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10. CIRCLES

l The collection of all the points in a plane, which points P and Q in the given figure. You find that

are at a fixed distance from a fixed point in the plane, there are two pieces, one longer and the other

is called a circle. smaller. The longer one is called the major arc PQ

l The fixed point is called the centre of the circle and the shorter one is called the minor arc PQ.

and the fixed distance is called the radius of the

circle.

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HA

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l The length of the complete circle is called its

In the given figure, O is the centre and the length circumference. The region between a chord and

OP is the radius of the circle. either of its arcs is called a segment of the circular

l A circle divides the plane on which it lies into three

parts. They are : (i) inside the circle, which is also AK region or simply a segment of the circle. You will

find that there are two types of segments also, which

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called the interior of the circle; (ii) the circle and are the major segment and the minor segment.

(iii) outside the circle, which is also called the

exterior of the circle. The circle and its interior

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O

sector. Like segments, you find that the minor arc

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corresponds to the major sector.

l A chord of a circle is a line segment joining any

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O

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centre.

l If the angles subtended by the chords of a circle at

l A diameter is a chord of a circle passing through the centre are equal, then the chords are equal.

the centre of the circle. In the given figure, AOB is l The perpendicular from the centre of a circle to a

the diameter of the circle. A diameter is the longest chord bisects the chord.

chord of a circle. l The line drawn through the centre of a circle to bisect

Diameter = 2 radius a chord is perpendicular to the chord.

l A piece of a circle between two points is called an l There is one and only one circle passing through

arc. Look at the pieces of the circle between two three given non-collinear points.

1

l Equal chords of a circle (or of congruent circles) l A quadrilateral is said to be a cyclic quadrilateral if

are equidistant from the centre (or centres). there is a circle passing through all its four vertices.

l Chords equidistant from the centre of a circle are l If a line segment joining two points subtends equal

equal in length. angles at two other points lying on the same side of

l The angle subtended by an arc at the centre is double the line containing the line segment, the four points

the angle subtended by it at any point on the lie on a circle (i.e., they are concyclic).

remaining part of the circle. l The sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic

l Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal. quadrilateral is 180.

l Points which lie on the same circle are called l If the sum of a pair of opposite angles of a

concyclic points. quadrilateral is 180, the quadrilateral is cyclic.

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

A. Important Questions

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1. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle with AB (c) interior opposite angle

HA

as diameter. If AOC = 40, the value of x is (d) corresponding angle

equal to : 5. Three chords AB, CD and EF of a circle are

AS

respectively 3 cm, 3.5 cm and 3.8 cm away from

the centre. Then which of the following relations

is correct ?

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(a) AB > CD > EF (b) AB < CD < EF

(c) AB = CD = EF (d) none of these

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If CAB = 40 and CBA = 110, the value of

(a) 50 (b) 60 (c) 70 (d) 80 x is :

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correct option.

Statement I : Diameter is the longest chord of a

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circle.

Statement II : A circle has only finite number of

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equal chords.

(a) only I is true

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(c) both I and II are true

7. In a circle, chord AB of length 6 cm is at a distance of

(d) neither I nor II is true

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3. In the given figure, O is the centre of the circle.

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If OA = 5 cm and OC = 3 cm, then the length of (a) 6 cm (b) 4 cm (c) 8 cm (d) 3 cm

AB is :

O

OL and OM are the perpendiculars from the centre

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correct releation between OL and OM is :

4. If one side of a cyclic quadrilateral is produced,

then the exterior angle is equal to its :

(a) OL = OM (b) OL < OM

(a) exterior adjacent angle

(c) OL > OM (d) none of these

(b) alternate angle

2

9. Number of circles passing through two given 16. In the figure, if AOB is a diameter of the circle

points is : and AC = BC, then CAB is equal to :

(a) one (b) two (c) finite (d) infinite

10. The length of a chord in a circle of diameter

10 cm is 6 cm. The distance of the chord from its

centre is :

(a) 5 cm (b) 3 cm (c) 8 cm (d) 4 cm

11. In the given figure, ABC is

an equilateral triangle. Then

measure of BEC is :

