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DOC: A SECOND B-29 SUPERFORTRESS RETURNS TO THE AIR

AVIATION H I S T O R Y

interview
unsinkable
sully
The man
behind the
miracle

Stealth fighter
of the future
or Nazi fantasy?

HITLERS JET
FLYING WING
FRENCH TOWN COMMEMORATES
A P-38 PILOTS SUPREME SACRIFICE
HOW HOLLYWOOD HELPED
LAUNCH THE DRONE REVOLUTION HistoryNet.com

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DEPARTMENTS
5 MAILBAG
6 BRIEFING
12 RESTORED
With its July 17 return
to ight, Doc became
the worlds second
airworthy B-29.
By Edward H. Phillips

12
20 nazi wonder weapon?
The National Air and Space
Museum is currently working
on the Horten Ho IX V3.
14 EXTREMES
The sleek Douglas X-3
Stiletto never lived

features up to its looks.


By Jon Guttman
16 AVIATORS
Colonel Morris Tabers
20 THE HORTEN BROTHERS B-25D disappeared
JET FLYING WING during a shipping raid
near China.
How stealthy was the Ho IX ghter-bomber, and could
it have been a game-changer for the Luftwaffe? By Jeff Laugero
By Stephan Wilkinson 19 LETTER FROM
AVIATION HISTORY
30 SULLY SPEAKS OUT 60 REVIEWS

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: ERIC LONG/NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM; BRETT SCHAUF/DOCS FRIENDS;
Ever since the Miracle on the Hudson, Captain Chesley
Sullenberger has used his celebrity to promote aviation 63 FLIGHT TEST
safety. Interview by Carl von Wodtke
64 AERO ARTIFACT
42 TRAINING COMBAT PILOTS
on NORTH ISLAND

64
Edward N. Jacksons previously unpublished photos show NATIONAL ARCHIVES; AP PHOTO/THE CHARLOTTE OBSERVER/TODD SUMLIN
how Americas rst military aviators learned their trade.

30
By Joseph J. Caro

48 DRONES: THE HOLLYWOOD


CONNECTION
Actor Reginald Denny was responsible for developing the
rst remotely piloted aircraft for target drone use by the
U.S. Army. By Robert Guttman

54 A P-38 PILOT REMEMBERED


Nearly 70 years after Lieutenant Lawrence Herricks death,
a French community came together to honor him.
By Gary Metivier and Mary Masonholder Wilson

ON THE COVER: A Horten Ho-229 downs a B-17G over Europe, in a hypothetical scenario illustrated by Jack Fellows. Although the Ho-229 never achieved production,
the ying-wing ghter-bomber has been the source of endless speculation, and in the process entered the realm of myth and legend. Cover: 2016 Jack Fellows, ASAA

2 AH november 2016
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MICHAEL A. REINSTEIN CHAIRMAN & PUBLISHER
DAVID STEINHAFEL ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER

AVIATION H I S T O R Y

NOVEMBER 2016 / VOL. 27, NO. 2

CARL VON WODTKE EDITOR

Aviation History NAN SIEGEL ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Online
JON GUTTMAN RESEARCH DIRECTOR
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
WALTER J. BOYNE, STEPHAN WILKINSON
ARTHUR H. SANFELICI EDITOR EMERITUS

Youll nd much more from Aviation STEPHEN KAMIFUJI CREATIVE DIRECTOR


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THE RISE OF CORPORATE


UNMANNED AIRCRAFT ROB WILKINS DIRECTOR OF PARTNERSHIP MARKETING
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4 AH novemBER 2016
mailbag

Gutless Cutlass
the Texas countryside. A roll future combat aircraft were
rate limiter was installed. developed to make them
I havent even mentioned the best in the world.
post-stall gyrations or the Dino Alessio
JC maneuver, so named Frisco, Texas
for the exclamations by
pilots lucky enough to sur- Corsair Carrier
vive one. Or the production Landings
difculties, with one wing I really enjoyed The Real
longer than the other, or Bridges at Toko-Ri [Sep-
the signs on the aircraft as tember], especially since I
it proceeded down the line: was one of the junior AD

W
arren Thompsons article about the F7U wet putty. Skyraider pilots in VA-35
Cutlass in the September 2016 issue I didnt stick with the who had taken part in an
brought back a pleasant memory. Gutless. I was lucky enough attack on one of the Yalu
Although its operational lifespan was to be assigned as one of River bridges the previous
short, the Cutlass did provide a wonderful photo the 15 who came up with November. I had also carrier
backdrop for U.S. Marine Corps graduates of the the winning design for the qualied in the F4U-4 Cor-
Aviation Preparatory School, Naval Air Technical F8U Crusader. sair at the end of advanced
Training Center, NAS Jacksonville, Fla. Thats me Bruce Bower training earlier that year.
standing fth from left. We thought it was one very Rosamond, Calif. In the description of
sleek-looking warbird. Lieutenant Ray Edingers
Lloyd Stimson What a great story about landing without benet of
Fort Washington, Md. the F7U-1 and -3. In 1952-53 aps, we are told that he
I was a ight test technician hung the F4U in the air at
at Chance Vought Aircraft in near stall speed, hose-nose
A new MIT engineering landing. Told to follow the Grand Prairie, Texas. My du- so high he had to slide open
graduate, I was hired by LSOs directions, he retort- ties were to collect the data the canopy and stick his
Voughts chief engineer Fred ed, I cant see him; I can after each ight test, reduce head out to see the LSO
Dickerman in June 1951 to barely see the bow of the it and compose a graph of give him the cutthroat signal
perform aerodynamic stabil- carrier! So there was panic the readings of some of the to chop throttle. In those
ity and control analysis on among those working on the instruments of that ight. days all carrier takeoffs and
the F7U-3, which was then F7U-3they even consid- A camera was installed in landings were made with
in assembly. First ight was ered hinging the nose, like the cockpit to record the the canopy open. Also, all
in December. Six weeks later the Concorde. An elevated instrument readings, which approaches in the Corsair
I was back at MIT running platform was set up in the were developed and put were made at near stall
low-speed wind-tunnel parking lot, and a new nose on microlm so that the speed and turning all the
tests on the airplane. I also was designed. technicians could read them way until the last moment,
followed ight tests on no. 7 The F7U-3 was designed on a screen. It was time- when you rolled your wings
F7U-1, a ight prototype. to a Mach limit of 1.2, the consuming and mistakes level and took the cut. That
The F7U was a awed speed the aircraft might were made, but for the turn was what let you see
concept. I believe the F7U-3 achieve if it executed a most part we were very ac- past that nose.
had every vice a ghter split-S at ceiling and roared curate. I was fortunate to be On one of my own passes
could have with the excep- to earth under full after- assigned as a liaison, when during seven qualifying
tion of pitch-up at stall. The burner. At the time the needed, between some of landings in the Corsair, I got
preliminary design of the F7U-1 was designed, there the ground crew and pilots a wave-off when my plane
F7U was made in Connecti- was no wind tunnel capable at the naval air station. was just above the vacant
cut. Then the company, at of operating at the speed All the Chance Vought platform of the LSO, who
the instigation of the De- of sound. One had to take engineers were devoted to had jumped into his safety
fense Department, moved what one got from high- making that aircraft the best net. He wrote in his book,
to Grand Prairie, Texas. The speed wind-tunnel tests of its kind. The Westing- DNKUAdamn near
engineers who designed the and eyeball it to results at house engineers, as well, killed us all!
beast took one scorching Mach 1.2; between Mach .9 worked like hell to x those Richard Digger Cantrell
Texas summer and then and Mach 1.2 there was no engines. Because of them, Bedford, Texas
most of them moved back dataand no theory either.
to New England, and much And the roll rate was pre- SEND LETTERS TO
of their experience was lost. posterousup to 420 de- Aviation History Editor, HistoryNet
The F7U-1 barely passed grees per second. The stress 1919 Gallows Road, Suite 400, Vienna, VA 22182-4038
eld carrier tests, but utterly on the tails caused the land- 703-771-9400
failed carrier tests. The test ing gear doors to unlatch, OR EMAIL TO aviationhistory@historynet.com
pilot refused to attempt a and they ew off, littering

