6 tayangan

Diunggah oleh raveneyesdead

Self-resonance after inflation: oscillons, transients and radiation domination

Self-resonance after inflation: oscillons, transients and radiation domination

© All Rights Reserved

- Physics Factsheets
- 1303.3787 Persamaan Mumet
- Creation of Universes From Nothing
- Effects of local features of the inflaton potential on the spectrum and bispectrum of primordial perturbations.05687 (1)
- Timetable MYE 2011 25 April 2011 Final
- 28916physssicsintro (1)
- Phys
- The Transformation of Physics
- waves_en
- Heat Solver example
- big bang theory
- Srivas Prasad- Measurement of the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background
- 2002-11-09
- what is physics.docx
- Dark Energy May Be Incompatible With String Theory
- Intro to Physcis
- (Www.entrance Exam.net) SAT Physics Subject Test Syllabus
- Tablas Fisicoquimicas
- inpho
- NITheP

Anda di halaman 1dari 25

1

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany

2

Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HA Cambridge, U.K.

3

Physics & Astronomy Department, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005-1827, U.S.A.

(Dated: October 19, 2017)

Homogeneous oscillations of the inflaton after inflation can be unstable to small spatial perturba-

tions even without coupling to other fields. We show that for inflaton potentials ||2n near || = 0

and flatter beyond some || = M , the inflaton condensate oscillations can lead to self-resonance,

followed by its complete fragmentation. We find that for non-quadratic minima (n > 1), shortly

arXiv:1710.06851v1 [astro-ph.CO] 18 Oct 2017

after backreaction, the equation of state parameter, w 1/3. If M mPl , radiation domina-

tion is established within less than an e-fold of expansion after the end of inflation. In this case

self-resonance is efficient and the condensate fragments into transient, localised spherical objects

which are unstable and decay, leaving behind them a virialized field with mean kinetic and gradient

energies much greater than the potential energy. This end-state yields w = 1/3. When M mPl

we observe slow and steady, self-resonace that can last many e-folds before backreaction eventually

shuts it off, followed by fragmentation and w 1/3. We provide analytical estimates for the dura-

tion to w 1/3 after inflation, which can be used as an upper bound (under certain assumptions)

on the duration of the transition between the inflationary and the radiation dominated states of

expansion. This upper bound can reduce uncertainties in CMB observables such as the spectral tilt

ns , and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. For quadratic minima (n = 1), w 0 regardless of the value of

M . This is because when M mPl , long-lived oscillons form within an e-fold after inflation, and

collectively behave as pressureless dust thereafter. For M mPl , the self-resonance is inefficient

and the condensate remains intact (ignoring long-term gravitational clustering) and keeps oscillating

about the quadratic minimum, again implying w = 0.

CONTENTS References 22

II. Models 3

I. INTRODUCTION

III. Particle Production: Linear Analysis 4

A. Instability Bands 5

B. Backreaction Time 6 Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Back-

ground (CMB) [1, 2] have imposed strong con-

IV. Nonlinear Dynamics 8 straints on inflationary cosmology [36]. Simple,

A. Oscillons and Matter Domination 10 single-field driven models of slow-roll inflation with

B. Transients and Radiation Domination 11 single power-law potentials are disfavored by the

data, whereas plateau-like shapes are still allowed

V. Observational Implications for Inflationary [1]. Such plateaus (shallower than quadratic power

Observables 16 laws) favored during inflation, can be expected to

A. Slow-Roll Parameters 16 have (quadratic or steeper) power-law minima. See

B. e-folds of Inflation 16 Fig. 1.

C. Thermalization and Radiation Inflation must eventually end, leading to the era

Domination 17 of reheating where the energy of the inflaton field

is (eventually) transferred to Standard Model fields

VI. Discussion of Numerics and Assumptions 19 (for reviews, see [79]). The end of reheating sets

A. Numerics 19 the stage for the production of light elements dur-

B. Assumptions and Caveats 20 ing Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) [10, 11]. While

many models exist for inflation and the generic re-

VII. Conclusions 21 quirements and implications for reheating have been

discussed in the literature, a unique physical model

VIII. Acknowledgements 22 is yet to emerge.

A number of basic questions, especially regarding using detailed 3+1 dimensional simulations. Using

the end of inflation, remain model-dependent,1 in- the same simulations we investigate the nonlinear

cluding: How efficient was the energy transfer from field dynamics including the formation of long and

the inflaton to daughter fields? What were the scale short-lived localized field configurations, their frag-

and amplitude of the inhomogeneities generated dur- mentation and the virialization of the field.

ing reheating? What was the equation of state of the A better understanding of reheating can influence

universe following inflation? What was the dura- the predictions for CMB observables from inflation.

tion to radiation domination after inflation? What Specifically, the uncertainties in the effective equa-

was the duration to thermalization? The answers tion of state after inflation (wint ), that determines

to these questions are interesting in their own right, the expansion of the universe, and the duration to

and also in the context of how they can potentialy radiation domination (Nrad ), are transferred to the

impact other physical processes during this period predictions of inflationary models for CMB observ-

including dark matter generation [15], baryogenesis ables such as the spectral tilt, ns , and the tensor-to-

[16] as well as our interpretation of inflationary ob- scalar ratio, r.2

servables [1719]. Given the importance of wint and Nrad , we cal-

The dynamics after inflation can be quite com- culate these quantitates from our full nonlinear sim-

plex and dynamically rich. For example, paramet- ulations and provide Nrad as a function of the pa-

ric resonance can play an important role during the rameters of the model. Note that while the equation

early stages of reheating [2022], giving rise to copi- of state for homogeneous oscillating fields has been

ous particle production in fields coupled to the in- known for a long time [40], limited work exists in the

flaton. In particular, self-resonance, where the ho- literature on characterizing the nonlinear equation

mogeneous inflaton condensate pumps energy into of state in a systematic fashion for fully fragmented

its own fluctuations, can lead to interesting non- fields [19, 41]. Moreover the expression for Nrad

linear effects even in absence of couplings to other we provide can serve as an upper bound on the du-

fields (e.g.,[2325]). Such explosive particle produc- ration to radiation domination (at least under the

tion, formation of non-topological and topological assumption of perturbative decay of the inflaton to

solitons (e.g.,[23, 26]), as well as relics such as black other relativistic fields). It is this upper bound that

holes (e.g., [27]) and primordial gravitational waves can significantly reduce uncertainties in inflationary

(e.g.,[2830]), amongst others, make reheating an observables.

exciting dynamical playground. We find a number This paper is partly a detailed follow-up to our

of aspects of these rich dynamics even in the simple, recently published shorter paper [19] in Physical Re-

single-field models that we consider in this paper. view Letters, but includes new results regarding the

In this work, we study the post-inflationary evo- nonlinear field dynamics. For example, the larger

lution of the inflaton field in a class of observation- class of models considered, the discussion on the for-

ally favored single-field models of inflation. We show mation of transients, a significantly more detailed

that self-resonance can occur as the field oscillates in analysis of both the linear fluctuations and the non-

a potential V ||2n , n 1, near the origin (in the linear power spectra go significantly beyond the

bowl of the potential) and flatter away from it (for PRL. Furthermore, this paper will be followed by

|| > M , in the wings of the potential). See Fig. another paper [42], where the passive gravitational

1. The dynamics can be dramatically different de- effects from self-resonance will be addressed. In [42]

pending on whether M mPl or M mPl . Along we will discuss the likelihood of primordial blackhole

with M , whether n = 1 or n > 1 also makes cru- formation (from oscillons and transients), as well as

cial differences to the qualitative and quantitative the expected frequency and amplitude of primordial

dynamics of inflaton field (the impatient reader can gravitational waves from inflaton fragmentation.

refer directly to Fig. 15 in the Conclusions section). The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we

We carefully examine the nature of self-resonance briefly review the models we study in this paper.

and duration to backreaction using a linear analysis Then, in Sec. III, we move on to self-resonance after

of growth of inflaton peturbations in an expanding

background. We confirm the results of this analysis

2 An alternative and equally interesting approach is to con-

strain wint , Nrad and the reheating temperature, Tth , by

using observational bounds on ns and r [17, 18, 3139]. We

1 See [1214] for attempts at some model-independent ap- shall not follow this second approach here in detail but do

proaches. provide an appendix related to this approach.

2

T-models E-models Monodromy models

V( ) V( ) V( ) / | |q

n =1

2

3

q = 0.5

2n

/| |

! ! !

FIG. 1. The qualitatively different models used in our analysis. In all cases, the potential behaves as ||2n close to

the origin, and changes behavior (flattens at least on one side) for & M . The T-model and Monodromy models

are symmetric about the origin, whereas the E-model is not. In the T and E-models, the potential asymptotes to a

constant for large field values (at least on one side). For the Monodromy models, the potential asymtotes to a general

(shallower than quadratic: q < 2) power law.

the end of inflation focussing on the growth of per- will be introduced as needed at a later time.

turbations and the beginning of backreaction. We Our focus will be on inflaton potentials V () that

present our numerical studies of the nonlinear dy- have an observationally favored plateau or shal-

namics in Sec. IV, including the evolution of the lower than quadratic region at large field values (see

equation of state. The implications of our investiga- Fig. 1). We consider three different parametriza-

tions for CMB observables and the reheating tem- tions: the -attractor T-models [43]

perature are given in Sec. V. In Sec. VI, we discuss

some relevant quality checks on our numerics, as well ||

V () = 4 tanh2n ,

as some underlying theoretical assumptions, approx- M

imations and caveats. We conclude in Sec. VII, with 2n

4 (2)

a summary of our results. An additional appendix || M ,

= M

regarding the reheating temperature is provided at 4

the end of the manuscript. || M ,

We use natural units, where ~ = c = 1, the re-

duced Planck mass mPl = 1/ 8G and + sig- the -attractor E-models [43]

nature for the metric. The background FRW metric 2n

2

is assumed to have the form ds2 = dt2 a2 (t)dx dx V () = 4 1 exp ,

where a(t) is the scale factor. M

2n

4 2 (3)

|| M ,

= M

II. MODELS 4

M,

The main focus of this paper is on single-field and Monodromy type potentials [44, 45]

models of inflation, minimally coupled to gravity.