(a) 100 (a) 30 (b) 60 (c) 90 (d) 45

(b) 120

17. AD is a diameter of a circle and AB is a chord.

(c) 140

If AD = 34 cm, AB = 30 cm, then the distance of

(d) 90

AB from the centre of the circle is :

12. Two chords AB and CD subtend x each at the (a) 17 cm (b) 15 cm (c) 4 cm (d) 8 cm

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centre of the circle. If chord AB = 8 cm, then

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chord CD is : 18. If AB = 12 cm, BC = 16 cm and AB is

perpendicular to BC, then the radius of the circle

passing through the points A, B and C is :

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(a) 6 cm (b) 8 cm (c) 10 cm (d) 12 cm

19. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. If

AK

OAB = 40, then ACB is equal to :

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(a) 4 cm (b) 8 cm (c) 16 cm (d) 12 cm

13. The radius of a circle is 10 cm and the length of

the chord is 12 cm.The distance of the chord from

S

the centre is :

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14. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and

AOB = 80. The value of x is :

TH

20. In the figure , if DAB = 60, ABD = 50, then

O

ACB is equal to :

BR

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O

G

where ON > OM. Then which of the following (a) 60 (b) 50 (c) 70 (d) 80

relations is true between the chord AB and chord 21. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. If ABC

CD ? = 20, then AOC is equal to :

(c) AB < CD (d) none of these (a) 20 (b) 40 (c) 60 (d) 10

3

22. In the figure, if SPR = 73, SRP = 42, then 26. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and

PQR is equal to : PQR = 100. Then the reflex POR is :

23. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. If OPQ (a) 280 (b) 200 (c) 260 (d) none of these

= 25 and ORQ = 20, then the measures of

27. In the given figure, E is any point in the interior

POR and PQR respectively are :

of the circle with centre O. Chord AB =

Chord AC. If OBE = 20, then the value of x

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is :

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AS

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(a) 90, 45 (b) 105, 450

PR

24. Two circles intersect at the points A and B. AD (a) 40 (b) 45 (c) 50 (d) 70

and AC are diameters of the respsective circles as 28. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and

S

shown in the following figure. Sum of ABD and AOB = 60. The value of x is :

ER

ABC :

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O

BR

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(a) is greater than 180 (b) is equal to 180 29. In the figure, AB and CD are two chords of a

circle with centre O and MN as diameter. They

(c) is less than 180 (d) has no definite value

intersect at a point E. If AEN = DEN = 45

O

25. In the figure, if CAB = 40 and AC = BC, then and AB = 6.5 cm, then the length of chord CD is

ADB equal to :

G

equal to :

(a) 40 (b) 60 (c) 80 (d) 100 (c) 7.0 cm (d) none of these

4

30. In the figure, points A, B, C and D lie on a circle. 35. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle of radius

BC is produced to P and BAD = 100. The 5 cm. OP AB, OQ CD, AB || CD, AB = 8 cm

measure of DCP is : and CD = 6 cm. The length of PQ is :

31. In the figure, chord DE is parallel to the diameter (a) 8 cm (b) 1 cm

AC of the circle. If CBE = 60, then the measure (c) 6 cm (d) none of these

of CED is :

36. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and

ABD = 45. The value of x is :

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HA

AS

AK

(a) 90 (b) 60 (c) 30 (d) 50

32. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and

ABP = 40. The measure of PQB is :

PR

(a) 90 (b) 45

(c) 135 (d) none of these

S

ER

TH

O

BR

BEC = 140 and ECD = 30, then the value of

BAC is :

L

YA

(c) 130 (d) 115

O

G

(a) 110 (b) 120 (c) 100 (d) 90

34. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and

AOC = 130. The value of x is :

(a) 30 (b) 45

(a) 25 (b) 50 (c) 40 (d) 35 (c) 90 (d) 60

5

39. In the figure, AB and CD are two equal chords of

a circle with centre O, OP and OQ are

perpendiculars on chords AB and CD, respectively.