november 2016 AH 5
briefing

The Goose
is Loose

A
ddison Pemberton is OWVVI_MIZQ\W]\1TT\MTTaI and operated it as part of
best known for his res- 8MUJMZ\WV[Ia[_Q\PITI]OP *TIQZ[)V\QTTM[)QZ*WI\[TQVM
toration of the worlds <PM8MUJMZ\WV/Z]UUIV QV\PM>QZOQV1[TIVL[1\_I[
WVTaaQVO*WMQVO Q[WVMWN 2:.*[UIV]- dubbed Excalibur II; Excalibur
Model 40 mailplane, factured for Lend-Lease to _I[*TIQZ[;QSWZ[Sa>;
IVMQOP\aMIZ  \PM*ZQ\Q[P:WaIT6I^aIVL NW]ZMVOQVMaQVOJWI\IVL
hour epic that produced an Q\[XMV\\PM_IZaMIZ[aQVO Excalibur III, which today
important museum-quality W]\WN <ZQVQLILQV\PM*ZQ\Q[P PIVO[QV\PM;UQ\P[WVQIV[
survivor. Now Pembertons ?M[\1VLQM[1LPWXML\W Udvar-Hazy Center, was the
just for fun shop in Spokane, Wash., has VL\PI\Q\PIL\ZIV[XWZ\ML 8+\PI\*TIQZM_NZWU
Addison Pembertons turned out a pure-fun proj- Churchill, but it spent its time 6WZ_Ia\W)TI[SIW^MZ\PM
restored Grumman JRF-6B MK\"I!/Z]UUIV/WW[M I[I\ZIQVMZ8MUJMZ\WV[Ia[ 6WZ\P8WTMQVIZMKWZL
Goose (above) regularly that he and his wife, Wendy, What he did discover, how- PW]Z[;W\PW]OP\PMZM[VW
plied a Virgin Islands route and their two adult sons will M^MZ_I[\PI\QV!+PIZTM[ PQV\WN +P]ZKPQTTQIVKQOIZ
during the 1950s (inset). aNWZXTMI[]ZM)VL_MZM .*TIQZJW]OP\PQ[/WW[M smoke, somewhere in the

6 AH november 2016
Pemberton Goose doubtless
are the ghostly footprints
of Blairs movie star wife,
Maureen OHara.
In 2012 the Pembertons
acquired a red-tagged, unair-
worthy but complete airplane
that had been undergoing

Two C-53s Slated


quasi-restoration as a static
display, which meant liberal

for Flight?
exterior use of Bondo, pop
rivets and ordinary sheet
metal. The important inter-
nal work, however, was of the

R
estoration work is currently underway on two
highest quality. The airplane Douglas C-53 Skytroopers, troop transport
was in better condition than variants of the C-47 with 28 seats and a left-side
wed hoped, Pemberton says. passenger door. Both boast distinctive pedigrees,
The biggest problem was the and the restorers are looking for nancial support.
aluminum extrusions, things Vintage Wings is working on C-53 serial no. 41-20095,
like longerons and spar caps. which served in North Africa and Europe, then postwar
The problem was the way as a DC-3A airliner and nally as Buckeye One, agship
they heat-treated extrusions of the Ohio governor from 1963 to 1982. The head of the
during the war, cooling them ohio skytroopers effort, 32-year-old mechanic Jason Capra, was inspired
on steel racks with supports Vintage Wings C-53 sits at to restore what he considers the most iconic airplane,
18 inches apart. So every 18 Beach City (top). Rex Dam- ever when he saw it sitting idle in Beach City, south of
inches, there was a spot where schroder at the controls of Akron. Once its completed, Capra intends to name it
the extrusion had cooled too C-53D no. 42-68710 (above), Beach City Baby, and ultimately wants to see it used as a
quickly and formed a stress which he intends to restore. ying classroom. More at vintagewingsinc.com.
riser. Its a common problem The other project involves one of two retired DC-3s
with a lot of warbirds, par- sitting idle at Fremont Airport in Ohio, C-53D no.
ticularly P-51s. 42-68710. On June 6, 1944, the transport ew with the
Pemberton admits the 67th Troop Carrier Squadron over Normandy, and it
paint is not historically cor-
rect. I should have done it as a Air Quotes went on to participate in subsequent airborne opera-
OPPOSITE PHOTOS: ADDISON PEMBERTON; TOP: VINTAGE WINGS INC.; ABOVE: THE BLADE/CAMERON HART

tions. After World War II, the Skytrooper operated as a


British JRF-6B, but they had
such awful paint schemes,
THE BEST SAFETY DEVICE DC-3 with Continental Airlines from 1953 to 1963, and

