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CS 1


C1 In this chapter we will discuss the calculations based on chemical equations. It has been classified into two
parts :
1. Mole Concept
2. Equivalent Concept
In mole concept we deal with different types of relations like weight-weight, weight-volume, or
volume-volume relationship between reactants or products of the reaction.
Mole concept is based on balanced chemical chemical reaction. Some basic definitions used in mole
concept are as follows :
Limiting Reagent : A reagent which is consumed completely during the chemical reaction.
weight of substance
Number of moles of a substance(n)
atomic or molecular weight

Given number of molecules

Also, Number of moles of a substance(n)
Avogadro number

In gas phase reaction number of moles of a gas (n) = ,
At STP/NTP one mole of any gas contains 22.4 L i.e. at 273 K and 1 atm pressure.
In aq. solution n = MV [M - molarity, V - volume of solution]
Practice Problems :
1. Chlorine can be produced by reacting H2SO4 acid with a mixture of MnO2 and NaCl. The reactions
follows the equation : 2NaCl + MnO2 + 3H2SO4 2NaHSO4 + MnSO4 + Cl2 + H2O what volume of
chlorine at STP can be produced from 100 g of NaCl ? (At. wt. Na = 23, Cl = 35.5)
(a) 19.15 lt (b) 30 lt (c) 29 lt (d) 5 lt
2. A solution contains 5 g of KOH was poured into a solution containing 6.8 g of AlCl3, find the mass of
precipitate formed [At. wt. : H-1, Al-27, Cl-35.5, K-39]
(a) 2.3 g (b) 23 g (c) 32 g (d) 0.32 g
[Answers : (1) a (2) a]


Important Definitions :

mass of solute
mass percent 100
mass of solution

No. of moles of solute

Molarity(M) , unit of molarity are mol/lit., M or molar..
Vol. of solution in L
No. of gramequiva lents of solute , unit of normality are g-eq./lit., N or normal.
Normality ( N )
Vol. of solution in L

No. of moles of solute

Molality (m ) , unit of molality are mol/kg, m or molal.
wt . of solvent

nA .
Mole fraction( x A )
n A nB

mass of solute
ppm 10 6
mass of solution

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Weight of solute
No. of gram equivalents of solute(neq )
Equivalent weight

Molecular weight (or ) Atomic weight (or ) Ionic weight

Equivalent weight
n factor
The relation between different concentration terms :
1. neq = nmol n-factor 2. neq = Normality Volume (L)
3. Number of moles(nmol) = Molarity Volume (L) 4. Normality = Molarity n-factor

10xd M 1000
5. M 6. m
M 1000d MM

x B 1000
7. m
(1 x B )M A

(d density of solution in g/ml, M molar mass of solute, xB and xA are mole fraction of solute and
solvent respectively, MA molar mass of solvent)
Calculation of n Factor for Different Compounds :
1. Acids : n = basicity
H3PO4 n = 3 H3PO3 n = 2
H3PO2 n = 1 H3BO3 n = 1
2. Bases : n = acidity of base
e.g. Ammonia and all amines are monoacidic bases,
NaOH(n = 1), Na2CO3(aq) n = 2, NaHCO3(n = 1)
3. Salt : (Which does not undergo redox reactions)
n factor = Total cationic or anionic charge, e.g. Na3PO4 n = 3, Ba3(PO4)2 n = 6
4. Oxidizing Agents or Reducing Agents : n factor = change in oxidation number Or
number of electron lost or gained from one mole of the compound.
It is based on law of equivalence which is explained as follows :
Law of chemical equivalents : In a chemical reaction the equivalents of all the species (reactants or
products) are equal to each other provided none of these compounds is in excess.
N1V1 = N2V2 (when normalities and volumes are given).
If the number of equivalence of both the reactants are different then reactant with the lesser number of
equivalence will be the limiting reagent.
Application of equivalent concept : It is used in acid base titration, back titration and double titration,
similarly in redox titration. Equivalent concepts can be used on all reaction whether they are balanced or
not balanced but mole concept is used in solving the problems when the reactions are balanced.
Basic principles of tirations :
In voltmetric analysis, a given amount (weight or volume) of an unknown substance is allowed to react with
a known volume of a standard solution slowly. A chemical reaction takes place between the solute of an
unknown substance and the solute of the standard solution. The completion of the reaction is indicated by
the end point of the reaction, which is observed by the colour change either due to the indicator or due to the
solute itself. Whether the reactions during the analysis are either between an acid and or base or between
O.A. and R.A., the law of equivalence is used at end point.
Following are the different important points regarding this process :
(i) In case of acid base titration at the equivalence point
(neq)acid = (neq)base
(ii) In case of redox titration
(neq)oxidant = (neq)reductant
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(iii) If a given volume of solution is diluted then number of moles or number of equivalence of
solute remains same but molarity or normality of the solution decreases.
(iv) If a mixture contains more than one acids and is allowed to react completely with the base then
at the equivalence point, (neq) acid1 + (neq) acid2 + ... = (neq) base
(v) Similarly if a mixture contains more than one oxidising agents then at equivalence point,
(neq) O.A1 + (neq) O.A2 +... = (neq) reducing agent.
(vi) If it is a difficute to solve the problem through equivalence concept then use the mole concept.
Back titration :
This is a method in which a substance is taken in excess and some part of its has to react with another
substance and the remaining part has to be titrated against standard reagent.
Double titration :
This is a titration of specific compound using different indicators. Let us consider a solid mixture of NaOH,
Na2CO3 and inert impurities.
When the solution containing NaOH and Na2CO3 is titrated using phenolphalein indicator following reac-
tion takes place at the phenolphthalein end point
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
Na2CO3 + HCl NaHCO3 + H2O

