work

© All Rights Reserved

14 tayangan

work

© All Rights Reserved

- Radar Equations for Modern Radar
- Design and Analysis of Analog Filters
- jhen
- Philips LCD CURSO LC04
- Mobile Communication Programs
- safram das40manual
- Surface Micromachined Accelerometers
- report ME
- Wireless World 1948 09
- Performance Analysis of Amplify-and-Forward Relay Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Fading Channels
- MOB_MOB (TD)_132
- EST Coaching Ppt
- Lecture 3
- Phase Noise
- 860 DSPi Manual Section VI All Chapters
- Spectral Correlation Based Signal Detection Method
- Chp 3
- DFTtutorial1.pdf
- 20 Measurements of FM XTR
- Published Paper in IJSRD

Anda di halaman 1dari 72

EE2

Lecture 3: Noise

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

45

Outline

What is noise?

White noise and Gaussian noise

Lowpass noise

Bandpass noise

In-phase/quadrature representation

Phasor representation

p

References

Notes of Communication Systems, Chap. 2.

Haykin & Moher, Communication Systems, 5th ed., Chap. 5

Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed.,

Chap. 11

46

Noise

Noise is the unwanted and beyond our control waves that

g

disturb the transmission of signals.

Where does noise come from?

External sources: e.g., atmospheric, galactic noise, interference;

Internal sources: generated by communication devices themselves.

This type of noise represents a basic limitation on the performance of

electronic communication systems

systems.

Shot noise: the electrons are discrete and are not moving in a

continuous steady flow, so the current is randomly fluctuating.

Thermal

Th l noise:

i caused

dbby th

the rapid

id andd random

d motion

ti off electrons

l t

within a conductor due to thermal agitation.

Both are often stationaryy and have a zero-mean Gaussian

distribution (following from the central limit theorem).

47

White Noise

The additive noise channel

( ) models all types

n(t) yp of noise

zero mean

White noise

Its power spectrum density (PSD) is constant over all frequencies,

i.e., N

SN ( f ) 0 , f

2

Factor 1/2 is included to indicate that half the power is associated

with positive frequencies and half with negative.

The term white is analogous to white light which contains equal

amounts of all frequencies (within the visible band of EM wave).

It

Itss only defined for stationary noise

noise.

An infinite bandwidth is a purely theoretic assumption.

48

White vs. Gaussian Noise

White noise PSD

SN(f) Rn()

N

Autocorrelation function of n(t ) : Rn ( ) 0 ( )

2

Samples

S l att diff

differentt time

ti iinstants

t t are uncorrelated. l t d

Gaussian noise: the distribution at any time instant is

Gaussian Gaussian

Gaussian noise can be colored PDF

White noise Gaussian noise

White noise can be non-Gaussian

Nonetheless, in communications, it is typically additive

white Gaussian noise (AWGN)

(AWGN).

49

Ideal Low

Low--Pass White Noise

Suppose white noise is applied to an ideal low-pass filter

of bandwidth B such that

N0

, | f | B Power PN = N0B

SN ( f ) 2

0, otherwise

By

B Wiener-Khinchine

Wi Khi hi relation,

l i autocorrelation

l i ffunction

i

Rn() = E[n(t)n(t+)] = N0B sinc(2B) (3.1)

where sinc(x) = sin(x)/x.

x

Samples at Nyquist frequency 2B are uncorrelated

Rn() = 0,

0 = k/(2B),

k/(2B) k = 1,

1 2,2

50

Bandpass Noise

Any communication system that uses carrier modulation will typically

have a bandpass filter of bandwidth B at the front-end of the receiver.

n(t)

Any y noise that enters the receiver will therefore be bandpass

p in nature:

its spectral magnitude is non-zero only for some band concentrated

around the carrier frequency fc (sometimes called narrowband noise).

51

Example

If white noise with PSD of N0/2 is passed through an ideal

bandpass

p filter,, then the PSD of the noise that enters the

receiver is given by

N0

, f fC B

SN ( f ) 2

0, otherwise

Power PN = 2N0B

Autocorrelation function

Rn() = 2N0Bsinc(2B)cos(2fc)

which follows from (3.1) by g ( t ) G ( )

applying

l i ththe ffrequency-shift

hift

g ( t ) 2 cos 0 t [ G ( 0 ) G ( 0 )]

property of the Fourier transform

Samples taken at frequency 2B are still uncorrelated.

uncorrelated

Rn() = 0, = k/(2B), k = 1, 2,

52

Decomposition of Bandpass Noise

Consider bandpass noise within f fC B with any PSD

((i.e.,, not necessarilyy white as in the previous

p example)

p )

Consider a frequency slice f at frequencies fk and fk.

