position or channels.

Main supports shall be design in coordination with the structural discipline, in


order to consider the seismic effects (see General Design Criteria 000-GD-C-
002, and Appendix A).

3.5.1 Pipeways

Pipeways will be sized for present requirements plus 10%, with a


minimum of 450 mm oversized.

When pipeways would be used for future expansions will be sized for
present requirements plus 40% (minimum).

Pipeway bent spacing shall be determined based on the maximum


span for the smallest diameter of pipe on the pipeway, to eliminate
intermediate pipe supports to the extent practical. The recommended
minimum pipe size in the pipeway shall be 50 mm (2 in).

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

3.5.2 Support Spacing

The preferred maximum pipe support spacing for individual lines is


governed by Table I that follows. The simple beam formula shall be
used for lines supported by two pipe supports. The two span formulas
shall be used for lines supported by three or more supports.

Stress and deflection calculations shall be performed where these


spans are exceeded, or where lines are subject to the following
conditions:

a. Lines having substantial concentrated loads such as


valves, unsupported vertical risers and branches.
b. Lines having a local reduction in strength caused by
the use of special devices.

TABLE I:

PIPE MATERIAL
Nominal Pipe
Size HDPE
Carbon Steel Stainless Steel
(Water or similar)
Max. Span Max. Span O.D. Max. Span
Sch.
mm In Sch. Min. (m.) (m.) (mm) (m.)
Min.

20 40 2.0 40s 1.5 63 1500


25 1 40 2.1 40s 1.5 75 1650
40 11/2 40 2.7 40s 1.8 90 1800
50 2 40 3.0 40s 2.1 110 2000
80 3 40 3.7 5s 2.7 125 2130
100 4 40 4.3 5s 3.0 140 2250
150 6 40 5.2 5s 4.0 160 2400
200 8 40 5.8 5s 4.6 180 2560
250 10 40 6.7 10s 4.6 200 2700
300 12 Std wt 7.0 10s 4.6 225 2850
350 14 Std wt 7.6 10s 4.6 250 3000
400 16 Std wt 8.2 10s 4.6 280 3000
450 18 Std wt 8.5 10s 4.6 315 3000
500 20 Std wt 9.1 10s 4.6 355 3000
600 24 Std wt 9.8 10s 4.6 1000 3000

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

3.6 CONTROL VALVE MANIFOLDS

Control valve installations shall be evaluated according to service, and bypasses


shall be provided only when necessary, as shown on the P&IDs.

Where the control valve is line size, the block valves shall be line size. Where
the control valve is smaller than line size, a pressure drop study shall be made
and where possible, the block valves shall also be the same size, as the control
valve.

Bypass valves shall be sized to have a flow coefficient (Cv) at least equal to that
of the fully opened control valve. The bypass valve shall be the throttling type of
valve as specified in Piping Material Classes 000-GD-P-007, according to the
service commodity and material class. The particular drains shall be installed
between the upstream block valve and the control valve.

3.7 PIPING MATERIAL CLASSES AND IDENTIFICATION

The design temperature, pressure and the service commodity in the line
determine the line material class. The material class shall be identified as
illustrated in paragraph 3.8.3.

Piping material will agree with document 000-GD-T-001, Process Design Criteria
and 000-GD-P-007, Piping Material Classes.

3.8 PIPING DRAWINGS

3.8.1 Layout

Piping layouts shall be in sufficient detail to clearly indicate all


crossovers, clearances, intersections, anchors, supports, expansion
provisions, special equipment, and connections to apparatus. Single
line layouts shall be used as much as possible. Piping drawing scale
shall be 1:50. Underground piping drawings may be drawn to 1:100
or the plot plan scale. Exception: Process or utility piping intended
for field route may be drawn on 1:3000 or on an existing drawing to
show general routing guide.

3.8.2 Drawings Nomenclature

Abbreviations and symbols used on drawings are listed on the project


process and instrument piping legends.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

3.8.3 Line Marking

Line markings shall be done on piping drawings by lettering adjacent


to the line, repeated sufficiently to designate the entire line. Each line
shall be designated for design purposes with symbols indicating the
facility number where line originates, the service commodity, line
number, piping class and line size in inches. For service commodity
listing and piping class, see 000-GD-P-007. The following example
illustrates the method of line marking:

DD-FFF-GGG-001-MMM-XX 2

DD = Pipe size (inches)


FF(F) = Fluid code, 2 or 3 characters
GGG = Area number
001 = Sequential line number by area
MM(M) = Pipe material specification, 2 or 3 characters
XX = Insulation Purpose (If required)

(*) For plastic pipes (HDPE) use line size according to equivalence
shown on Table II.

Example: 4 ASH 284 003 F5

3.8.4 Valves Marking and Specialty Items

The Valves and Specialty Items (VASI) are identified with a unique
Code No. and a description of the materials of construction for the
body, trim, seal and seat. The nominal pipe size is included when
shown on the P&IDs and listed on the material requisitions.

Where: DD XX- YY

DD = Valves or Specialty Item size in inches


XX = Type and code valve or Specialty Items
YY = Identifier

See detailed valve description on the following Table.

Example: 4C2

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
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TABLE II: VALVES & SPECIALTY ITEMS DESCRIPTION

VALVES SPECIALTY ITEMS

Series A Ball Valves SPE Safety Showers and Eyewashes


Series B Butterfly Valves SPH Hose and Fittings
Series C Check Valves SPJ Expansion Joints
Series D Diaphragm Valves SPN Spray Nozzles
Series E Globe Valves SPS Temporary Start-up Strainers
Series G Gate Valves SPT Steam and Air Traps
Series H Hydrants SPV Air Vents
Series K Knife Gate Valves SPX Fire Alarm Valves
Series N Needle Valves SPY Wye and Basket Strainers
Series P Pinch Valves SPZ Valve Accessories and
Miscellaneous
Series U Plug Valves
Series DV Dole Valves