If POQ = 150, then APQ is equal to :

42. In the figure, two congruent circles have centres

O and O. Arc AXB subtends an angle of 75 at

the centre O and arc A Y B subtends an angle of

25 at the centre O. Then the ratio of arcs AXB

and A Y B is :

(a) 30 (b) 75 (c) 15 (d) 60

diameter of the circle circumscribing it and ADC

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= 140, then BAC is equal to :

HA

(a) 80 (b) 50 (c) 40 (d) 30

AS

41. In the figure, BC is a diameter of the circle and

BAO = 60. Then ADC is equal to : (a) 2 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 3 : 1 (d) 1 : 3

AK

B. Questions From CBSE Examination Papers

PR

[T-II (2011)]

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TH

O

BR

angles of a cyclic quadrilateral? [T-II (2011)]

(a) 50 (b) 40 (c) 60 (d) 70

(a) 131, 28 (b) 95, 55

2. In the figure, if OA = 17 cm, AB = 30 cm and OD

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is perpendicular to AB, then CD is equal to :

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itself in : [T-II (2011)]

O

6. O is the centre of the circle QPS = 65; PRS

G

3. ABCE is a cyclic quadrilateral. O is the centre of

the circle and AOC = 150, then CBD :

[T-II (2011)] (a) 90 (b) 82 (c) 102 (d) 42

6

7. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. POQ 12. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle, find

= 100; POR = 110; then QPR equals : AOC, given BAO = 30 and BCO = 40.

[T-II (2011)]

[T-II (2011)]

8. In the figure CAB = 45 ; DBC = 55, then

DCB equals : [T-II (2011)] (a) 35 (b) 140

(c) 70 (d) cannot be determined

13. In the figure, O is the centre of a circle and OBA

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= 60. Then ACB equals : [T-II (2011)]

HA

AS

(a) 55 (b) 80 (c) 100 (d) 120

9. In the figure, PQ is the diameter of the semicircle

AK

in which SPR = 30 ; QPR = 20 ; then SRP

equals : [T-II (2011)]

PR

(a) 60 (b) 120 (c) 75 (d) 30

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ER

(a) 40 (b) 65 (c) 120 (d) 35 AC = BC. Then CAB is : [T-II (2011)]

10. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle of radius

TH

perpendicular from the centre to AB, then OC

O

BR

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O

(a) 26 cm (b) 10 cm (c) 5 cm (d) 8 cm 15. If AOB is the diameter of the circle and

B = 35, then x equals :

G

OL = 4 cm, AB = 6 cm and OM = 3 cm, then

CD is equal to : [T-II (2011)]

7

16. Given two concentric circles with centre O. A line 23. In the given figure, if POQ is a diameter of the

cuts the circles at A, B, C, D, respectively. If AB circle and PR = QR, then RPQ is equal to :

= 10 cm, then length CD is : [T-II (2011)] [T-II (2011)]

(a) 5 cm (b) 10 cm

(c) 7.5 cm (d) none of these

17. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle, CBE

= 25 and DEA = 60. The measure of ADB

is : [T-II (2011)]

24. For what value of x in the figure, points A, B, C

and D are concyclic? [T-II (2011)]

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HA

(a) 90 (b) 95 (c) 85 (d) 120

18. Given three collinear points, then the number of

AS

circles which can be drawn through these points

is : [T-II (2011)]

(a) zero (b) one (c) two (d) infinite

19. The length of chord which is at a distance of

AK (a) 9 (b) 10 (c) 11 (d) 12

25. Two circles are said to be concentric, if :

12 cm from centre of circle of radius 13 cm is :

PR

[T-II (2011)] [T-II (2011)]

(a) they have same radius

(a) 5 cm (b) 12 cm (c) 13 cm (d) 10 cm

(b) they have different radii

S

20. In the figure, AB is a diameter of the circle. (c) they have same centre

CD || AB and BAD = 40, then ACD is :

ER

[T-II (2011)] 26. In the figure, if O is the centre, then the value of

y is : [T-II (2011)]

TH

O

BR

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(a) 40 (b) 90 (c) 130 (d) 140 (a) 35 (b) 75 + x (c) 70 x (d) 140