For f small:

n k ( t ) a k cos( 2 f k t k )

k: a random p phase assumed independent

p and uniformly

y

distributed in the range [0, 2)

ak: a random amplitude.

f

-ffk fk

53

Representation of Bandpass Noise

The complete bandpass noise waveform n(t) can be

constructed by summing up such sinusoids over the entire

band ii.e.,

band, e

n(t ) nk (t ) ak cos(2 f k t k ) f k f c k f (3.2)

k k

sinAsinB we obtain the canonical form of bandpass

noise

i

n(t ) nc (t ) cos(2f ct ) ns (t ) sin( 2f ct )

where

nc (t ) ak cos(2 ( f k f c )t k )

k (3.3)

ns (t ) ak sin( 2 ( f k f c )t k )

k

nc(t) and ns(t) are baseband signals,

signals termed the in-phase

in phase and

quadrature component, respectively.

54

Extraction and Generation

nc(t) and ns(t) are fully representative of bandpass noise.

(a)

( ) Given bandpass

p noise,, one mayy extract its in-phase

p and

quadrature components (using LPF of bandwith B). This is

extremely useful in analysis of noise in communication receivers.

(b) Given the two components,

components one may generate bandpass noise noise.

This is useful in computer simulation.

nc(t) nc(t)

ns(t) ns(t)

55

Properties of Baseband Noise

If the noise n(t) has zero mean, then nc(t) and ns(t) have

zero mean.

If the noise n(t) is Gaussian, then nc(t) and ns(t) are

Gaussian.

If the noise n(t) is stationary, then nc(t) and ns(t) are

stationary.

If the noise n(t) is Gaussian and its power spectral density

S( f ) is symmetric with respect to the central frequency fc,

th nc(t)

then ( ) and

d ns(t)

( ) are statistical

t ti ti l independent.

i d d t

The components nc(t) and ns(t) have the same variance (=

power) as n(t). )

56

Power Spectral Density

Further, each baseband noise waveform will have the

same PSD:

S N ( f f c ) S N ( f f c ), | f | B (3.4)

Sc ( f ) S s ( f )

0, otherwise

This is analogous to

g (t ) G ( )

g (t )2 cos 0t [G ( 0 ) G ( 0 )]

A rigorous

g p

proof can be found in A. Papoulis,

p , Probability,

y, Random

Variables, and Stochastic Processes, McGraw-Hill.

The PSD can also be seen from the expressions (3.2) and (3.3)

where each of nc(t) and ns(t) consists of a sum of closely spaced

base-band sinusoids.

57

Noise Power

For ideally filtered narrowband noise, the PSD of nc(t)

and ns((t)) is therefore g

given by

y Sc(f)=Ss(f)

N 0 , | f | B

Sc ( f ) S s ( f ) (3.5)

0, otherwise

waveforms

f ( ) and

nc(t) d ns(t)

( ) is

i identical

id ti l to

t the

th average power

in the bandpass noise waveform n(t).

For ideally filtered narrowband noise

noise, the variance of nc(t)

and ns(t) is 2N0B each.

PNc = PNs = 2N0B

58

Phasor Representation

We may write bandpass noise in the alternative form:

n(t ) nc (t ) cos(2 f c t ) ns (t ) sin(2 f c t )

r (t ) cos[2 f c t (t )]

r (t ) nc (t ) 2 ns (t ) 2 : the envelop of the noise

ns ( t )

(t ) tan 1 : the p

phase of the noise

nc (t )

( ) 2 fct + (t)

(t) ()

59

Distribution of Envelop and Phase

It can be shown that if nc(t) and ns(t) are Gaussian-

distributed,, then the magnitude

g ( ) has a Rayleigh

r(t) y g

distribution, and the phase (t) is uniformly distributed.

Then the magnitude

g will have a Rice distribution.

distributions arise in demodulation of digital signals.

60

Summary

White noise: PSD is constant over an infinite bandwidth.

Gaussian noise: PDF is Gaussian

Gaussian.

