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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

4.3.3 Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)


Table 4.10: FMEA.
Key Process
Potential Potential Failure Actions

OCC

RPN

OCC

RPN
DET

DET
SEV

SEV
Step or Potential Causes Current Controls
Failure Mode Effects Recommended
Input

How often does cause or

How well can you detect


How Severe is the effect

the Cause or the Failure


What is the What are the

to the customer?
impact on the existing controls What are the actions
In what ways

FM occur?
What is the Key Output What causes the and procedures for reducing the

Mode?
can the
Process Step Variables once it Key Input to go that prevent occurrence of the
Process Step
or Input? fails (customer wrong? either the Cause cause, or improving
or Input fail?
or internal or the Failure detection?
requirements)? Mode?

1. Isolation of the
Burning and Isolation of the melter with guard rail
smelter to scalds to tank by heat .
Over flow Failure of level
melt the operator. 7 2 rated material 4 56 2. Wearing the PPE at 3 1 2 6
of mixture sensor
brine Down time to Installation of all time .
plant. level sensor 3. Regular preventive
maintenance.
1. Isolation of the
melter with guard rail
.
Smelter to Burning Burning and Damage of the Isolation of the 2. Wearing the PPE at
melt the incident due to scalds to 6 isolation material 2 tank by heat 7 84 all time. 1 1 5 5
brine contact operator. with time rated material 3. Posting warning
signs.
4. Training programs
to workers

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

1. Isolation of the heat


Burning to
Heat Burst of pipe exchanger
operators . No regular
exchanger due to Pipe 6 2 NONE 8 96 2. Precaution signs. 3 1 8 24
Down time to cleaning
to heat the blockage 3. Wearing of PPE at
plant
all time.

Running the Pump burns Running the 1. Continues water


Vacuum
pump without causing 4 vacuum 3 None 10 120 supply to the vacuum 2 1 4 8
pump
water ring downtime. pump dry. pump.

1. Isolation by guard
rail.
Burning skin Burning and 2. Regular preventive
Wear and tear of
Evaporator due to scalds to 6 5 Isolation 3 90 maintenance. 4 2 2 16
isolation
contact operator. 3. Warning signs.
4. Wearing PPE at al
time.
1. Isolation by guard
rail.
Heat Burning o Burning and 2. Regular preventive
Wear and tear
exchanger skin due to scalds to 6 5 Isolation 3 90 maintenance. 4 2 2 16
of isolation
to heat the contact operator. 3. Warning signs.
4. Wearing PPE at al
time.

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

Cut and other


injuries and may 1. Isolation by guard
Continues lead to death rail.
Worker contact
and Draw due to 2. `Warning signs.
8 with rotating 3 None 5 120 4 2 5 40
discontinues bodies the high kinetic 3. Training of workers
parts
centrifugal energy to
involved in increase awareness..
centrifuge
1. Regular preventive
Continues Over load maintenance.
Total
and Mechanical No 2. Wearing PPE at all
destruction to 8 1 None 10 80 4 1 5 20
discontinues failure. preventive time.
the machine
centrifugal maintenance 3. Following Operation
manual correctly.
Injury and The Electrical
chances of connection are Explosion
Regular preventive
death to no more venting.
Drier Dust Explosion 10 3 6 180 maintenance and 6 2 3 36
workers, Explosion Explosion proof
inspection.
including Plant proof due to connection
down time wear and tear
1. Tainting to
operators
Excessive heat
Hot bearings Explosion 2. Following Operation
and
Drier Dust Explosion and creating 10 4 venting. 6 240 manuals correctly 7 1 2 14
vibration on
heat source Explosion proof 3. Regular preventive
bearings
connection maintena
nce and inspection.

