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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Mosquitoes are among the most dreaded insects. They not only give people disturbing

and itching bites but also transmit many deadly diseases from an infected person to an

uninfected one, causing illness to the latter. Malaria and dengue fever are very common

sicknesses that mosquitoes cause.

The Philippines is particularly situated in a tropical rainforest climate area. Because of its

frequent rains and vast vegetation, a wide spawning habitat is enjoyed by mosquitoes. This

results in the susceptibility of Filipinos to being infected by diseases due to transmission by

mosquito bites.

Many ways have been done to eliminate these feared insects. Fumigations are

commonly carried out in areas mostly affected by certain disease-causing mosquitoes.

Often, the breeding places are not destroyed by fuming chemicals and the eggs are still

hatched and developed into larvae in watery areas. In other places, insecticides are directly

treated into some breeding places to kill the larvae of the mosquitoes.

A particular study on larvicidal property of different plants was tried and proved those to

be effective. Such studies mostly and particularly used the ethanol extract of the parts of the

plant. This study however specifically tried crude aqueous Madre de cacao extract in 1:1

ratio as larvae-killing agent. This research tried an alternative larvicide that is easy to

prepare, natural and most of all, effective. Principally that this study was conducted during

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rainy season, it is hoped that the alternative wriggler-killer would minimize the mosquito

population by not allowing the insects larvae to reach the sunrise of their dreadfully

infectious adulthood.

B. Statement of Problem/Objectives

This project sought to find out the mosquito-larvicidal property of Madre de cacao

extract. In particular, the study was conducted to answer the following questions:

1. How many larvae are killed in each setup using leaf extract?

2. Which amount of leaf extract has the greatest number of killed larvae?

3. Are there significant differences in the number of larvae killed using 20 mL, 15

mL and 10 mL of the leaf extract?

4. How many larvae are killed in each setup using young stem skin extract?

5. Which amount of stem extract has the greatest number of killed larvae?

6. Are there significant differences in the number of larvae killed using 20 mL, 15

mL and 10 mL of the young stem skin extract?

7. Which extract will have the more number of larvae killed?

8. Are there significant differences in the number of larvae killed using leaf extract

and using young stem skin extract?

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C. Significance of the Study

The mosquito-repellent property of Madre de cacao has been already

established by many studies. This study would find out the larvicidal action of the

aqueous extract of this plant, which would add to the importance of this humble

Madre de cacao. This research would also be a way for the people to consider taking

alternative measures like treating the breeding places of mosquitoes to exterminate

the mosquito-larval population.

D. Scope and Delimitation

This research focused on the treatment of leaf and stem skin aqueous extracts of

Madre de cacao to mosquito larvae. Treatments were limited to 20 mL, 15 mL and 10

mL of the extracts, which were obtained from the blending and extracting/squeezing

of the leaf and stem scrapping with equal parts of water. The larval size was

delimited to 5 mm to 7 mm. The determination of the particular species of the larvae

was not included in this study. There were 10 larvae treated in each of the setups.

The study included the counting of larvae killed by each particular treatment after 24

hours of exposure.

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