TABLE III: DIAMETERS EQUIVALENCE FOR DIFFERENT PIPING MATERIAL

PIPING MATERIAL
NOMINAL CARBON STEEL STAINLESS STEEL HDPE
CPVC OR PVC
DIAMETER N. D. / O. D. N. D. / O. D. (mm)
(mm)
(in) (mm) (mm) (Note 1)
15 / 21.30 15 / 21.30 20 15
20 / 26.70 20 / 26.70 25 20
1 25 / 33.40 25 / 33.40 32 25
1 40 / 48.30 40 / 48.30 50 40
2 50 / 60.30 50 / 60.30 63 50
3 80 / 88.90 80 / 88.90 90 80
4 100 / 114.30 100 / 114.30 110 100
6 150 / 168.30 150 / 168.30 180 150
8 200 / 219.10 200 / 219.10 225 200
10 250 / 273.10 250 / 273.10 280 250
12 300 / 323.90 300 / 323.90 315 300
14 350 / 355.60 350 / 355.60 355 350
16 400 / 406.40 400 / 406.40 400 400
18 450 / 457.00 450 / 457.00 450 450
20 500 / 508.00 500 / 508.00 500
22 550 / 559.00 550 / 559.00 560
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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

PIPING MATERIAL
NOMINAL CARBON STEEL STAINLESS STEEL HDPE
CPVC OR PVC
DIAMETER N. D. / O. D. N. D. / O. D. (mm)
(mm)
(in) (mm) (mm) (Note 1)
24 600 / 610.00 600 / 610.00 630
28 700 / 711.00 700 / 711.00 710
30 750 / 762.00 750 / 762.00
32 800 / 813.00 800 / 813.00 800
36 900 / 914.00 900 / 914.00 900
40 1,000 / 1016.00 1,000 / 1016.00 1,000

Note 1: O.D. is based on DIN Standards for HDPE.


Note 2: N.D. = Nominal Diameter; O.D = Outside Diameter

3.9 PIPE SIZES AND SIZING

All piping shall be in accordance with the Piping Material Classes 000-GD-P-007.
Except for lines in which velocities are of critical importance, the following
nominal pipe sizes shall be avoided: 10 mm (3/8-in), 32 mm (1-1/4-in), 65 mm (2-
1/2-in), 90 mm (3-1/2-in) and 125 mm (5-in).

With the exception of instrument leads, the minimum size of a line to be run
overhead shall be 25 mm (1 in) unless otherwise approved by Aker Solutions.
This size may be reduced to 20 mm (3/4 in) where the run is not over 6.100 mm
in length and connecting to steam traps or moisture traps, hose connections or
similar short runs.

3.9.1 Valves

Pipeline block valves shall be the same size as the line unless
calculation indicates otherwise. In no case shall the pump suction
valve be smaller than the size of the pump inlet. Valves on pump
discharge piping shall be the same as the line size.

Block valves (root valves) at main line takeoffs shall meet the
specification for the main line.

3.9.2 Water and clear liquids process lines

Long lines shall be sized by applying good design practices with


consideration given to the economics involved.
Flanged joints shall be provided for dismantling long lines, 250 m
maximum intervals.
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Clear liquid lines shall be sized so the velocity is low for small sizes,
increasing in proportionate amounts for larger sizes. The NPSH
calculation shall always be considered for all pump suctions.
All service lines shall be sized so that pressure does not drop below
minimum requirements at the end of the most resistant branch line
with design flow in that line.
Branch lines shall be sized based on pressure drop available. When
the velocity based on pressure drop available exceeds the
recommended velocities or if the excess pressure is objectionable, a
flow restriction orifice shall be provided and the line size will be based
on recommended velocities.
Generally, fluid velocity for water and similar viscosity fluids shall be
following:

VELOCITY AT: PIPE DIAMETER

Pipe Diameter (mm) 254 (10) 304.8 (12) to > 609.6 (24)
609.6 (24)
Pump Suction (m/s) 0.5 to 1.0 1.0 to 1.5 1.2 to 1.6

Pump Discharge &


Gravity Pipes (m/s) 1.0 to 1.5 1.5 to 2.2 2.0 to 3

3.9.3 Steam and Gases Lines

Steam velocity shall be in the 25 to 35 m/s range. Pressure drop shall


be limited to 10% of the initial/upstream pressure.

Air compressed lines shall be sized with a velocity of 8 to 12 m/s for


main pipes and 20 m/s, as a maximum for branch. The maximum
pressure drop will not exceed 10 percent of the initial line pressure,
with full capacity being delivered at the end of the line.

For air blower line (low pressure), shall be sized with a velocity of 4 to
5 m/s and a maximum drop pressure will not exceed 5 % of the initial
line pressure.

Moisture of steam and gas lines shall be provided with drip legs and
automatic moisture traps.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

3.9.4 Sulfuric Acid Lines

Fluid velocity for concentrated sulfuric acid shall be equal or less than
0.5 m/s in case of carbon steel pipe and 1.0 m/sec for stainless steel
pipes.

3.9.5 Gravity Flows

Pressurized pipes: The calculated head losses will be affected by the


factor 1.2.
Aqueducts: The maximum calculated flow height will be a 60% of the
diameter of the pipe.

For open channels the freeboard will be 1.5 velocity heads, as a


minimum.

3.9.6 Pipe Wall Thickeness

Except as noted, pipe wall thickness shall be calculated in accordance


with ASME B31.3 latest revision, and to this a corrosion allowance
shall be added. The corrosion allowance shall be as specified in 000-
GD-P-007, Piping Material Classes.

For all pipes the calculated working pressure shall be less than the
maximum pressure shown on Piping Material Classes, 000-GD-P-
007.

As an exception, the working pressure for HDPE pipes shall be 80%


of maximum pressure shown on Piping Materials (or 80% of
manufactures nominal pressure). If the HDPE piping system requires
more working pressure, a carbon steel pipe with HDPE lining can be
used. For design pressure, the higher pressure between the
calculated water hammer and the pump shut-off head shall be
considered.

3.9.7 Changes of Direction

Changes in direction on piperacks or parallel pipe runs shall not be


made on a horizontal plane. Provisions shall be made in piperacks to
allow for the changes in elevation.

When using steel pipe, changes in direction shall be made with fittings
or bends.
Butt-welding elbows are preferred over bends.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

All butt-welding elbows shall be of the long-radius type unless


otherwise noted. Short radius elbows shall be avoided unless space
limitations require their use.

The use of reducing elbows shall be limited to installations where


space does not permit the use of a long radius elbow and a weld
reducer.

