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Data Visualization with ggplot2 : : CHEAT SHEET

Basics Geoms Use a geom function to represent data points, use the geoms aesthetic properties to represent variables.
Each function returns a layer.
ggplot2is based on thegrammar of graphics, the idea
that you can build every graph from the same a <- ggplot(economics, aes(date, unemploy)) continuous x , continuous y continuous bivariate distribution
components: adataset, acoordinate system, b <- ggplot(seals, aes(x = long, y = lat)) h <- ggplot(diamonds, aes(carat, price))
e <- ggplot(mpg, aes(cty, hwy))
andgeomsvisual marks that represent data points. a + geom_blank() e + geom_label(aes(label = cty), nudge_x = 1, h + geom_bin2d(binwidth = c(0.25, 500))
(Useful for expanding limits) nudge_y = 1, check_overlap = TRUE) x, y, label, x, y, alpha, color, fill, linetype, size, weight
F M A alpha, angle, color, family, fontface, hjust,
b + geom_curve(aes(yend = lat + 1, lineheight, size, vjust
+ = xend=long+1,curvature=z)) - x, xend, y, yend,
alpha, angle, color, curvature, linetype, size e + geom_jitter(height = 2, width = 2)
h + geom_density2d()
x, y, alpha, colour, group, linetype, size
x, y, alpha, color, fill, shape, size
data geom coordinate plot a + geom_path(lineend="butt", linejoin="round, h + geom_hex()
x=Fy=A system linemitre=1) x, y, alpha, colour, fill, size
e + geom_point(), x, y, alpha, color, fill, shape,
x, y, alpha, color, group, linetype, size size, stroke