Here, eq. of NaOH eq. of Na 2 CO 3 eq. of HCl
2 (n 2)

When methyl orange is used, Na2CO3 is converted into NaCl + CO2 + H2O

Hence, eq. of NaOH + eq. of Na 2 CO 3 = eq. of HCl

(n 2)


Every indicator has a working range
Indicator pH range Behaving as
Phenolphthalein 8 10 weak organic acid
Methyl orange 3 4.4 weak organic base
Thus methyl orange with lower pH range can indicate complete neutralisation of all types
of bases. Extent of reaction of different bases with acid (HCl) using these two indicators
summarised below
Phenolphthalein Methyl Orange
NaOH 100% reaction is indicated 100 % reaction is indicated
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
Na2CO3 50% reaction upto NaHCO3 100% reaction is indicated
stage is indicated Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + H2O
Na2CO3 + HCl NaHCO3 + NaCl + CO2
NaHCO3 No reaction is indicated NaHCO3 + HCl NaCl + H2O +
100% reaction is indicated

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Species Changed to Reactions Electron exchanged Eq. wt.

or change in O.N.

1. MnO4 (O.A.) Mn2+ in acidic MnO4 + 8H+ + 5e Mn2+ + 5 M

medium 4H2O 5
2. MnO4 (O.A.) MnO2 in basic MnO4 + 3e + 2H2O MnO2 + 3
medium 4OH 3
3. MnO4 (O.A.) MnO42 in MnO4 + e + 2H2O MnO22 1
neutral medium 1
4. Cr2O72(O.A.) Cr3+ in acidic Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6e 2Cr3+ + 6
medium 7H2O 6
5. MnO2(O.A.) Mn2+ in acidic MnO2 + 4H+ + 2e Mn2+ + 2
medium 2H2O 2
6. Cl2(O.A.) Cl Cl2 + 2e 2Cl 2
(in bleaching 2
7. CuSO4 (O.A.) Cu+ Cu2+ + e Cu+ 1
(in iodometric 1
8. S2O32 (R.A.) S4O62 2S2O32 S4O62 + 2e 2 (for two molecules) E M M
9. H2O2(O.A.) H2 O +
H2O2 + 2H + 2e 2H2O 2 E
10. H2O2(R.A.) O2 H2O2 O2 + 2H+ + 2e 2 E
(O.N. of oxygen in H2O2 is (1) 2
per atom)
11. Fe2+ (R.A.) Fe3+ Fe2+ Fe3+ + e 1 E

Estimation of Reaction Relation between O.A. and R.A.

1. I2 I2 + 2Na2S2O3 2NaI + Na2S4O62 I2 2I 2Na2S2O3

I2 + 2S2O32 2I + S4O62
Eq. wt. (Na2S2O3) = E
2. CuSO4 2CuSO4 + 4KI Cu2I2 + 2K2SO4 + I2 2CuSO4 I2 2Na2S2O3
or 2Cu2+ + 4I Cu2I2 + I2
white ppt.
Eq. wt. of CuSO4 =
3. CaOCl2 CaOCl2 + H2O Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 CaOCl2 Cl2 I2 2I 2Na2S2O3
Cl2 + 2KI 2KCl + I2
Cl2 + 2I 2Cl + I2
Eq. wt. of CaOCl2 =
4. MnO2 MnO2 Cl2 I2 2I 2Na2S2O3
MnO2 + 4HCl (conc.) MnCl2 +
Cl2 + 2H2O M
Cl2 + 2KI 2KCl + I2 Eq. wt. of MnO2 =
or MnO2 + 4H+ + 2Cl Mn2+ + 2H2O
+ Cl2
Cl2 + 2I I2 + 2Cl
5. IO3 IO3 + 5I + 6H+ 3I2 + 3H2O IO3 3I2 6I 6Na2S2O3
Eq. wt. IO3 =
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6. H2 O 2 H2O2 + 2I + 2H I2 + 2H2O H2O2 I2 2I 2Na2S2O3
Eq. wt. H2O2 =
7. Cl2 Cl2 + 2I 2Cl + I2 Cl2 I2 2I 2Na2S2O3
Eq. wt. of Cl2 =
8. O3 O3 + 6I + 6H+ 3I2 + 3H2O + O2 O3 3I2
Eq. wt. of O3 =
9. ClO ClO + 2I + 2H+ H2O + Cl + I2 ClO I2 2I 2Na2S2O3
Eq. wt. of ClO =
10. Cr2O72 Cr2O72 + 14H+ + 6I 3I2 + 2Cr3+ + Cr2O72 3I2 6I
Eq. wt. of Cr2O72 =

Practice Problems :
1. [Na+] in a solution prepared by mixing 30.00 mL of 0.12 M NaCl with 70 mL of 0.15 M Na2SO4 is
(a) 0.135 M (b) 0.141 M (c) 0.210 M (d) 0.246 M
2. The equivalent mass of MnSO4 is half of its molar mass when it is converted to
(a) Mn2O3 (b) MnO2 (c) MnO4 (d) MnO42
3. The anion nitrate can be converted into ammonium ion. The equivalent mass of NO3 ion in this
reaction would be
(a) 6.20 g (b) 7.75 g (c) 10.5 g (d) 21.0 g

4. When BrO ion reacts with Br ion in acid solution Br2 is liberated. The equivalent weight of KBrO3
in this reaction is
(a) M/8 (b) M/3 (c) M/5 (d) M/6
5. The number of moles of KMnO4 that will be needed to react completely with one mole of ferrous
oxalate in acidic solution is
(a) 3/5 (b) 2/5 (c) 4/5 (d) 1
6. 5 ml of N-HCl, 20 ml of N/2-H2SO4 and 30 ml of N/3 HNO3 are mixed together and the volume
made to 1 litre.
(i) The normality of the resulting solution is
(a) N/5 (b) N/10 (c) N/20 (d) N/40
(ii) The wt. of pure NaOH required to neutralize the above solution is
(a) 10 g (b) 2g (c) 1g (d) 2.5 g
7. 0.7 g of a sample of Na2CO3.xH2O were dissolved in water and the volume was made to 100 ml, 20 ml
of this solution required 19.8 ml of N/10 HCl for complete neutralization. The value of x is
(a) 7 (b) 3 (c) 2 (d) 5