Pipe bends can be used for hydraulic oil piping, the bends shall have
a minimum bending radius of five times the nominal pipe diameter,
except where noted on drawings. If space does not permit, bends of
three-diameter may be used with the approval of the Aker Solutions
design supervisor.

One-weld miter elbows may be used for large air compressor intake
lines. Multiple-weld miter elbows (see AWWA C-208) may be used
for low pressure services and auxiliary vent and flare lines. Pressure
rating of mitered elbows and bends shall be verified by Aker Solutions
and shall meet ASME B31.3 requirement.

3.9.8 Threaded Connection

Threaded connections shall not be used on pipes over 50 mm (2 in)


diameter.

Provide adequate unions to facilitate assembly and disassembly of


threaded connections. Provide adequate clearances for removal and
installation of threaded valves without disassembling valve.

Threaded connections are not permitted in hydrocarbon and sulfuric


acid service, except for:

Threaded pressure gauges.


Threaded instrument meter bodies.
Small thermal relief valves.
Equipment connections, which cannot be obtained other than
threaded.
Where threaded connections are specifically required and found
acceptable to code.

The use of all-welded systems decreases accessibility for


maintenance and inspection of piping. The piping designer shall
provide piping systems with sufficient flanges or unions for
maintenance and inspection.
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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

3.9.9 Branches

The design and use of welded branch connections shall conform to


the requirements of ASME B31.3 and Piping Material Classes,
Specification 000-GD-P-007, supported by calculations.

Where vibration may be anticipated, joints shall be butt-welded and


valves shall be flanged.

3.9.10 Instrument Air Piping

Field routed instrument air branch lines shall be provided with


accessible root valves at the header. The responsibility for providing
the branch connection and the root valve lies with the piping
discipline, responsibility for downstream piping tubing or devices lies
with the instrumentation discipline.

Branch instrument air piping shall be taken off at the top of the
header.

4 FITTINGS AND FLANGES

Screwed fittings shall be Class 300 per ANSI B16.3, Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings,
minimum.

Reducing tees may be used for connections provided the branch is not reduced more
than two pipe sizes. Where used, it shall be indicated on the drawings. Butt-fused
HDPE reducing tees shall not be used.

HDPE fittings will be molded up to 10 diameter and will be mitered for diameter greater
than 10.

Flange types are denoted on individual piping material classes specifications. The bore
of welding neck flanges shall match the inside diameter of the pipe.

Steel flanges mating with ANSI Class 125 iron, FRP, plastic and rubber-lined pipe
flanges shall be the corresponding ANSI Class 150 flat face with full face gaskets.

Gasket is required on rubber faced joints. Steel flanges mating with ANSI Class 250 cast
iron flanges shall be ANSI Class 300 raised face.

Facing for flanges in joints containing spiral wound gaskets shall be smooth finished to a
roughness measurement in the range of 3.2 to 12.5 microns (125 to 500 micro in) RMS.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

Forged steel welding fittings are preferred over cast iron fittings. Cast steel welding
fittings or flanges shall be considered where the cost advantage is appreciable and they
meet specification.

The design will only consider standard fittings. Special fittings shall be approved by Aker
Solutions piping supervisor.

Permanent dead ends in pipelines are prohibited in hydrocarbon, corrosive or potable


water service.

For lined pipes and fittings, the use of standard pipes and fittings shall be maximized.

5 VALVES

Gate valves, ball valves or plug valves shall be used in wide open or closed (on-off)
service. Gate valves shall not be used in throttling service. Tight shutoff valves shall be
used on low temperature light hydrocarbons, gas, propane, fuel oil, compressed air
piping and in other services where required.

For throttling service, use globe valve for sizes up to 100 mm (4 in), butterfly valves for
150 mm (6 in) and larger. For low pressure slurry application, pinch valve shall be used
for throttling.

The use of angle valves shall be avoided, except for fire protection use.

Unless otherwise indicated on the drawings, the valves shown at Table IV shall be
furnished with a manual, variable position gear operator.

TABLE IV:

Valve Type ANSI Class Size (in)


Gate Valves 150 350 mm (14) & larger
300 300 mm (12) & larger
Globe Valves 300 200mm (8) & larger
Ball Valves 150 150mm (6) & larger
300 150 mm (6) & larger
Plug Valves (Non- 150 150mm (6) & larger
Block & Bleed) 300 150 mm (6) & larger
Butterfly Valves 150 200 mm (8) & larger

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

6 GASKETS

Non-asbestos composition gasket suitable for the conveyed fluid, 1.6 mm (1/16) thick,
shall be used for temperatures up to 260 C, on raised face flanges.

Spiral wound gasket per API 601 standard with centering ring like Flexitallic Style CG or
an equivalent shall be used for temperatures above 260 C.

For ANSI Class 125 flanges mating with cast iron valves or pumps with cast iron
casings, 3.0 mm (1/8 in) thick elastomer full face gaskets shall be used. Ring gaskets
1.6 mm (1/16 in) thick shall be used with ANSI Class 250 cast iron flanges.

On vacuum lines operating at 380 mm (15 in) Hg and higher, flat faced flanges and 3.0
mm (1/8 in) with full face red rubber gaskets shall be used.

Granular Teflon gaskets shall be used for corrosive service

7 PUMPS AND COMPRESSOR PIPING

Both suction and discharge piping shall be supported so that no load is transmitted to
the equipment.

A temporary strainer shall be provided in all pump suction lines during construction start-
up. The strainer shall be installed between the block valve and the pump. Piping shall
be arranged to provide easy removal for cleaning and inspection.

Discharge lines of reciprocating pumps and compressors shall be considered as being in


shock service. Special consideration shall be given to the rating of valves and fittings.
The lines shall be carefully anchored.

Positive displacement pumps shall be provided with a full capacity relief valve between
the pump discharge and the first block valve. Discharge from the relief valve shall be
routed back to the source, not back into the pump suction, unless otherwise specified.

Overhead pump suction lines shall be arranged to drain from the equipment towards the
pump.