IS THE PILOT, WHO, DEEP


thereafter with Southern Airlines, as well as an outt of
all brown and green cam- parajumpers and, according to one mechanic, made at
W]IOM1TW^M\PM!MZI
red-rimmed stars and bars,
DOWN, REGARDLESS OF least one drug-smuggling run out of South America. In

THE AIRCRAFT, RETAINS A


September 1988, it was bought by Gene Damschroder,
so thats what we used. The and inherited by his son, Rex, who christened it Lulu
airplane is marked as a Naval
Air Station Whidbey Island
SENSE OF FALLIBILITY AND Belle after his mother. The old DC-3 has been inactive

VULNERABILITY. NO SYSTEM
for years, but Rex and fellow volunteers hope to have it
amphib because Im from ready for him, a copilot, a mechanic and a crew chief to
Washington, and Whidbey
did operate Gooses.
CAN EVER SUBSTITUTE y the Atlantic for the 75th anniversary of the Normandy

FOR THAT.
landings in 2019. Our goal is to restore it into the origi-
The cabin seats seventhe nal, he says, including the original D-Day color paint.
[\WKSKWVO]ZI\QWV[W\PM ARNOLD REINER, To carry out the project, Damschroder and his crew
Pembertons will have plenty RETIRED AIRLINE CAPTAIN need to raise $250,000. See freemontairport.com.
of room for friends. Jon Guttman
Stephan Wilkinson

november 2016 AH 7
BRIEFING

cockpit-ready
Retired Commander Dean
Diz Laird climbs into the
cockpit of a T-34C before
being joined by Lt. Cmdr.
Nicole Johnson (lower left).

Diz Laird? Then he had to


make me look bad by being
a better pilot at 95. It is men
like this who paved the way
for the rest of us.
Although opportunities
NWZLWOOP\QVO[MMU\WJMI
thing of the past, Laird had
some advice, based on experi-
ence, to pass on to any future
successors. He said his pol-
WWII Naval Ace Flies icy has always been that every
OP\MZXQTW\PI[\_WUIQV
100th Plane Type

D
assets once theyre airborne.
One is altitude and the other
uring World War II, IKM\WKTIQUJW\P/MZUIV &<ISQVOWNZWU+WZWVILW is speed. Never give up one
Dean Diz Laird and Japanese aircraft). After +ITQNQV\PMJIKS[MI\WN I without gaining something
M_/Z]UUIV almost 30 years of naval <+XQTW\MLJa4\+ULZ on the other.
F4F-4 Wildcats from service, one would think Nicole Johnson, an instructor We train for air-to-air
the aircraft carrier the retired commander NWZ[\ZQSM[Y]ILZWV>.) combat our whole career, but
Ranger to share in had enough laurels to last Diz did some sightseeing very rarely in this day and age
shooting down a Junkers a lifetime. Diz didnt think W\PMKWI[\WN ;IV,QMOW does that actually happen,
Ju-88 and a Heinkel so, though. On July 9, NWTTW_MLJaJW\PQMZ[IT\MZ- added Johnson, who has
0MW6WZ_IaIVL the 95-year-old pilot took nating at some aileron rolls W_VLQMZMV\IQZKZIN\
\PMVILLML^MUWZM \PMKWV\ZWT[WN I<+ over a training area. I was \P][NIZQVPMZaMIZ[QV\PM
^QK\WZQM[\WPQ[[KWZMa- <]ZJWUMV\WZ\PM\P [WM`KQ\MLIVLPWVWZML\Wa Navy. Its phenomenal to
ing F6F-5 Hellcats in the airplane type to grace his with a true legend, Johnson have just had a conversation
8IKQK\PMWVTa=;6I^a QOP\TWO& remarked. How many peo- IVL\Wa_Q\PPQU
XTMKIV[Ia\PMaM__Q\P Jon Guttman

SOLAR IMPULSE 2
MISSION accomplished flight stats
Pilots Andr Borschberg and 26, 2016, when the solar- 8 WORLD RECORDS
Bertrand Piccard (shown at powered airplane returned 25,070.5 MILES DISTANCE
left taking a sele) had some- to Abu Dhabi. The two men 17 STAGES
thing to prove when Solar had made history as the rst 25 DAYS OF ACTUAL
Impulse 2 took off from Abu to pilot a xed-wing aircraft FLIGHTS
Dhabi on March 9, 2015 solo around the world using 509H 28M FLYING TIME
and they proved it on July only solar power.
NAGOYA
JAPAN SAN
TOP: U.S. NAVY; BOTTOM; SOLAR IMPULSE

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8 AH november 2016
SHOW YOUR ALLEGIANCE
TO THE

U.S.
AIR FORCE

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brown leather

Comfortable faux
sherpa fleece lining

Antiqued star-
shaped metal rivets
decorate the back

Custom art of U.S.


Air Force symbols
on the back

U.S. AIR FORCE


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A Custom Designed Exclusive
They are our among our countrys nest... always putting service before The superior styling and design includes two front ap pockets, two
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in silver-color embroidery and a series of three antiqued metal stars. 2016 The Bradford Exchange 01-24718-001-BIB
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9345 M ilw a uke e Aven u e N i l es, IL 6 0 7 1 4 - 1 3 9 3 Name (Please Print Clearly)

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E13901
BRIEFING

Air and Space Museum

O
Celebrates 40 Years
n July 1, the Smithsonians National Air and
Space Museum celebrated its 40th anniversary
by reopening its renovated Boeing Milestones of
Flight Hall. That soaring central space has long
showcased the Bell X-1, the Friendship 7 space
capsule and Charles Lindberghs Spirit of St.
Louis, among other priceless artifacts. The gala, which
lasted through the night, welcomed visitors with a series
of special events on the Mall in Washington, D.C.
Among those who had originally championed
building a national air museum was General Henry
Hap Arnold. He worked with Congressman Jennings
Randolph to promote a bill signed by President Harry
Truman in August 1946 authorizing a facility to
memorialize the development of aviation; collect,
preserve, and display aeronautical equipment; and
provide educational material for the study of aviation.
Though funding was not actually approved for another
two decades, the aircraft and related artifacts set aside
for the new museum quickly burgeoned. What began
in 1876 as a collection of 20 kites now includes nearly
WJRMK\[IVL\PMJ]QTLQVO\PI\Z[\WXMVMLWV
July 1, 1976, has long been among Americas most
MILESTONES visited museumsreportedly welcoming 311 million
Around the visitors by 2015.
During the renovations, NASM experts came across
World Nonstop some unexpected treasures. After restorers discovered
a pair of pliers beneath Spirit of St. Louis instrument
Thirty years ago, the rst air- compositeswas tted with panel, Chief Conservator Malcolm Collum speculated
plane to make a nonstop, 17 fuel tanks, topped off that Lindbergh might have dropped the tool during
unrefueled circumnavigation with 1,200 gallons at takeoff PQ[QOP\IKZW[[\PM)\TIV\QK?WZSMZ[IT[WNW]VL\PI\
of the world was greeted on December 14. They longtime restorers John Cusack and Patricia Merchant,
with cheers by 23,000 spec- landed with roughly ve gal- both now deceased, had left a note beneath the air-
TOP: NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM; BOTTOM: NASA

tators at Edwards Air Force lons remaining in the sole XTIVM[WWZJWIZL_Q\P\PMQZVIUM[WVQ\QV!3IZT