The action, and equations of motion are 2n ! 2nq

Z V () = 4 1 + 1

m2 1 M

S = d4 x g Pl R + + V () ,

2 2 2n

q (4)

+ V 0 () = 0 ,

4 || M ,

2n

= M

1 1

q

G = 2 V () . 4 || M .

mPl 2 M

(1)

where R is the Ricci scalar, is the covariant We shall consider values of the parameter n 1,

derivative, g is the determinant of the metric and for which V and 2 V are well-defined when =

G is the Einstein tensor. Couplings to other fields 0. That is, the elementary quanta of the inflaton

3

always have a well-defined mass.3 The mass scale in where we have ignored expansion as well as metric

eqs. (2,3) is related to the conventional -parameter perturbations for simplicity. We shall reintroduce

[43, 4757] through expansion shortly, but continue to ignore metric per-

turbations in this section. Since t2 + V = 0, 2 V

M = 6mPl , (5) is a periodic function of time. Floquet theory [58]

tells us that the general solution to eq. (6) is of the

whereas the additional parameter in eq. (4), q, form

should not exceed 1 to be consistent with CMB mea-

surements [1]. k = Pk+ (t) exp(k t) + Pk (t) exp(k t) . (7)

Our models are characterized by n, M, (and q

for Monodromy models). We can take advantage Pk (t) are also periodic functions and are deter-

of the observations of the CMB [1] and eliminate mined by the initial conditions. k are the Floquet

some of these parameters. For example, using the exponents. If <(k ) 6= 0, then there is an unstable

amplitude of the scalar perturbations, and spectral solution, exponentially growing with time which is

tilt, we can eliminate (assuming slow-roll infla- a manifestation of non-adiabatic (or resonant) par-

tion). This is purely for convenience to reduce the ticle production. On a plane with the amplitude of

number of parameters to be varied in our analysis. the oscillations on one axis, and the wavenumber on

We will return back to a careful consideration of another, sharp boundaries exist between the stable

the interplay between observational constraints and and unstable regions. The unstable regions are often

model parameters of the potential in Sec. V. The referred to as instability bands.

most recent constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ra- To better understand the dynamics in the stable

tio, r(k? = 0.002 Mpc1 ) . 0.1 [1], bound M from and unstable regions, let us define an effective mass:

above, M . 10mPl . We shall use this constraint on

2

2(n1)

M when we vary our parameters.45 2n2 M

T,

M

2

2(n1)

m2 22n+1 n2 M

E,

M

III. PARTICLE PRODUCTION: LINEAR

2(n1)

ANALYSIS q2 2 Monodromy ,

M M

(8)

For small perturbations around a homogeneous which is what V / tends to when M and is

condensate (t, x) = (t) + (t, x). After infla- what sets the period of . We have also defined a di-

tion (t) begins to oscillate around the minimum of mensionless physical wavenumber k/m. In Fig.

V . This may lead to non-adiabatic production of 2, we show the instability regions for the inflaton po-

inflaton particles of definite co-moving momentum, tentials from eqs. (2), (3) and (4), for n = 1, 1.5, 2,

a.k.a. preheating [22]. It can be most easily under- 3 for the T, E-models and Monodromy models (for

stood in terms of the linearized field equations for q = 0.5, 1).

the fluctuations in Fourier space (see eq. (1)): The n = 1 case features a broad low- instability

h i region going all the way down to = 0 and a series of

t2 k + k 2 + 2 V () k = 0 , (6) high- narrow bands, vanishing towards the bottom

of the plot. For n = 1, this is common for all po-

tentials that flatten below quadratic away from the

minimum (q < 2, [23]). For n > 1 the broad low-

3 See [46] for the stability analysis of some models with n < 1. band is absent for . M . The narrow bands near

4 Embedding in Supergravity of the T and E models has sta-

the bottom of the charts are reminiscent of those for

bility issues for M < 2mPl [48], which in principle narrows V ||2n , see Fig. 3.

the parameter space significantly. However, we shall ignore

this lower bound and consider inflation with V as given in Let us include the effects of expansion qualita-

eqs. (2), (3) and (4) at the phenomenological level, and tively. First, note that when we include expansion,

take M < 10mPl as the only constraint. k/(am) where a is the scale factor. Also recall

5 We have chosen to include the additional factor of 2 in the the general result for the amplitude decay of the in-

parametrization in eq. (3) so that for a given M , we get

flaton field oscillating in V ||2n , a3/(n+1) .

the same slow-roll parameters (see Sec. V) for the T and E

models.6 However, the behavior after the end of slow-roll Hence a given Fourier mode, k, flows through a

inflation is affected by this parametrization it depends on number of Floquet bands as shown in Fig. 2 (see

the transition scale in the potential which is M for the T the white flow lines). The mode will grow if

and M/2 for the E models. the expansion rate, H a/a, is much less than

4

FIG. 2. The instability regions and Floquet exponents for the T (first row), E (second row), Monodromy q = 0.5 (third

row) and q = 1 (fourth row) models. On the horizontal axis is the dimensionless physical wavenumber = k/(am) and

on the vertical axis the amplitude of inflaton oscillations. The effective mass, m, is defined in eq. (8), and determines

the characteristic frequency of oscillations.As the universe expands, a given co-moving mode k flows across the chart

as the white lines indicate. The factor of 2n on the horizontal axis is chosen to make the narrow instability bands

appear at roughly the same place for different n, see also Fig. 3. Although, the broad low-momentum instability

bands seem to vanish for large n, they never go away. It can be shown by a different rescaling of the horizontal axis.

In the T and E models slow-roll inflation ends at end M and the amplitude of inflaton oscillations lies in the range

< M . In the Monodromy models end . mPl and the initial amplitude of inflaton oscillations can exceed M .

|<(k )|. Empirically, strong resonance occurs for bands away from the = 0 axis. We investigate

> 10.

|<(k )|/H these two classes of bands below.

We divide the instability bands into a broad- Focus on the band hugging the = 0 axis. For

band near the = 0 axis and the narrow resonance this broad, low- band, we find [|<(k )|/H]max =

5

FIG. 3. The first panel depicts the first narrow instability band for a monomial potential of the form V =

n ||2n (consistent with T, E and Monodromy models when M ) as a function of n and . The next three

panels give the Floquet charts for n = 1.5, 2, 3. Thanks to our definition of k/am, with m being the effective

mass, the instability bands are exactly vertical and are independent

of the amplitude of inflaton oscillations (the

values on the vertical axis). The additional rescaling by 2n makes the first narrow instability band appear at

roughly the same place and have roughly the same height, both of which are maximal for n = 2, see also Fig. 4. For

n = 1.5 and 3 we have a series of decreasing in height and width instability bands for larger . Interestingly, the

second, third, etc. narrow instability bands vanish for n = 2.

f (n)mPl /M , where f (n) is of order unity. Hence, (n = 2). While it is obvious that the narrow reso-

the expansion of the universe allows for broad self- nance will persist until nonlinear effects become im-

resonance only for M mPl for all n. portant in the n = 2 case, after a closer look one can

argue that the same holds for n < 2 and n > 2. In

these two cases

2. Narrow- bands

|4 2n|

|| H , (9)

n+1

We now focus on bands which do not hug the

= 0 axis. For M > mPl , the amplitude of inflaton and since H is decreasing, at some point a given k-

oscillations is rapidly redshifted by the expansion of mode will spend enough time within the first narrow

the universe to M region, i.e., to the bottom of band for self-resonance to become efficient.

the Floquet charts.7 As seen from the top-left panel

in Fig. 2, there are no narrow instability bands for

n = 1 (i.e., they get infinitesimally narrow at small B. Backreaction Time

background amplitudes). Hence, we do not expect

significant particle production. This is anticipated The linear growth of perturbations eventually

since the condensate is oscillating about a quadratic leads to backreaction onto the condensate. For the

minimum, and behaves as a free scalar. However, for case when M mPl , since [<(k )/H]max 1, back-

n > 1, we have a series of narrow resonance bands reaction time is short (within 1-2 e-folds after in-

as a consequence of the intrinsic nonlinearity. They flation). The case with M mPl and n = 1 has

decrease in height and width for higher , see Figs. no-backreaction. Hence, we are left with M mPl

2 and 3 (which focusses on the first narrow insta- and n > 1 case to investigate further. It is in this

bility band). Hence, the first narrow band plays a case that the first narrow instability band discussed

dominant role in particle production. above is relevant.

The particle production can be understood in The growth of perturbations from the first narrow

terms of the white flow lines in Fig. 2. The flow instability band might take a long time, but even-

lines cross the first narrow band from right to left tually leads to backreaction on the condensate. We

(n < 2), left to right (n > 2) or never leave it can estimate the moment when backreaction begins

as follows. Roughly speaking, two conditions have

to be met:

7 Recall that the decay rate of the amplitude of is set by 1. |<(1k )|max tres 1 for sufficient particle pro-

H, whereas the typical frequency of oscillations is m. Since duction.

H/m /mPl M/mPl at the end of inflation, then M

mPl leads to a rapid decay of the amplitude, within few 2. ||tres for the given k-mode to have

oscillations. spent enough time, tres , within the first nar-

6

M mPl ). Together, they allow us to represent

abr in terms of Hbr . Using this abr , along with eq.

0.06 (10), we arrive at the predicted number of e-folds of

expansion from the end of inflation to the beginning

of backreaction8

0.04

pred abr

Nbr ln

0.02 aend

(11)

n+1 1 M |4 2n|

ln .

0.00

3 d mPl n + 1

The dimensionless ratios / (fractional width

120 of the resonance band) and its dimensionless

100

strength:

|<(1k )|max

80 d , (12)

m/ 2n

60

for the first narrow instability band are given in Fig.

40 4 (also see Fig. 3). Curiously, the product of this

strength and inverse of the fractional width is unity:

20 d / 1.

2 4 6 8 10 For power-laws in the region of n = 2, our condi-

tion 2. is changed to Htres 1, leading to

Hbr

|<(1k )|max , (13)

FIG. 4. dimensionless strength d

The

|<(1k )|max /(m/ 2n) and inverse fractional width: whence

/ of the first narrow instability band for V = n ||2n

(consistent with T, E and Monodromy models when pred abr 1 M

Nbr ln ln . (14)

M ). Curiously, d / 1. aend d mPl

This semi-analytic linear analysis suggests that self-

row resonance band of width and height resonance, i.e., inflaton particle production out of

|<(1k )|max . the coherent oscillations of the inflaton condensate,

can occur after inflation for all values of M . For

Using these two conditions, we get |<(1k )|max M mPl , the broad, low- band plays the dominant

(|4 2n|/n + 1)Hbr / at the time of backreac- role in the fragmentation. For M mPl (and n > 1),

tion. Let us parametrize this inequality via a small it is the narrow instability band that eventually leads

dimensionless number 1: to backreaction and fragmentation.

In the following section we investigate numeri-

1 |4 2n|

|<(1k )|max = Hbr , (10) cally the linear and nonlinear stages of the post-

n + 1 inflationary evolution. We find that when strong res-

where cannot be predicted from the linear analysis. onance takes place (M mPl ), the condensate frag-

However, as we will see from our nonlinear analysis ments completely into long-lived (oscillons, n = 1)

in the next section, we find 0.126 independent or short-lived (transients, n > 1) objects within an

of n, which makes this parametrization useful. Note e-fold after the end of inflation. On the other hand,

that care should be taken for the n = 2 case, which when M mPl (and n > 1), we still eventually have

we turn to shortly. fragmentation, but no transients are formed. In this

We can rewrite eq. (10) as an equation for the M mPl case, the n = 1 case does not even frag-

number of e-folds of expansion after the end of ment (ignoring gravitational clustering).

inflaiton before backreaction

takes place. To do

so, recall that H m/ 2nmPl and that

3/(n+1) 8

(aend /a) M , where the initial amplitude of We use M/2 in the place of M for the E-models here and

oscillations is M at the end of inflation (for in eq. (14).

7

0.100

10-2

0.010

0.001 10-4

10-4

10-5 10-6

10-6

10-7 10-8

0.1 0.5 1 5 10 50 0.1 0.5 1 5 10

FIG. 5. The time evolution of the power spectra of the inflaton field perturbations, with time running from red to

purple. In both panels, we see initial particle production due to the broad low-momentum instability band. In the

left panel, where M is sufficiently small, the growth is eventually shut off by backreaction and fragmentation. The

broad peak in the power spectrum is slowly shifted towards higher co-moving wavenumbers as the universe expands

at late times, indicating the formation of stable objects of fixed physical size oscillons. In the right panel, where

M is not small enough, the particle production is quenched by the rapid expansion of the universe and does not

lead to backreaction or fragmentation. The subscript c stands for conformal the Fourier modes, ck , are rescaled

by a3/(n+1) whereas cm O[1]in , and mc m(cm ) = m for n = 1. With these scalings, when the peak of the

rescaled (by an inflaton oscillation amplitude) power spectrum reaches unity, the variance becomes comparable to

the mean (as in the left panel) and indicates the start of backreaction. The data above is for the T-model.