Where two or more centrifugal pumps have a common manifold, a check valve shall be
installed in the discharge of each pump. A check valve shall be installed in the
discharge of a centrifugal pump where back pressure on the discharge side is
continuous and could cause the pump to run backwards. The check valve shall be
placed between the pump and the block valve. Where the size of the discharge line will
not permit block valves to be installed adjacent to check valves, they shall be placed in
overhead runs.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

All suctions to centrifugal pumps shall be installed in accordance with the


recommendations of the Hydraulic Institute. Reducers shall be adjacent to nozzles,
using eccentric reducers level-on-top in horizontal suctions of clear liquids.

Connections to end suction pumps shall be made with pipe spools to permit access to
the pump. Flanged elbows may only be used if the 10 times diameter straight run rule
shall be observed.

Low points in suction and discharge lines of pumps shall be provided with valve drain
connections.

Flexible rubber joints at the suction and discharge shall be considered on low pressure
systems.

Deviations from the above for special cases of pump service may be made and shown
on piping drawings.

Pressure gage connections shall be provided in all pump discharge lines and shall be
located between the pump and the first valve.

8 COMPRESSED AIR LINES

Main compressed air lines shall be installed with a slope in the direction of flow of not
less than three tenths of one percent (0.3 %).

Moisture drain traps should be installed at low points of main air lines.

9 INSULATION AND HEAT TRACING

Insulation as required shall be in accordance with Specification 000-GC-P-013, Piping


and Tank Insulation. Heat tracing systems shall be of the temperature limiting electrical
heat tracing cable type, complete with thermostatic controls.

10 STEAM LINES

Steam lines adjacent to the boiler only shall be designed in accordance with ASME
B31.1. ANSI B31.3 covers steam lines in the plant.

Branch steam lines shall be taken off at the top of the steam main and shall be provided
with a shutoff valve adjacent to the main.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

Main steam lines shall be installed with a slope in the direction of flow of not less than
one tenth of one percent (0.1%). No deflection pockets between supports will be
permitted.

Steam traps shall be located at low points in the system or at intervals as specified on
drawings. Traps shall be provided with a test valve, strainer and check valves.

Steam out connections shall be provided with double block and bleed.

All hot piping shall be checked for excessive thermally induced stress forces and
movement.

Discharge piping of safety valves shall avoid the use of elbows and reductions and shall
be designed in accordance with Appendix II of ASME B31.1. Means of collecting
condensate from safety valve discharge stacks shall be provided to discharge the
condensate safely.

11 UNDERGROUND PIPING

All buried steel pipe, including lines in sand filled trenches, where the normal flow
temperature is below 65 C, shall be protected from external corrosion as shown in the
individual piping material classes.

Sleeves made of steel pipe, HDPE culvert material or standard corrugated culvert shall
be used for lines, 300 mm (12 in) and larger, crossing under railroads, roads and areas
where concentrated loads may occur.

All pressure pipes with slip-type joints, mechanical joints or couplings, except drainage
and sewer lines, shall be anchored at ends of runs and at turns with concrete thrust
blocks. Consideration shall be given to the use of positive locking mechanical joint
special anchoring tees and connecting pieces for fire hydrant and hydrant valves
installation to eliminate anchor blocks at hydrant ends.

All underground piping shall be supported for the full length by the bottom of the trench,
except where clearance for joints must be provided. All buried pipe installation details
shall be shown on drawings.

Where pipe with slip-type joints are used, block valves in branch lines shall be anchored
to prevent separation.

Drainage and sewer lines, except chemical waste lines, installed below the floor slabs or
paved roadways, shall be PVC, type 1, grade 1, schedule 80.

Where pipes are buried in traffic area, a minimum of 1,200 mm (4 ft) of cover shall be
provided.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

The minimum size of buried pipe shall be 50 mm (2 in).

12 PIPING FOR CORROSIVE OR HAZARDOUS SERVICE

All underground piping containing corrosive and other hazardous material shall be
sleeved with corrosion resistant plastic pipe sleeves or double walled pipe. The
secondary containment sleeve or outer wall of double walled piping shall drain into pits
or sumps. The pipes and its sleeves shall be sloped for self draining.

The aboveground pipes for corrosive or hazardous solutions shall be sleeved after a
risks analysis.

Any piping containing corrosive or hazardous material shall be routed in trenches, if they
must be routed below grade level. Otherwise, laying the lines underground will require
secondary containment with leak detection system. Pipe trenches containing fluids
routed in the same trench shall not cause evolution of toxic gases due to possible
leakage of any of the piped fluids.

Lines containing corrosive or hazardous material shall be sloped so that they can be
completely drained.

Vent and drain connections installed to facilitate hydrostatic testing shall be plugged and
sealed after testing.

All flanged joints on acid piping shall have covers to prevent liquid sprays from defective
gaskets, etc. For the discharge of sulfuric acid tanks, double valves for shut-off shall be
considered.

13 PIPING FOR SLURRY SERVICE

Slurry piping shall be designed in accordance with ASME B31.11 and with minimum
amount of change of direction to reduce abrasion and chances of plugging. Where
possible, slurry shall flow in a direct line from one equipment item to another. Valving for
this application shall be avoided.

Low points in slurry service shall be avoided. However, if a low point cannot be avoided,
a low point drain shall be provided.

If possible, rubber hoses or pipe bends shall be used in place of elbows. Minimum bend
radius shall be five (5) pipe diameters.

Piping shall have Victaulic couplings and be arranged and supported to allow easy
dismantling for maintenance purposes.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

Flushing connections shall be provided as shown on the P&IDs and on all pump suction
and discharge lines and at other points in the system where the possibility of plugging
exists.

Slurry lines shall be sloped 2% to permit self-draining unless otherwise noted on the P &
ID. In no case shall the slope be less than 1%.

Pump suction lines shall be minimum length and no bends or elbows shall be used.

Removable suction spool shall be provided for impeller maintenance. The use of valves
in pump suction lines shall be avoided, but if required, the valve shall be knife type.

When a standby pump is included in the design, the piping joining the operating pump
and its spare shall be designed to prevent plugging of the non-operating portion of the
piping and shall be provided with water flush connections and drains.

14 UTILITY SERVICE PIPING

Hose stations for air and water shall be provided at approximately 24-meter (80 ft)
intervals inside the process buildings.

Supply lines to hose stations shall be 25 mm (1 in) diameter and shall have a shut-off
valve at the hose station. Hoses shall be 30 meter lengths with quick coupling.

Sediment legs, blowdown valves and drain traps shall be installed in air lines at low
points and dead ends.