Base on December 23, 1986, accessible tank. Yeager and Heinzel, who also helped prepare the Ryan NYP for
a little more than nine days Rutan, along with Dicks exhibit, said that for Cusack and Merchant, it was
after taking off. Pilots Dick designer brother Burt and their way of leaving a calling card to the future.
Rutan and Jeana Yeager had crew chief Bruce Evans, Nan Siegel
own just over 24,986 miles, received the Collier Trophy
averaging 115.8 mph. for their achievement. Today
Voyager, their twin-engine, Voyager is on display in the
twin-boom aircraftamong Boeing Milestones of Flight
the rst built mostly of light- Hall at the National Air and
weight graphite-honeycomb Space Museum.

10 AH november 2016
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free and literally puts the world at of the Internet every day. Isnt it time 2016 firstSTREET for Boomers and Beyond, Inc.
RESTORED

Docs Fairy second superfortress


The B-29 Doc takes off from

Tale Ending McConnell AFB (above) on


July 17, nearly two decades
after being rescued from
BACK IN THE AIR AFTER A China Lake, Calif. (below).

MONUMENTAL RESTORATION
EFFORT, THE B-29 WILL SERVE AS
A FLYING MUSEUM TO EDUCATE
THE PUBLIC ABOUT THE HISTORY
OF AMERICAN AIR POWER
BY EDWARD H. PHILLIPS

A
fter 60 years on the ground, the worlds second air- ating and maintaining the received a series of techni-
_WZ\Pa*!;]XMZNWZ\ZM[[ZM\]ZVML\WQOP\QV2]Ta ;]XMZNWZ\ZM[[)N\MZ\PMQOP\ KIT]XOZILM[I\\PM)).[
following a 16-year, $5 million restoration. Since 2013 test phase is completed, the *QZUQVOPIU5WLQKI\QWV
\PMJWIZLWN LQZMK\WZ[WN \PMVWVXZW\,WK[.ZQMVL[ IQZXTIVM_QTTJMW_V_M[\WN  +MV\MZQV)TIJIUI<PI\
PI[W^MZ[MMV\PMPMI^aJWUJMZ[ZM[\WZI\QWV2IUM[ 5K+WVVMTT)QZ.WZKM*I[M May the B-29 was assigned to
Murphy, program manager for the project, anticipates the \WQ\[VM_PWUMI\?QKPQ\I[ *IZS[LITM.QMTLQV4W]Q[QIVI
QOP\\M[\XZWOZIU_QTTZMY]QZMPW]Z[\WKWUXTM\M ,_QOP\,-Q[MVPW_MZ where it was part of an
1V2]VM\PM.))[)QZKZIN\+MZ\QKI\QWV7KMQV?QKPQ\I 6I\QWVIT)QZXWZ\ eight-airplane group known
Kansas, issued DocIVIQZ_WZ\PQVM[[KMZ\QKI\MQV\PMM`XMZQ- ,]ZQVO?WZTL?IZ11 I[;VW_?PQ\MIVL\PM
UMV\ITM`PQJQ\QWVKI\MOWZa *!)[MZQITVW!! ;M^MV,_IZN[PMVKM\PM
?MKW]TLVW\PI^MKWUXTM\ML\PQ[UI[[Q^MXZWRMK\_Q\P- was one of more than 1,600 name and nose art.
out the help of many individuals, organizations, local com- Superforts that Boeing built .ZWU!\W!Doc
XIVQM[IVL\PM.))5]ZXPa[IQL<PM[MQVKT]LMXQTW\[ at its massive Plant II facility _I[[\I\QWVMLI\8aW\M.QMTL
PWTLQVOIV.))\aXMZI\QVONWZ\PM*!.Q, operated by the QV?QKPQ\I)N\MZLMTQ^MZa\W <M`I[_Q\P\PMZL
+WUUMUWZI\Q^M)QZ.WZKM0M[IQLDoc[QOP\IVLOZW]VL \PM=;)ZUa)QZ.WZKM[QV )QZKZIN\;\WZIOM;Y]ILZWVWN 
KZM_[_QTTKWV\QV]M\WZMKMQ^M\ZIQVQVONZWU\PM+).QVWXMZ- 5IZKP!\PMJWUJMZ \PM)QZ5I\MZQIT+WUUIVL