Bandpass noise

In-phase

In phase and quadrature compoments nc(t) and ns(t) are low-pass

low pass

random processes.

nc(t) and ns(t) have the same PSD.

nc(t) and ns(t) have the same variance as the band-pass noise n(t).

Such properties will be pivotal to the performance analysis of

bandpass communication systems.

The in-phase/quadrature representation and phasor

representation

p are not onlyy basic to the characterization of

bandpass noise itself, but also to the analysis of bandpass

communication systems.

61

EE2--4: Communication Systems

EE2

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

62

Outline

SNR of baseband analog transmission

Revision of AM

SNR of DSB-SC

References

Notes of Communication Systems

Systems, Chap

Chap. 3

3.1-3.3.2.

1-3 3 2

Haykin & Moher, Communication Systems, 5th ed., Chap. 6

Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed.,

Chap. 12

63

Noise in Analog Communication Systems

How do various analog modulation schemes perform in

the presence of noise?

Which scheme performs best?

How can we measure its performance?

N0/2 is the double-sided noise PSD

64

SNR

We must find a way to quantify (= to measure) the

performance of a modulation scheme.

p

We use the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the output of the

receiver:

average power of message signal at the receiver output PS

SNRo

average power of noise at the receiver output PN

SNR (dB) = 10 log10(SNR) dB

This is to manage the wide range of power If x is power,

levels in communication systems X (dB) = 10 log10(x)

In honour of Alexander Bell If x is amplitude,

Example:

p X ((dB)) = 20 log

g10((x))

ratio of 2 3 dB; 4 6 dB; 10 10dB

65

Transmitted Power

PT: The transmitted power

Limited by: equipment capability

capability, battery life

life, cost

cost,

government restrictions, interference with other channels,

green communications etc

The higher it is, the more the received power (PS), the

higher the SNR

For a fair comparison between different modulation

schemes:

PT should be the same for all

We use the baseband signal to noise ratio SNRbaseband to

calibrate the SNR values we obtain

66

A Baseband Communication System

It does not use

modulation

It is suitable for

transmission over wires

The power it transmits

is identical to the

message power: PT = P

No attenuation: PS = PT =

P

The results can be

extended to band

band-pass

pass

systems

67

Output SNR

Average signal (= message) power

P = the area under the triangular curve

Assume: Additive, white noise with power spectral

density PSD = N0/2

A

Average noise

i power att ththe receiver

i

PN = area under the straight line = 2W N0/2 = WN0

SNR at the receiver output:

PT

SNRbaseband

N 0W

Note: Assume no propagation loss

Improve the SNR by:

increasing the transmitted power (PT ),

restricting the message bandwidth (W ),

making the channel/receiver less noisy (N0 ).

)

68

Revision: AM

A

A: the

th amplitude

lit d off the

th carrier

i

fc: the carrier frequency

m(t): the message signal

Modulation index:

mp

A

mp: the peak amplitude of m(t), i.e., mp = max |m(t)|

69

Signal Recovery

n(t)

Receiver model

1) 1 A m p : use an envelopel d

detector.

t t

This is the case in almost all commercial AM radio

receivers

receivers.

Simple circuit to make radio receivers cheap.

2) Otherwise: use synchronous detection = product

detection = coherent detection

Th terms

The t detection

d t ti andd demodulation

d d l ti are used

d iinterchangeably.

t h bl

70

Synchronous Detection for AM

Multiply the waveform at the receiver with a local carrier of

the same frequency (and phase) as the carrier used at the

t

transmitter:

itt

2 cos(2 f c t ) s (t ) AM [ A m(t )]2 cos 2 (2 f c t )

[ A m(t )][1 cos(4 f c t )]

A m(t )

Remark: At the receiver you need a signal perfectly

synchronized with the transmitted carrier

71

DSB--SC

DSB

Double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSB-SC)

s (t ) DSB SC Am(t ) cos(2 f c t )

Signal recovery: with synchronous detection only

The received noisy signal is

x (t ) s (t ) n (t )

s(t ) nc (t ) cos(2f c t ) ns (t ) sin(2f c t )

Am(t ) cos(2f c t ) nc (t ) cos(2f c t ) ns (t ) sin(2f ct )

A (t ) nc (t )] cos((2f c t ) ns (t ) sin(

[ Am i (2f c t )

y(t)

2

72

Synchronous Detection for DSB-

DSB-SC

Multiply with 2cos(2fct):

y (t ) 2 cos(2 f c t ) x(t )

Am(t )2 cos 2 (2 f c t ) nc (t )2 cos 2 (2 f c t ) ns (t ) sin(4 f c t )

Am(t )[1 cos(4 f c t )] nc (t )[1 cos(4 f c t )] ns (t ) sin(4 f c t )

Use a LPF to keep

~

y Am(t ) nc (t )

Signal power at the receiver output:

(3.5),

5) and message

bandwidth W):

W

PN N 0df 2 N 0W

W

73

Comparison

SNR at the receiver output:

A2 P

SNRo

2 N 0W

To which transmitted power does this correspond?