Branch utility lines shall have block valves adjacent to the main line. In general, these
valves shall be accessible.

All gaseous utility branch lines shall be taken off the top half of supply headers.

Drain connections shall be provided in all above ground liquid lines so that they can be
completely drained.

15 FUELS

Liquefied petroleum gas installations shall conform to the Standard for the Storage and
Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases as outlined in NFPA Standards 30 and 58, and
Chapter 43 of Factory Mutuals, Industrial Loss Prevention.

Fuel oil installations shall conform to NFPA Standards 30, 31 and 395.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

16 FIRE PROTECTION

Fire protection systems shall conform to the standards of the NFPA, UBC or UFC.
Fire pumps shall be in accordance with NFPA Standard 20. Where required, two fire
pumps and a jockey pump shall be provided. One fire pump shall be diesel engine-
driven for standby service, the other and the jockey pump shall be electric motor-driven.

Outside fire protection systems shall be installed in accordance with NFPA Standard 24.

An underground fire protection loop shall be provided to distribute fire protection water
throughout the plant facility with sectional valves to minimize potential impairments.

Hydrants shall be spaced at approximately 76 m intervals, with a minimum of one


hydrant dedicated to each important building.

No hydrant shall be installed closer than 30 meters to a potential fire hazard.

All fire protection equipment and material shall be U.L. listed.

17 PIPE SLEEVES

Pipes running through floors shall pass through sleeves as follows:

Floor: Sleeves shall be of standard weight pipe anchored in place, flush at bottom and
projecting curb height at lease 100 mm above the finished floor, sized to allow 13 mm
clearance around the pipe or insulation. See Standard MSD-P-102L, "Piping Sleeve
Selection."

Concrete or block walls: Lines passing through concrete or block walls shall run through
sleeves inserted in the walls. Sleeves shall be one size larger than pipe diameter or O.D.
of insulation. Openings for lines running through outside walls shall be provided with
flashing or rain shields.

Pipe lines shall pass through pavement vertically and shall be provided with adequate
protection to prevent corrosion at its point of contact with the paving.

Pipes penetration through roofs shall be minimized or avoided if possible. Vents through
roofs shall be flashed and sealed in accordance with AK Architectural Design Standards.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

18 SEWERS AND BUILDING PLUMBING

18.1 SEWERS TYPES DEFINITIONS

Oily water sewer - carries process drainage and contaminated surface water
from point of entry to a treating or disposal facility.

Sanitary sewer - carries only sanitary sewage to a disposal point.


Clean water sewer - carries clean water, non-toxic and non-corrosive process
water, and storm and fire water from point of entry to a disposal point.

18.2 SEWER APPURTENANCES - DEFINITIONS

Catch basin - an entry point for surface water runoff.

Seal box in oil water sewers - a compartment to prevent explosive mixtures of air
and gases from traveling from one area to another.

Manhole - an access opening in a sewer line. It is located at a junction point of


two or more lines, a change in direction or elevation of a sewer line. A manhole is
normally used also as a clean-out or inspection point.

Sump or lift station - a terminal point in a gravity flow sewer line from which the
waste water is pumped.

18.3 SEWER LINES - DEFINITIONS

Laterals - lines originating in catch basins, paved or diked areas, trenches or


roads connecting to larger lines at manholes.

Branch sewer - a line which picks up two or more laterals and connects to a
main.

Relief sewer - a line to carry excess flow capacity of an existing sewer.

Main - a trunk sewer which discharges into a treating point or another sewer.

Outfall sewer - a line which carries clean or treated water to a disposal point.

18.4 DESIGN

Design and materials of construction shall be in accordance with the current


Peruvians Norm.

Sizing of sewer lines shall be based on the anticipated maximum flow.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

Anticipated expansion shall be considered in all designs.


Sewer lines shall be designed for a minimum velocity of 0.9 m/s. Maximum
velocity shall be 3 m/s.

Sewer lines shall be designed for a maximum of half-full depth of flow.

Drawings shall show size, location, gradients, and invert elevations of all sewer
lines.

Oil and chemicals shall not be introduced into sewers.


Manholes shall be spaced at approximately 100 meters, unless closer spacing is
required.

Manholes in oily water sewers shall be sealed and vented when required. In
lateral and branch line manholes, top of inlet pipe shall be a minimum of 150 mm
(6) below the invert of the outlet pipe. Manholes shall be provided with access.
In general, underground sewer pipe shall not be smaller than 4 inch (100 mm) in
diameter.

Changes in horizontal directions shall be made at 45 degrees (1/8 bend). Two


45-degree bends is permitted if the direction change is no more than 2000 mm,
otherwise use manholes in lieu of bends.

Catch basins shall be spaced for adequate surface drainage and located where
they are fully accessible for inspection and cleaning. See Standard SD-P-503D,
"Catch Basins and Trench Details."

19 VENTS AND DRAIN

High points of lines shall be provided with vent connections. Vent connections shall be
located, where possible, in accessible locations adjacent to platforms or structural
members.

Drains shall be provided at all low points of the system. Drains shall be provided at each
point where liquid might form upstream of a control or shutoff valve during operation or
cleaning.

All drains emptying into open funnels shall terminate approximately 50 mm (2) above
the top of the funnels.

Drain piping shall be oversized to facilitate a quick emptying of lines.

Valve drains shall be provided for the following:

Upstream side of control valves for corrosive and hot process services.

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
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Rev. 2

Above all block or check valves in vertical steam, acid or caustic lines.

Drain piping for steam trap shall be insulated to 2,500 mm above grade or floor level.

20 PIPING LINE LIST

A Piping Line List shall be prepared for the design of process and utility lines. Vents and
drains shall be omitted. Line List will include: start of line, end of line, P & ID, test
pressure and type of insulation.

21 PIPING MATERIALS AND COLOR CODING

Material specifications for pipe, valves, fittings and specialty items shall conform and be
in accordance with General Specification 000-GD-P-007, Piping Material Classes.

Color coding for pipes will be detailed in General Specification 000-GC-S-002, Civil,
Structural and Architectural Design Criteria.

22 TANKS

All open tank capacities shall be calculated to include a free board of 300 mm (11.8) to
450 mm (17.7).