12 AH november 2016
before reassignment to the XW[[QJTMPM[IQL ders of the R-3350-95 with
San Antonio Air Material <PMN][MTIOMXZM[[]ZQbI\QWV \PMOMIZJW`IVLIKKM[[WZa
Area, where it was designated system remains inopera- [MK\QWVWN \PM:
a TB-29 for training pur- \Q^MJMKI][MDoc_QTTKZ]Q[M _PQKP_I[WZQOQVITTa][MLWV
poses. The bomber was trans- KZW[[KW]V\ZaI\IT\Q\]LM[ the Douglas A-1 Skyraider.
NMZZML\W/ZQ)[[QZ.WZKM below 10,000 feet. The 5]ZXPa[IQL\PM+).[[]K-
Base in New York in July *![ZMUW\MKWV\ZWTLMNMV- KM[[_Q\P\PM[IUMMVOQVM[
1951, serving with the 7th sive armament system was on .QPMI^QTaQV]MVKML\PM
and 109th Radar Calibration removed after the war, and LMKQ[QWV\WQV[\ITT\PMUWLQ-
[Y]ILZWV[]V\QT5IZKP! there are no plans to install MLXW_MZXTIV\[WVDoc.
In 1956 it was removed from The team ZMXTQKI_MIXWV[1VQ\[K]Z- The engines were pre-
)QZ.WZKMQV^MV\WZaIVL
transferred to the U.S. Navys
included ZMV\KWVO]ZI\QWVDoc has a
UI`QU]U\ISMW_MQOP\WN 
pared and assembled by
Ray Anderson of Anderson
_MIXWV[\M[\QVONIKQTQ\aI\ 90-year-old about 160,000 pounds. Aeromotive in Grangeville,
+PQVI4ISM+ITQN.WZ\PM Connie ?PMV\PMJWUJMZ_I[ Idaho. To allow for proper
next 41 years, Doc sat in the ZMKW^MZMLNZWU\PMLM[MZ\Q\ \UMV\_Q\PQV\PMJWUJMZ[
LM[MZ\[MZ^QVOI[IJITTQ[\QK Palacioz, ZM\IQVMLITTNW]ZWN Q\[?ZQOP\ KW_TQVO[+PZQ[;\MXXW_VMZ
target for naval aviators who at age 18 R-3350-57 radial engines of Stainless Headers in
ZMKMQ^QVOIQZKWUJI\\ZIQVQVO
,M[XQ\MJMQVOI\\IKSML[Q`
drove rivets and four-blade, 17-foot-
[XIVXZWXMTTMZ[)KKWZLQVO
Burnsville, Minn., designed,
NIJZQKI\MLIVLQV[\ITTML
\QUM[Q\VM^MZ\WWSILQZMK\ into Docs \W5]ZXPa\PM KaTQVLMZ IK][\WUM`PI][\[a[\MU
hit, although the airframe did airframe power plants were originally Yingling Aviation, a Cessna
[]MZUQVWZLIUIOM UIV]NIK\]ZMLJa+PZa[TMZ[ LMITMZQV?QKPQ\IXZW^QLML
In 1997 a group of history when she Dodge automotive divi- I^QWVQK[_QZQVOPIZVM[[M[IVL
MV\P][QI[\[IKY]QZML\PM*! worked for [QWV]VLMZ[]JKWV\ZIK\\W assisted with installation. On
disassembled it and shipped it Boeing during \PM?ZQOP\)MZWVI]\QKIT KZW[[KW]V\Za\W]Z[\PMKWKS-
to California for restoration to Division of the Curtiss- XQ\KZM__QTT][MMTMK\ZWVQK
aQVO[\I\][?PMV\PMOZW]X the war. ?ZQOP\+WZXWZI\QWVDoc, \IJTM\[NWZQOP\XTIVVQVO
KW]TLV\KWV\QV]M\PM_WZS however, is now powered by On July 17, the bomber,
Doc_I[[PQXXMLQVXQMKM[\W postwar engines similar to _Q\P+).XQTW\+PIZTQM
?QKPQ\I_PMZM\PMZMJ]QTLQVO those installed on Douglas <QTTUIVIVLKWXQTW\,I^QL
program resumed in 2000. fuel tanks were determined DC-7 airliners. 7TQ^MZI\\PMKWV\ZWT[\WWS
?PMV\PI\MWZ\[\ITTML \WJM]V][IJTMVM_N]MTKMTT[ <PMMVOQVM[LWVW\QVKWZ- WNZWU:]V_Ia!4I\
,WK[.ZQMVL[I[[]UMLZM _MZMNIJZQKI\ML\PI\_MQOP porate their original turbo- 5K+WVVMTT).*KQZKTML\PM
sponsibility for the restoration. [QOVQKIV\TaTM[[IVLIZM []XMZKPIZOMZ[JMKI][M\PM MTLIVLTIVLMLWV\PM[IUM
,]ZQVO\PMaMIZMWZ\ easier to maintain. Murphy IQZXTIVM_QTTJMW_VI\TW_ Z]V_Ia8TIV[KITTNWZDoc to
more than 300,000 man- [IQL\PMaLMKQLML\WLMTM\M IT\Q\]LM[-IKPWN \PMVM_ begin touring the nation in
hours were expended to \PM_QVOKMV\MZ[MK\QWV\IVS[ ZILQIT[Q[IPaJZQLKWUJQVQVO .WZUWZMQVNWZUI\QWV
ZMJ]QTL\PMIQZXTIVMIKKWZL- leaving a total of 22 fuel \PMKZIVSKI[MIVLKaTQV- [MMJ!LWKKWU
ing to Murphy. A majority KMTT[UWZM\PIVILMY]I\M
of the volunteers were N]MTKIXIKQ\aNWZ\PMJWUJMZ[
NWZUMZUMKPIVQK[_PWPIL ZWTMI[IVM`PQJQ\QWVIQZKZIN\
OPPOSITE TOP & ABOVE RIGHT: BO RADER/THE WICHITA EAGLE VIA AP; OPPOSITE BOTTOM:

_WZSMLI\*WMQVO[?QKPQ\I During the restoration pro-


WAYNE GOMES/DOCS FRIENDS; RIGHT: RANDY ALLEN/STEVE JANTZ/DOCS FRIENDS

NIKQTQ\a<PMZMPI[VM^MZ KM[[_WZSMZ[NW]VL[QOVQ
been a more skilled and KIV\KWZZW[QWVQV\PMTW_MZ
devoted group assembled to ZMIZ[XIZKPWZL[TWKI\ML
IKKWUXTQ[P[]KPIUI[[Q^M aft of the inboard engine
ZM[\WZI\QWVMWZ\PM[IQL VIKMTTM[*W\PW]\JWIZL
<PM\MIUQVKT]LML!aMIZ [MK\QWV[WN \PM[XIZKPWZL
WTL+WVVQM8ITIKQWb_PWI\ _MZMKWZZWLMLIVLZMY]QZML
age 18 drove rivets into Docs ZMXTIKMUMV\5]ZXPa team effort A crane
airframe when she worked for ZMXWZ\ML.WZ\]VI\MTaNWZ helps ease a propeller
Boeing during the war. ,WK[.ZQMVL[?QKPQ\I into place in May 2014.
Prior to the July return to based Spirit AeroSystems, a
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[XMKQKI\\MV\QWV\WN]VK\QWV That was just one of many
KPMKS[IVLKITQJZI\QWVWN \PM things Spirit AeroSytems did
fuel system. After the original NWZ][\PI\UILM\PQ[XZWRMK\

november 2016 AH 13
EXTREMES

supersonic dart
The Douglas X-3 looked
fast even when parked on
the dry lakebed at Edwards
Air Force Base in 1956.