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8. 100 mL of 1 M KMnO4 oxidised 100 mL of H2O2 in acidic medium (when MnO is reduced to Mn2+);

volume of same KMnO4 required to oxidise 100 mL of H2O2 in basic medium (when MnO4. is
reduced to MnO2) will be

100 500 300

(a) mL (b) mL (c) mL (d) 100 mL
3 3 3
9. 100 mL of a mixture of NaOH and Na2SO4 is neutralised by 100 mL of 0.5 M H2SO4. Hence amount
of NaOH in 100 mL mixture is
(a) 0.2 g (b) 0.4 g (c) 0.6 g (d) 1.0 g
10. 3 mol of a mixture of FeSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3 required 100 mL of 2 M KMnO4 solution is acidic
medium. Hence mol fraction of FeSO4 in the mixture is

1 2 2 3
(a) (b) (c) (d)
3 3 5 5
11. 5.3 g of M2CO3 is dissolved in 150 mL of 1 N HCl. Unused acid required 100 mL of 0.5 N NaOH.
Hence equivalent weight of M is
(a) 23 (b) 12 (c) 24 (d) 13
[Answers : (1) d (2) b (3) b (4) c (5) a (6) (i) d (ii) c (7) c (8) b (9) b (10) a (11) a]


x volume of H2O2 means x litre of O2 is liberated by 1 volume of H2O2 on decomposition

2H 2 O 2
2H 2 O O 2
68 gm 22.4 lit at STP

Volume strength of H2O2 solution = N 5.6...... (where N is the normality of the H2O2
Practice Problems :
1. (a) Calculate the strength of 20 V of H2O2 in terms of :
(i) normality (ii) grams per litre (iii) molarity and (iv) percentage
(b) Calculate the volume strength of 2.0 N H2O2 solution.
2. In a 50 ml solution of H2O2 an excess of KI and dilute H2SO4 were added. The I2 so liberated required
20 ml of 0.1 N Na2S2O3 for complete reaction. Calculate the strength of H2O2 in grams per litre.
[Answers : (a) (i) 3.58 N (ii) 60.86 g/lit. (iii) 1.79 M (iv) 6.086% (W/V) (b) 11.2 V (2) 0.68 g/litre]

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1. 1 g of the carbonate of a metal was dissolved in (c) 0.08 M KCl and 0.01 M KOH
25 ml of N-HCl. The resulting liquid required 5 ml
of N-NaOH for neutralization. The eq. wt. of the (d) 0.08 M KCl and 0.01 M HCl
metal carbonate is 8. Molality of 18 M H2SO4 (d = 1.8 gmL1) is
(a) 50 (b) 30 (a) 36 mol kg1 (b) 200 mol kg1
(c) 20 (d) None (c) 500 mol kg1 (d) 18 mol kg1
2. If 0.5 mol of BaCl2 is mixed with 0.20 mol of Na3PO4, 9. 1 g equiv. of a substance is the weight of that amount
the maximum amount of Ba 3(PO4)2 that can be of a substance which is equivalent to
formed is
(a) 0.25 mol of O2 (b) 0.50 mol of O2
(a) 0.70 mol (b) 0.50 mol
(c) 1 mol of O2 (d) 8 mol of O2
(c) 0.20 mol (d) 0.10 mol
10. The molality of a H2SO4 solution is 9. The weight of
3. When one gram mol of KMnO4 reacts with HCl, the solute in 1 kg H2SO4 solution is
the volume of chlorine liberated at NTP will be
(a) 900.0 g (b) 468.65 g
(a) 11.2 litres (b) 22.4 litres
(c) 882.0 g (d) 9.0 g
(c) 44.8 litres (d) 56.0 litres
11. The density of 1 M solution of NaCl is 1.0585 g/mL.
4. 34 g of hydrogen peroxide is present in 1120 ml of The molality of the solution is
solution. This solution is called
(a) 1.0585 (b) 1.00
(a) 10 vol solution (b) 20 vol solution
(c) 0.10 (d) 0.0585
(c) 30 vol solution (d) 32 vol solution
12. Which is false about H3PO2
5. To prepare a solution that is 0.50 M KCl starting
with 100 mL of 0.40 M KCl (a) it is tribasic acid

(a) add 0.75 g KCl (b) one mole is neutralised by 0.5 mol
(b) add 20 mL of water
(c) NaH2PO2 is normal salt
(c) add 0.10 mol KCl
(d) it disproportionates to H3PO3 and PH3 on
(d) evaporate 10 mL water heating.
6. In hot alkaline solution, Br2 disproportionates to 13. When KMnO 4 acts as an oxidising agent and
Br and BrO3 ultimately forms [MnO4], MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn2+ then
3Br2 + 6OH 5Br + BrO3 + 3H2O the number of electrons transferred in each case
respectively is
hence equivalent weight of Br 2 is (molecular (a) 3, 5, 7, 1 (b) 1, 5, 3, 7
weight = M)
(c) 4, 3, 1, 5 (d) 1, 3, 4, 5
M M 14. With increase of temperature, which of these
(a) (b) changes ?
6 5
(a) mole fraction
3M 5M (b) Fraction of solute present in water
(c) (d) (c) molality
5 5
(d) weight fraction of solute
7. When 80 mL of 0.20 M HCl is mixed with 120 mL
15. In a compound C, H and N atoms are present in
of 0.15 M KOH, the resultant solution is the same
9:1:3. 5 by weight of compound is 108. Molecular
as a solution of
formula of compound is
(a) 0.16 M KCl and 0.02 M HCl (a) C2H 6N2 (b) C 3H 4N
(b) 0.08 M KCl (c) C9H12N3 (d) C6H 8N2