All tanks shall be provided with a roof and shell manhole, vents, drains and overflow
connection pipes.

The operating volume of tanks will be calculated between the bottom of the overflow and
the minimum operating liquid level.

The minimum diameter of vents and drains, are as follows:

Tank Volume Vent Diameter, Drain Diameter, mm


(m3) mm (in) (in)
up to 5 50 (2) 50 (2)
5.1 15 75 (3) 75 (3)
15.1 50 75 (3) 100 (4)
50.1 100 100 (4) 100 (4)
100.1 200 100 (4) 150 (6)
200.1 500 100 (4) 200 (8)
500.1 1,200 150 (6) 200 (8)
more than 1,200 150 (6) 250 (10)

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Design Criteria 000-GD-P-006
Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

The vents shall be verified with flows of inlet and outlet pipe.

Consideration shall be given to the use of non-metallic materials for tank construction
where required by corrosive conditions.

Tanks live volume shall be sized considering a minimum of one (1) minute of the
retention time, based on the design flow.

Non-pressure tanks shall be calculated in accordance with API 650 Standard. The
pressure vessels shall be designed in accordance with ASME, Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code.
For transportation clearances and load restrictions and limitations, refer to Appendix A,
Standard Technical and Site Data, Section 18.0.

23 PIPING CALCULATION DESIGN CRITERIA

23.1 DESIGN FLOW

Design flow for piping systems will be based on Process Flow sheet quantities,
unless otherwise specified by Process or by the Project Engineer:

Utility Services: Design flow = Process Flow Diagram Design Flow


Process flow: Design flow = Process Flow Diagram Design Flow

23.2 DESIGN PRESSURE

The design pressure shall be in accordance with the relevant standards and shall
be equal or greater than the highest pressure resulting from the following events /
criteria:

a. Maximum operating pressure, but not less than 100 kPa.


b. The vapor pressure of the liquid, at maximum ambient temperature
c. The set pressure on the pressure safety valve (PSV) for line protection
d. Pump TDH for Q = 0 (dead head).

23.3 DESIGN PRESSURE FOR EQUIPMENT IN A PUMP DISCHARGE CIRCUIT

All pipe elements installed in a pump discharge line, from pump discharge
through to first isolation / shut-off valve, without pressure relieve device, shall
have a design pressure equal or greater than the pump discharge pressure for
zero flow.

This condition shall be verified with certified operating curves of pumps.

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23.4 DESIGN TEMPERATURE

The design temperature shall be equal or greater than the highest temperature
resulting from the following events / criteria:

a. maximum process temperature


b. solar radiation
c. ambient temperatures

23.5 LINE SIZING

23.5.1 Design Criteria for Gravity Flow of Slurry Without Froth

23.5.1.1 Flow Type

Slurry gravity lines shall have a continuous slope or adequate fall for
the design capacity and without the line having low points / pockets.
Where a low point / pocketed line can not be avoided, valve purge
connections shall be provided.

Gravity Slurry transportation shall be in closed pipes or open


launders, depending on the applications.

23.5.1.2 Flow Depth

For free surface slurry gravity lines, design basis shall be for a flow
depth of between 30% - 60% of pipe diameter (D) or launder width
(B). Refer Fig.1. Breathers shall be provided to allow free surface flow
without surging.

The free height (freeboard) (A) minimum in a launder shall be one


velocity head in straight line and two velocity heads in singularities
like elbows, tee, etc.

A
D
he he

B
he = 0.3 - 0.6 D
he = 0.3 - 0.6 B
Fig. 1

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23.5.1.3 Settling Velocity (Vd)

For fine slurry ( d50 < 200 m) shall be calculated using the modified
Durand formula, for all section type with free surface flow.

For thick slurry ( d50 > 200 m) shall be calculated using the Durand
formula, for section with D or B <= 10 (D= pipe diameter, B=width of
launder).

For thick slurry ( d50 > 200 m) shall be calculated using the modified
Durand formula, for section with D or B > 10 for all section type with
free surface flow. For launder to replace D per h.

For milk of lime use velocity > 1.7 m/s.

Durand Formula:

D
Vd FL 2 g i s 1
1000 L

Modified Durand Formula:


0.25
D
Vd 1.25 FL 2 g i s 1
1000 L

For full pipe and fine slurry, settling velocity will be estimated with the
Wasp formula.

Wasp Formula
1
d 6 D
Vd F ' L 50 2 g i s 1
Di 1000 L
Where:

Vd = Settling Velocity (m/s)


FL = f (d50 , Cv ), according to graph of Mc Elvain and Cave.
FL = Correction factor (Wasp formula), calculated as: FL = 3.32
(Cv/100)0.213
Cv = Volume concentration, %
Di = Internal diameter of pipe or flow height of launder (mm)

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d50: particle diameter such 50% by weight of the particles are smaller
than d50 (mm)

g = gravity acceleration (m/s2)


s = solid density (kg/m3)
L = liquid density (kg/m3)

The normal criteria shall be V = 1.1 Vd.

Slurry velocity shall not be greater than 6.0 m/s to minimize abrasion
in pipe / launder.

23.5.1.4 Free Surface Gravity Flows

For non frothing slurry, the free surface gravity flows shall be
calculated using the Manning formula. In considering the slurry
viscosity, the Manning coefficient (n), will be calculated relative to the
friction factor (f). Friction factor (f) will be calculated in accordance
with the Colebrook formula.

1 f
Manning coefficient n Rh 6
8g

Where:

Rh = Hydraulic Radius (mm)


g = gravity acceleration (m/s2)

1 e 2.51
Colebrook Formula 2 log10
3.7 D Re f
f

Where:

Re = Reynolds number
e = absolute roughness of pipe or launder wall.
Rh = Hydraulic Radius (m)

When the pipe is full, then Rh = Internal Diameter (ID) of pipe

For e, use the following values:


Material e (mm)
Steel 0.05 - 0.25
HDPE 0.025
Rubber 0.01 - 0.05
Concrete 0.3 - 3.0
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23.5.1.5 Slurry Viscosity

For diluted slurry (concentration by weight less than 30%), the


calculation will be as per clear water.