To display values, map variables in the data to visual a + geom_polygon(aes(group = group)) e + geom_quantile(), x, y, alpha, color, group,
properties of the geom (aesthetics) like size, color, and x x, y, alpha, color, fill, group, linetype, size linetype, size, weight continuous function
and y locations. i <- ggplot(economics, aes(date, unemploy))
b + geom_rect(aes(xmin = long, ymin=lat, xmax=
F M A long + 1, ymax = lat + 1)) - xmax, xmin, ymax, e + geom_rug(sides = bl), x, y, alpha, color, i + geom_area()
ymin, alpha, color, fill, linetype, size x, y, alpha, color, fill, linetype, size
+ =
linetype, size
a + geom_ribbon(aes(ymin=unemploy - 900, e + geom_smooth(method = lm), x, y, alpha, i + geom_line()
ymax=unemploy + 900)) - x, ymax, ymin, color, fill, group, linetype, size, weight x, y, alpha, color, group, linetype, size
data geom coordinate plot alpha, color, fill, group, linetype, size
x=Fy=A system
color = F e + geom_text(aes(label = cty), nudge_x = 1, i + geom_step(direction = "hv")
size = A nudge_y = 1, check_overlap = TRUE), x, y, label, x, y, alpha, color, group, linetype, size
alpha, angle, color, family, fontface, hjust,
LINE SEGMENTS lineheight, size, vjust
common aesthetics: x, y, alpha, color, linetype, size
b + geom_abline(aes(intercept=0, slope=1)) visualizing error
Complete the template below to build a graph. b + geom_hline(aes(yintercept = lat)) df <- data.frame(grp = c("A", "B"), fit = 4:5, se = 1:2)
required b + geom_vline(aes(xintercept = long)) discrete x , continuous y j <- ggplot(df, aes(grp, fit, ymin = fit-se, ymax = fit+se))
ggplot (data = <DATA> ) + e <- ggplot(mpg, aes(cty, hwy))
b + geom_segment(aes(yend=lat+1, xend=long+1)) j + geom_crossbar(fatten = 2)
<GEOM_FUNCTION> (mapping = aes( <MAPPINGS> ), x, y, ymax, ymin, alpha, color, fill, group, linetype,
b + geom_spoke(aes(angle = 1:1155, radius = 1)) f + geom_col(), x, y, alpha, color, fill, group,
stat = <STAT> , position = <POSITION> ) + Not linetype, size size
sensible j + geom_errorbar(), x, ymax, ymin, alpha, color,
f + geom_boxplot(), x, y, lower, middle, upper, group, linetype, size, width (also
<FACET_FUNCTION> + defaults
supplied ONE VARIABLE continuous ymax, ymin, alpha, color, fill, group, linetype, geom_errorbarh())
<SCALE_FUNCTION> + shape, size, weight
c <- ggplot(mpg, aes(hwy)); c2 <- ggplot(mpg)
j + geom_linerange()
<THEME_FUNCTION> f + geom_dotplot(binaxis = y, stackdir = x, ymin, ymax, alpha, color, group, linetype, size
c + geom_area(stat = "bin") center), x, y, alpha, color, fill, group
x, y, alpha, color, fill, linetype, size j + geom_pointrange()
ggplot(data = mpg, aes(x = cty, y = hwy)) Begins a plot f + geom_violin(scale = area), x, y, alpha, color, x, y, ymin, ymax, alpha, color, fill, group, linetype,
that you finish by adding layers to. Add one geom c + geom_density(kernel = "gaussian") fill, group, linetype, size, weight shape, size
function per layer. x, y, alpha, color, fill, group, linetype, size, weight
aesthetic mappings data geom
c + geom_dotplot() visualizing error
qplot(x = cty, y = hwy, data = mpg, geom = point") x, y, alpha, color, fill data <- data.frame(murder = USArrests$Murder,
Creates a complete plot with given data, geom, and discrete x , discrete y state = tolower(rownames(USArrests)))
mappings. Supplies many useful defaults. c + geom_freqpoly() x, y, alpha, color, group, g <- ggplot(diamonds, aes(cut, color)) map <- map_data("state")
linetype, size k <- ggplot(data, aes(fill = murder))
last_plot() Returns the last plot g + geom_count(), x, y, alpha, color, fill, shape, k + geom_map(aes(map_id = state), map = map)
c + geom_histogram(binwidth = 5) x, y, alpha,
ggsave("plot.png", width = 5, height = 5) Saves last plot color, fill, linetype, size, weight size, stroke + expand_limits(x = map$long, y = map$lat),
as 5 x 5 file named "plot.png" in working directory. map_id, alpha, color, fill, linetype, size
Matches file type to file extension. c2 + geom_qq(aes(sample = hwy)) x, y, alpha,
color, fill, linetype, size, weight
seals$z <- with(seals, sqrt(delta_long^2 + delta_lat^2))l <- ggplot(seals, aes(long, lat))
discrete l + geom_contour(aes(z = z)) l + geom_raster(aes(fill = z), hjust=0.5, vjust=0.5,
d <- ggplot(mpg, aes(fl)) x, y, z, alpha, colour, group, linetype, interpolate=FALSE)
size, weight x, y, alpha, fill
d + geom_bar()
x, alpha, color, fill, linetype, size, weight l + geom_tile(aes(fill = z)), x, y, alpha, color, fill,
linetype, size, width