A2 P

PT E{ A m(t ) cos (2 f c t )}

2 2 2

2

So

PT

SNRo SNRDSB SC

N0W

Comparison with

PT

SNRbaseband SNRDSB SC SNRbaseband

N 0W

Conclusion: DSB

DSB-SC

SC system has the same SNR performance as a

baseband system.

74

EE2--4: Communication Systems

EE2

and AM

Dr. Cong Ling

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

75

Outline

Noise in SSB

Noise in standard AM

Coherent detection

(of theoretic interest only)

Envelope detection

References

Notes of Communication Systems, Chap. 3.3.3

3.3.3-3.3.4.

3.3.4.

Haykin & Moher, Communication Systems, 5th ed., Chap. 6

Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 3rd ed.,

Chap. 12

76

SSB Modulation

Consider single (lower) sideband AM:

A A

s(t )SSB m(t ) cos 2f ct m (t ) sin

i 2f ct

2 2

where m (t ) is the Hilbert transform of m(t).

m (t ) is obtained by passing m(t) through a linear filter

with transfer function jsgn(f ).

m (t ) and m(t) have the same power P .

The average power is A2P/4.

77

Noise in SSB

Receiver signal x(t) = s(t) + n(t).

Apply a band-pass

band pass filter on the lower sideband

sideband.

Still denote by nc(t) the lower-sideband noise (different

from the double

double-sideband

sideband noise in DSB).

Using coherent detection:

y (t ) x(t ) 2 cos(2 f c t )

A A

m(t ) nc (t ) m(t ) nc (t ) cos(4 f c t )

2 2

A

m (t ) ns (t ) sin(4 f c t )

2

After low-pass filtering,

A

y (t ) m(t ) nc (t )

2

78

Noise Power

Noise power for nc(t) = that for band-pass noise =

N0W ((halved compared

p to DSB)) ((recall ((3.4))

))

SN(f)

N0/2

f

-ffc -ffc+W 0 fc-W

W fc

Lower-sideband noise

SNc(f)

N0/2

f

-W

W 0 W

Baseband noise 79

Output SNR

Signal power A2P/4

SNR at output

A2 P

SNRSSB

4 N 0W

For a baseband system with the same transmitted power

A2P/4

A2 P

SNRbaseband

4 N 0W

Conclusion: SSB achieves the same SNR performance

as DSB-SC (and the baseband model) but only requires

half the band-width.

80

Standard AM: Synchronous Detection

Pre-detection signal:

x(t ) [ A m(t )]cos(2f ct ) n(t )

[ A m(t )]cos(2f ct ) nc (t ) cos(2f ct ) ns (t ) sin(2f ct )

[ A m(t ) nc (t )]cos(2f ct ) ns (t ) sin(2f ct )

ns (t ) sin(4 f c t )

LPF

~

y A m(t ) nc (t )

81

Output SNR

Signal power at the receiver output:

PS E{m2(t)} P

Noise power:

PN 2 N 0W

SNR at the receiver output:

P

SNRo SNRAM

2 N0W

Transmitted power

A2 P A2 P

PT

2 2 2

82

Comparison

SNR of a baseband signal with the same transmitted

power:

p A2 P

SNRbaseband

2 N 0W

Thus:

P

SNRAM 2 SNRbaseband

A P

Note:

P

1

A P

2

synchronous recovery is worse than that of a baseband

system.

y

83

Model of AM Radio Receiver

84

Envelope Detection for Standard AM

Phasor diagram of the signals present at an AM

receiver

x(t)

Envelope

y (t ) envelope of x (t )

[ A m(t ) nc (t )]2 ns (t ) 2

Must use limiting cases to put it in a form where noise and

message are added

85

Small Noise Case

1st Approximation: (a) Small Noise Case

n ( t ) [ A m ( t )]

Then

ns (t ) [ A m(t ) nc (t )]

Then Identical to the post-

y (t ) [ A m(t ) nc (t )] detection signal in the

case off synchronous

h

detection!