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16. 8 g of sulphur are burnt to form SO2 which is 23. To neutralise completely 20 mL of 0.1 M aqueous
oxidised by Cl2 water. The solution is treated with solution of phosphorus acid (H3PO3), the volume
BaCl2 solution. The amount of BaSO4 precipitated of 0.1 M aqueous KOH solution required is
is (a) 10 mL (b) 20 mL
(a) 1 mol (b) 0.5 mol (c) 40 mL (d) 60 mL
(c) 0.24 mol (d) 0.25 mol 24. Excess of KI reacts with CuSO4 solution and then
17. One mole of a mixture of CO and CO2 requires Na 2S 2O 3 solution is added to it. Which of the
exactly 20 gram of NaOH in solution for complete statements is incorrect for this reaction ?
conversion of all the CO2 into Na2CO3. How many (a) Cu2I2 formed
grams of NaOH would it require for conversion into
Na2CO3 if the mixture (one mole) is completely (b) CuI2 is formed
oxidised to CO2 (c) Na2S2O3 is oxidised
(a) 60 grams (b) 80 grams (d) evolved I2 is reduced
(c) 40 grams (d) 20 grams 25. Two solutions of a substance (non electrolyte) are
18. One gram of a mixture of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 mixed in the following manner 480 ml of 1.5 M first
consumes y gram equivalents of HCl for complete solution and 520 mL of 1.2 M second solution. What
neutralisation. One gram of the mixture is strongly is the molarity of the final mixture ?
heated, the cooled and the residue treated with HCl. (a) 1.20 M (b) 1.50 M
How many gram equivalents of HCl would be (c) 1.344 M (d) 2.70 M
required for complete neutralization ?
(a) 2 y gram equivalent
(b) y gram equivalents
(c) 3y/4 gram equivalents
(d) 3y/2 gram equivalents
19. If equal volumes of 1 M KMnO4 and 1 M K2Cr2O7
solutions are allowed to oxidise Fe (II) to Fe(III),
then Fe (II) oxidised will be
(a) more by KMnO4
(b) more by K2Cr2O7
(c) equal in both cases
(d) none of these
20. 0.5 g of fuming H2S2O7(Oleum) is diluted with
water. This solution is completely neutralized by ANSWERS (SINGLE CORRECT
26.7 ml of 0.4 N NaOH. The percentage of free SO3 CHOICE TYPE)
in sample is
(a) 30.6% (b) 40.6% 1. a 11. b 21. c
(c) 20.6% (d) 50%
2. d 12. a 22. b
21. One mole of N2H4 loses 10 mol of electrons to form
a new compound Y. Assuming that all the nitrogen 3. d 13. d 23. c
appears in the new compound. What is the 24. b
oxidation state of nitrogen in Y. 4. a 14. b
25. c
(a) 1 (b) 3 5. a 15. d
(c) +3 (d) +5
22. 25 ml of a solution of barium hydroxide on
6. c 16. d
titration with a 0.1 molar solution of hydrochloric 7. c 17. a
acid gave a titre value of 35 ml. The molarity of
barium hydroxide solution was 8. c 18. b
(a) 0.35 (b) 0.07
9. a 19. b
(c) 0.14 (d) 0.28
10. b 20. c

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COMPREHENSION TYPE ReO 4 . Assuming that rhenium was the only
Comprehension-1 element reduced.
A 2.0 g sample of a mixture containing sodium 7. Number of equivalence of KMnO4 used
carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium (a) 1.145 (b) 1.145 103
sulphate is gently heated till the evolution of CO2 (c) 11.45 10 3
(d) 3.25 103
ceases. The volume of CO2 at 750 mm Hg pressure 8. What is the oxidation state to which rhenium was
and at 298 K is measured to be 123.9 ml. A 1.5 g of reduced by the zinc column ?
the same sample requires 150 ml of M/10 HCl for (a) 0 (b) 1
complete neutralisation. (c) 2 (d) 3
1. The percentage composition of sodium carbonate
in the mixture is MATRIX-MATCH TYPE
(a) 42% (b) 18% Matching-1
(c) 53% (d) none Column - A Column - B
2. The percentage composition of sodium (A) 0.1M of MnO4 (P) oxidised 0.25M
bicarbonate in the mixture is in acidic medium C2O42
(a) 42% (b) 18% (B) 0.6 mol of KMnO4 (Q) oxidised 0.5M
(c) 53% (d) none in acidic medium Fe2+
(C) Molarity of pure water (R) oxidised
(density of water = 1g/ml) 0.166M
3. The amount of HCl used for complete FeC2O4
neutralization of 2g of sample is (D) 0.083 molar Cr2O72 (S) oxidises 1 mol
(a) 0.73 (b) 0.42 in acidic medium of Fe(C2O4)2
(c) 0.53 (d) 0.18 (T) 5.55 10
Comprehension-2 Matching-2
Reducing sugars are sometimes characterized by a Column-A Column-B
number RCu, which is defined as the number of mg (A) Total no. of electrons in (P) 3.01 1021
of copper reduced by 1 g of the sugar, in which the 1.6 g methane are
half-reaction for the copper is (B) No. of sulphate ions (Q) 6.02 1023
Cu2+ + OH Cu2O + H2O (unbalanced) present in 50mL of 0.1M
It is sometimes more convenient to determine the H2SO4 solution are
reducing power of a carbohydrate by an indirect (C) 500cm3 of 0.2 molar NaCl (R) 6.02 1022
method. In this method 43.2 mg of the is added to 100cm of 3

carbohydrate was oxidized by an excess of 0.5 molar AgNO3. Thus no.