IV. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS the simulation. We acknowledge that long term dy-

namics can be affected by gravitational clustering. A

In this section we present our results from numeri- quantitative study of such gravitational clustering of

cal simulations of the post-inflationary universe. For is beyond the scope of this present work. However,

our simulations, we use LatticeEasy [59], a standard we will passively calculate the metric fluctuations

workhorse for calculating nonlinear field dynamics (Newtonian potentials and gravitational waves) gen-

in an expanding FRW universe. erated by the fields in an future paper.

The inflaton evolution and the expansion of the

universe are calculated according to eq. (1):9 We adopt the standard initial conditions at the

time of the beginning of preheating, i.e., a homoge-

2 neous inflaton condensate, (t), with vacuum fluc-

t2 + 3Ht + V () = 0 ,

a2 tuations, (t, x), on top of it. While the initial

1 spectrum of fluctuations has a quantum mechani-

H2 = hi , (15) cal origin, the evolution will be carried out classi-

3m2Pl s

cally because of our expectations that modes will

2 ()2 become highly occupied. We initialize the simula-

= + + V () ,

2 2a2 tions around the end of inflation, defined as the first

where h. . .is stand for spatial averaging over the lat- instance when a(t) = 0 (the results are insensitive to

tice, and is the energy density in the scalar field. the exact time of initialization as long as it is near

Note that metric perturbations are ignored here. the end of inflation).

We will focus on subhorizon scales only since non-

adiabatic resonant particle production happens pre- Our typical simulation was carried out on a N =

dominantly on these scales. This allows us to plau- 2563 lattice. However, at times N = 5123 and even

sibly ignore metric fluctuations for the duration of N = 10243 became necessary to cover the required

dynamical range, or to serve as a check on the lower

resolution simulations. We will return to such nu-

merical checks after discussing some of the results.

9 We note that LatticeEasy actually uses a combination of

the acceleration equation and the Friedman equation. For future use, we define the spatially averaged

8

N = 0.16 L = 114 m1

L = 81 m1 N = 0.16

N = 0.50 L = 148 m1

L = 115 m1 N = 0.42

N = 1.0 L = 227 m1

L = 188 m1 N = 0.85

n=1 n=2 n=3

N = 0.16 L = 114 m1 N = 0.16

L = 81 m1 N = 0.16 L = 156 m1

N = 0.50 L = 148 m1 N = 0.34

L = 115 m1 N = 0.42 L = 188 m1

N = 1.0 L = 227 m1 N = 0.68

L = 188 m1 N = 0.85 L = 264 m1

n=2 n=3

L = 114 m1 n=1 N = 0.16 n=1

n=1

N = 0.16 N = 0.16 L = 156 m1 N = 0.16

L = n148 1 N = 0.34 L = 81 m1 N = 0.16

= 1m

1

LL==81 m 1

81m n=1

188 m1 n = 1

Nn==0.501 L = 81 m1

NN == 0.42

0.16 N = 0.50 N =

L = 0.16 N

L m1

= 0.16

= 115

LL==227

81 mm11

L = 115 m1 L N

= 81 =m10.68N = 0.16 L ==

N m1

811.0 N = 0.50

Ln= 264 L = 81 m1

1

m1 L = 115 m1

NN == 0.85

0.50 N = 1.0 N 1 m

==0.50 L

N= 188

= 0.50

n L==3115 m

1

L = 188 m1 N

L== m1 N = 0.501

1150.16 n = 2

L = 115 m1 1

N = 1.0

N = 1.0 L

N= 81 m1 L = 115 m

= 1.0 L

N= 114 m

= 1.0

N = 0.16

188 m1

n=2 N

L== 1880.50

m1 N = 1.0 Nn==0.16

L = 1881m1 1 L = 188 m1

LL==156 m1 L = 114 m1 L = 115 m1 L = 148

N = m

0.16 n=2

n=2

N = 0.16 n=2 L = 188 m1 n=2 1

N = 0.34

L = 114 m1

N = 1.0 1

L = 114 m LN

L=

=

810.42

114m

= 227 1

m1 L = 114 m1

LN= 188 m1 L = 148 m1 L = 188 m1 n = 2 L

N = = m

0.50

= 0.16 N

n = 2= 0.161 L = 114 m1 N = 0.16

N = 0.851 N = 0.16

NL =n= N = 0.42 L =

= 3115 m1

=0.68

1

1481m L = 114

148 mm1 L=

n 148 m

LN= 264

N m1

= 0.16

= 0.42 L = 227 m1

L=

N =

N = 0.16

0.42

N = 0.16 N

N =

= 1.0

= 0.16

0.421 L = 148 m1

227mm

L = 81 11 N = 0.85 227 m

L = 148 m1 L=

1 L = 148 m11

148 m LL= 188

227 m

= 156 m1

m 1 N = 0.42

N = 0.50

0.85 n=3 Nn==0.421

0.85 N = 0.42 nN= 2=

= 0.34

0.851 L = 227 m1

N = 0.16 1 Ln= 114m m1

1

L

n== 3115 m1 N = 0.16 n = 3 1 L = 227 m

L = 227 m L = 3188

L

N= 81 m N 0.16 N = 0.85

N

N = = 1.0

0.161 L = 156 m1 N = = 0.85

0.16 N = 0.85 N

N = = 0.68

0.16

N

n = 3= 0.501 L 1

1

n=3

L

L== 188

156 m

m1 N = 0.34 L =

L== 156 m1 n = 3

1150.16

m

LL== 264

156 m

148 m1

m

n=2 N N

N = 0.34 L = 188 m1 N = 0.34 N = 0.16 N = 0.42

= 0.34 N = 0.16

L = 114 m1 1

N

L = 1.0

= 156 m1

1 L = 227 1

m1

L = 188 m

N = 0.16 N = 0.68 L

L=

N== 1880.34

188 m1

m L = 156 m1 L = 188 m L = 156 m1

N = 0.68 N = 0.68

m1 N = 0.34

N

N = 0.85

= 0.68

L = 148

n =

m1

1 1 L = 264 m1 n = 2188

L

1 n = 3 N = 0.34

L = 264

N = 0.42m L

L=

N== 2640.68

114 m1

m 1

L = 264 m1

N = 0.16

L = 227 m 1 L

N= 264 m

= 0.16 1 L = 188 m N = 0.16 L = 188 m1

L ==

N m1

810.85 L = 148 m1 N = 0.68 L = 156 m1 N = 0.68

N

n = 3= 0.50 N = 0.42 L = 264 m1 N = 0.34

L 264mm11

= 264

N

L == m1

0.16

115 L = 227 m1 L = 188 m1 L=

L

N= 156 m1

= 1.0 N = 0.85 N = 0.68

N = 0.34

L = 188 m1 1 n=3 L = 264 m1

L = 188 m N = 0.16

FIG. 6. The three n= 2

columns show snapshots of density contours at 5 the mean for M 0.775 102 mPl for three

N = 0.68 1 L = 156 m1

L

different n for the = 114

T-model.

L = 264 m m 1 After the inflaton fragments it can form very stable objects (oscillons, n = 1) lasting

N =or 0.16 N = 0.34

millions of oscillations transient objects (n > 1) lasting tens of oscillations. They are highly overdense regions,

L = 188 m1

containing a substantial m1

L = 148 fraction of the energy of the universe for many e-folds of expansion (n = 1) or for O(1)

N = 0.68

N inflaton

e-folds (n > 1). The = 0.42 becomes virialized Lafter transients decay. The physical size of the co-moving boxes is

= 264 m1

given in terms of Lthe 227 m1 mass m( = M ). The boxes are always subhozrion.

= effective

N = 0.85

n=3

equation of stateN parameter

= 0.16 as to w unless otherwise stated.

L = 156 m1

hpis N h2= ()2 /6a2 V is

/20.34

w = , (16) As discussed in Section III, the interplay between

his Lh =2188

/2 +m1

()2 /2a2 + V is

N = 0.68 parametric resonance and the Hubble expansion can

where, and p are L = the energy

264 m 1 density and pressure be divided into two regimes: M mPl and M

of the inflaton field, respectively. The equation of mPl . Moreover, the relevance of the first narrow res-

state often rapidly oscillates compared to the char- onance band showed important differences between

acteristic expansion time scale a time average over n = 1 and n > 1. Motivated by this analysis, we will

many oscillations should be assumed when we refer consider four different regimes based on {n, M }.

9

FIG. 7. The evolution of the equation of state for different M and n in the T-models. On the vertical axes we have the

equation of state and on the horizontal axes the number of e-folds of expansion after the end of inflation. We indicate

the homogeneous equation of state (dotted blue line) and the equation of state for radiation domination (dashed

black line) for reference. The orange and green curves show the equation of state calculated from lattice simulations.

For the orange curves (M 7.75 103 mPl ), the resonance is efficient and leads to the complete fragmentation of

the condensate within less than an e-fold of expansion. After fragmentation w settles to 0 for a quadratic minimum

(since oscillons behave as pressureless dust) or 1/3 for steeper power-laws (after the transient objects decay away).

In the green cases (M 2.45mPl ), the resonance is inefficient and the condensate can oscillate for very long times.

If n = 1 the condensate never fragments due to self-resonance, whereas if n > 1 backreaction eventually occurs at a

predictable time, and the equation of state quickly settles to 1/3 in a step-like manner.

takes place. The backreaction process is quite efficient

in the sense that the condensate fragments completely

A1: n = 1, M mPl living a negligible amount of homogeneous condensate

behind.

In this scenario, low-k perturbations grow rapidly,

which can be seen from the linear analysis result in

the first column of Fig. 2. The universe expands

1. Oscillons

slowly with respect to the rate of oscillations of (t).

Our lattice simulations indeed confirm the expectation

from the linear analysis. Initially, we observe the The fragmentation of the condensate is followed by

development of a broad low-k peak in the spectrum of the formation of interesting nonlinear structures of fixed

the inflaton. See left panel in Fig. 5. When the energy physical size. See the first column in Fig. 6. These

of the perturbations associated with this peak becomes nonlinear structures survive for the entire duration of

10

the simulation, and explain the peak in the power spec- band peak near M .

trum in the left panel of Fig. 5. This peak never goes

away and is only slowly shifted towards higher co-moving A2: n = 1, M mPl

wavenumbers since the structures maintain a fixed phys-

ical size. As expected from the linear analysis, there is no

These localized, nonlinear objects are long-lived fragmentation of the condensate here. As a result, no

pseudo-solitonic objects called oscillons [6064]. They oscillons form. The oscillating condensate still maintains

normally form if V is quadratic near the origin and the equation of state w = 0, see top left panel of Fig. 7

flatter away from it, which is precisely the case we are (green curve). The universe remains matter dominated.

considering. See for example [64] for more precise con- Thus in the case where n = 1, for the universe to

ditions. An oscillon profile is such that the nonlinear reach a radiation dominated state necessary for success-

terms from V essentially cancel the dispersion term in ful BBN, we need extra ingredients in the way of daugh-

the equation of motion, i.e., t2 osc + 2 osc 0 with ter fields coupled to the inflaton which eventually lead

2 = m2 (1 . . .) const. For a more detailed expla- to the decay of the oscillons into relativistic matter.

nation, see for example [64]. The oscillon field profile,

osc (r, t), is spherically symmetric, peaking at the centre

of the oscillon and approaching zero monotonically away

B. Transients and Radiation Domination

from it. The profile is oscillating with time, hence the

name. At leading order, all points of the profile oscillate

in phase and at the same frequency, so one can write B1: n > 1, M mPl

osc (r, t) R(r)T (t). The energy contained in oscillons,

however, is (approximately) constant with time. That is, When V () is steeper than quadratic near the

inside an oscillon the energy density does not redshift. minimum (n > 1), and M mPl , we again observe a

We note that osc (r, t) is not actually an exact solu- rapid growth of linear perturbations for kphys . m (see

tion to the equations of motion, but only approximate. Fig. 2).