Douglas X-3 ZM[MIZKPIQZKZIN\NWTTW_ML


QV,MKMUJMZ!IVL
Douglas submitted a tenta-
team to dispense with rocket
boosters and build their air-
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LOOKED FAST BUT BARELY BROKE JTMWN [][\IQVQVO5IKP QOVI\QWVWN @
I\NMM\aQVONWZI\ )[MIZTaI[! Q\JMKIUM
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BY JON GUTTMAN contrast to the concurrent longer, more complicated
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A
\ISQVOWIVLTIVLQVO]VLMZ had originally been pro-
viation enthusiasts who started out building plastic Q\[W_VXW_MZ RMK\ML)[IVQV\MZQUUMI[]ZM
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designs they just had\WVLNWZ\PMQZKWTTMK\QWV[)UWVO WVIVIQZNZIUMXW_MZMLJa IZW]VL\PM2?-
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1\[W^MZITTTWWS\PMTWVOVMMLTMVW[MLN][MTIOM\PW[M !_PMV?M[\QVOPW][M WVTa XW]VL[\PZ][\WV
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[KZMMVOI^M\PMQUXZM[[QWVQ\_I[KIXIJTMWN OWQVO\_QKM IVM_IN\MZJ]ZVMZMY]QXXML 6I\QWVIT)L^Q[WZa+WUUQ\
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[]XMZ[WVQKQOP\)[XMKQKZMY]M[\NWZI5IKPKIXIJTM pect allowed the Douglas 7V;MX\MUJMZ!

14 AH november 2016
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\PMZ_WZSIVLJMMVO]X J]ZVMZ)N\MZ\PM\PQOP\ \MZQIT+WUUIVL\PMIQZKZIN\
JMNWZMQ\_I[IXXZW^MLNWZQ\[ WV,MKMUJMZ\PM@ _I[ZM\QZMLWV;MX\MUJMZ 
Z[\QOP\*a\PM\QUM ! _I[\]ZVMLW^MZ\W\PM)QZ \W\PM6I\QWVIT5][M]UWN 
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.WZKM*I[MWV;MX\MUJMZ \M[\QOP\[MIKPJa+P]KS 8I\\MZ[WV)QZ.WZKM*I[M
!\PM]VKWUXTM\ML AMIOMZIVL4\+WT.ZIVS3 _PMZMQ\Q[VW_WVLQ[XTIaQV
[MKWVLXZW\W\aXMPILJMMV -^MZM[\_PWIN\MZM`XMZQMVK \PMU][M]U[ZMKMV\TaWXMVML
canceled and relegated to ing its sluggish controls at low NW]Z\PJ]QTLQVO
XZW^QLQVO[XIZMXIZ\[6)+) [XMML[KITTMLQ\WVMWN \PM )T\PW]OPQ\VM^MZOW\\PM
WKQIT[_MZMJa\PMVZM UW[\LQK]T\IQZXTIVM[1PI^M right engine and thus was
[QOVML\WUISQVOLW_Q\P\PM M^MZW_V ]VIJTM\WXMZNWZUQ\[QV
2?-MVOQVM[QVKM\PM The Stiletto then went \MVLML\I[S\PM@;\QTM\\W
2[\QTT_I[V\ZMILa WV\WQOP\[Ja6)+) _I[VWNIQT]ZM1\XQWVMMZML
<PM@[TWVOJMIS ,]ZQVO\PM\PWV7K\WJMZ going up A test pilot readies \PM][MWN \Q\IVQ]UTWVO
PW][ML\PMVW[MTIVLQVOOMIZ !2W[MXP)?ITSMZ for takeoff (top) after being JMNWZM4WKSPMML][MLQ\QV
QOP\\M[\QV[\Z]UMV\I\QWV MVKW]V\MZML^QWTMV\QV[\IJQT lifted in his ejection seat into \PM5IKP)IVL\PM
IVLMTMK\ZQKITMY]QXUMV\ Q\a[\MUUQVONZWU\PMUI[[ the X-3s cockpit from below. LI\IQ\aQMTLMLWVQVMZ\QIT
<PMIQZNZIUM_I[XZQUIZQTa WN \PMIQZKZIN\[_MQOP\JMQVO KW]XTQVOPMTXML\W[I^M\PM
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NWZ[]ZNIKM[M`XW[ML\W KW]XTQVOWZZWTTLQ^MZOMVKM OZW]VLML:M\ZW\\QVOI
QV\MV[MPMI\J]\TI\MQV!! )[QUQTIZXZWJTMU_I[\PM TIZOMZ\IQTVIVL_QVO[WN 
,W]OTI[WJ\IQVML6)+)IVL KI][MWN \PZMMKZI[PM[Ja \_WNMM\OZMI\MZ[XIVZMU
)QZ.WZKMIXXZW^IT\W[]J[\Q 6WZ\P)UMZQKIV.)[ MLQML\PM.)[XZWJTMU
\]\M\Q\IVQ]U[\QTTIVM`XMZQ
UMV\ITUM\ITNWZ\PM[\MMT
IVLUWTaJLMV]UWV[MV[Q DOUGLAS X-3 STILETTO
\Q^MIZMI[[]KPI[\PM\PQV\IQT
JWWUIN\MZJ]ZVMZIVL\IQT WINGSPAN HEIGHT WEIGHT
KWVM[MK\QWVZM[]T\QVOQVI 22 feet 8.25 inches 12 feet 6.3 inches 16,120 lbs. (empty)
OPPOSITE: NASA; RIGHT PHOTOS: LUIS MARDEN/NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC/GETTY IMAGES; ILLUSTRATION: STEVE KARP