21. In the figure, the values of x and y respectively 33. In a circle with centre O, chords AB and CD are

are : [T-II (2011)] of length 5 cm and 6 cm respectively and subtend

O

G

22. The distance of a chord 8 cm long from the centre

of a circle of radius 5 cm is : [T-II (2011)] (a) x = y (b) x < y

(a) 4 cm (b) 3 cm (c) 2 cm (d) 9 cm (c) x > y (d) none of the above

8

28. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral as shown in the

figure. The value of (x + y) is : [T-II (2011)]

36. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and

(a) 200 (b) 100 (c) 180 (d) 160 ABC = 36. The measure of AOC is :

29. AD is a diameter of a circle and AB is a chord. [T-II (2011)]

If AD = 34 cm and AB = 30 cm, the distance of

AB from the centre of the circle is : [T-II (2011)]

(a) 17 cm (b) 15 cm (c) 4 cm (d) 8 cm

30. In the figure, if O is the centre and BOA = 120,

then the value of x is : [T-II (2011)]

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HA

(a) 36 (b) 72 (c) 144 (d) 18

AS

37. In the figure, if AB is the diameter of the circle,

then the value of x is : [T-II (2011)]

31. If AB = 12 cm, BC = 16 cm and AB BC, then

radius of the circle passing through A, B and C

AK

PR

is : [T-II (2011)]

(a) 6 cm (b) 8 cm (c) 10 cm (d) 12 cm

32. An equilateral ABC is inscribed in a circle with

S

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33. In the figure, quadrilateral PQRS is cyclic. If P (a) 40 (b) 50 (c) 80 (d) 90

= 80, then R is : 38. In the figure, if OAB = 40, then ACB is equal

TH

[T-II (2011)]

to : [T-II (2011)]

O

BR

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34. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and (a) 50 (b) 40 (c) 60 (d) 70

O

ABC = 55, then ADC is : [T-II (2011)] 39. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle with

G

is : [T-II (2011)]

35. In the figure, if PQR = 40, then the value of

PSR is : [T-II (2011)] (a) 115 (b) 85 (c) 80 (d) 100

9

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [2 Marks]

A. Important Questions

1. Find the the length of a chord which is at a dis- 9. Check whether the following statement is true.

tance of 5 cm from the centre of a circle whose A, B, C, D are four points such that

radius is 13 cm.

2. The radius of a circle is 10 cm and a chord of the BAC = 45 and BDC = 45, then A, B, C, D

circle is 12 cm long. Find the distance of the chord are concyclic.

from the centre of the circle.

3. Can we have a cyclic quadrialateral ABCD 10. In the figure, if AOB is a diameter and

such that A = 90, B = 70, C = 95 and ADC = 120, find CAB.

D = 105 ?

4. Two congruent circles with centres O and O

intersect at two points A and B. Check whether

AOB = AO B or not.

5. In the figure, PQR is right angled at Q. Point S is

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taken on side PR such that PS = SR and

HA

QR = QS. Find the measure of QSR.

AS

11. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle, BD =

DC and DBC = 30. Find the measure of

BAC.

AK

PR

7. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. If BAC

= 50, find BOC.

S

ER

TH

find the ratio of AB and CD.

O

8. In the figure, ABC is equilateral. Find BDC 13. AOB is a diameter of a circle and C is a point on

BR

true or not.

14. Two chords of a circle of lengths 10 cm and 8 cm

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statement is true or not.

O

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D are four points on a = 100, where P, Q, R

circle. AC and BD in- are points on a circle,

tersect at a point E such with centre O. Find

that BEC = 130 and OPR. [T-II (2011)]

ECD = 20. Find

BAC. [T-II (2011)]

10

3. In the figure, ABC = 69; ACB = 31. Find

BDC. [T-II (2011)]

Show BC = 2 (OD). [T-II (2011)]

angles at the centre. [T-II (2011)]

5. AB and CD are two parallel chords on the same

side of the circle such that AB = 6 cm;

CD = 8 cm. The small chord is at a distance of 4

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cm from the centre. At what distance from the

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centre is the other chord. [T-II (2011)]

10. Two concentric circles with centre O have A, B,

C and D as points of intersection with a line l as

AS

shown in the figure, If AD = 12 cm and

BC = 8 cm, find the length of AB and CD.