Oscillons have subleading multiple frequencies, and also

decay non-perturbatively through classical [65] (or quan-

tum [66]) radiation eventually. Typically oscillons last

1. Transients

for millions of oscillations (corresponding to many Hub-

ble times [67]). For a discussion of their stability, see for

example [63, 64, 68]. Once backreaction kicks in, we observe the formation

of nonlinear objects in a qualitatively similar manner to

the formation of oscillons. We refer to the nonlinear

objects formed in n > 1 case as transients since they

2. Equation of State are much shorter-lived than oscillons. Transients survive

for tens of oscillations only. Their formation and then

In the top-left panel of Fig. 7, the equation of state subsequent decay act can be seen visually in the second

w (see eq. (16)) for M mPl , n = 1 (orange curve) is and third columns in Fig. 6 and first column in Fig. 9.

shown as a function of the number of e-folds of expan- Despite their short lives, they can dominate the energy

sion after inflation, N . Copious oscillon production is budget of the universe for up to an e-fold of expansion

possible for M mPl , and collectively the oscillons can and hence can be of cosmological relevance.

lock a substantial fraction of the energy of the universe Let us make a heuristic connection of transients with

[23]. This gas of oscillons behaves as pressureless dust, oscillons. If we assume that the dispersion term for tran-

thereby giving rise to w = 0 and a matter dominated sients is cancelled by all but the lowest order term from

expansion of the universe. V in the equation of motion, then t2 tr + m2 tr 0.

Note that w is not exactly 0, but rather decays towards Note that here, m2 2n2tr 6= const. (distinct from the

it. This is because there is some energy stored in rela- n = 1 case). It is impossible to get an approximate so-

tivistic modes outside the oscillons. However, since the lution of the form tr (r, t) R(r)T (t) and therefore the

energy in the oscillon gas redshifts as matter, a3 , frequency of oscillations will be amplitude dependent,

whereas in relativistic modes as a4 it does not take implying that different points of the profile will oscillate

long for w 0. at different rates. In our simulations we indeed observe

The approach to w = 0 is rapid it takes less than the formation of ripples on top of the oscillating tr (r, t),

an e-fold of expansion for the field to fragment and form which radiate away the energy of the objects, explaining

oscillons and reach a matter-like equation of state in the their transient nature.

T and E models. In these models the inflaton starts to We can in fact go a step further and generalize this

oscillate in the broad band immediately after inflation, statement and claim that any V ||2n (n > 1) near

see Fig. 2. We note that in the Monodromy models it the origin and flattening out away from it (hence leading

can take up to 2 e-folds for the amplitude of inflaton to an attractive clustering of the field) will lead to the

oscillations to be redshifted to the broad instability formation, and temporary support of such transients. To

11

1.0 1.0

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.0

0 1 2 2.5 0 5 6.4 6.8

FIG. 8. The evolution of the fraction of energy, f , stored in gradient (blue), potential (orange) and kinetic (green)

terms. The red (dotted) line is the right-hand side of the virial expression in eq. (17) divided by the total energy. All

curves represent time averages over many oscillations and spatial averages over the simulation volume. In the case

on the left, the condensate fragments rapidly into transient objects, which survive for about an e-fold of expansion

as evident from the plateau near N = 1 in fgrad . After that the transients decay away and the inflaton field

becomes virialised. In the right panel, the first narrow instability band leads to slow but steady particle production.

The condensate oscillates for over 5 e-folds, as indicated by the initial plateaus in the three f s, before the excited

modes backreact and the condensate fragments. Interestingly, the field remains completely virialised throughout its

evolution. In both cases the self-interaction energy becomes increasingly subdominant with time.

the best of our knowledge this is the first time they have like oscillons, behave collectively as pressureless matter.

been reported in the literature.10 Note that because of their short lived nature, this stage

The rapid appearance, approximately adiabatic evo- is hard to see cleanly in the behavior of the equation of

lution for an . e-fold, and sudden disappearance can state.

lead to interesting gravitational wave signatures. We After the transients decay away we get w = 1/3, for

will explore the gravitational waves generated from the all n > 1. This can be understood by looking at the

formation and eventual dispersion of these transients in evolution of the fraction of energy stored in the form of

a future paper [42]. kinetic, gradient and potential energies, as shown in Fig.

8. Numerically, we find that after the transients decay,

they leave a completely virialized [69] inflaton:

2. Equation of State

1 2 1

h is,t = h(/a)2 is,t + n hV is,t . (17)

2 2

In Fig. 7, we can qualitatively see the effect of tran-

sients on the equation of state (orange curves, n = Using this in eq. (16) we have11

1.5, 2, 3). After the transients form, and before they de- 1 2 (n 2) 1

cay, wtrans is expected to be matter-like since transients, w= + + ... (18)

3 3 (n + 1) + h(/a)2 is,t 3

hV i s,t

10 It is interesting to think about the longevity of this objects were we can see hV is,t h2 is,t , h(/a)2 is,t .

if there is a mechanism which forces their profile to resem-

ble a top-hat (akin to the flat-top oscillons [63]). The con-

stancy of the amplitude within an extended region should

suppress the formation of ripples and prolong the lifetime 11

D

h...is

E h...is,t

of the transients. We leave this investigation for a future If we assume that h...is

= h...is,t

, which turns out to

t

work. be an excellent approximation at late times.

12

0.100

10-2

0.010

0.001 10-4

10-4

10-6

10-5

10-6 10-8

10-7

0.1 0.5 1 5 10 5 10 50 100 500

0.100

10-2

0.010

0.001 10-4

10-4

10-6

10-5

10-6 10-8

0.05 0.10 0.50 1 5 0.5 1 5 10

0.100 10-2

0.010

0.001 10-4

10-4

10-6

10-5

10-6 10-8

10-7

0.01 0.05 0.10 0.50 1 0.01 0.05 0.10 0.50 1

FIG. 9. Representative power spectra of inflaton fluctuations for n > 1. The left column is for sufficiently small M ,

allowing for the broad instability band to fragment the condensate and form transients. As the transient objects

decay, the broad peaks in the power spectra disappear, shifting power to the UV modes. The right column is for larger

M , for which the first narrow instability band leads to slow, but steady particle production in a narrow co-moving

band. The peak of this band shifts with time towards higher (n < 2), lower (n > 2) co-moving modes or stays fixed

(n = 2) at k 1.27mc . The generation of multiple re-scattering peaks is also evident in the second column. The

growth is eventually shut off by backreaction and fragmentation without the formation of any transient nonlinear

objects. In all six panels, power cascades slowly towards the UV at late times. Since there is a subdominant remnant

oscillating condensate, some particle production from the first narrow instability band occurs at late times (clearly

visible in the first column). The notation is the same as in Fig. 5.

The fact that w 1/3 is somewhat unexpected result the following. Recall that the density of a condensate

(at least for n < 2). The reason why it is surprising is

13

1.0 1.0

0.5 0.5

0.0 0.0

-0.5 -0.5

-1.0 -1.0

0 1 2 2.5 0 5 6.4 6.8

FIG. 10. The evolution of the spatially averaged inflaton field (for the T-models). The initial value of the field

is init (defined at the end of inflation). We plot the rescaled conformal value c (t) (a/ainit )3/(n+1) (t) to

compensate for the redshifting of the amplitude of inflaton oscillations. The left panel is for a case when the mass

M is small enough for the broad instability band to play a major role and lead to the formation of transients.

Shortly after initialization, the condensate undergoes several oscillations with a nearly constant conformal amplitude,

c,m 0.5init (for Monodromy models, it can undergo 10s of oscillations). During this period, the broad instability

band excites multiple modes, eventually causing backreaction. The oscillating condensate disappears for about an

e-fold of expansion, reflecting its complete fragmentation and the formation of localized transients. As the objects

decay away, a part of the condensate reappears, because a non-trivial dynamical equilibrium is established [28, 70, 71].

The new condensate, however, is increasingly subdominant in energy. The right panel is for a case when M is so large,

that only the first narrow instability band plays an important role. The condensate undergoes many oscillations with

conformal amplitude very close to init (this is typical for M & mPl ). As the slow, but steady particle production

due to the first narrow band causes backreaction, the condensate fragments partially. Nonlinear transient objects do

not form in this case, but just like after their decay in the other case, the remnant condensate becomes energetically

less important with time.

i.e., slower than radiation for n < 2. Hence, for such n,

whatever condensate (coherent low-k modes) is left after

In this case the expansion of the universe immediately

the decay of the transients, its energy should redshift

after inflation is more important than the particle pro-

more slowly than the energy stored in the relativistic

duction from the broad resonance band. For all n the

modes (rel a4 ) and eventually become the dominant

amplitude of decays rapidly, and it does not undergo a

component, yielding the homogeneous equation of state

significant number of oscillations while the low-k modes

[40, 46]

n1 lie in the broad instability band (see Fig. 2, n > 1 cases).

whom = . (19) Our simulations indeed reveal that none of the k grow

n+1

much initially. They experience brief excitations due to

Instead, numerically we find that power cascades

the crossing of multiple instability bands, but not large

slowly towards the UV akin to the turbulent evolution

enough to back-react on the condensate. (t) continues

described in [70, 71] and that the energy stored in the

to oscillate around the bottom of V ||2n .

relativistic modes always dominates over the remnant

However, as Fig. 2 suggests, despite the fast expansion

condensate, leading to w 1/3, for all n > 1. This is a

of the universe compared to the growth rate of the per-

purely nonlinear effect.

turbations, narrow resonance effects play an important

role at late times for n > 1. Co-moving modes within

B2: n > 1, M mPl

the narrow bands remain unstable as Hubble expansion

drives 0 (see the discussion in Sec. III A 2).

In the right column in Fig. 9, we show the infla-

12 For a rapidly oscillating scalar condensate in an expanding ton spectra obtained from lattice simulations at different

universe 0 = h( + V )it = h2 it + h V it , from times. After a short period of excitation of low-k modes,

which follows h2 it = 2n hV it . After substitution in eq. has decayed significantly (due to expansion). There-

(16) we obtain eq. (19), whereas using energy conservation after, it is the narrow instability bands that become im-

+ 3H( + p) = 0, we arrive at a6n/(n+1) . portant. The modes within the first narrow resonance

14

band grow ever faster when compared to the expan-

sion time scale, since |<(k )| m and H m/mPl ,

i.e., |<(k )|/H mPl /, developing a prominent nar- 10

row primary peak. This peak is shifted towards higher

co-moving wavenumbers for n < 2, and towards lower

co-moving wavenumbers n > 2. For n = 2, it is fixed in 8

co-moving space at k1 = 1 a(t)m(t) = const, 1 1.27.