Thus P

SNRo SNRenv

2 N 0W

And in terms of baseband SNR:

P

SNRenv 2 SNRbaseband

A P

Valid for small noise onl

only!!

86

Large Noise Case

2nd Approximation: (b) Large Noise Case

n(t ) [ A m(t )]

Isolate the small quantity:

y2 (t ) [ A m(t) nc (t )]2 ns2 (t)

( A m(t))2 nc2 (t ) 2( A m(t ))nc (t ) ns2 (t )

( A m(t ))2

2( A m(t))nc (t )

[nc (t ) ns (t )]1 2

2 2

2

nc (t) ns (t ) nc (t) ns (t )

2 2 2

2[ A m(t )]nc (t )

y (t ) [n (t ) n (t )]1 2

2 2

c

2

s

nc (t ) ns (t )

2

2[ A m(t )]nc (t )

E (t )1

2

n 2

En (t ) nc2 (t ) ns2 (t )

En (t

(t )

87

Large Noise Case: Threshold Effect

From the phasor diagram: nc(t) = En(t) cosn(t)

Then:

2[ A m(t)]cosn (t)

y(t) En (t) 1

En (t)

x

U

Use 1 x 1 for x 1

2

[ A m(t )] cos n (t )

y (t ) En (t )1

En ( t )

En (t ) [ A m(t )] cos n (t )

Noise is multiplicative here!

No term proportional to the message!

R

Result:

lt a threshold

th ff t as below

h ld effect, b l some carrier

i power llevell ((very

low A), the performance of the detector deteriorates very rapidly.

88

Summary

A: carrier amplitude

amplitude, P: power of message signal

signal, N0: single-sided PSD of noise

noise,

W: message bandwidth.

89

EE2--4: Communication Systems

EE2

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

90

Outline

Recap of FM

PSD of noise

References

Notes of Communication Systems, Chap. 3.4.1-3.4.2.

Haykin & Moher, Communication Systems, 5th ed., Chap. 6

Lathi,

Lathi Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

Systems,

3rd ed., Chap. 12

91

Frequency Modulation

Fundamental difference between AM and FM:

amplitude Additive noise: corrupts directly the

modulated signal.

frequency the effect of noise on an FM signal is

determined by the extent to which it changes the

frequency of the modulated signal.

AM signals

92

Revision: FM

A carrier waveform

( ) = A cos[[i((t)]

s(t) )]

where i(t): the instantaneous phase angle.

When

s(t) = A cos(2f t) i(t) = 2f t

we may say that

d 1 d

2f f

dt 2 dt

Generalisation: instantaneous frequency:

1 d i ( t )

f i (t )

2 dt

93

FM

In FM: the instantaneous frequency of the carrier varies

linearlyy with the message:g

fi(t) = fc + kf m(t)

where kf is the frequency sensitivity of the modulator.

Hence (assuming i(0)=0):

t t

i (t ) 2 fi ( )d 2 f c t 2 k f m( )d

0 0

Modulated signal:

s(t ) A cos 2f c t 2k f m( )d

t

0

Note:

(a) The envelope is constant

(b) Signal s(t) is a non-linear function of the message signal m(t).

94

Bandwidth of FM

mp = max|m(t)|: peak message amplitude.

fc kf mp < instantaneous frequency

q y < fc + kf mp

Define: frequency deviation = the deviation of the

instantaneous frequency from the carrier frequency:

f = kf mp

Define: deviation ratio:

f / W

W: the message bandwidth.

: FM bandwidth 2x message

Small g bandwidth ((narrow-band FM))

Large : FM bandwidth >> 2x message bandwidth (wide-band FM)

Carsons rule of thumb:

BT = 2W(+1) = 2(f + W)

<<1 BT 2W (as in AM)

>>1 BT 2ff

95

FM Receiver

n(t)

BT/2 the predetection noise at the receiver is bandpass with a

b d idth off BT.

bandwidth

FM signal has a constant envelope use a limiter to remove

anyy amplitude

p variations

Discriminator: a device with output proportional to the deviation in the

instantaneous frequency it recovers the message signal

Final baseband low-pass band idth of W it

filter has a bandwidth

lo pass filter:

passes the message signal and removes out-of-band noise.