[T-II (2011)]

AK

PR

S

DC | | AB. [T-II (2011)]

ER

TH

D = 130, then find CAB. [T-II (2011)]

O

BR

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BOC = 120, find CDE. [T-II (2011)]

O

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points on a circle with centre O. Find OPR.

[T-II (2011)]

centre O. If DAB = 70 and DBC = 30,

determine ABD, CDB. [T-II (2011)]

11

13. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. Find ADB. 18. Suppose you are given a circle. Give a construction

[T-II (2011)] to find its centre. [T-II (2011)]

19. Prove that equal chords of a circle subtend equal

angles at the centre. [T-II (2011)]

20. A chord of a circle is equal to the radius of the

circle. Find the angle subtended by the chord at a

point on the major arc. [T-II (2011)]

21. In the figure, AB and CD are two equal chords of

a circle with centre O. OP and OQ are

14. In the figure, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. AE perpendiculars on chords AB and CD respectively.

is drawn parallel to CD and BA is produced up If POQ = 150, find APQ. [T-II (2011)]

to F. If ABC = 92, FAE = 20, find BCD.

[T-II (2011)]

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HA

AS

AK

22. In the figure, chord AB of circle with centre O is

produced to C such that BC = OB. CO is joined

15. ABDC is a cyclic quadrilateral and AB = AC. If and produced to meet the circle in D. If

PR

ACB = 70, find BDC. [T-II (2011)] ACD = y and AOD = x, show that x = 3y.

[T-II (2011)]

S

ER

TH

A

O

BR

16. In the figure, OA = OB = OC. Show that = 110. Find the measure of BAC. [T-II (2011)]

x + y = 2(z + t). [T-II (2011)]

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YA

O

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17. In the figure, l is a line intersecting two concentric AOB = 110, then find BCD. [T-II (2011)]

circles with centre P at points A, C, D and B.

Show that AC = DB. [T-II (2011)]

12

25. Prove that the line drawn through the centre of a 31. In the figure, ABC = 45. Prove that OA OC.

circle to bisect a chord is perpendicular to the [T-II (2011)]

chord. [T-II (2011)]

26. Two circles intersect at two points A and B. AD

and AC are diameters to the two circles. Prove

that B lies on the line segment DC. [T-II (2011)]

27. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. The

angle subtended by arc ABC at the centre is 140.

AB is produced to P. Determine ADC and CBP.

[T-II (2011)] 32. In a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, if AB | | CD and

B = 70, find the measures of the remaining

angles of the quadrilateral. [T-II (2011)]

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33. Find the length of the chord, which is at a distance

HA

of 3 cm from the centre of a circle of radius

5 cm. [T-II (2011)]

34. Find the radius of a chord, which is at a distance

AS

of 4 cm from the centre of a circle whose radius

is 5 cm. [T-II (2011)]

AK

28. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle and 35. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. If OAC

BAC = 60. Find the value of x. [T-II (2011)] = 35 and OBC = 40, find the value of x.

[T-II (2011)]

PR

S

ER

TH

29. In the figure, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral and 36. O is the circumcentre of the ABC and D is the

O

ABC = 85. Find the measure of ADE. mid point of the base BC. Prove that

BR

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O

G

30. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle, OM [T-II (2011)]

BC, OL AB, ON AC and OM = ON = OL. 38. AOB is a diameter of the circle and C, D, E are

Is ABC equilateral? Give reasons.[T-II (2011)] any three points on the semicircle. Find the value

of ACD + BED. [T-II (2011)]

13

39. Two congruent circles intersect each other at points BCD = 120 and ABD = 50, find ADB.

A and B. Through A a line segment PAQ is drawn [T-II (2011)]

so that P and Q lie on the two circles. Prove that

BP = BQ. [T-II (2011)]

40. Two parallel chords of a circle whose diameter is

13 cm are respectively 5 cm and 12 cm. Find the

distance between them if they lie on opposite sides

of centre. [T-II (2011)]

41. In the figure, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. If

A. Important Questions

1. If the perpendicular bisector of a chord AB of a 9. On a common hypotenuse AB, two right triangles

circle PXAQBY intersects the circle at P and Q, ACB and ADB are situated on opposite sides.

prove that arc PXA arc PYB.