Interestingly, before the deposited energy in the pri-

6

mary peak becomes comparable to that of the conden-

sate, a series of secondary peaks develops. Initially at

low k and then at ever higher k. We call them secondary 4

because they do not follow from the linear analysis (the

linear analysis yields a much slower growth near the sec- 4 6 8 10

ondary peaks). They result from rescattering processes

(we confirmed their rescattering origin by removing the

initial fluctuations above a certain cut-off, e.g. k > 1.2k1

for n = 2). The k close to 0 appears first as a conse-

quence of the strongest rescattering between particles

secondary rescattering processes. 8

The growth of perturbations (seen in both primary

and secondary peaks) is eventually shut off by the back-

again (just like in the transients case) the field is virial-

ized, see Fig. 8. The power cascades slowly towards the

4

UV and the energy stored in the relativistic modes ends

up dominating over the remnant condensate, leading to

4 6 8 10

w 1/3. We re-iterate, that this is a purely nonlin-

ear process. It has been observed in pure 4 theory

[28, 70, 71]. Here we see it for general n > 1.

Note that never disappears completely (see Fig 10)

it is in a non-trivial dynamical equilibrium with the FIG. 11. On the top we show the number of e-folds of

highly occupied modes and if it is removed artificially it expansion after the end of inflation when backreaction

reappears due to Bose condensation (see also [28]). takes place due to particle production from the first nar-

row instability band. On the horizontal axis we plot the

predicted values (eq. (11) for 1 < n 6= 2 and eq. (14)

for n = 2) and on the vertical axis the measured val-

2. Duration to Radiation Domination ues from lattice simulations, for different M and n. The

orange squares are for the T-models, the green rhombi

After fragmentation, the inflaton field is again viri- are for the E-models and the red triangles are for the

alized with kinetic and gradient energies much greater Monodromy models for q = 0.5, 1. We find that for all

than the potential energy and w asymptoting to 1/3. models and parameters, the data fits the 45o degree line

We find that the fragmented inflaton almost immedi- for 0.126. We also found that changing to 0.100

ately reaches a radiation dominated state of expansion, describes well the time the equation of state approaches

i.e., Nrad & Nbr . The expected time for backre- wrad = 1/3, as shown on the bottom.

action from the linear analysis in Section III, see eqs.

(11,14), agrees well with the lattice simulations (Fig. 11)

when the first narrow instability band plays an impor-

tant role. The moment of backreaction obtained from

our lattice simulations fits the linear analysis predictions

for 0.126, for all four models (T, E and Monodromy

q = 0.5, 1). We also find that decreasing the small pa-

rameter to 0.100 describes well the data for the time

when w settles to 1/3. When the broad instability band ulations, by radiation domination we mean the moment

causes the fragmentation of the condensate into transient when the equation of state approaches, wrad = 1/30.03.

objects we find that Nrad & Nbr 1 (2.5) for the T The 10% width makes the effects in inflationary observ-

and E (Monodromy) models. ables (see the next section) due to numerical uncertain-

We note that in terms of actual values of w from sim- ties < 1%.

15

V. OBSERVATIONAL IMPLICATIONS FOR pivot scale when calculating predictions for ns and r.13

INFLATIONARY OBSERVABLES Connecting As , ns and r to the inflationary potential

in the slow-roll approximation, we have

The numerical studies presented in the previous sec- 1 V?3

tion give us a new look on the expansion history of our As = ,

12 mPl V?0 2

2 6

universe. We have shown that for all potentials that are 0 2

steeper than quadratic near the origin, n > 1, and any V? V 00

ns = 1 3m2Pl + 2m2Pl ? , (22)

value of M , the oscillating inflaton condensate fragments V? V?

due to self-resonance. The equation of state approaches 0 2

V?

that of a radiation dominated universe at sufficiently late r = 8m2Pl ,

V?

times (see Fig. 7). For M mPl , this duration to radi-

ation domination in e-folds: Nrad . 1. For M mPl , where V? V (? ), etc. and ? is the value of the inflaton

Nrad is given by eqs. (11) and (14). Note that with field at the time when the co-moving pivot scale crossed

0.126 0.1, Nbr Nrad . the Hubble radius k = k? = a? H? .

The duration to radiation domination we have cal-

culated can be used as an upper bound if we include

perturbative decay to other light species. This upper B. e-folds of Inflation

bound arises because if the interactions with other rela-

tivistic species are stronger, then the production of rel-

The number of e-folds of expansion before the end of

ativistic daughter particles is even more effective than

inflation, N? , when the pivot scale exited the horizon is

due to self-resonance, and the transition is faster. Note

that if the daughter fields are massive, or there are non-

Z

end

V d

perturbative dynamics, our statement about the upper N? . (23)

? V 0 m2Pl

bound does not hold.

These insights can help in reducing the uncertainties Here end is the value of the inflaton field at the end of

in the predictions of individual models of inflation with- inflation, a = 0.14

out the need for a specific reheating scenario. In the In conventional studies of reheating N? is effectively

remainder of the section we derive the improved pre- treated as a free parameter in the range 50 < N? <

dictions for two cosmological observables the scalar 60 due to uncertainties related to the post-inflationary

spectral index, ns , and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, and expansion history. With the current study, we have a

compare them to the most recent constraints from mea- better understanding of w(N ) and an upper bound on

surements of the CMB. Nrad for the models under consideration. Thus, we can

treat N? as a known quantity (with a known variation)

and use it to constrain inflaton potential parameters. To

this end we need an expression for N? from the usual

A. Slow-Roll Parameters mapping of modes between horizon crossing, k? = a? H? ,

during inflation and re-entry, k? = a0 H0 , at late times.

Slow-roll inflation yields a nearly scale-invariant power We start from [72, 73]

spectrum of the curvature and tensor perturbations,

k? a? H?

= ,

ns 1 nt a0 H0 a0 H0

k k (24)

2R (k) = As , 2t (k) = At , 1/4 1/4

a? aend arad rad end H?

k? k? = ,

(20) aend arad a0 H0 1/4 1/4

rad end

where As and At characterize the amplitude, whereas ns

and nt are the spectral indices of the scalar and tensor where aend and end are the scale factor and energy

perturbations. Observations have shown As 2.2109 density at the end of inflation, N? ln(aend /a? ) and

(with k? = 0.05 Mpc1 ) [1]. While tensors have yet to

be detected, the tensor-to-scalar ratio

13 For the calculation of the inflaton potential parameters in

At

r= , (21) Section IV, we have used the value of As measured at

As k? = 0.05 Mpc1 . We have checked that our results do

not change with the variation of the model parameters for

is constrained to be . 0.1 (with k? = 0.002 Mpc1 )[1]. pivot scales in the range 0.002 Mpc1 k? 0.05 Mpc1 ,

The constraints on r and ns are shown in Fig. 12. Note assuming eq. (20).

that while (ns , As ) and r use different k? , this is of little 14 In principle, one can calculate end from the inflaton dy-

consequence for what follows, primarily because there namics during inflation. Nevertheless, a good estimate, suf-

is no detectable running of the scalar spectral index. ficient for our purposes, can be obtained from setting the

Henceforth, we will use 0.002 Mpc1 as the value of the potential slow-roll parameter, V = m2Pl (V 0 /V )2 /2, to 1.

16

Nrad ln(arad /aend ). Note that rad is the mean en- If Nrad is given by eq. (11), this provides an upper

ergy density at the beginning of radiation domination, bound on N? . While we considered n > 1, M mPl

w wrad = 1/3, which is captured by our lattice sim- case as an example, a similar analysis can be done for

ulations. The universe need not be in thermal equilib- M mPl .

rium at that time. In fact, thermal equilibrium could be Apart from the logarithmic dependence on the un-

reached much later when known gth , the upper bound on N? only depends on ?

1/4 1/4 and the parameters in the inflationary potential (n, M ),

rad arad = th ath , (25)

also (q for Monodromy models). We can now solve eqs.

where we assume that the universe is dominated by rela- (23), (28) and the As constraint in (22) simultaneously

tivistic degrees of freedom while arad < a < ath . Taking for N? , and ? , for given values of M , n (and q) and

the logarithm of eq. (24) after plugging-in eq. (25) and substitute the results in the expressions for ns and r in

H?2 V? /(3m2Pl ) yields eq. (22).

1/4

! The resulting ns (M, n) and r(M, n) are shown in Fig.

V?2

th ath 1 12 as thick green, orange and red lines for n = 1.5,

N? ln + ln

3H0 a0 4 m4Pl end 2, 3, respectively.16 The width of each line reflects

(26) the uncertainty from coupling to other light fields, i.e.,

k? 1 rad latt

ln Nrad + ln . Nrad Nrad (M, n). This width reflects the uncer-

a0 H0 4 end tainty in N? in this model. For comparison we also give

The first term evaluates to 66.89 (1/12) ln gth where the predictions for the same M , n (and q), assuming the

gth is the number of bosonic degrees of freedom in the standard reheating related uncertainties 50 < N? < 60,

early universe, and the number 66.89 is determined from with the slanted thin lines. The figures clearly indicate

late universe cosmological observations which do not that our analysis significantly reduces the theoretical un-

rely on the inflationary potential (see Section V C for certainties in the predictions for the CMB observables.

a derivation). The second term depends only on the in-

flaton potential parameters and ? . The third term is a

function of the pivot scale which we have already fixed. C. Thermalization and Radiation Domination

The fourth and fifth terms is where we make contact

with our present work.

We end this subsection by discussing the distinct

We have shown in Section IV B that even in the ab-

roles of thermalization and radiation domination, and

sence of couplings to other fields, for generic, obser-

a derivation of 66.89 (1/12) ln gth used for the first

vationally consistent potentials with n > 1, we reach

term in eq. (26).

w 1/3. Thus, Nrad and end /rad are bounded

from above and these bounds can be calculated from Note that the ratios ath /arad and th /rad do not ap-

the parameters of the inflationary potential. Even if ad- pear in eq. (26). Their absence is a manifestation of

ditional relativistic species are coupled to the inflaton,15 the importance of the expansion history over the ther-

our calculated Nrad and end /rad are robust upper mal history of the universe in the context of mapping

bounds. The lower bound is of course Nrad = 0 and cosmological perturbation modes to early times. It is

end /rad = 1. Thus the fourth and fifth terms together sufficient to know the evolution of the scale factor and

are bounded, and calculable from the inflationary po- the moment when w 1/3. The value of the redshift

tential parameters, which reduces the uncertainty in N? at which the universe reached local thermal equilibrium

significantly. has no effect on the mapping of the modes as long as

As an example, note that for n > 1, M mPl , w = 1/3, while arad < a < ath . Thus, one can in princi-

the expansion history takes a very simple form since ple employ classical lattice simulations to calculate the

the transition from the homogeneous equation of state expansion history up to a = arad and, thereby, connect

whom = (n 1)/(n + 1) to wrad = 1/3 happens in less inflationary predictions with observations without hav-

than an e-fold (see the green curves in Fig. 7). Hence ing to worry about thermalization, Tth and the end of

reheating as a whole.17

6n/(n+1) 6n/(n+1)

end aend rad arad , (27) To show that this is indeed the case, let us calculate

the first term in eq. (26). It is reasonable to assume

finally leading to that entropy, s gT 3 , (g being the number of effective

V?2

1 1

N? 66.89 ln (gth ) + ln

12 4 m4Pl end

(28)

k? n2

ln + Nrad . 16 We have used gth = 103 , however, letting it vary in the

a0 H0 2(n + 1)

range 1 105 , does not change the location and the thick-

ness of the lines in any visible way.

17 It is worth mentioning that re-emergence of moduli domi-

15 As long the decay is perturbative to avoid metastable, non- nation [74] after the initial radiation domination obviously

linear states. complicates our analysis.