K3Fe(CN)6. The Fe(CN)64 formed in this reaction of ions of AgCl formed are
required 5.29 cm3 of 0.0345 N Ce (SO 4) 2 for (D) The no. of of Fe2+ ions (S) 3.01 1022
reoxidation to Fe(CN)63 [the normality of the formed when excess of
cerium(IV) sulfate solution is given with respect to iron is treated with 5 ml
the reduction of Ce4+ to Ce3+]. of 0.04 N HCl
4. The number of milimole of Ce(SO 4) 2 used for (T) 6.02 1020
re-oxidation to Fe(CN)63 is MULTIPLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE
(a) 0.183 (b) 0.0915 1. Assuming complete dissociation of H 2 SO 4 as
(c) 1.83 (d) 9.14 (H2SO4 2H+ + SO42), the number of sulphate ions
5. 43.2 mg of sugar was reduced by present in 50 ml of 0.1 M H2SO4 solution are
(a) 11.01 mg Cu2+ (b) 11.6 mg Cu2+ (a) 5 103 mol (b) 3.01 1021
(c) 1.101 mg Cu (d) 1.16 mg Cu2+ (c) 5 10 23
(d) 3.01 103 mol
6. The RCu value for the sample is 2. In the following redox reaction 2MnO4 + 10Cl +
(a) 269 (b) 2.69 16H+ 2Mn2+ 5Cl2 + 8H2O. Pick up the correct
(c) 26.9 (d) 0.269 statements.
Comprehension-3 (a) MnO4 is reduced
An acid solution of a KReO4 sample containing (b) Cl is oxidising agent
26.83 mg of combined rhenium was reduced by (c) MnO4 is an oxidising agent
passage through a column of granulated zinc. The (d) Cl is reduced
effluent, including was washing from the column,
was then titrated with 0.1000 N KMnO4; 11.45 mL
of the standard permanganate was required for the
reoxidation of all the rhenium to the perrhenate ion,

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3. Which of the following represents redox reaction Assertion-Reason Type
(s) ? Each question contains STATEMENT-1 (Assertion)
(a) Cu + Cu2+ 2Cu+ and STATEMENT-2 (Reason). Each question has
(b) MnO4 + Mn2+ + OH MnO2 + H2O 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
(c) Cr2O72 + 2OH 2CrO42 + H2O ONE is correct.
(d) 2CrO42 + 2H+ Cr2O72 + H2O (A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True;
4. Which of the following are redox reactions ? Statement-2 is a correct explanation
(a) Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 for Statement-1
(b) Al(OH)3 + 3HCl AlCl3 + 3H2O (B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True;
(c) Disproportionation of Cu+ ions in a given Statement-2 is NOT a correct
solution explanation for Statement-1
(d) Ag+(aq.) + I(aq.) Ag I (s) (C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
5. Which of the following is disproportionation ? (D) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True
(a) 2Cu+ Cu + Cu2+ 1. STATEMENT-1 : 22.4 L of ethane at N.T.P.
(b) 3Cl2 + 6OH ClO3 + 5Cl + 3H2O contains one mole of hydrogen molecules.
(c) 2H2S + 8O2 2H2O + 3S STATEMENT-2 : One mole of hydrogen
molecules at N.T.P. occupies 22.4 L of volume.
(d) Na + Cl NaCl 2. STATEMENT-1 : The masses of oxygen which
2 2 combine with fixed mass of nitrogen in N2O, NO,
6. Oxidation number of C is zero in N2O3 bears a simple multiple ratio.
(a) CHCl3 (b) CH2Cl2 STATEMENT-2 : The combination according to
(c) C6H12O6 (d) CO law of multiple proportions.
7. Among the species given below which can act as 3. STATEMENT-1 : 8.075 102 kg of Glaubers salt
oxidising as well as reducing agent ? is dissolved in water to obtain 1 dm3 of solution of
(a) SO2 (b) SO3 density 1077.2 kg m3 . The molarity of the
(c) H2 O 2 (d) H 2S resultant solution is 0.25 M .
8. Which of the following changes involve oxidation ? STATEMENT-2 : The volume in mL of 0.5 M
(a) change of Zn to ZnSO4 by reaction with H2SO4 needed to dissolve 0.5 g of copper (II)
H2SO4 carbonate is 24.3 mL
(b) change of Cl2 to chloride ion 4. STATEMENT-1 : Basicity of an acid can change
(c) change of H2S to S in different reactions.
(d) change of sodium sulphite to sodium STATEMENT-2 : As the equivalent weight always
sulphate. remains same.
5. STATEMENT-1 : If equal volume of C M KMnO4
and C M K2Cr2O7 solutions are allowed to oxidised
Fe2+ to Fe3+ in acidic medium, then Fe2+ oxidised
by KMnO 4 is more then K 2 Cr 2 O 7 of same
STATEMENT-2 : Number of moles of electrons
gained by 1 mole of K2Cr2O7 is more than the 1
mole of KMnO4


1. c 2. a 3. a 4. b 5. b 6. a
7. b 8. b
1. [A-P, Q, R ; B-S ; C-T ; D-P] 2. [A-Q ; B-P ; C-S ; D-R]
1. a, b 2. a, c 3. a, b 4. a, c 5. a, b 6. b, c
7. a, c 8. a, c, d
1. D 2. A 3. B 4. C 5. D