N

Prove that BAC = BDC.

HA

2. In the figure, AOC is a diameter of the circle and 10. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. Calculate

1 APC and AOC.

arc AXB = arc BYC. Find BOC.

AS

2

AK

PR

S

ER

that AB is a diameter and ADC = 130. Find circle whose centre is O such that ABO =

BAC. CBO. Show that AB = CB.

TH

prove that remaining two sides are equal and both

diagonals are equal.

O

BR

6. AB and AC are two equal chords of a circle. Prove

that the bisector of the angle BAC passes through

L

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centre D. BAC = x and ADC = y. Find the

12. Two circles with centres O and O intersect at

O

8. If a line is drawn parallel to the base of an isosce- points A and B. A line PQ is drawn parallel to

G

les triangle to intersect its equal sides, prove that O O through A (or B) intersecting the circles at P

the quadrilateral so formed is cyclic. and Q. Prove that PQ = 2OO.

1. An equilateral triangle of side 9 cm is inscribed in of the common chord. [T-II (2011)]

a circle. Find its radius. [T-II (2011)]

4. In the given figure, AB is a diameter of the circle;

2. Prove that a cyclic trapezium is always an isosce-

CD is a chord equal to the radius of the circle. AC

les trapezium. [T-II (2011)]

3. If two circles intersect at the two points, prove and BD when extended intersect at a point E. Prove

that their centers lie on the perpendicular bisector that AEB = 60. [T-II (2011)]

14

8. Two circles of radii 10 cm and 8 cm intersect and

the length of the common chord is 12 cm. Find

the distance between their centres. [T-II (2011)]

9. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle of

radius 5 cm. OP AB, OQ CD, AB || CD. If

AB = 6 cm, CD = 8 cm, determine PQ.

[T-II (2011)]

that it is cyclic. [T-II (2011)]

6. The radius of a circle is 5 cm and the length of a

chord in the circle is 8 cm. Find the distance of

the chord from the centre of the circle.

[T-II (2011)]

10. In the figure, ABCD is a parallelogram. The circle

7. In the figure, if BAC = 60, ACB = 20, find

N

through A, B and C intersects CD produced at E.

ADC. [T-II (2011)]

HA

Prove that the AE = AD. [T-II (2011)]

AS

AK

PR

S

ER

A. Important Questions

1. Show that two circles cannot intersect at more does not coincide with B or C. Prove that PA is

TH

2. Show that the altitudes of a triangle are concur- 6. In the figure, O is the centre of the circle. If

BD = OD and CD AB, find CAB.

O

rent.

3. Prove that angle bisector of any angle of a triangle

BR

if intersect, they will intersect on the circumcircle

of the triangle.

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circumscribing it at the points P and Q, prove that

O

7. Prove that the angles in a segment greater than a

G

and P be any point on the minor arc BC which semi-circle is less than a right angle.

1. If two intersecting chords of a circle make equal

angles with the diameter passing through their point

of intersection. Prove that the chords are equal.

[T-II (2011)]

2. AB and AC are equal chords of a circle with centre

at O. Show that AO is perpendicular bisector of

BC. [T-II (2011)]

15

3. AB and AC are two chords of a circle of radius r

units. If AB = 2AC, and the length of the

perpendicular from the centre on these chords are

a and b respectively, prove that 4b2 = a2 + 3r2.

[T-II (2011)]

which AB is produced to F and BE || DC. If FBE

= 20 and DAB = 95, find ADC.

[T-II (2011)]

XPZ = 2 [XYZ + XZY]. [T-II (2011)]

N

HA

AS

10. In a circle of radius 5 cm, AB and AC are two

chords such that AB = AC = 6 cm. Find the length

AK

of chord BC. [T-II (2011)]

11. In the figure, B and E are points on the line

PR

AD || CF. [T-II (2011)]

5. Prove that the angle subtended by an arc at the

centre is double the angles subtended by it at any

S

ER

C

[T-II (2011)]

6. If the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral are

TH

quadrilateral, prove that it is a rectangle.