17

FIG. 12. Top row from left to right: -attractor T and E models. Bottom row from left to right: Monodromy models,

q = 0.5, 1. The recently reported constraints on r and ns by the Planck Collaboration [1] are shown with the blue

shaded regions. Our predictions for n = 1.5, 2, 3 are given by the thick green, orange and red lines for different values

of M . As the straight arrows indicate, as we increase M we move up the lines. The width of each thick line reflects the

latt

uncertainty from our analysis Nrad Nrad , i.e., the uncertainty from coupling the inflaton to other light fields.

The black edges are for the upper bound. On the other hand the broad green, orange and red striped bands give

the standard predictions for the same M and n. The width of each band accounts for the standard reheating-related

uncertainties 50 < N? < 60. Our bounds on the expansion history after inflation, reduce the uncertainties in N?

significantly and hence in the predictions for the two CMB observables, as can be seen in the figures.

bosonic degrees of freedom in thermal equilibrium) is logarithm in the equation for N? , gth does not affect the

conserved between the end of reheating and today predictions for ns and r significantly.

whence,

1/4

1/4 1/3

ath 2 gth Tth

4

/30 g0 T03 We end this section by noting that with additional

th = 3

,

3H0 a0 3H0 gth Tth assumptions, it is possible to connect reheating temper-

2 1/4 1/3 1/12

g0 gth T0 (30) ature (temperature at thermalization) to the parameters

= , of the inflationary potential. One possible assumption is

30 3 H0

to make arad ath , and hence th rad . Since we can

1/12

e66.89 gth , calculate rad from the parameters in the inflationary

potential, we can use rad th = 2 gth Tth

4

/30 to deter-

where T0 = 0.235 meV is the CMB temperature today, mine Tth (with a dependence on gth ). If observational

g0 = 43/11 and H0 = 67.6 km s1 Mpc1 . The effective constraints (such as Tth > TBBN ) or theoretical preju-

bosonic d.o.f, gth , is largely unknown. At the time of big dice constrains Tth , one can use these to either constrain

bang nucleosynthesis, gBBN = 106.75. In our analysis, inflationary parameters, or the strength of couplings of

we let gth = 1 105 . Luckily, due to the small power it the inflaton to other fields. A more detailed discussion

is raised by in eq. (30) and the fact that it is inside a is delegated to an Appendix.

18

1.0

0.100

0.010 0.8

0.001

0.6

10-4

10-5 0.4

0.0

FIG. 13. The evolution of the power spectrum for a case 0 5 6.4 6.8

when transients form and then decay away. The data

is from three simulations, differing in their IR resolu-

tion. The solid lines are for a 10243 run, the dotted for

a 5123 run and the dashed for a 2563 run. After the ini- FIG. 14. The evolution of the equation of state for a case

tial particle production in a broad co-moving band, the when M is large enough so that it particle production

condensate fragments and forms transient objects, as in- from the first narrow instability band that causes back-

dicated by the broad peak at intermediate times. As reaction and fragmentation. The green solid and the red

the transients decay, the broad peak goes away, power dotted lines are for two runs with the same IR cut-off,

cascades towards the UV, with low-energy long wave- but different UV resolution. The inflaton dynamics and

length modes also being excited. Importantly, the IR w are not affected by the UV cut-off for the duration of

cut-off does not affect the evolution of the intermediate the simulations.

and short wavelength modes which dominate the energy

budget.

fixed physical size. We inevitably run out of resolution

on small sales. A 5123 run with the product of the

VI. DISCUSSION OF NUMERICS AND physical length of the edge of the lattice and the Hubble

ASSUMPTIONS parameter at the time of backreaction (LH)br 0.1,

allows to keep track of the oscillons for about 1-2 e-folds

of expansion after their formation, while also resolving

A. Numerics the broad resonance band at earlier times.

For n = 1, M mPl , the simulations are relatively

We have carried out various numerical checks to test straightforward. In this case, very little energy is

the robustness of our results against changes in the transfered from the homogeneous inflaton to relativistic

Infrared (IR size of simulation box) and Ultraviolet modes, backreaction never takes place due to self-

(UV lattice spacing) resolutions of our simulations. resonance, the condensate remains intact and keeps

While often a 2563 lattice turned out to be large enough oscillating (however, if gravity is included at first order,

to cover the relevant dynamical range, we typically ran the condensate must eventually fragment [75]; this is

5123 , sometimes going up to 10243 to make sure that beyond the scope of our paper).

finite resolution effects do not lead to spurious results.

(b) n > 1 cases:

(a) n = 1 cases:

When n > 1, M mPl and transients form, we

For the case when n = 1, but M mPl we have are faced with the same challenges as in the oscillons

copious oscillon production. The numerical challenge case, with some differences. Let us first focus on the

is two-fold. (i) We must make sure that the full width IR-cutoff set by the size of our simulation box. As

of the initial broad low-momentum instability band is transient objects decay, most of the power is transferred

captured (setting the IR cut-off). (ii) At the same time to UV modes with a smaller fraction of the energy

we have a large enough UV cut-off that allows for the going to the IR modes. We have verified that the IR

resolution of the small (with respect to the horizon) cut-off does not affect the dynamics on small scales

objects. The second condition is especially relevant for or the features on intermediate scales (see Fig. 13),

oscillons since the lattice is fixed in co-moving space, primarily because the IR modes tend to be energetically

i.e., expands along with the universe, and oscillons have subdominant at late times. In particular, the IR cut-off

19

does not affect the evolution of the equation of state, long term dynamics can be affected by gravitational

which in this case is determined by the high energy clustering, especially in the n = 1 case. In the n > 1

modes. case (relevant for duration to radiation domination),

We note that the low k-modes, while not relevant for the domination of the gradient and kinetic energies

the equation of state, are affected by the IR-cutoff and indicates that gravitational clustering would be difficult

UV dynamics because of non-trivial dynamical equilib- and unlikely. Moreover, for calculations of spatially

rium [28, 70, 71] between the energetic (i.e., UV) and averaged quantities like the equation of state and

subdominant (i.e., intermediate and IR) modes. The expansion history, metric potentials are unlikely to play

quantity that we find to be affected by the IR-cutoff is a dominant role.

the spatial average of the inflaton, (t), after transients One might wonder whether the dense, localized oscil-

decay (see Fig. 10). The amplitude of the oscillations of lons and transients lead to gravitational potentials that

the condensate that forms after transients go away turns might get large. In a future paper [42] we passively calcu-

out to vary weakly (normally decrease) as we improve late the metric fluctuations (Newtonian potentials) gen-

the IR resolution. This is reasonable, since we capture erated by these objects. We find find that the New-

more long wave modes (the non-trivial dynamical equi- tonian potential remains quite small compared to unity.

librium also implies in general some variation in the oc- We re-iterate that the smallness of metric potentials just

cupation number of the IR modes). But again, since the means we can ignore general relativity. Newtonian po-

IR modes and the condensate in particular are subdom- tentials can still change the detailed field dynamics on

inant in energy at late times, their sensitivity on the IR long time-scales (for n = 1), but less so for n > 1 case.

resolution has a negligible effect on the distribution of In the same future paper [42], we will also calculate

energy between kinetic, gradient and potential energies. gravitational waves generated by the fragmentation of

We now turn to the UV-cutoff. Since in the cases the field.

of radiation domination, energy always cascades slowly

towards high-k modes it was also important to verify

that the UV cut-off does not affect the inflaton dynam-

ics and the evolution of the equation of state, see Fig. 2. Inflaton Potential

(14). We found that with 2563 and 5123 boxes with the

same IR cut-off, effects due to the finite UV resolution We assumed a rather generic shape of the inflaton po-

become important after 2 e-folds after backreaction for tential. While a quadratic minimum (n = 1) is the norm,

n . 2 and much later for n > 2, i.e., always long after n > 1 case (non-quadratic minimum) is unusual, espe-

radiation domination is established. We always stop our cially for n 6= 2 (non-quartic case). One might also ex-

simulations before reflections from the UV-cutoff become pect a mass to be generated by quantum effects, possibly

important. H 2 . However, since the effective mass m2 (see eq. 8)

In the case when n > 1, M mPl , the UV-cutoff is larger than H 2 at the end of inflation, and redshifts

considerations at late times are identical to the M mPl slower than H 2 , one might expect our results to apply

case. The rest are less stringent since no transients are for a long time.

formed.

Finally, we note that in terms of actual values of

w from simulations, by radiation domination we mean

the moment when the equation of state approaches, 3. Couplings to other fields

wrad = 1/3 0.03. The 10% width makes the effects in

inflationary observables due to numerical uncertainties For most of the paper we ignore couplings to other

< 1%. fields. This is of course an approximation, couplings

to other fields must exist so that the universe can be

eventually populated by Standard Model fields. Given

B. Assumptions and Caveats a theoretical prejudice of TBBN Einf , the couplings to

other fields can be very, very small and still be consistent

with all observations. As we have discussed, even if the

Beyond the discussion of numerical considerations, for

couplings are larger, our calculated Nrad serves as an

convenience, we collect some of the important theoretical

upper bound.

assumptions underlying our work below.

We made an assumption that the fields coupled to

the inflaton are relativistic. This is reasonable given the

expected energy scale at the end of inflation. Never-

1. Metric Perturbations theless, long-lived massive fields would certainly change

our conclusions since they might yield additional mat-

We included expansion of the universe self- ter dominated period between the end of inflation and

consistently, but ignored perturbations in the metric. BBN. Similarly, if there are other gravitationally cou-

While the early time dynamics are fast and driven by pled massive fields (moduli), they might also lead to an

self-interactions of the field, we acknowledge that very intermediate matter dominated period [74, 76].

20

n=1 n>1

M mPl

n 1 1 / | |q<2

w0 w! !

n+1 3

hom. frag.

V ( ) / | |2n

n+1 1 M |4 2n|

Nrad . ? Nrad . ln n 6= 2

3 d mPl n + 1

transients

M mPl

oscillons

1

w0 w ! 0 !

3

trans. frag.

FIG. 15. A summary of the dynamics of the inflaton, the equation of state and the duration to radiation domination

for different values of n and M . Note that n determines the shape of the minimum of the potential (n = 1 is

quadratic). Whereas M determines the scales where the potential changes from n 1 bowl to flatter wings .

The field dynamics at the end of inflation are fast compared to Hubble when M mPl . The parameter 0.126,

whereas d and / are calculable in terms of the parameters in the potential (see Fig. 4). The above summary

table is a coarse version of the results, see text for details and caveats.

Finally, we assumed that the coupling does not in- and n > 1.18 We pointed out and explained the sur-

troduce complex, coupled dynamics of the inflaton and prising generality and importance of particle production

the daughter fields. This assumption was made because from the first narrow resonance band for all n > 1.

if the dynamics of the daughter field-inflaton system is Based on our linear analysis of the instabilities in an

complex, one can get non-trivial equations of state which expanding universe, we provided analytic estimates of

is neither matter dominated nor radiation dominated the time taken for backreaction as a function of param-

[77, 78]. eters of the model, and confirmed these estimates using

numerical simulations. For M mPl and n 1, back-

reaction takes place with O[1] e-folds after the end of

inflation. Whereas for M mPl , this backreaction can

take several e-folds. For n > 1, this backreaction time is

VII. CONCLUSIONS given by eqs. (11) and (14).

inflaton field governed by observationally consistent po- 2. Oscillons and Transients

tentials that are sufficiently flat away from the origin

( M ) and going as simple power-laws, ||2n , near In the case with M mPl , backreaction is following

the origin (|| M ). A summary of our results for the by complete fragmentation of the inflaton into dense,

dynamics, and its implications are shown in Fig. 15. localized objects, that are long-lived for n = 1 and short-

lived for n > 1. The long-lived objects are oscillons and

dominate the energy budget of the universe for many e-

folds. Since they collectively behave as dust, they yield

an equation of state w 0. The short-lived objects

1. Self-resonance: Linear Analysis (transients) also behave as dust and can survive for up

flation drive the growth of spatial perturbations in the

inflaton (self-resonance). We showed that for different 18 We note that for ease of exposition, we use M mPl and

parts of parameter space, the inflaton perturbations can M mPl as binary cases. In reality, the boundary between

grow either through broad self-resonance (M mPl ) the different regimes is weakly model dependent, and typi-

or interestingly, a narrow self-resonance when M mPl cally lies around M 0.1mPl .