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

Increasing the
1. Tainting to
temperature of
operators.
dryer, Creating
Temperature 2. Following Operation
source of
Drier Dust Explosion 10 transmitter 3 NONE 5 150 manuals correctly 7 1 2 14
ignition which
not operating 3. Regular preventive
lead
maintenance and
to dust
inspection
explosion

1. Isolation by guard
No warning
Burning and rail.
Burning signs are
Drier scalds to 10 6 NONE 8 480 2. Warning signs. 6 2 3 36
incident mounted near
operator. 3. Training of workers
to the dryer
to increase awareness

Injury and 1. Regular preventive


chances of maintenance
Belt Hot surfaces
death to 2. Installation off
conveyor Dust explosion 10 like Hot 3 NONE 10 300 7 1 3 21
workers frictionless bearings.
transporting bearings
,including Plant 3. Implementing the
thesalt from
down time explosion venting
Dryer to
Injury and
storage
chances of
and from
death to Spark due to 1. Groundin
storage silos
Dust explosion workers 10 the electro 3 NONE 10 300 g of the 7 1 7 49
to packing
,including static system.
building
Intensive
destruction

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

Injury and
chances of 1. Intensive Trainting
death to Spark due to to staff. 1
Dust explosion 10 5 None 9 450 1 7 70
workers hot work 2. Special hot working 0
,including Plant permission.
down time
1. Trainting to
Belt conveyor operators
Overload and
damage which Overload and 2. Following Operation
speed
Belt Damage lead 7 3 speed 5 105 manuals correctly 7 1 2 14
indicator not
to Plant indicator 3. Regular preventive
operating
downtime. maintenance and
inspection.
1. Trainting to
Belt conveyor operators
damage which Alignment 2. Following Operation
Alignment
Belt Damage lead 7 sensor not 3 5 105 manuals correctly. 7 1 2 14
sensor
to Plant operating 3. Regular preventive
downtime. maintenance and
inspection
1. Spark detection
Damage to the
system.
roof of silos and
2. Explosion venting
Storage the feeding belt Ignition source
Dust explosion 10 2 NONE 8 160 3. Tainting to 8 1 2 16
silos conveyors, due to hot work
operators
death of
4. Special hot working
workers
permission
Damage to the 1. Regular preventive
roof of silos and Ignition source maintenance
Storage the feeding belt due to hot 2. Installation off
Dust explosion 10 2 NONE 8 160 8 1 2 16
silos conveyors, equipment like frictionless bearings.
death of bearings 3. Implementing the
workers explosion venting

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

Belt
Injury and 1. Regular preventive
conveyor
chances maintenance
transporting Hot surfaces
of death to 2. Installation off
the salt from Dust explosion 10 like Hot 3 NONE 10 300 7 1 3 21
workers frictionless bearings.
silos to bearings
,including Plant Implementing the
packing
down time explosion venting
building
Machine
trapping 1. Personnel
Operator not
worker protective equipment.
Packing focused while
hands while he Injury to worker 5 10 NONE 10 500 2. Manual activation 3 4 3 36
machines. performing the
is of machine clamps.
work.
feeding the 3. Training.
bags.
Worker lifting
1. Personnel
Packing Back ach of the the salt bags
Injury to worker 6 7 NONE 8 336 protective equipment. 3 4 3 36
machines. operator. the wrong
2. Training
way.

1. Personnel
Sewing Operator not
Injury of the protective equipment.
machine to focused while
hand of the Injury to worker 7 7 NONE 10 490 2. Training. 3 4 4 48
close up the performing the
operator 3. Installing
salt bag. work.
mechanical guard.

using another use three source of


feed pump evaporator fail mechanical
energy source energy
evaporator P1328 to 7 faliure electrictiy 4 7 196 5 2 3 30
corrective applying preventive
fails operate fails
maintenance maintenance

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

*valve FCV 158


fail to open
evaporator fail applying preventive
no heating *steam pippe checking pipes
evaporator to 8 3 8 192 maintenance of valve 4 3 3 36
steam defect *valve and valves
operate FCV 158 and pipeline
FCV 158 fail to
open

sensor TI144 fail inspection sensor


evaporator fail to detect continuously use
increase steam checking sensor
evaporator to 9 pressure 4 7 252 pressure safety valve 4 4 3 48
pressure and valve
operate increase steam and pressure relief
flow valve

sensor PI115 fail inspection sensor


evaporator fail to detect continuously use
increase stem checking sensor
evaporator to 8 temperature 5 4 160 pressure safety valve 3 3 2 18
temperature and valve
operate increase steam and pressure relief
flow valve

using another use three source of


flipping evaporator fail mechanical
energy source energy
evaporator pump to 7 faliure electrictiy 4 3 84 3 2 1 6
corrective applying preventive
P1334A fail operate fails
maintenance maintenance