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Stats An alternative way to build a layer Scales Coordinate Systems Faceting
A stat builds new variables to plot (e.g., count, prop). Scales map data values to the visual values of an r <- d + geom_bar() Facets divide a plot into
fl cty cyl aesthetic. To change a mapping, add a new scale. r + coord_cartesian(xlim = c(0, 5)) subplots based on the
xlim, ylim values of one or more
(n <- d + geom_bar(aes(fill = fl)))
+ =
x ..count..
The default cartesian coordinate system discrete variables.
aesthetic prepackaged scale-specific r + coord_fixed(ratio = 1/2)
scale_ to adjust scale to use arguments ratio, xlim, ylim t <- ggplot(mpg, aes(cty, hwy)) + geom_point()
data stat geom coordinate plot Cartesian coordinates with fixed aspect ratio
x = x system n + scale_fill_manual( between x and y units
y = ..count.. values = c("skyblue", "royalblue", "blue", navy"), r + coord_flip() t + facet_grid(. ~ fl)
Visualize a stat by changing the default stat of a geom limits = c("d", "e", "p", "r"), breaks =c("d", "e", "p", r"), xlim, ylim facet into columns based on fl
name = "fuel", labels = c("D", "E", "P", "R")) Flipped Cartesian coordinates
function, geom_bar(stat="count") or by using a stat t + facet_grid(year ~ .)
r + coord_polar(theta = "x", direction=1 ) facet into rows based on year
function, stat_count(geom="bar"), which calls a default range of title to use in labels to use breaks to use in theta, start, direction
values to include legend/axis in legend/axis legend/axis
geom to make a layer (equivalent to a geom function). in mapping Polar coordinates t + facet_grid(year ~ fl)
Use syntax to map stat variables to aesthetics. r + coord_trans(ytrans = sqrt") facet into both rows and columns
xtrans, ytrans, limx, limy t + facet_wrap(~ fl)
GENERAL PURPOSE SCALES Transformed cartesian coordinates. Set xtrans and wrap facets into a rectangular layout
geom to use stat function geommappings ytrans to the name of a window function.
Use with most aesthetics
i + stat_density2d(aes(fill = ..level..), Set scales to let axis limits vary across facets
scale_*_continuous() - map cont values to visual ones + coord_quickmap()
geom = "polygon") 60

variable created by stat scale_*_discrete() - map discrete values to visual ones + coord_map(projection = "ortho", t + facet_grid(drv ~ fl, scales = "free")

scale_*_identity() - use data values as visual ones orientation=c(41, -74, 0))projection, orienztation, x and y axis limits adjust to individual facets
xlim, ylim "free_x" - x axis limits adjust
c + stat_bin(binwidth = 1, origin = 10) scale_*_manual(values = c()) - map discrete values to long

Map projections from the mapproj package

manually chosen visual ones "free_y" - y axis limits adjust
x, y | ..count.., ..ncount.., ..density.., ..ndensity.. (mercator (default), azequalarea, lagrange, etc.)
scale_*_date(date_labels = "%m/%d"), date_breaks = "2 Set labeller to adjust facet labels
c + stat_count(width = 1) x, y, | ..count.., ..prop.. weeks") - treat data values as dates.
c + stat_density(adjust = 1, kernel = gaussian") scale_*_datetime() - treat data x values as date times. t + facet_grid(. ~ fl, labeller = label_both)
x, y, | ..count.., ..density.., ..scaled..

e + stat_bin_2d(bins = 30, drop = T)

Use same arguments as scale_x_date(). See ?strptime for
label formats. Position Adjustments fl: c fl: d fl: e fl: p fl: r

t + facet_grid(fl ~ ., labeller = label_bquote(alpha ^ .(fl)))