21

to O[1] e-folds of expansion. As the transients decay the condensate does not fragment).

away, the universe becomes radiation dominated.

3. Slow Fragmentation

We showed that our results for Nrad , under the

For M mPl , slow and steady particle production stated assumptions, lead to a substantial reduction in

from narrow resonance (only in the n > 1 case) even- the uncertainties in the predictions for inflationary ob-

tually leads to backreaction and fragmentation. In the servables such as ns and r (see Fig. 12). The fact that

power spectra of the field perturbations, we typically see a completely decoupled inflaton attains a radiation-like

a peak from the first narrow resonance band, which then equation of state (for n > 1 case) allows us to put an up-

multiplies to multiple peaks via re-scattering. per bound on Nrad , which is the key result for reducing

We do not observe the formation of any transient ob- the uncertainty in r and ns . If we introduce interactions

jects in this case. For n = 1, in absence of gravitational with other light fields (we assume perturbative decay to

interactions, no growth of perturbations is seen and the relativistic fields), Nrad can only decrease.

condensate remains intact. For the n = 1 case (quadratic minimum), no matter

what the value of M , the inflaton always ends up with

a matter-like equation of state, w = 0. To ensure the

4. Eq. of State and Duration to Radiation Domination transition to a radiation-dominated state of expansion,

required as an initial condition for primordial nucleosyn-

thesis, we need to introduce couplings to other light fields

When n > 1, and for any M we find that at late times

[41]. We plan to return to this issue in a future work.

the field evolves in a turbulent manner [28, 70, 71] and

that the relativistic modes dominate the energy budget

of the universe. This leads to a radiation-dominated pe-

riod of expansion, w wrad = 1/3. Note that this is a VIII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

general result using the fully nonlinear dynamics of the

fragmented field and differs from the expectation of the We acknowledge and thank J. Braden, J. Chluba, E.

homogeneous field [40]. Copeland, A. Frolov, M. Garcia, J. Kang, E. Komatsu,

We estimated the duration to radiation domination af- E. Lim and F. Takahashi for fruitful discussions. The

ter inflation, Nrad . For M mPl (and n > 1), the du- simulations were performed on the COSMOS Shared

ration Nrad . O[1] e-folds. For M mPl , the duration Memory system at DAMTP, operated by U. of Cam-

to radiation domination and backreaction are similar: bridge on behalf of the STFC DiRAC HPC Facility. We

Nbr Nrad and can be many e-folds. The estimate thank D. Sijacki for her generosity regarding the use of

was verified by numerical simulations. Note that before her computational resources under the Cambridge COS-

reaching radiation domination, the condensate maintains MOS Consortium. MA acknowledges support from the

the homogeneous equation of state whom = (n1)/(n+1) US Dept. of Energy Grant DE-SC0018216. This work

in this case. was done in part at the Aspen Center for Physics, which

For n = 1, the equation of state remains close to w 0 is supported by National Science Foundation grant PHY-

for M mPl (when oscillons form) and M mPl (when 106629.

[1] P. A. R. Ade et al. (Planck), Astron. Astrophys. [8] R. Allahverdi, R. Brandenberger, F.-Y. Cyr-Racine,

594, A20 (2016), 1502.02114. and A. Mazumdar, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 60,

[2] G. Hinshaw, D. Larson, E. Komatsu, D. N. Spergel, 27 (2010), 1001.2600.

C. L. Bennett, J. Dunkley, M. R. Nolta, M. Halpern, [9] M. A. Amin, M. P. Hertzberg, D. I. Kaiser, and

R. S. Hill, N. Odegard, et al., Ap. J 208, 19 (2013), J. Karouby, Int.J.Mod.Phys. D24, 1530003 (2014),

1212.5226. 1410.3808.

[3] A. A. Starobinsky, Phys. Lett. B91, 99 (1980). [10] R. V. Wagoner, W. A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle, Astro-

[4] A. H. Guth, Phys. Rev. D 23, 347 (1981). phys. J. 148, 3 (1967).

[5] A. Linde, Physics Letters B 108, 389 (1982), ISSN [11] R. H. Cyburt, B. D. Fields, K. A. Olive, and

0370-2693. T.-H. Yeh, Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015004 (2016),

[6] A. Albrecht and P. J. Steinhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 1505.01076.

48, 1220 (1982). [12] M. A. Amin and D. Baumann, JCAP 1602, 045

[7] B. A. Bassett, S. Tsujikawa, and D. Wands, Rev. (2016), 1512.02637.

Mod. Phys. 78, 537 (2006), astro-ph/0507632.

22

[13] M. A. Amin, M. A. G. Garcia, H.-Y. Xie, and [41] D. I. Podolsky, G. N. Felder, L. Kofman, and

O. Wen (2017), 1706.02319. M. Peloso, Phys. Rev. D73, 023501 (2006), hep-

[14] O. zsoy, G. Sengor, K. Sinha, and S. Watson (2015), ph/0507096.

1507.06651. [42] K. D. Lozanov and M. A. Amin (2017), 17??.?????

[15] G. B. Gelmini and P. Gondolo, Phys. Rev. D74, [43] R. Kallosh and A. Linde, JCAP 1307, 002 (2013),

023510 (2006), hep-ph/0602230. 1306.5220.

[16] R. Allahverdi, B. Dutta, and K. Sinha, Phys. Rev. [44] E. Silverstein and A. Westphal, Phys. Rev. D78,

D82, 035004 (2010), 1005.2804. 106003 (2008), 0803.3085.

[17] J. Martin, C. Ringeval, and V. Vennin, Phys. Rev. [45] L. McAllister, E. Silverstein, A. Westphal, and

Lett. 114, 081303 (2015), 1410.7958. T. Wrase, JHEP 09, 123 (2014), 1405.3652.

[18] J. B. Munoz and M. Kamionkowski, Phys. Rev. [46] M. C. Johnson and M. Kamionkowski, Phys. Rev.

D91, 043521 (2015), 1412.0656. D78, 063010 (2008), 0805.1748.

[19] K. D. Lozanov and M. A. Amin (2016), 1608.01213. [47] R. Kallosh and A. Linde, JCAP 1306, 028 (2013),

[20] L. Kofman, A. D. Linde, and A. A. Starobinsky, 1306.3214.

Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3195 (1994), hep-th/9405187. [48] R. Kallosh, A. Linde, and D. Roest, JHEP 11, 198

[21] Y. Shtanov, J. H. Traschen, and R. H. Bran- (2013), 1311.0472.

denberger, Phys. Rev. D51, 5438 (1995), hep- [49] R. Kallosh and A. Linde, JCAP 1306, 027 (2013),

ph/9407247. 1306.3211.

[22] L. Kofman, A. D. Linde, and A. A. Starobinsky, [50] R. Kallosh and A. Linde, JCAP 1310, 033 (2013),

Phys.Rev. D56, 3258 (1997), hep-ph/9704452. 1307.7938.

[23] M. A. Amin, R. Easther, H. Finkel, R. Flauger, [51] M. Galante, R. Kallosh, A. Linde, and D. Roest,

and M. P. Hertzberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 241302 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 141302 (2015), 1412.3797.

(2012), 1106.3335. [52] A. Linde, JCAP 1505, 003 (2015), 1504.00663.

[24] M. A. Amin (2010), 1006.3075. [53] J. J. M. Carrasco, R. Kallosh, and A. Linde, Phys.

[25] M. A. Amin, R. Easther, and H. Finkel, JCAP Rev. D92, 063519 (2015), 1506.00936.

1012, 001 (2010), 1009.2505. [54] J. J. M. Carrasco, R. Kallosh, and A. Linde, JHEP

[26] S. Antusch, F. Cefala, S. Krippendorf, F. Muia, 10, 147 (2015), 1506.01708.

S. Orani, and F. Quevedo (2017), 1708.08922. [55] D. Roest and M. Scalisi, Phys. Rev. D92, 043525

[27] R. V. Konoplich, S. G. Rubin, A. S. Sakharov, and (2015), 1503.07909.

M. Yu. Khlopov, Phys. Atom. Nucl. 62, 1593 (1999), [56] M. Scalisi, JHEP 12, 134 (2015), 1506.01368.

[Yad. Fiz.62,1705(1999)]. [57] R. Kallosh and A. Linde (2016), 1604.00444.

[28] S. Yu. Khlebnikov and I. I. Tkachev, Phys. Rev. [58] W. Magnus and S. Winkler, Hills Equation, Dover

Lett. 77, 219 (1996), hep-ph/9603378. Books on Mathematics Series (Dover Publications,

[29] R. Easther and E. A. Lim, JCAP 0604, 010 (2006), 2004), ISBN 9780486495651.

astro-ph/0601617. [59] G. N. Felder and I. Tkachev, Comput. Phys. Com-

[30] J. F. Dufaux, A. Bergman, G. N. Felder, L. Kofman, mun. 178, 929 (2008), hep-ph/0011159.

and J.-P. Uzan, Phys. Rev. D76, 123517 (2007), [60] I. L. Bogolyubsky and V. G. Makhankov, Pisma Zh.

0707.0875. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 24, 15 (1976).

[31] J. Martin and C. Ringeval, Phys. Rev. D82, 023511 [61] M. Gleiser, Phys. Rev. D49, 2978 (1994), hep-

(2010), 1004.5525. ph/9308279.

[32] J. Mielczarek, Phys. Rev. D83, 023502 (2011), [62] E. J. Copeland, M. Gleiser, and H. R. Muller, Phys.

1009.2359. Rev. D52, 1920 (1995), hep-ph/9503217.

[33] P. Creminelli, D. Lpez Nacir, M. Simonovi, G. Tre- [63] M. A. Amin and D. Shirokoff, Phys. Rev. D81,

visan, and M. Zaldarriaga, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 085045 (2010), 1002.3380.

241303 (2014), 1404.1065. [64] M. A. Amin, Phys. Rev. D87, 123505 (2013),

[34] L. Dai, M. Kamionkowski, and J. Wang, Phys. Rev. 1303.1102.

Lett. 113, 041302 (2014), 1404.6704. [65] H. Segur and M. D. Kruskal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58,

[35] P. Creminelli, D. L. Nacir, M. Simonovi, G. Tre- 747 (1987).

visan, and M. Zaldarriaga, Phys. Rev. D90, 083513 [66] M. P. Hertzberg, Phys. Rev. D82, 045022 (2010),

(2014), 1405.6264. 1003.3459.

[36] J. L. Cook, E. Dimastrogiovanni, D. A. Easson, and [67] P. Salmi and M. Hindmarsh, Phys. Rev. D85,

L. M. Krauss, JCAP 1504, 047 (2015), 1502.04673. 085033 (2012), 1201.1934.

[37] M. Eshaghi, M. Zarei, N. Riazi, and A. Kiasatpour [68] M. Gleiser and D. Sicilia, Phys. Rev. D80, 125037

(2016), 1602.07914. (2009), 0910.5922.