96

Linear Argument at High SNR

FM is nonlinear (modulation & demodulation), meaning superposition

doesnt hold.

Nonetheless, it can be shown that for high SNR, noise output and

message signal are approximately independent of each other:

Output Message + Noise (i.e., no other nonlinear terms).

This can be justified rigorously by applying Taylor series expansion.

Noise does not affect power of the message signal at the output

output, and

vice versa.

We can compute the signal power for the case without noise, and

accept that the result holds for the case with noise too.

We can compute the noise power for the case without message,

and accept that the result holds for the case with message too.

too

97

Output Signal Power Without Noise

Instantaneous frequency of the input signal:

fi fc k f m(t)

Output of discriminator:

k f m((t )

So, output signal power:

PS k 2f P

P : the average power of the message signal

98

Output Signal with Noise

In the presence of additive noise, the real

predetection signal

p g is

x(t ) A cos 2 f c t 2 k f m( )d

t

0

nc (t ) cos(2 f c t ) ns (t ) sin(2 f c t )

noise output is approximately independent of the message

signal

In order to calculate the power of output noise, we may

assume there is no message

i.e.,, we onlyy have the carrier plus

p noise p

present:

~

x (t ) A cos(2f c t ) nc (t ) cos(2f c t ) ns (t ) sin(2f c t )

99

Phase Noise

Phasor diagram of

the FM carrier and

ns(t)

noise signals

A nc(t)

Instantaneous

I t t phase

h noise:

i

ns (t )

i (t) tan1

A nc (t )

For large carrier power (large A):

ns (t ) ns (t )

i (t ) tan 1

A A

Discriminator output = instantaneous frequency:

1 di (t ) 1 dns (t )

f i (t )

2 dt 2 A dt

100

Discriminator Output

The discriminator output in the presence of both

g

signal and noise:

1 dn

d s (t )

k f m( t )

2A dt

dns (t )

nd (t )

d

dt

Fourier theory:

if x(t ) X ( f )

dx(t )

then j 2 fX ( f )

dt

through a system with transfer function of H(f ) = j2 f

101

Noise PSD

It follows from (2.1) that

So ( f ) | H ( f ) |2 Si ( f )

Si(f ): PSD of input signal

So(f ): PSD of output signal

H(f )): transfer

t f function

f ti off the

th system t

Then: PSD of nd (t ) | j 2 f |2 PSD of ns (t )

PSD of ns (t ) N 0 within band

BT

2

PSD of nd (t ) | 2 f |2 N 0 f BT / 2

2

1 dns (t ) 1 f2

PSD of fi (t ) | 2 f | N 0 2 N 0

2

2 A dt 2 A A

Aft

After the

th LPF,

LPF the

th PSD off noise

i output

t t no(t)

( ) is

i restricted

t i t d iin

the band W

f2

S No ( f ) 2 N 0 f W (6 1)

(6.1)

A

102

Power Spectral Densities

SNs(f)

(a) Power spectral density of quadrature component ns(t) of narrowband noise n(t).

(b) Power spectral density of noise nd(t) at the discriminator output.

(c) Power spectral density of noise no(t) at the receiver output.

103

EE2--4: Communication Systems

EE2

Lecture 7: Pre/de

Pre/de--emphasis for FM and

Comparison of Analog Systems

Dr. Cong Ling

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

104

Outline

Derivation of FM output SNR

Comparison with AM

References

Notes of Communication Systems, Chap. 3.4.2-3.5.

Haykin & Moher, Communication Systems, 5th ed., Chap. 6

Lathi,

Lathi Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems

Systems,

3rd ed., Chap. 12

105

Noise Power

Average noise power at the receiver output:

W

PN S No ( f )df

W

Thus,

Thus from (6

(6.1)

1)

W f2 2 N 0W 3

PN 2

N 0 df (7.1)

W A 3 A2

Average noise power at the output of a FM receiver

1

carrier power A2

A Noise,

Noise called the quieting effect

106

Output SNR

Since PS k 2f P , the output SNR

2 2

PS 3 A k f P

SNRO 3

SNRFM

PN 2 N 0W

Transmitted power of an FM waveform:

A2

PT

2

PT k f mp

From SNRbaseband and :

N 0W W

3k 2f P 2 P

SNR FM 2

SNR baseband 3 2

SNRbaseband

W mp

2 SNRbaseband (could be much higher than AM)

Valid when the carrier power is large compared with the

noise power

107

Threshold effect

The FM detector exhibits a more pronounced threshold

p detector.

effect than the AM envelope

The threshold point occurs around when signal power is

10 times noise power:

A2

10, BT 2W ( 1)

2 N 0 BT

Below the threshold the FM receiver breaks (i.e.,

significantly deteriorated).