O

[T-II (2011)]

12. If O is the centre of a circle as shown in the given

BR

7. In the figure, ACE = 36, CAE = 41. Find x, figure, then prove that x + y = z. [T-II (2011)]

y and z. [T-II (2011)]

L

YA

O

G

by the internal angle bisectors of any quadrilateral

is cyclic. [T-II (2011)]

14. Two equal chords AB and CD of a circle when

8. In the figure, ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, O is produced, intersect at the point P. Prove that

the centre of the circle. If BOD = 160, find PB = PD. [T-II (2011)]

BPD. [T-II (2011)]

16

15. In the figure, equal chords AB and CD intersect

each other at Q at right angle. P and R are mid

points of AB and CD respectively. Show that

OPQR is a square. [T-II (2011)]

16. Prove that line joining the centers of two Through B, two line segments ABD and PBQ are

intersecting circles subtends equal angles at the drawn to intersect the circles at A, D and P, Q

two points of intersection of circles. [T-II (2011)] respectively. Prove that ACP = QCD.

[T-II (2011)]

N

HA

AS

17. In the figure, find the values of a, b, c and d.

Given BCD = 43 and BAE = 62. AK

19. Prove that the circle drawn on any one of the

equal sides of an isosceles triangle as diameter

PR

[T-II (2011)] bisects the base of the triangle. [T-II (2011)]

S

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

ER

Activity-1

TH

Objective : To verify that the angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended by

the same arc at any other point on the remaining part of the circle, using the method of paper cutting,

O

BR

Materials Required : White sheets of paper, tracing paper, a pair of scissors, gluestick, colour pencils, geometry

box, etc.

Procedure :

L

1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius with centre O. Mark two points A and

YA

B on the boundary of the circle to get arc AB. Colour the minor arc AB green.

O

G

Figure-1

17

2. Take any point P on the remaining part of the circle. Join OA, OB, PA and PB.

Figure-2

3. Make two replicas of APB using tracing paper. Shade the angles using different colours.

N

HA

AS

AK

Figure-3

4. Paste the two replicas of APB adjacent to each other on AOB as shown in the figure.

PR

S

ER

TH

O

BR

L

YA

O

Figure-4

G

Observations :

1. In figure 2, AOB is the angle subtended by arc AB at the centre and APB is the angle subtended by arc

AB on the remaining part of the circle.

2. In figure 3, each angle is a replica of APB.

3. In figure 4, we see that the two replicas of APB completely cover the angle AOB.

So, AOB = 2APB.

Conclusion : From the above activity, it is verified that the angle subtended by an arc at the centre of a circle is

twice the angle subtended by the same arc at any other point on the remaining part of the circle.

Do Yourself : Verify the above property by taking three circles of different radii.

18

Activity-2

Objective : To verify that the angles in the same segment of a circle are equal, using the method of paper cutting,

pasting and folding.

Materials Required : White sheets of paper, tracing paper, a pair of scissors, gluestick, colour pencils, geometry box,

etc.

Procedure :

1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius. Draw a chord AB of the circle.

N

HA

AS

AK

Figure-1

PR

2. Take any three points P, Q and R on the major arc AB of the circle. Join A to P, B to P, A to Q, B to Q, A to R

and B to R.

S

ER

TH

O

BR

L

YA

Figure-2

O

G

3. On a tracing paper, trace each of the angles APB, AQB and ARB. Shade the traced copies using different

colours.

Figure-3

19

4. Place the three cut outs one over the other such that the vertices P, Q and R coincide and PA, QA and RA fall

along the same direction.

Figure-4

Observations :

1. In figure 2, APB, AQB and ARB are the angles in the same major segment AB.

2. In figure 4, we see that APB, AQB and ARB coincide.

N

So, APB = AQB = ARB

HA

Conclusion : From the above activity, it is verified that the angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.

Do Yourself : Verify the above property by taking three circles of different radii.

AS

Activity-3

Objective : To verify using the method of paper cuting, pasting and folding that

AK

(a) the angle in a semi circle is a right angle

(b) the angle in a major segment is acute

PR

Materials Required : White sheets of paper, tracing paper, cut out of a right angle, colour pencils, a pair of scissors,

gluestick, geometry box, etc.