[38] R.-G. Cai, Z.-K. Guo, and S.-J. Wang, Phys. Rev. [69] D. Boyanovsky, C. Destri, and H. J. de Vega, Phys.

D92, 063506 (2015), 1501.07743. Rev. D69, 045003 (2004), hep-ph/0306124.

[39] Y. Ueno and K. Yamamoto (2016), 1602.07427. [70] R. Micha and I. I. Tkachev, Phys. Rev. D70, 043538

[40] M. S. Turner, Phys. Rev. D28, 1243 (1983). (2004), hep-ph/0403101.

23

[71] R. Micha and I. I. Tkachev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, Appendix A: Reheating Temperature

121301 (2003), hep-ph/0210202.

[72] S. Dodelson and L. Hui, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 131301 The analysis in Section V emphasizes the importance

(2003), astro-ph/0305113. of the expansion history in the determination of the in-

[73] A. R. Liddle and S. M. Leach, Phys. Rev. D68, flationary observables like ns and r. While it does not

103503 (2003), astro-ph/0305263. tell us much about the thermal history of the universe,

[74] G. Kane, K. Sinha, and S. Watson, Int. J. Mod. it still allows us to calculate an upper bound on Tth

Phys. D24, 1530022 (2015), 1502.07746. for an isolated inflaton (i.e., an inflaton whose cou-

[75] R. Easther, R. Flauger, and J. B. Gilmore, JCAP plings to additional light fields can be neglected during

1104, 027 (2011), 1003.3011. aend < a < arad ) when n > 1 and n 6= 2. If we assume

[76] J. T. Giblin, G. Kane, E. Nesbit, S. Watson, and that soon after the approach to a radiation-dominated

Y. Zhao (2017), 1706.08536. state of expansion the universe reaches thermal equilib-

[77] J. F. Dufaux, G. N. Felder, L. Kofman, M. Peloso, rium, i.e., abr . arad . ath , then

and D. Podolsky, JCAP 0607, 006 (2006), hep-

ph/0602144. 2 m2 2

[78] A. V. Frolov, JCAP 0811, 009 (2008), 0809.4904. th = 4

gth Tth . 3m2Pl Hbr

2

br br , (A1)

30 2n

whence, for the case when the first narrow instability

band plays a major role,

n/2

bmPl M mPl n+1

Tth . d . (A2)

( 2 gth /30)1/4 M |4 2n|

defined as

m/ 2n

b . (A3)

mPl (/M )n1

It follows that

p 2

p 3 As /N?2 T,

2 3 2 As /N?2

b r E, (A4)

6q 2 As /n

(qmPl /M )2 Mon .

(2qN? m2Pl /M 2 )q/4

when the thermal equilibrium is reached after the end of

self-resonance when w = 1/3. If the inflaton is coupled

strongly enough to additional light fields and w = 1/3

is reached earlier, due to the inflaton decays into other

relativistic degrees of freedom, then the reheating tem-

perature can be even higher, with the upper bound set

by the energy scale of inflation.

On the other hand, BBN provides a lower bound:

Tth > TBBN 1 MeV. If it saturates the upper one

in eq. (A2), then we know that significant couplings

to additional light fields have to be introduced explic-

itly, to make sure that energy is transfered early enough

from the condensate to relativistic species of matter and

the reheating temperature can be raised to the obser-

vationally allowed region. In Fig. 16 we give Tth from

eq. (A2) along with the constraints from BBN. They

become important only for large n and M/mPl . Quali-

tatively, this can be understood from the nature of the

self-resonance. Since Nbr increases monotonically with

n and/or M/mPl for n > 2, see eq. (11), then the energy

scale at backreaction (and the upper bound on Tth ) will

decrease because of the prolonged oscillatory period dur-

ing which the condensates energy is redshifted. These

dependences can be seen directly in the square brackets

24

13

10

7

4

1

-2

FIG. 16. The upper bound on the reheating temperature, Tth , as a function of M and n in the limit when the

self-couplings of the inflaton dominate over its couplings to other species of matter. The red areas in the upper right

corners in each panel represent regions in parameter space for which the upper bound on Tth for an isolated inflaton

is less than the lower bound (1 MeV) imposed by the big bang nucleosynthesis scenario. The horizontal black bands

near n = 2 remind us that we cannot arrive at an upper bound on the reheating temperature on the basis of the

expansion history alone for a quartic potential. The monotonic decrease of Tth with n and M/mPl for n > 2 can be

understood from the duration of the self-resonance due to the narrow instability band. As upon increasing any of

the two parameters it takes longer for fragmentation to take place, the energy density would be redshifted to lower

values at the time of backreaction, too, hence the observed dependence.

in eq. (A2). Note that the additional M term appear- scale at the end of inflation is and hence the greater Tth

ing under the square root in front of the square brackets is. However, this effect is not sufficiently strong and the

comes from the energy scale of inflation and has the op- overall dependence on M is determined by the duration

posite effect, i.e., the higher M is the greater the energy of the self-resonance.

25

- Physics FactsheetsDiunggah olehespoimel
- 1303.3787 Persamaan MumetDiunggah olehWidya Pradipta
- Creation of Universes From NothingDiunggah olehOmar Mohammed
- Effects of local features of the inflaton potential on the spectrum and bispectrum of primordial perturbations.05687 (1)Diunggah olehLa
- Timetable MYE 2011 25 April 2011 FinalDiunggah olehWinson Chua
- 28916physssicsintro (1)Diunggah olehdevi-
- PhysDiunggah olehhoneytrap99
- The Transformation of PhysicsDiunggah olehVíctor Manuel Hernández Márquez
- waves_enDiunggah olehFaadumomizankaahiye
- Heat Solver exampleDiunggah olehإسماعيل محمد
- big bang theoryDiunggah olehapi-305144505
- Srivas Prasad- Measurement of the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave BackgroundDiunggah olehNestorr50
- 2002-11-09Diunggah olehKristine Corpus
- what is physics.docxDiunggah olehAnthony Fabon
- Dark Energy May Be Incompatible With String TheoryDiunggah olehSilvino González Morales
- Intro to PhyscisDiunggah olehAldrin Bendal
- (Www.entrance Exam.net) SAT Physics Subject Test SyllabusDiunggah olehSrimathi Rajamani
- Tablas FisicoquimicasDiunggah olehJoffre Lopez Vara
- inphoDiunggah olehNikhil Raut
- NIThePDiunggah olehRene Kotze
- workbook hysys ex 1.docxDiunggah olehAeyrul Khairul
- EE221 HWS7Diunggah olehPrashanth Reddy
- MIT8_044S13_E1_bDiunggah oleh*83*22*
- Astro ReviewDiunggah olehspace50-lwl
- SecondaryScienceContentAnalysisForm.pdfDiunggah olehSarah Savira
- 9789386650788.pdfDiunggah olehRuvaid Ahmad
- 2 Derived Physical Quantities and Its DimensionsDiunggah olehDeepak Singh
- Amplitude Synchronization in a System of Two Coupled Semiconductor LasersDiunggah olehJayant Kumar
- Polarization Dependence of EmissivityDiunggah olehValmog
- jurnalDiunggah olehKristina Yosidha Tarigan

- Evaluation of different WRF microphysics schemes: severe rainfall over Egypt case studyDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Isomorphism problems for Hopf-Galois structures on separable field extensionsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Thermal transitions, pseudogap behavior and BCS-BEC crossover in Fermi-Fermi mixturesDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Galileo ionosphere profile coincident with repeat plume detection location at EuropaDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Automatic Differentiation for Tensor AlgebrasDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Pulsar Science with the SKADiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Majorana Stripe Order on the Surface of a Three-Dimensional Topological InsulatorDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Continuity of Hausdorff Dimension Across Generic Dynamical Lagrange and Markov Spectra IIDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Dark matter self-interactions from the internal dynamics of dwarf spheroidalsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Truncated quantum Drinfeld Hecke algebras and Hochschild cohomologyDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Pseudoalgebras and non-canonical isomorphismsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Timing Aware Dummy Metal Fill MethodologyDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- A Critique on "Asynchronous Logic Implementation Based on Factorized DIMS"Diunggah olehraveneyesdead
- New nonperturbative scales and glueballs in confining supersymmetric gauge theoriesDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- A control analysis perspective on Katz centralityDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- A reflection principle for minimal surfaces in smooth three manifoldsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Adaptive coordination of working-memory and reinforcement learning in non-human primates performing a trial-and-error problem solving taskDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- A Unified Game-Theoretic Approach to Multiagent Reinforcement LearningDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- From condensed matter to QCD: a journey through gauge theories on board of a variational toolDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Legendre Analysis of Differential Distributions in Hadronic ReactionsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Quenching preheating by light fieldsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- 1701.00010Diunggah olehmez00
- Signatures of Nitrogen Chemistry in Hot Jupiter AtmospheresDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Perturbative Renormalization of Wilson line operatorsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Rational Inference: The Lowest BoundsDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- journal.pone.0010605.pdfDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- High Energy Resummation of Jet ObservablesDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Computing by nowhere increasing complexityDiunggah olehraveneyesdead
- Recurrence Analysis as a tool to study chaotic dynamics of extreme mass ratio inspiral in signal with noiseDiunggah olehraveneyesdead

- SE Electrical 2014-15Diunggah olehAkshay Datar
- 2-21Diunggah olehPLUImpact
- -L1- Magnetic Force 16th June.pdfDiunggah olehRajkumar Bhatnagar
- cic02Diunggah olehtossicodipendenza
- EntrepreneurshipDiunggah olehLiza Lazaga Obeso
- The Formalized Risk Assessment for Excipients- GenialDiunggah olehtito1628
- The Central RaceDiunggah olehJedidah
- June -2017 Vat Refund Ack RbaeDiunggah olehKalaipugal Pugal
- Measuring Project Complexity a Project Manager s ToolDiunggah olehRoberto Castro
- Lego- Outsourcing JourneyDiunggah olehs6789a
- 1 viscoelastic foundation on soil under vertical load.pdfDiunggah olehJesús Egor Espinoza Ramírez
- Welding Process, DefectsDiunggah olehkundan
- DownloadFile 3500 VDiunggah olehpollux23
- Drainage and MaintenanceDiunggah olehdkaviti
- CodesDiunggah olehherbert_obed
- Cs 401 Midterm Paper Shared UnsolvedDiunggah olehRonald Pascual
- Case Paul Foster Tarot Interpretation Tarot Card Meanings Vol 2 Interpretations Part 2Diunggah olehArchanna Vyass
- GM FloPro ProgrammingDiunggah olehEnrique Emmanuel
- Multi Response Optimization of Turning Parameters Using Grey Relational Analysis in the Taguchi MethodologyDiunggah olehIJSTE
- stldDiunggah olehvenkataramireddy
- 3X1W Led Driver Solution Using AP3766Diunggah olehmvaral_42
- Best practices Running SQL Server in Hyper-VDiunggah olehDeepak Gupta (DG)
- Discussion Lab RefrigerantDiunggah olehBroAmir
- BOOK - Advances in Land Remote Sensing.pdfDiunggah olehViri
- APSM 5300 Sr. Project Syllabus, Spring 2012, PDFDiunggah olehabraham.caa
- 1065160, 1065161, 1068204, 1068205Diunggah olehAnthony Lezcano M
- haleuavDiunggah olehapi-252750024
- Analysis and Application of Discrete Halbach Magnet Array With Unequal Arc Lengths and Unequally Changed Magnetization DirectionsDiunggah olehAminMoghadasi
- Advanced Marine StructuresDiunggah olehJorge Cipriano
- Critical Review Jurnal InternationalDiunggah olehmirza