[I^QVO[WN !XW]VL[ WING AREA ENGINE


22,120 lbs. (gross)
<PM@[Z[\WKQIT 166.6 square feet 2 Westinghouse MAXIMUM SPEED
QOP\WV7K\WJMZ! (3.09-to-1 aspect J34-WE-17 699 mph (level
_Q\PI\ISMW[XMMLWN  ratio) turbojets, producing ight)
UXPZMY]QZMLI[MV[Q\Q^M LENGTH
3,370 lbs. thrust
CEILING
PIVLWV\PMMTM^I\WZ<PM each (4,850 lbs. with
66 feet 9 inches 38,058 feet
XTIVM_I[KTMIZTa]VLMZ afterburner)
XW_MZMLIVLXQTW\?QTTQIU
**ZQLOMUIVZILQWML5IRWZ
+PIZTM[-AMIOMZXQTW\QVO
\PM6WZ\P)UMZQKIV. 
KPI[MXTIVM<PQ[\PQVO
LWM[V\_IV\\W[\IaQV\PM
IQZ*ZQLOMUIV\W]KPML
LW_VI\UXPOZI\MN]T
\PI\-L_IZL[LZaTISMJML
WMZMLXTMV\aWN ZWWU
)[\PM2MVOQVM_I[
[\QTTLMTIaML\PMNI[\M[\\PM
@M^MZ_MV\_I[5IKP
_PMV*ZQLOMUIVX]\
Q\QV\WILMOZMMLQ^MNZWU
NMM\WV2]Ta !
7V7K\WJMZ\PMZQOP\

november 2016 AH 15
AVIATORS

bombing eagles
Colonel Morris Taber (third
from right) poses with Maj.
Gen. Claire Chennault (center)
and other Fourteenth Air
Force ofcers in front of a
B-25D at Yangkai, China, in
February 1944.

Colonel
large ships in Yulikan Bay, line medium bombers which
a primary port of resupply eat away at enemy shipping,
for Japanese troops occu- reported Time magazine.

Tabers XaQVO\PMQ[TIVL)QOP\
of six B-25s assigned to
For this mission, Taber
would be piloting B-25D

Final Mission
the 491st Squadron of the serial no. 43-3290, armed
341st Bombardment Group with 3,000 pounds of bombs
(Medium) was tasked with and 12 .50-caliber machine
destroying the vessels. guns. The crew of six were
A BOMBING RUN ON JAPANESE <PMQOP\TMILMZNWZ\PQ[ Taber, pilot in command;
mission would be Class of 2nd Lt. Vincent E. Singer,
SHIPS NEAR HAINAN TURNED 38 West Pointer Colonel copilot; 2nd Lt. Clayton P.
DEADLY FOR A B-25 GROUP Morris Frederick Taber, /ZIaJQTTVI^QOI\WZ#;\I;O\
COMMANDER AND HIS CREWS KWUUIVLQVOWKMZWN \PM Ernest E. Cassetty, radio
341st Group, with its 22nd WXMZI\WZO]VVMZ#;\I;O\
BY JEFF LAUGERO and 491st squadrons operat- Malcolm M. Medlen,

I
EUGENE WOZNIAK/WWW.RSHONOR.ORG

ing out of Yangkai, China. armorer/gunner; and


n the early morning hours of April 8, 1944, B-25 Mitchell The 30-year-old colonel was Sergeant William L. Christ-
bomber crews prepared for a combat mission targeting one of Maj. Gen. Claire ensen, engineer/gunner.
shipping around the Japanese-controlled island of Hainan, Lee Chennaults key young <IJMZ_W]TLTMIL\PMZ[\
China. For several months, the China-based medium men comprising the combat QOP\WN \_W*[NZWU
bombers of the Fourteenth Air Force had been harassing leadership of the Fourteenth Red Dust Hill, the popular
the enemy on Hainan, attacking shipping and disrupting Air Force. It was Tabers name for their Yangkai base.
supply lines. Now reports indicated a concentration of seven group of destructive front- He and his crew were to

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ZMXWZ\ML[MMQVOZMQV\PM seen out of control. Japanese


left engine nacelle and radio radio broadcasts would later
compartment of Browns KWVZU\PMTW[[WN OP\MZ[
B-25. To make matters worse, during the engagement.
the crippled aircraft came Callaway and Pettingell
under attack by at least three made it back to Yangkai.
MVMUaOP\MZ[ZMXWZ\MLTa Anderson and Ley also sur-
BMZW[WZ7[KIZ[R][\I[ vived, though their Mitchells
\PMKZM__I[OM\\QVO\PMZM were badly damaged. Flying
under control. The doomed north along the eastern
bomber was seen crashing shore of Hainan, they were
and burning in the South able to reach the safety of
China Sea. Lost with Brown southern China.
were 1st Lt. Sol Waldman, Taber and his crew never
;\I;O\.ZML+TMUIVL returned. Following the
Sergeants Andrew Steakin mission, there was initial
and Louis Klaman. confusion as to which B-25
Callaways and Pettingells _I[[MMVWVZMIVLKZI[P-
Mitchells were last to arrive ing into the sea. It was later
return to Yangkai via Samah low-level raider over Hainan. By this time the KWVZUML\PI\*ZW_VIVL
Bay, at the southern end of Chennault awards Taber the enemy was ready and on the his crew were lost in that
Hainan Island and home to DFC for his successful tactics WMV[Q^M<PM*[_MZM crash. Taber and crew were
I2IXIVM[MIQZMTLIVL[MI- against Japanese shipping. attacked near Fat Law air- WKQITTaTQ[\MLI[UQ[[QVOQV
plane base. The same intelli- drome, another Japanese action. Their fate would not
gence reports referencing the IQZMTLWV\PM_M[\[QLMWN  be learned until after the war,
seven large boats also noted Hainan, near Southwest when their remains were
\PMXZM[MVKMWN MVMUaOP\- son, departed Yangkai at Point. Seven Zeros climbed to recovered from a beach grave
ers in the target area. 0145 hours. A second pair of engage them, coming within on Hainan.
The mission plan called B-25s, led by Captain Marion 20 yards of the bombers in The C-B-I Roundup of
NWZ\PMJWUJMZ[\Wa[W]\P Brown and Lieutenant Paul repeated passes. )XZQT!JZQMaVW\ML
at higher altitudes over Ley, followed. The last of the Unable to make it to the the raid on Hainan Island.
mountainous terrain before \_WIQZKZIN\QOP\[LMXIZ\ML target, the Mitchells jetti- Tabers mission was but one
descending over the plains Yangkai at 0211, with Cap- soned their bombs and attack on the island that day,
of French Indochina. Flying tain Joseph T. Callaway lead- turned into the attack, bring- with B-24 Liberators bomb-
low above the Gulf of Ton- ing his wingman, Lieutenant ing their guns to bear on the ing the docks and airdrome
kin, they would approach Robert Pettingell. MVMUaOP\MZ[8M\\QVOMTT at Samah Bay. The Yulikan
Hainans western shore, then The six aircraft arrived ][MLPQ[VW[MO]V[\WZMQV\W Bay mission by the Mitchells
follow the shoreline at low over the target area as dawn the belly of a Zero, which reportedly damaged a 1,000-
level to the southern end of broke. Taber and Anderson climbed away trailing smoke. ton freighter and left several
the island and their intended commenced the attack, with His top turret gunner, Ser- smaller ships burning, and
targets. The bomb run would \PMKWTWVMTTMILQVO\PMZ[\ geant Robert Thompson, WN 2IXIVM[MOP\MZ[\PI\
KWUUMVKMI[\PMaM_W^MZ bombing run. Over West KWV\QV]ML\WZM]V\QT\PM engaged the bombers, two
?M[\1[TIVLR][\W\PM Island, both aircraft encoun- OP\MZKZI[PMLQV\W\PM[MI were destroyed and one was
southern Hainan coast. With tered anti-aircraft and auto- When another Zero attacked damaged. There was no
\PM\PZMI\WN MVMUaOP\MZ[ UI\QK_MIXWV[ZM<IJMZ Callaways B-25, the waist mention of the lost B-25s or
and anti-aircraft positions pressed the attack, targeting and top turret gunners, their crews.
surrounding the target area, a 150-foot ship southeast of Sergeants Irving Stein and 1V\PMZ[\[M^MZITUWV\P[
surprise would be critical. Cape Salmon. With Ander- Ernest Ross, opened up with of operations in China, the
<PM_MI\PMZJZQMVO_I[ son in trail, bombs from MMK\Q^MZM<PMBMZW TW[[M[[]MZMLJa\PM[\
worrying. Conditions were both aircraft hit close to the KI]OP\ZMIVLQ\\WW_I[ were especially heavy. The
very hazy, with visibility ap- intended target. During a sec- seen crashing into the sea. downing of Colonel Taber
proximately one mile. Bad ond bomb run, Anderson lost )\PQZLBMZW\PI\_I[ZML and his crew was a brutal
weather, coupled with the sight of Tabers aircraft. upon by turret gunners from reminder of the ever-present
reports of enemy aircraft and The second pair of B-25s, both aircraft was believed danger the men faced on a
IV\QKQXI\MLOZW]VLZMKWU- led by Captain Brown, tar- destroyed when it was last daily basis. 
pleted the trifecta of mission geted the ships at 0515 from
NATIONAL ARCHIVES