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
CS 11
1. 2.68 103 mol of a solution containing an ion An+ 14. (a) What volume of 5.00 N H2SO4 is required
require 1.61 103 mol of MnO4 for the oxidation to neutralize a solution containing
of An+ to AO3 in acid medium. What is the value of 2.50 g NaOH ?
n? (b) How many g pure H2SO4 are required ?
2. How much 1.00 M HCl should be mixed with what 15. A 0.250 g sample of a solid acid was dissolved in
volume of 0.250 M HCl in order to prepare 1.00 L water and exactly neutralized by 40.0 mL of 0.125
of 0.500 M HCl ? N base. What is the equivalent weight of the acid ?
3. Calculate the final concentration of HNO 3 if 16. Exactly 50.0 mL of Na2CO3 solution is equivalent
0.20 mol HNO3 is added to a beaker containing to 56.3 mL of 0.102 N HCl in an acid-base
2.0 L of 1.1 M HNO3 and enough pure water is neutralization. How many g CaCO 3 would be
added to give a final volume of 3.0 L. precipitated if an excess of CaCl2 solution were
4. If 40.00 mL of 1.600 M HCl and 60.00 mL of added to 100 mL of this Na2CO3 solution ?
2.000 M NaOH are mixed, what are the molar 17. How many cm3 of concentrated sulfuric acid, of
concentrations of Na + , Cl , and OH in the density 1.84 g/cm3 and containing 98.0% H2SO4 by
resulting solution ? Assume a total volume of weight, should be taken to make 1.00 L of normal
100.00 mL. solution. Assume complete ionisation.
5. Calculate the molarity of the original H 3PO 4 18. A 40.8 mL sample of an acid is equivalent to
solution if 20.0 mL of H3PO4 solution is required to 50.0 mL of Na2CO3 solution, 25.0 mL of which is
completely neutralize 40.0 mL of 0.0500 M Ba(OH)2 equivalent to 23.8 mL of a 0.102 N HCl. What is the
solution. normality of the first acid ?
6. What volume of 96.0% H2SO4 solution (density 1.83 19. Given the unbalanced equation
g/mL) is required to prepare 2.00 L of 3.00 M H2SO4 KMnO4 + KI + (H)2SO4 (K)2SO4 + MnSO4 + I2 +
solution ? H2 O
7. How many mL of 0.5000 M KMnO4 solution will (a) How many g KMnO4 are needed to make
react completely with 20.00 g of K 2C 2O 4.H 2O 500 mL 0.250 N solution ?
according to the following equation ? (b) How many g KI are needed to make
16H+ + 2MnO4 + 5C2O42 10CO2 + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O 25.0 mL 0.360 N solution ?
8. When 50.00 mL of a nitric acid solution was titrated 20. A solution contains 4 g of Na2CO 3 and NaCl in
with 0.334 M NaOH, it requires 42.80 mL of the 250 ml. 25 ml of this solution required 50 ml of
base to achieve the equivalence point. What is the N/10 HCl for complete neutralization. Calculate %
molarity of the nitric acid solution ? What mass of composition of mixture.
HNO3 was dissolved in 90.00 mL of solution ? 21. The density of a 2.0 M solution of acetic acid
9. The acidic substance in vinegar is acetic acid (MW = 60) in water is 1.02g/mL. Calculate the mole
CH3COOH. When 6.00 g of a certain vinegar was fraction of acetic acid.
titrated with 0.100 M NaOH, 40.11 mL of base had 22. The density of a 2.03 M solution of acetic acid in
to be added to reach the equivalence point. What water is 1.017 g/mL. Calculate the molality of the
percent by mass of this sample of vinegar is acetic solution.
acid ? 23. Calculate the (a) molar concentration and (b)
10. Calculate the percent of BaO in 29.0 g of a mixture molality of a sulfuric acid solution of density
of BaO and CaO which just reacts with 100.8 mL 1.198 g/cm3, containing 27.0% H2SO4 by weight.
of 6.00 M HCl. BaO + 2HCl BaCl2 + H2O ; 24. A solution contains 57.5 mL ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH)
CaO + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O and 600 mL benzene (C6H6). How many g alcohol
11. Calculate the normality of each of the following are in 1000 g benzene ? What is the molality of the
solutions : (a) 7.88 g of HNO3 per L solution (b) solution ? Density of C2H5OH is 0.800 g/mL; of
26.5 g of Na2CO3 per L solution (if acidified to form C6H6, 0.900 g/mL.
CO2). 25. One gram of an alloy of aluminium and
12. What volumes of 12.0 N and 3.00 N HCl must be magnesium when treated with excess of dil. HCl
mixed to give 1.00 L of 6.00 N HCl ? froms magnesium chloride, aluminium chloride and
13. One gram of a mixture of CaCO3 and MgCO3 gives hydrogen. The evolved hydrogen collected over
240 ml of CO2 at N.T.P. Calculate the percentage mercury at 0 0 C has a volume of 1.20 litres at
composition of mixture (Ca = 40, Mg = 24, C = 12, 0.92 atm. pressure. Calculate the composition of the
O = 16). alloy. [H = 1, Mg = 24, Al = 27].