x, y, fill | ..count.., ..density.. Position adjustments determine how to arrange geoms c d e p r
X & Y LOCATION SCALES that would otherwise occupy the same space.
e + stat_bin_hex(bins=30) x, y, fill | ..count.., ..density.. t + facet_grid(. ~ fl, labeller = label_parsed)
Use with x or y aesthetics (x shown here) c d e p r
e + stat_density_2d(contour = TRUE, n = 100) s <- ggplot(mpg, aes(fl, fill = drv))
x, y, color, size | ..level.. scale_x_log10() - Plot x on log10 scale
s + geom_bar(position = "dodge")
e + stat_ellipse(level = 0.95, segments = 51, type = "t") scale_x_reverse() - Reverse direction of x axis
scale_x_sqrt() - Plot x on square root scale Arrange elements side by side
l + stat_contour(aes(z = z)) x, y, z, order | ..level.. s + geom_bar(position = "fill")
Stack elements on top of one another, t + labs( x = "New x axis label", y = "New y axis label",
l + stat_summary_hex(aes(z = z), bins = 30, fun = max) COLOR AND FILL SCALES (DISCRETE) normalize height
x, y, z, fill | ..value.. title ="Add a title above the plot",
n <- d + geom_bar(aes(fill = fl)) e + geom_point(position = "jitter") Use scale functions
subtitle = "Add a subtitle below title", to update legend
l + stat_summary_2d(aes(z = z), bins = 30, fun = mean) Add random noise to X and Y position of each
n + scale_fill_brewer(palette = "Blues") element to avoid overplotting caption = "Add a caption below plot", labels
x, y, z, fill | ..value.. For palette choices: <aes> = "New <aes>
<AES> <AES> legend title")
RColorBrewer::display.brewer.all() e + geom_label(position = "nudge")
f + stat_boxplot(coef = 1.5) x, y | ..lower.., B Nudge labels away from points t + annotate(geom = "text", x = 8, y = 9, label = "A")
..middle.., ..upper.., ..width.. , ..ymin.., ..ymax.. n + scale_fill_grey(start = 0.2, end = 0.8,
na.value = "red") geom to place manual values for geoms aesthetics
f + stat_ydensity(kernel = "gaussian", scale = area") x, y | s + geom_bar(position = "stack")
..density.., ..scaled.., ..count.., ..n.., ..violinwidth.., ..width.. Stack elements on top of one another
e + stat_ecdf(n = 40) x, y | ..x.., ..y..
e + stat_quantile(quantiles = c(0.1, 0.9), formula = y ~
o <- c + geom_dotplot(aes(fill = ..x..)) Each position adjustment can be recast as a function with
manual width and height arguments Legends
log(x), method = "rq") x, y | ..quantile.. o + scale_fill_distiller(palette = "Blues") s + geom_bar(position = position_dodge(width = 1)) n + theme(legend.position = "bottom")
Place legend at "bottom", "top", "left", or "right"
e + stat_smooth(method = "lm", formula = y ~ x, se=T,
level=0.95) x, y |, ..x.., ..y.., ..ymin.., ..ymax.. o + scale_fill_gradient(low="red", high="yellow") n + guides(fill = "none")

Set legend type for each aesthetic: colorbar, legend, or
ggplot() + stat_function(aes(x = -3:3), n = 99, fun = o + scale_fill_gradient2(low="red", high=blue", none (no legend)
dnorm, args = list(sd=0.5)) x | ..x.., ..y.. mid = "white", midpoint = 25) n + scale_fill_discrete(name = "Title",
labels = c("A", "B", "C", "D", "E"))
e + stat_identity(na.rm = TRUE) r + theme_bw() r + theme_classic() Set legend title and labels with a scale function.
o + scale_fill_gradientn(colours=topo.colors(6)) White background
ggplot() + stat_qq(aes(sample=1:100), dist = qt, Also: rainbow(), heat.colors(), terrain.colors(), with grid lines r + theme_light()
dparam=list(df=5)) sample, x, y | ..sample.., ..theoretical..
cm.colors(), RColorBrewer::brewer.pal() r + theme_gray() r + theme_linedraw()
e + stat_sum() x, y, size | ..n.., ..prop.. Grey background
(default theme) r + theme_minimal()
e + stat_summary( = "mean_cl_boot") SHAPE AND SIZE SCALES Minimal themes
r + theme_dark() r + theme_void() Without clipping (preferred)
h + stat_summary_bin(fun.y = "mean", geom = "bar") p <- e + geom_point(aes(shape = fl, size = cyl)) dark for contrast
p + scale_shape() + scale_size() Empty theme t + coord_cartesian(
e + stat_unique() xlim = c(0, 100), ylim = c(10, 20))
p + scale_shape_manual(values = c(3:7))
With clipping (removes unseen data points)
t + xlim(0, 100) + ylim(10, 20)
p + scale_radius(range = c(1,6))
p + scale_size_area(max_size = 6) t + scale_x_continuous(limits = c(0, 100)) +
scale_y_continuous(limits = c(0, 100))

RStudio is a trademark of RStudio, Inc. CC BY RStudio 844-448-1212 Learn more with browseVignettes(package = c("dplyr", "tibble")) dplyr 0.5.0 tibble 1.2.0 Updated: 2017-01