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Hydrology comes from the Greek words hydro which means water and logy which means study of.
Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth on and below the surface of the planet. Hydrology also
involves the study of the various properties of water and its relationship with the living and nonliving
environment. Hydrology and hydrogeology are important for economic and environmental reasons.
Water as we know it is one of our most important natural resources. Without it, there would be no life
on earth. The supply of water available for our use is limited by nature. Although there is plenty of water
on earth, it is not always in the right place, at the right time and of the right quality. Adding to the
problem is the increasing evidence that chemical wastes improperly discarded yesterday are showing up
in our water supplies today. Hydrology has evolved as a science in response to the need to understand
the complex water systems of the Earth and help solve water problems.


Geomorphology comes from the Greek words geo, or "Earth," and morph, meaning "form."
Geomorphology is an area of geology concerned with the study of landforms, with the forces and
processes that have shaped them, and with the description and classification of various physical features
on Earth. Earth's surface is modified by a combination of surface processes that sculpt landscapes, and
geologic processes that cause tectonic uplift and subsidence, and shape the coastal geography. Primary
surface processes responsible for most topographic features include wind, waves, chemical dissolution,
mass wasting, groundwater movement, surface water flow, glacial action, tectonism, and volcanism.
Geomorphologist commonly specialize in one of the many areas, such as in the glacial or periglacial or
near glaciers, fluvial or river, hillslope, or coastal processes. Their work is important for a basic
understanding of the active surface that human lives on, a surface that is subject to erosion, landslides,
floods, and other processes that affect our daily lives.

Marine Geology.

Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.
Marine geology involves the study of the seafloor; of the sediments, rocks, and structures beneath the
seafloor; and of the processes that are responsible for their formation. Marine geologist maybe
specialists in a number of fields, including petrology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleontology,
geochemistry, and volcanology. Contrary to popular views, only a minority of marine geological
investigations involve the direct observation of the seafloor by scuba diving or in submersibles. Instead,
most of the ocean floor has been investigated by surface ships using remote-sensing geophysical
techniques, and more recently by satellite observations. Drilling platforms and drilling ships allow earth
scientists to make more detailed studies of the history of the oceans and the ocean floor.

Environmental Geology.

Environmental Geology is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of
geology in the solving of environmental problems. Environmental geology involves the protection and
mitigating exposure of natural hazards on humans and managing industrial and domestic waste disposal
and minimizing or eliminating effects of pollution through understanding geologic processes. For
example, it is critically important to understand the geology of areas where people propose to store
nuclear waste products. The study of geologic hazards, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, can
also be considered part of environmental geology.

Economic Geology.

Economic geology is the use of geologic knowledge to locate and exploit the industrial materials
obtained from the earth. Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for
economic and/or industrial purposes. These materials include precious and base metals, nonmetallic
minerals, construction-grade stone, petroleum minerals, coal, and water. Economic Geologist commonly
specialize in a particular aspect of economic geology such as petroleum geology or mining geology.

Engineering geology.

Engineering geology is the application of the geology to engineering study for the purpose of assuring
that the geological factors regarding the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of
engineering works are recognized and accounted for. The principal objective of the engineering
geologist is the protection of life and property against damage caused by various geological conditions.
Two fields of engineering that use geology extensively are civil engineering and mining engineering. For
example, the stability of a building or a bridge requires an understanding of both the foundation
material rocks or soil and the potential earthquakes in the area.

Historical Geology.

Historical geology is a discipline that uses the principles and techniques of geology to reconstruct and
understand the geological history of Earth. It focuses on geologic processes that change the Earth's
surface and subsurface; and the use of stratigraphy, structural geology and paleontology to tell the
sequence of these events. It also focuses on the evolution of plants and animals during different time
periods in the geological timescale.