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
CS 12
26. A gas mixture of 3.0 litres of propane and butane 31. 20% surface sites have adsorbed N2. On heating N2
on complete combustion at 250C produced 10 litres gas evolved from sites and were collected at
of CO 2. Find out the composition of the gas 0.001 atm and 298 K in a container of volume is
mixture. 2.46 cm 3 . Density of surface sites is
27. In an Industrial process for producing acetic acid, 6.023 1014/cm2 and surface area is 1000 cm2, find
oxygen gas is bubbled into acetaldehyde CH3CHO, out the number of surface sites occupied per
containing manganese (II) acetate (catalyst) under molecule of N2.
pressure at 600C. 32. A plant virus is found to consist of uniform
2CH3CHO(l) + O2(g) 2CH3COOH(l) cylindrical particles of 150 in diameter and
In a laboratory test of this reaction, 20.0 g CH3CHO 5000 long. The specific volume of the virus is
and 10.0 g O2 were put into a reaction vessel. (a) 0.75 cm3/g. If the virus is considered to be a single
How many grams of acetic acid can be produced particle, find its molar mass.
by this reaction from these amounts of reactants ? 33. (a) Calculate the amount of calcium oxide
(b) How many grams of the excess reactant required when it reacts with 852 g of
remaining after the reaction is complete ? P4O10.
28. The hourly energy requirements of an astronaut
6CaO P4O 10 2Ca 3 ( PO 4 ) 2
can be satisfied by the energy released when
34 grams of sucrose are burned in his body. How [At. wt. : Ca = 40, P = 31, O = 16]
many grams of oxygen would he needed to be (b) How many milliliters of 0.5 M H2SO4 are
carried in spaces capsule to meet his requirement needed to dissolve 0.5 g of copper (II)
for one day ? carbonate ?
29. 1.84 g of a mixture of CaCO3 and MgCO3 are heated CuCO 3 H 2 SO 4 CuSO 4 H 2 O CO 2
strongly till no further loss of weight takes place.
The residue weighs 0.96 g. Find the percentage 34. 1.5 gm of an impure sample of (NH4)2SO4 was boiled
composition of the mixture. with excess of Caustic soda solution in a Kjeldahls
(Mg = 24, Ca = 40, C = 12, O = 16) flask and the ammonia evolved was passed into 200
30. 1.0 g of a mixture of Potassium chloride and ml of semi-normal H2SO4 solution. Thepartially
Potassium iodide dissolved in water and neutralized acid was made to 500 ml with distilled
precipitated with Silver nitrate, gave 1.618 g of water. 25ml of this diluted acid required 40.8 ml of
silver halides. Calculate the percentage of each in decinormal Caustic soda for complete
the mixture (K = 39, Cl = 35.5, Ag = 108, I = 127). neutralization. Calculate the percentage purity of
Ammonium sulphate.
35. A sample of a metal (M) carbonate was neutralized
by 10 ml of 0.1 N-hydrochloric acid and the
resulting chloride gave 0.0517 g of phosphate
[M3(PO4)2]. Calculate the eq. wt. of M. (the formula
of Phosphoric acid is H3PO4). Determine the atomic
weight of M ?
1. One litre of a mixture of O2 and O3 at STP was 3. A mixture of FeO and Fe3O4 when heated in air to a
allowed to react with excess of acidified solution of constant weight gains 5 % in its weight. Find the
KI. The iodine liberated require 40mL of M/10 composition of initial mixture. (Fe = 56, O = 16)
sodium thiosulfate solution for titration. What is 4. A 10.0 g sample of gas liquor is boiled with an
the mass percentage of ozone in mixture. excess of NaOH, and the resulting ammonia is
KI 2 passed into 60 cm3 if 0.90 N H2SO4. Exactly 10.0
O 3 I 2 O 2 O
cm3 of 0.40 N NaOH is required to neutralize the
2. What volume of 3.00 M HNO3 can react completely excess sulfuric acid (not neutralized by the NH3).
with 15.0 g of a brass (90.0% Cu, 10.0% Zn) Determine the percent ammonia in the gas liquor
according to the following equations ? examined.
Cu + 4H+(aq) + 2NO3(aq) 2NO2(g) + Cu2+ + 2H2O 5. A 10.0 mL portion of (NH4)2SO4 solution was treated
4Zn + 10H+(aq) + NO3(aq) NH2+ + 4Zn2+ + 3H2O with excess NaOH. The NH 3 gas evolved was
What volume of NO2 gas at 250C and 1.00 atm absorbed in 50.00 mL of 0.1000 N HCl. To
pressure would be produced ? neutralize the remaining HCl, 21.50 mL of 0.0980
N NaOH was required. What is the molar
concentration of the (NH4) 2SO 4 ? How many g
(NH4)2 SO4 are in 1 L solution ?
Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
CS 13
6. A solution contained the mixture of Na2CO3 and 14. 10 g of a mixture of anhydrous nitrates of two met-
NaCl. 25 ml of the solution required 20.4 ml of 0.095 als A and B were heated to a constant weight and
N-HCl to convert the carbonate into the chloride. gave 5.531 g of a mixture of the corresponding ox-
25 ml of the later solution (containing chloride ides. The equivalent weights of A and B are 103.6
converted from carbonate) required 38.76 ml of and 31.8 respectively. What was the percentage of
N/10-AgNO 3 to ppt, the chloride completely. A in the mixture ? (N = 14, O = 16).
Calculate the strength of Na2CO3 and NaCl in one 15. Equal weights of mercury and iodine are allowed
litre of the original solution. to react completely to form a mixture of mercurous
7. 10 g of a mixture of Cu2S and CuS was treated with and mercuric iodides. Calculate the ratio of the
200 mL of 0.75 M MnO 4 in acidic solution weights of mercurous and mercuric iodides formed.
producting SO2, Cu2+ and Mn2+ . SO2 was bubbled (I = 127, Hg = 201).
off and excess of MnO4 was titrated with 175 mL 16. 5 ml of 8 N nitric acid, 4.8 ml of 5 N HCl acid and a
of 1.00 M Fe2+. Calculate the CuS in the mixture. certain volume of 17 M sulphuric acid are mixed
8. Determine the volume of dilute nitric acid (density together and made up to 2 litre. Thirty ml of this
1.11 g/mL, 19.0% HNO3 by weight) that can be acid mixture exactly neutralise 42.9 ml of sodium
prepared by diluting with water 50 mL of the carbonate solution containing one gram of Na2CO3.
concentrated acid (density 1.42 g/mL, 69.8% HNO3 10H2O in 100 ml of water. Calculate the mass in
by weight). Calculate the molar concentrations and gram of the sulphate ions in solution.
molalities of the concentrated and dilute acids. 17. 200 ml of a solution of mixture of NaOH and
9. A 1.00 g sample of KClO3 was heated under such Na2CO3 was first titrated with phenolphthalein and
conditions that a part of it decomposed according N/10 HCl. 17.5 ml of HCl was required for the end
to the equation point. After this methyl orange was added and 2.5
(i) 2KClO3 = 2KCl + 3O2 ml of same HCl was again required for next end
and the remaining underwent change according to point. Find out amounts of NaOH and Na2CO3 in
the equation mixture.
(ii) 4KClO3 = 2KClO4 + KCl 18. 50 ml of solution, containing 1g each of Na2CO3,
If the amount of oxygen evolved was 146.8 ml at NaHCO3 and NaOH, was titrated with N HCl.
S.T.P., calculate percentage by weight of KClO4 in What will be the titre readings if
the residue (K = 39.1, Cl = 35.5) (a) only phenolphthalien is used as
10. To a 25 ml H 2 O 2 solution, excess of acidified indicator ?
solution of potassium iodide was added. The iodine (b) only methyl orange is used as indicator
liberated required 20 ml of 0.3 N sodium from the very beginning ?
thiosulphate solution. Calculate the volume strength (c) methyl orange is added after the first end
of H2O2 solution. point with phenolpthalein ?
11. A solution contains Na2CO3 and NaHCO3. 20 cm3 19. A mixture of calcium carbonate and sodium
of this solution requires 5.0 cm3 of 0.1 M H2SO4 chloride weighing 3.20 g was added to 100 ml of
solution for neutralization using phenophthalein as 1.02 N HCl. After the reaction had ceased the
the indicator. Methyl orange is then added and liquid was filtered, the residue washed and the
further 5.0 cm3 of 0.2 M H2SO4 was required. filtrate was made up to 200 ml. 20 ml of this dilute
Calculate the masses of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in solution required 25 ml of N/5 NaOH for
1 L of this solution. neutralization. Calculate the % of CaCO3 in the
12. A 1.2 g of a mixture containing H2C2O4.2H2O and mixture. (Ca = 40).
KHC2O4.H 2O and impurities of a neutral salt, 20. A solution contains a mixture of sulphuric acid and
consumed 18.9 ml of 0.5 N NaOH for oxalic acid, 25 ml of the solution require 35.5 ml of
neutralization. On titrating with KMnO4 solution N/10-NaOH for neutralization and 23.45 ml of
0.4 g of the same substance needed 21.55 ml of 0.25 N/10 - KMnO4 for oxidation. Calculate (a) the
N KMnO4. Calculate the percentage composition Normality of the solution with regard to sulphuric
of the substance. acid and oxalic acid (b) the number of g of each of
13. A mixture of FeO and Fe 2 O 3 is reacted with these substances present in one litre of the solution.
acidified KMnO4 solution having a concentration
of 0.2278 M, 100 ml of which was used. The
solution then was treated with Zn dust which
converted the Fe3+ of the solution to Fe2+ . The Fe2+
required 1000 ml of 0.13 M K2Cr2O7 solution. Find
the mass % of FeO and Fe2O3.