For slurry concentration by weight = 30% - 65%, companies with wide


experiences in transport of slurry recommend values for the viscosity
considering the pH, which have given good results in slurry mining in
Chile and they are shown in the following table:

Kinematics Viscosity (10-6 x m2/s)

% of solids (by weight) pH = 10 pH = 11


30 1.7 1.8
35 2.0 2.2
40 2.4 2.5
45 2.8 3.1
50 3.5 4.1
55 4.8 5.6
58 6.5 7.6
60 7.3 8.5
65 17.5 19.3
Note: The tabulated values are a compilation of
Chilean experiences in mining slurry.

23.5.1.6 Open Launders Shape Design.

For transport of slurries, a launder of semicircular bottom section is


the preferred design.

For equipment connection, sampling devices and other special


requirements, rectangular launder may be used in accordance with
Vendor recommendation of associated equipment.

23.5.2 Design Criteria for Gravity Flow of Slurry Without Froth

23.5.2.1 Flow Type

Typically, slurries with froth are concentrates produced by the flotation


process. Open launders are required for frothy slurry transport.

Slurry gravity lines shall have a continuous slope with adequate fall for
the design capacity and without low points/ pockets.

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Where low points / pockets are unable to be avoided, valves purge


connections shall be provided.

23.5.2.2 Flow Depth

For flow of slurry with froth, free surface slurry gravity lines shall be
designed for flow depth of approximately 20% - 50% of launder width
(B) calculated with froth factor included. Refer Fig 3.

B (or D)
A
For concentrate launders
it is recommended
A = 6R = 3D
R
he

he = 0.2B to 0.5B

Fig. 3

23.5.2.3 Settling Velocity (Vd)

Refer 23.5.1 3).

23.5.2.4 Free Surface Gravity Flows

Refer 23.5.1. 4).

For frothy slurry, the calculation shall be made for maximum flow
increased by froth factor. The physical proprieties of slurry, specifically
the specific gravity and viscosity, shall not be modified.

23.5.2.5 Slurry Viscosity

Refer 23.5.1. 5

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23.5.2.6 Open Launder Design

Refer 23.5.1 6).

23.5.2.7 Free Height in Launders

Refer 23.5.1 7).

23.5.3 Design Criteria For Non Froth Slurry Pumping

The settling velocity will be calculated by formula indicated in 23.5.1


3).

The flow velocity (V) shall be greater than the settling velocity. In any
event, the flow velocity shall not be greater than 6.0 m/s to minimize
abrasive wear.

The pressure drop shall be calculated using the Darcy formula,


whereas the Colebrook formula shall be applied for the friction factor
calculation. Alternately use Churchill according to the Chemical
Engineering (Fluid Dynamics).

For valves and fittings, pressure drop coefficients shall be derived


using the resistance coefficient K, as listed in industry publications
typically Crane or Cameron. The use of an equivalent length in lieu of
K is acceptable.

All values of friction losses not including Hs shall have a design


margin of 5% - 10% added to the calculated value.

Hdesign = (1.05 - 1.10) Hcalculated

Horizontal Slurry Pumps hard metal or with rubber, polyurethane or


similar lining will be selected for the higher wear applications,
depending on the material to be handle.

Non froth slurry must be selected such that the maximum flow
including the fluctuation does not exceed 75 % of the flow range
indicated in the pump curve.

For frothy slurries, the maximum flow will not exceeds 60 % of the
flow range indicated in the pump catalog, without considered the
incorporate air slurry

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For grinding circuit pumps, the Warman Method shall be used to


calculate the corrected TDH for effect of solid.

The power will be calculated with the TDH without being corrected for
the solid effect

For flotation circuit slurry pumps, a froth factor shall be applied in


accordance with the Process Design Criteria 000-GD-T-001

The motor nominal power shall be the minimum calculated brake


power increased by 20 %

The Tip speed of the impeller shall not be higher than 30 m/s to avoid
wearing out the impeller and casing.

23.5.4 Design Criteria For Frothy Slurry Pumping

The hydraulic calculation considerations indicated in 23.5.3 are valid


and in addition, the following considerations are to be included:

For new horizontal froth pumps of Warman will be used the


procedure indicated in Warman Technical Bulletin N 28
(attached).

For others pumps used the Weir Slurry Pumping Manual,


Appendix 1 Diagrams for Use in Slurry Pumping (attached).

23.5.5 Design Criteria For Water Flow

23.5.5.1 Flow Type

All water systems shall be designed for pressurized flow- i.e. line
flowing full, including gravity lines.

23.5.5.2 Flow Velocity

The flow velocity shall provide for the pressure drop rates set out in
Annex A.

Where the pipeline length is significant and pressure drop and


resultant energy cost is important, then the optimal economical line
size shall be determined.

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Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

23.5.5.3 Pressure Drop

For water flow, the pressure drop will be calculated in accordance with
the Darcy formula:

V 2 L
Darcy Colebrook Formula H c f
2 g D
Or
V 2 L
H c 4 f '
2 g D

Hc = pressure drop in fluid column. (m)


f = Friction factor of Colebrook
f = Friction factor of Churchill
f = 4f
L= Total length in m (pipe length + fittings equivalent length,
Le/D = K/f).
V = flow velocity (m/s).
g = gravity acceleration (m/s2)
D = internal diameter (m).

To calculate the friction factor (f or f) the Colebrook or Churchill


formula shall be applied:

1 e 2.51
Colebrook Formula 2 log
f 3.7 D Re f

1 0.27 e 7 0.9
Churchill Formula 4 log
f' D Re

Re = Reynolds number = VD/


Re > 4000
D= internal diameter (m).
V = flow velocity (m/s).
Kinematics viscosity (m/s)
= absolute roughness of pipe or launder wall

For new steel pipe, pH neutral water or slightly acidic water:


roughness ( ) = 0.1 mm

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Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

For new steel pipe, alkaline water: roughness ( ) = 0.1 mm plus an


increase of 0.2 mm per year. Calculation Sheet shall be verified for a
maximum roughness of ( ) = 5 mm.

For HDPE pipe: roughness ( ) = 0.02 mm


All values of total friction drop shall have a design margin of 5% - 10%
added to the calculated value.

The static head shall be calculated from the pump centerline to the
highest point of the discharge line.

23.5.5 Gas Conduction

The pipe sizing for gases will be made in accordance with attachment
SD-P-117 General Allowable Velocities. The design flow shall be 1.5
of the nominal flow (balance flow).

