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Summary: This article focuses on the role of the stress hormone cortisol in sleep, dreams, and

memory consolidation. It claims that the concentration of the hormone changes throughout the
sleep cycle. The authors of the paper are from the department of psychology and they suggest
that dreams reflect memory and serve to strengthen the knowledge of recent events and to
maintain the current stability. They have included the states of sleep and the role of various
neurotransmitters in switching from one sleep state to another, how the characteristics of dreams
vary as a function of sleep state, the memory content typically associated with dreaming in
different dream states, and the role of sleep in the consolidation of memory. Their purpose is to
inform and persuade the importance of the consolidation interactions.
Evaluation: This source is based on a study and explores the basic ideas to detail. Their claim is
tested through a series of methods making the source reliable. I want to highlight the important
role of dreams in sleep.

Reflection: Neurochemical functions are responsible for the different sleep changes, I can relate
that every person is different when it comes to dream content and memory consolidation.

Citation (APA style): Payne, J. D., & Nadel, L. (2004, November). Sleep, dreams, and memory
consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from
Summary: This article talks about the connections between the digestive system and sleep. It
talks about the digestive system requiring a great amount of energy that we get from sleep. The
objective it to inform about the causes and effects that happen between the brain and the stomach

Evaluation: Determine both how convincing and how useful the source is for your research on
the issue. Your evaluation should explain how you have decided to use the authors main claims
in your paper.
This is very informative, simple and straight the point.

Reflection: Explain what you learned (specifically) about your topic after you completed your

Citation (APA style): M. (2017, June 30). The Connection Between Sleep and Digestion.
Retrieved October 12, 2017, from


Summary: The next source is a primary source that I documented throughout a whole week with
no changes to my lifestyle. The source is a sleeping diary with components that might of altered
my sleeping habits. My objective was to evaluate where I lack balance and when I am the most
successful in getting the most rest. In first two days of my experiment, I had a cold so it shows
that I went to sleep early. The next days I had no school so my body went to bed late and slept in,
these days also show that I drank coffee, which in return altered my bedtime.
Evaluation: My primary source is convincing because it is personal and a lot of busy people can
relate to the way I try to adapt myself constantly. It is useful because it shows documentation on
a day to day basis. The idea came from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the
evidence that is collected can help others come to the conclusion that wellness and health pay a
huge role in sleep.

Reflection: I learned that my life is busy which in return forces my body to become flexible.
This is something I cannot avoid because I have school, a job, and a social life. I notice that my
sleeping schedule is all out of place so something that I want to improve is my sleeping patterns.
I want to stop confusing my brain when it comes to bedtime. I also came to the conclusion that
my diet affects the amount of sleep my body receives. Mind and body work together.

Citation (APA style): Solorio, Vanessa One Week Sleep Diary

Summary: The author of the post is Ashley Marcin and she works with the Healthline, a
newsletter dedicated to health and wellness. The authors purpose was to inform the public of the
side effects when your brain does not receive enough sleep. She claims that approximately 1 in 3
America adults isnt getting enough sleep, she uses evidence from the highly reliable source
American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). When you lose sleep, your bodys ability to
fight off illness is impaired. Your chances of developing coronary heart disease greatly increases
with less sleep and higher rates of cancer are also associated. Ashley Marcin also makes the
claim that the Experimental Brain Research found that brain functions, reaction time and
alertness worsened after skipping a night of sleep. People who sleep less are most likely prone to
obesity and diabetes. The post also said that youre three times more likely to be involves in a car
accident if you get six or fewer hours of sleep each night, making shift workers and commercial
drivers the most vulnerable. She concludes with the statement that sleep is beauty rest to keep the
audience engaged.
Evaluation: The facts stated are convincible because it uses different evidence from reliable
scientific sources that are dedicated to the function of sleep. It also uses pictures and photos to
keep the audience entertain and engaged. I used the authors claims for my paper because I want
to give examples on what happens to the body when it does not get enough sleep and how the
effects can become deadly. One night without sleep equals the same effects of an intoxicated

Reflection: I can conclude that not getting enough sleep is a common thing but it should not be
because it exposes us to a lot of risks. I want to improve my sleep because it will help my body
in the long run. Our health and wellness should be the most important aspect of our lives and it
should require more attention from us. Rest and sleep is essential in being the best version of
Citation (APA style): Marcin, A. (2017, June 27). 10 Things That Happen to Your Body When
You Lose Sleep. Retrieved October 11, 2017, from

Vote on how much sleep you get here.

Summary: The author of this source is Tanya Lewis and a documentation on how she improved
her sleeping habits. The supporting evidence she used was a study on light level and duration of
phone exposure determining melatonin suppression. The study was done by the Lighting
Research Center in Troy, NY. Melatonin is the hormone that tells our brain that it is time to sleep
and the light from gadgets prevents the release of this hormone. Tanya Lewis objective is to
inform the public of the differences that happen when electronic usage before bed is reduced.
She demonstrated the effects by personally putting a stop to her electronic usage after work. Her
experiment highlighted an improvement on sleep quality and how interaction with the world
became more simple.

Evaluation: This source is very convincing because it is a claim that is backed up with scientific
research and is further evaluated with an experiment done by the author herself. This increases
the credibility of my paper because my audience can easily identify with the information. My
audience is given enough details that is proven beneficial and easy to recreate. The fact that the
author documents her week and the success but also the struggle and the cons is something that
convincing and relatable. I want to include my audience with the information I provide in my

Reflection: Young adults and teenagers are the most vulnerable to this finding and reality. The
truth is that the majority of human interaction is associated with technology. It has become part
of our culture to check our phones throughout the day. I have learned to reflect on my habits
when it comes to technology and how it threatens the way I sleep. I have learned that the light
associated with our phones triggers our brains in a bad way and it can lead to extreme
consequences in our body.

Citation (APA style):

Lewis, T. (2015, July 28). Here's what happened when I stopped looking at screens at night.
Retrieved October 09, 2017, from

Summary: This article talks about understanding insomnia, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome
and narcolepsy. It is informing the readers about the type of sleep disorders that exist. There are
four types of insomnia: 1) difficulty falling asleep; 2) no problem falling asleep but difficulty
staying asleep (many awakenings); 3) waking up too early; and 4) Sleep State Misperception.
The article highlights some events and habits that cause this disorder. Sleep Apnea treatment
offers many resources while restless leg syndrome patients are prescribed drugs that affect the
neurotransmitter dopamine

Evaluation: Determine both how convincing and how useful the source is for your research on
the issue. Your evaluation should explain how you have decided to use the authors main claims
in your paper.
Reflection: Explain what you learned (specifically) about your topic after you completed your

Citation (APA style): Sleep Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved October 12, 2017, from