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

cooling using another use three source of


mechanical
material crystallizer fail energy source energy
Crystallizer 7 faliure electrictiy 3 4 84 3 4 2 24
flipping pump to operate corrective applying preventive
fails
fails maintenance maintenance

using another use three source of


mechanical
brine flipping crystallizer fail energy source energy
Crystallizer 8 faliure electrictiy 4 3 96 4 2 2 16
pump fails to operate corrective applying preventive
fails
maintenance maintenance

*feeding pump inspection of pipeline


no cooling
P1219 A,B fails and applying
material in crystallizer fail checking pipeline
Crystallizer 7 *defects in 4 4 112 preventive 3 2 1 6
crystallizer to operate and pump
cooling material maintenance in
shell
pipeline system pies

*pump P1101 using another use three source of


no brine in crystallizer fail A,B fails energy source energy
Crystallizer 8 3 3 72 3 2 2 12
crystallizer to operate *pump P1102 corrective applying preventive
A,B fails maintenance maintenance
inspection and
sensor TI 113
sensor failure calibrating sensors
and TI109 fails crystallizer fail calibrating
Crystallizer 6 and not 4 5 120 continuously 2 2 1 4
to detect to operate sensors
calibrated applying preventive
temperature
maintenance in sensor
mechanical
pump increase sodium
pump faliure preventive
P1213A,B,C 6 sulfate crystals 7 4 168 no recommendation 2 2 2 8
P1213A,B,C (operational maintenance
out of service concentrations
problem)

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

*breakdown
of generator
electricity *interruption checking two electrical
pump
pump supply in secondary use another line and inspection
P1213A,B,C 6 7 5 210 3 1 2 6
P1213A,B,C fails(electricity electric line energy source generators
out of service
switch off) *interruption continuously
in main
electric line

boiler failure *valve


The water drum safety Inspection of Valve preventive
(operate - 7 defects 8 4 224 2 2 2 8
tube boiler valve safety valve maintenance
explosion *control fails

Continuous checking
boiler failure of safety valve
The water feed pump Checking of
low level drum (operate - 7 7 5 245 Preventive 2 1 1 2
tube boiler failure pump
explosion maintenance of safety
valve
boiler failure
The water control Corrective Preventive
flame failure (operate - 6 8 4 192 3 2 2 12
tube boiler failure maintenance maintenance
explosion

*Boiler trip
Checking temperature
Excessive high *Co-generation
The water superheated plant trip Incorrect burner Temperature
6 8 6 288 Use automatic 3 3 3 27
tube boiler outlet *Sodium sequence sensor checking
interlock of
temperature Sulphate plant
temperature
shutdown

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Chapter 4 Application of HSE Case Study

*Boiler trip
*Co-generation Fuel valve checking
Excessive high
The water plant trip Too much fuel Temperature Use automatic
superheated 6 6 6 216 3 3 2 18
tube boiler *Sodium being fired sensor checking interlock of safety
outlet
Sulphate plant valve
temperature
shutdown

*Boiler
shutdown
*Co-generation Inspection and
The water Low steam Checking water
plant shutdown 6 Low water 7 7 294 checking water feed 3 2 2 12
tube boiler pressure feed pump
*Sodium pump
Sulphate plant
shutdown
*Low pressure
of water and
low mass flow Continuous checking
rate. Checking / of pump
The water Low discharge Pump rotation
*Co-generation 4 7 inspection of 6 168 3 2 1 6
tube boiler pressure incorrect
plant trip pump Preventive
*Sodium maintenance of pump
Sulphate plant
shutdown
*Pump
shutdown Continuous checking
*Co-generation Impeller Checking and of pump
The water Low discharge
plant shutdown 4 damaged or loose 8 inspection of 6 192 3 3 2 18
tube boiler pressure
*Sodium on shaft pump shaft Preventive
Sulphate plant maintenance of pump
shutdown

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