For pressure drop estimation in gases lines, the Darcy-Colebrook


formula shall be used.

23.5.6 Hydraulic Oil Piping System

The pressure drops will be calculated per Darcy-Colebrook method,


with a design factor of 20% added.

The safety factors in relation to the working pressure, design pressure


and allowable pressure will be according to the Vendor's
recommendations, the same as the maximum flow velocity.

23.5.7 Hydraulic Transient Design

Transient pressures resulting in sudden changes of pressure in a


pipeline shall be analyzed with the software AFT impulse.
Depending on results of the analysis, where necessary, surge devices
shall be incorporated or pipeline redesign shall be undertaken
23.5.8 Transfer Boxes Sizing

Transfer boxes must be sizing so as to avoid slurry overflow and


spattering. For this purpose, the following conditions must be
simultaneously applied to any flow range defined by balance (See
figure N 2)

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Piping Design Criteria
Rev. 2

Lp
v2
R 2x
2g

HN

H
L 5D

H2 0, 5 m

H1 =1.2 Bc

Bc D

De= (H/3)0.5

Lc 2 Lp
Fig N 2

H1 The vertical clearance of the outlet must at least 20% more than
the critical Bernoulli (Bc) head defined for design flow

R The freeboard or vertical clearance in the transfer box must be


of at least 2.0 velocity heads (V2/2g) measured with respect to the
maximum volume of pulp velocity of incoming pulp

De The depth of the box under the floor of the discharge section
must be considered in order to have a buffering cushion for the slurry.
The minimum depth of this cushion will be (H/3) 0.5

H2 The vertical distance between the bottoms of the inlet launder


and the static head in the transfer box must be at least 0.5 m

Lc The length of the transfer box Lc must be equal or more than 2


times the horizontal distance Lp of the trajectory of the feed slurry into
the box (maximum flow)

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L In case of the exit flow be conduit to a closed pipe, a vent will be


provided located no farther than 5 diameters from the outlet of the
transfer box. The height of the vent will be equal to or greater than the
transfer box.

The discharge piece must ensure that the flow runs in the flume,
accelerating towards normal height conditions. If possible normal
conditions must be reached at the ends of the transitions piece.

According to flow characteristic and design feasibility, transfer


boxes must be designed with a stone bed or buffering cushion, bottom
drainage (quick opening and full flow) and lids to prevent the froth
from overflowing).

Expansions nozzles will be considered in the design of some


inlets to the transfer boxes in order to reduce drop speed

23.5.9 Head losses in dart valves

The head losses in dart valves will be estimated according to the


following formula:

H (Q / CS ) 2
2g

Where:

H = Loss of head in the dart valves (m)

Q = Slurry flow m3/s

S = Orifice cross section (m2)

C = Coefficient of discharge flow, for dart valve C = 0.61

23.5.10 Pump boxes sizing

Adequate transfer time retention will be provided in all sumps to


accommodate fluctuations in the sump feed and to allow proper level
control.
Process sumps will be sized in accordance with process requirements
in terms of retention of slurry at design flow rates unless specifically
stated otherwise.

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Sumps handling flotation froth will be oversized where required


handling pulp volume based on froth factors given in the Process
Design Criteria.

Retention capacity will be based on the volume of the sump between


300 mm above the top of the sump suction nozzle and the invert
elevation of the sump overflow weir.

Above grade concrete and steel sumps for horizontal slurry pumps
handling fine materials (minus 6 mm) will be rectangular in plan, with
vertical sides and sloped back wall. Back wall slope will be 50
degrees from the horizontal unless noted otherwise on the design
drawings.

Freeboard will be not less than 300 mm above the liquid level at the
maximum overflow conditions. The overflow will be not less than one
pipe size larger than the pump suction opening.

Process sumps with capacities of 2.0 cubic meters or larger will be


designed with overflow consisting of a weir and collecting box with
bottom outlet.

Quick opening wedge type drain caps will be used on all above
ground sump.
Drains will be designed to open easily and leak-proof.

Sumps handling coarse (+ 6 mm) material will be constructed of cast


or embedded concrete with vertical and or slopping walls. Sump
handling fine materials and concentrate will be made of either carbon
steel plate or concrete.

Connections for instrumentation will be as short as possible to prevent


building of solid. Flanged bossed will be welded directly to the sump
walls (or embedded into the walls of concrete sumps). The openings
in the grating will be no larger than the top size of materials that can
be handed by pump.

All sumps, other than sample transfer sump, either floor or above
grade, will include provision for injecting process water in the bottom
to remove settled solid and in the top to adjust solid concentration.

The sump design and construction must be in accordance with the


civil/structural design criteria.

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23.5.11 Junction Boxes, Sampling Boxes And Distributor

Junction boxes with step-downs will be used for direction changes in


open launders where the change is greater than 45 degrees and is
abrupt or of short radius. They will also be used to merge launders
flows. A distributor will be used where it is necessary to divide a
process slurry stream into two or more streams of specified
proportions having the same solid concentration, sizing and
composition as the original stream. A splitter may be used where it is
necessary to divide a flow stream in two provided that control of the
flow rates and elimination of segregation is not important. As flow
splitters are subject to high wear, due precautions will be taken to
reduce wear in these areas.

Junction boxes will be sized with enough volume to absorb and


dissipate excessive kinetic energy in the streams while maintaining
most of the slurry solid in suspension.

Junction boxes, sampling boxes and distributors handling coarse


material (+ 6 mm) will be made of elastomer-lined carbon steel.
Elastomer will be a minimum 13 mm thick. Junction boxes and
distributors handling reground concentrates will be made of carbon
steel, without lining

24 ATTACHMENTS

The following documents are part of this specification:

FIG N 1 Chart of McElvain & Cave


FIG N 3 Diagram for ER- HR
Bulletin N 28
SD-P-115, Normal Suction and Discharge Velocities for Design
SD-P-117, General Allowable Velocities

Aker Solutions General Specifications References


000-OT-M-001 Appendix A, Standard Technical and Site Data
000-GD-P-007, General Specification, Piping Material Classes.
000-GC-P-013, Piping and Tank Insulation
000-GD-S-002, Civil, Structural and Architectural Design Criteria
000-GD-T-001, Process Design Criteria

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