Can be analyzed by examining the phasor diagram

ns(t)

A nc(t)

108

Qualitative Discussion

As the noise changes randomly, the point P1 wanders

around P2

High SNR: change of angle is small

Low SNR: P1 occasionally sweeps around origin, resulting in

changes

h off 2

2 in

i a short

h t ti

time

components in (t) d(t)/dt

produced by changes of 2 in

(t); (a) and (b) are graphs of

(t) and (t),

(t) respectively.

respectively

109

Improve Output SNR

frequency.

PSD of a typical message typically rolls off at around 6 dB

per decade

p

To increase SNRFM:

Use a LPF to cut-off high frequencies at the output

Message is attenuated too, not very satisfactory

Use pre-emphasis and de-emphasis

Message is unchanged

High frequency components of noise are suppressed

110

Pre--emphasis and De-

Pre De-emphasis

the message prior to modulation, and hence, before noise is

introduced.

Hde(f ): used to de-emphasize the high frequency components at the

receiver, and restore the original PSD of the message signal.

In theory, Hpe(f ) f , Hde(f ) 1/f .

Thi can improve

This i the

th outputt t SNR by b aroundd 13 dB.

dB

Dolby noise reduction uses an analogous pre-emphasis technique to

reduce the effects of noise (hissing noise in audiotape recording is

also

l concentrated

t t d on hi high

h ffrequency).

)

111

Improvement Factor

Assume an ideal pair of pre/de-emphasis filters

Hde ( f ) 1/ Hpe ( f ),

) f W

PSF of noise at the output of de-emphasis filter

f2 2 f2

2

N 0 H de ( f ) , f BT / 2, recall S No ( f ) 2 N 0

A A

Average power of noise with de

de-emphasis

emphasis

W f2

PN

2

2

H de ( f ) N 0 df

W A

Improvement factor (using (7.1))

2 N0W 3

3

PN without pre / de - emphasis 2 2W

I W 2 3A 2 W

PN with p

pre / de - emphasis

p W A2 H de ( f ) N0dff 3W f H de

f 2

( f )

2

df

d

112

Example Circuits

(a) Pre-emphasis filter

H pe ( f ) 1 jf / f 0

f 0 1/ (2 rC ), R r , 2 frC 1

(b) D

De-emphasis

h i filt

filter

1

H de ( f )

1 jf / f 0

Improvement

2W 3

I W

3 f 2 / (1 f 2 / f 0 2 )df

W

(W / f 0 )3

3[(W / f 0 ) tan 1 (W / f 0 )]

In commercial FM,

FM W = 15 kHzkHz, f0 = 2.1

2 1 kHz

I = 22 13 dB (a significant gain)

113

Comparison of Analogue Systems

Assumptions:

single-tone

g modulation,, i.e.: m(t) ( fmt);

( ) = Am cos(2 );

the message bandwidth W = fm;

for the AM system, = 1;

for the FM system, = 5 (which is what is used in commercial FM

transmission, with f = 75 kHz, and W = 15 kHz).

With these assumptions

assumptions, we find that the SNR

expressions for the various modulation schemes become:

SNRDSB SC SNRbaseband SNRSSB

1

SNRAM SNRbaseband

3

3 75 without pre/de-

SNRFM 2 SNRbaseband SNRbaseband emphasis

2 2

114

Performance of Analog Systems

115

Conclusions

(Full) AM: The SNR performance is 4.8 dB worse than a

baseband system, and the transmission bandwidth is BT =

2W .

DSB

DSB: Th

The SNR performance

f iis id

identical

ti l tto a b

baseband

b d

system, and the transmission bandwidth is BT = 2W.

transmission bandwidth is only BT = W.

b

baseband

b d system,

t andd th

the ttransmission

i i b bandwidth

d idth iis BT =

2( + 1)W = 12W (with pre- and de-emphasis the SNR

performance is increased by about 13 dB with the same

transmission bandwidth).