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
CS 14

1. n=2 2. 333 mL of 1m HCl 3. 0.80 m

4. 0.56 M OH, 0.640 Cl, 1.2MNa+ 5. 0.0667 M
6. 335 mL 7. 86.9 mL 8. 1.62 gm, 0.286 M
9. 4.01 % 10. 65.5 % BaO
11. (a) 0.1251 N (b) 0.5 N 12. .33 L, .667 L
13. CaCO3 = 62.5 %, MgCO3 = 37.5%
14. (a) 12.5 mL (b) 3.07 gm
15. 50g/eq 16. 0.575 gm 17. 27.2 cm3
18. 0.119 N 19. (a) 3.95 gm (b) 1.49 gm
20. Na2CO3 = 66.25%, NaCl = 33.75% 21. 0.038
22. 2.27 m
23. (a) 3.30 m (b) 3.78 m 24. 0.54 kg C6H6, 1.85 m

25. Al% = 54.87%, Mg% = 45.13%

26. 66.66% propane, 33.33 % butane 27. (a) 27.24 gm
(b) 2.73 gm
28. 916.2 gm
29. CaCO3 = 54.35%, MgCO3 = 45.65 % 30. KCl = 39.6 %
KI = 60.4%
31. 2 32. 70.96 106 g/mol 33. (a) 1008 g (b) 8.097 mL
34. 80.96 35. 20.03, 40.06


1. 6.57 % 2. VHNO3 302L, VNO 2 10.4L

3. % of FeO = 20.25%
% of Fe3O4 = 79.75 % 4. 8.5% 5. 0.145 M, 19.1 g/L
6. Na2CO3 = 4.109 gm, NaCl = 4.535 gm 7. CuS = 57.4 %
8. 15.7 M, 3.35 M, 36.8 m, 3.73 m 9. 49.83%
10. 1.344 11. Na2CO3 = 5.3 gm, NaHCO3 = 4.2 gm
12. KHC2O4.H2O = 80.9 %, H2C2O4.2H2O = 14.7 %
13. % FeO = 13.34 %, % Fe2O3 = 86.66 % 14. 32.28
15. 0.513 : 1 16. 6.528 gm 17. WNaOH = 0.06gm

WNa 2CO3 0.0265 gm

18. (a) 34.4 mL (b) 55.8 mL (c) 21.3 mL

19. 81.25% 20. H2SO4 = 0.0482N, 2.36 g/L
H2C2O4 = 0.0938N, 4.225 g/L

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111