S

ER

1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius with centre O. Draw its diameter AB as

shown.

TH

O

BR

L

YA

Figure-1

2. Take any point P on the semicircle. Join A to P and B to P.

O

G

Figure-2

20

3. Make two replicas of APB on tracing paper. Shade the replicas using different colours.

Figure-3

4. On a white sheet of paper, draw a straight line XY. Paste the replicas obtained in figure 3 on

XY and adjacent to each other such that AP and BP coincide as shown in the figure.

N

HA

Figure-4

(b) To verify that the angle in a major segment is acute :

1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius with centre O. Draw a chord AB which does

AS

not pass through O.

AK

PR

S

ER

Figure 5

TH

O

BR

L

YA

O

Figure-6

G

Figure-7

21

4. Paste the traced copy of APB on the cut out of a right angled triangle XYZ, right-angled at Y such that PA

falls along YZ.

Figure-8

(c) To verify that the angle in a minor segment is obtuse :

1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius with centre O. Draw any chord AB which

does not pass through O.

N

HA

AS

AK

PR

Figure-9

2. Take any point P on the minor segment. Join P to A and P to B.

S

ER

TH

O

BR

L

Figure-10

YA

O

G

Figure-11

4. Paste the traced copy of APB on the cut out of a right-angled triangle XYZ, right angled at Y, such that PA

falls along YZ.

22

Figure-12

Observations :

1. In figure 2, APB is a semicircle. So, APB is an angle in a semicircle.

2. In figure 4, we see that PB and PA fall along XY.

Or APB + APB = a straight angle = 180

2APB = 180

APB = 90

N

Hence, angle in a semicircle is a right angle.

HA

3. In figure 7, APB is an angle formed in the major segment of a circle.

4. In figure 8, we see that the side PB of APB lies to the right of XY of XYZ, ie, APB is less than a right

angle, or PB is acute.

AS

Hence, the angle in a major segment is acute.

5. In figure 11, APB is an angle formed in the minor segment of a circle.

AK

6. In figure 12, we see that the side PB of PAB lies to the left of XY of XYZ ie, APB is greater than XYZ

or APB is obtuse.

PR

Conclusion : From the above activity, it is verified that :

(a) the angle in a semicircle is a right angle.

S

ER

Activity-4

TH

Objective : To verify using the method of paper cutting, pasting and folding that

O

(a) the sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180

BR

(b) in a cyclic quadrilateral the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.

Materials Required : White sheets of paper, tracing paper, colour pencils, a pair of scissors, gluestick, geometry box, etc.

Procedure :

L

(a) 1. On a white sheet of paper, draw a circle of any convenient radius. Mark four points P, Q, R, S on the circumference

YA

O

G

Figure-1

23

2. Colour the quadrilateral PQRS as shown in the figure and cut it into four parts such that each part contains one

angle, ie, P, Q, R and S.

N

HA

Figure-2

AS

3. On a white sheet of paper, paste P and R adjacent to each other. Similarly, paste Q and S adjacent to

each other.

AK

PR

S

Figure-3

ER

2. Extend PQ to PT to form an exterior angle RQT. Shade RQT.

TH

O

BR

L

YA

O

G

Figure-4

Figure-5

24

4. Paste the traced copy of PSR on RQT such that S falls at Q and SP falls along QT.

Figure-6

N

Observations :

HA

1. In figure 2, P, Q, R and S are the four angles of the cyclic quadrilateral PQRS.

2. In figure 3(a), we see that R and P form a straight angle and in figure 3(b), Q and S form a straight

AS

angle.

So, P + R = 180 and Q + S = 180.

AK

Hence, the sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180.

3. In figure 5, PSR is the angle opposite to the exterior angle RQT.

4. In figure 6, we see that PSR completely covers TQR.

PR

Hence, in a cyclic quadrilateral the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.

Conclusion : From the above activity, it is verified that

S

(a) the sum of either pair of opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral is 180.

ER

(b) in a cyclic quadrilateral, the exterior angle is equal to the interior opposite angle.

TH

O

BR

L

YA

O

G

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