116

- Radar Equations for Modern RadarDiunggah olehFajar Riyadi
- Design and Analysis of Analog FiltersDiunggah olehpouty567
- jhenDiunggah olehapi-26570979
- Philips LCD CURSO LC04Diunggah olehvideoson
- Mobile Communication ProgramsDiunggah olehsafaahah
- safram das40manualDiunggah olehMuthuraman Lakshmanan
- Surface Micromachined AccelerometersDiunggah olehTao Feng
- report MEDiunggah olehVijay Anbazhagan
- Wireless World 1948 09Diunggah olehJan Pran
- Performance Analysis of Amplify-and-Forward Relay Based Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Fading ChannelsDiunggah olehJohn Berg
- MOB_MOB (TD)_132Diunggah olehBathini Ramakrishna
- EST Coaching PptDiunggah olehEden Ethelynn Mique
- Lecture 3Diunggah olehBasir Usman
- Phase NoiseDiunggah olehtranthinham
- 860 DSPi Manual Section VI All ChaptersDiunggah olehclcast
- Spectral Correlation Based Signal Detection MethodDiunggah olehlogu_thalir
- Chp 3Diunggah olehDương Nguyễn
- DFTtutorial1.pdfDiunggah olehRomeo Noore
- 20 Measurements of FM XTRDiunggah olehHaresh Verma
- Published Paper in IJSRDDiunggah olehGeorge Camacho
- MCD288.pdfDiunggah olehLeonelHernandez
- Antenna DiversityDiunggah olehMohammed Rafi Ahmed Shareef
- Blake(Simplified)Diunggah olehRandy Alonzo Bondoc
- RF Terms ExplainedDiunggah olehShashi Ranjan
- comm5.pptDiunggah olehAnant Shankar
- webinarjarrahiDiunggah olehMohammed Farouk Nakmouche
- signal.pptDiunggah olehbijoy
- A Novel Heart Sound Activity Detection FrameworkDiunggah olehNada Fitrieyatul Hikmah
- Problem Set Format.docxDiunggah olehjovan avery dalluay
- 34ACO1Diunggah olehThiyagarajan K

- expressvpn.txtDiunggah olehKevin Han
- Lesson 3_ Network TopologyDiunggah olehSharif Shahadat
- v6.0.0_releasenotes_v1.0Diunggah olehssvr
- CDMA BSC Hardware Description ZTE MakeDiunggah olehPravien Shukla
- EDA-31054FFJRA Series Datasheet20120221Diunggah olehM8R-xf9b1g214
- Gronsund07_masterThesis_AFieldStudyOfWiMAXPerformanceDiunggah olehMetla14
- 3_28701-FGB101686_EN_A_PDF_ANY_VERSIONDiunggah olehAshish Singh
- Security Monitoring of DNS trafficDiunggah olehangeloio
- NE40 Configuration Guide - Basic Configurations(V600R003C00_02)Diunggah olehKyle Diop
- BGP docDiunggah olehCoolz Sean
- 02_Secnarios_12c.pdfDiunggah olehHari Prasath
- an62_eDiunggah olehM Sobar Muslim
- VPN - Virtual Private NetworksDiunggah olehPeter R. Egli
- vdslDiunggah olehSaket Shourav
- MRFUd Power ConfigurationDiunggah olehsam
- Lampsite Technical Proposal for TT Office 2015.04.28Diunggah olehhichem
- Convergence and Next Generation NetworkDiunggah olehhlong1604
- ykufDiunggah olehRonel Violanta
- UPS Smart Card manualDiunggah olehKovács Tamás
- Catalyst 6500 - Product_data_sheet09186a00800ff9161Diunggah olehdinek
- Chemeris -- Drone Hijacking and Other IoT Device HackingDiunggah olehAndrés Barreto
- BRKRST-2057Diunggah olehkayudo80
- BGP PE-CE Routing Protocol Overview, Configuration, And VerificationDiunggah olehTrong Oganort Gampoula
- DSL-500T_dsDiunggah olehapi-3732614
- Pelco DVR5100 Series Network Design Guide ManualDiunggah olehPedro Fernández Hernández
- Ccn Unit1 VTU RaghudatheshDiunggah olehraghudathesh
- PDS Wireless IODiunggah olehgswaraich
- Advanced Computer Networks - CS716 Power Point Slides Lecture 26Diunggah olehTaran Aulakh
- CCNA 2 Chapter 7 v5.0 Exam Answers 2015 100Diunggah olehovidiu0702
- 7705sarDiunggah olehJavier Cf