LQK]T\QM[;Q\]I\QWVVWZUIT an altitude of 160 feet.


for these airmen. Browns bombs missed, and
Taber and his wingman, Leys did not release. Follow-
Lieutenant Lawrence Ander- ing the bomb run, Leys crew

18 AH november 2016
LETTER FROM AVIATION HISTORY

Lucky Penney

F
BY CARL VON WODTKE
ifteen years ago on a sunny September day, as she focused on the mission: It was a completely
civil aviation as we knew it changed forever. surreal experience.
So too did the lives of all Americans, as the She and Sasseville headed northwest into
horrifying spectacle of airliners crashing Pennsylvania, searching for the airliner but care-
into the World Trade Center towers and the ful not to go too far. We went out as far as Sass
Pentagon made it obvious the world would thought was reasonable to ensure that we had
never be the same. sanitized the airspace far out enough, she said,
On that day 25-year-old Heather Lucky Pen- but then we needed to turn back home so that we
VMa_I[IVM_Z[\TQM]\MVIV\[MZ^QVOI[I\ZIQV- could get over D.C. and make sure we werent
QVOWKMZ_Q\P\PM[\.QOP\MZ;Y]ILZWVWN \PM IVSML1\_W]TLJM[WUM\QUMJMNWZM[PMTMIZVML
District of Columbia Air National Guard, based that the airliner they were searching for, United
I\)VLZM_[)QZ.WZKM*I[MW]\[QLM?I[PQVO\WV .TQOP\!PILJMMV\ISMVLW_VJaIKW]ZIOMW][
<PMZ[\_WUIV\W[MZ^MQVPMZ)6/]VQ\[PM group of passengers. Penney called them the real
M_.+[WV\ZIQVQVOUQ[[QWV[QVXZMXIZI\QWV PMZWM[JMKI][M\PMa_MZM_QTTQVO\W[IKZQKM\PMU-
NWZKWUJI\?PMV\PM[\ZMKMQ^ML_WZLWN \PM selves, but then so was she.
second Trade Center strike, and a half hour later )[SMLIJW]\\PMTI[\QVOMMK\[WN ![PM[IQL
the Pentagon was hit, it became clear the United It fundamentally altered the vector of history, and
States was under attack. With news of a fourth we are all living with the impact of those events
airliner possibly headed toward Washington, today. And I think that many of the tragedies that
Penney and her wingman, Colonel Marc Sass we see unfolding today are directly traceable
;I[[M^QTTM[KZIUJTM[\IZ\ML\PMQZ.[IVL\WWS back to that moment in time. Penney laments the
W\WQV\MZKMX\Q\ NZMMLWU[\PI\)UMZQKIV[PI^M[IKZQKMLQV\PM
PUBLIC AFFAIRS; ABOVE: COURTESY OF MAJOR HEATHER PENNEY
TOP: TECH SGT. JOHNATHON ORRELL/NATIONAL GUARD BUREAU

<PMQZUQ[[QWV_I[[QUXTMJ]\[WJMZQVO".QVL\PM name of security, pointing out that being Ameri-


airliner and take it down by any means necessary. can is about adhering to certain beliefs and ideals
Since there had been no time to arm their Vipers, IVLLZMIU[\PI\JQVL][ITT\WOM\PMZ*]\_Q\P
\PI\M[[MV\QITTaUMIV\\PMa_W]TLJMaQVOISIUQ- that comes risk, and if were unwilling to accept
kaze mission, ramming their jets into the airliner. risk, then we lose something that makes us essen-
Im going to go for the cockpit, Sass told her. Ill tially Americans.
take the tail, Lucky replied. I think the challenge we all have is to remain
9/11 kamikaze <PMQZQOP\XI\PNZWU)VLZM_[\WWS\PMUW^MZ connected to those ideals, to those beliefs, to that
Now-Major Heather the Pentagon, and there was no way to avoid kind of courage and live that out in our daily lives
Penney (top) poses seeing the smoke that was billowing out of the of service, said Penney. And remember that
with an F-16 Viper building, she said. I didnt dwell on that because there are things in this world that are more im-
(above) during one of we had more important things to do. Penney portant than ourselvesthat are more important
her two tours in Iraq. described feeling disconnected from her emotions than security. 

november 2016 AH 19
WHAT IF? Illustrator Jack
Fellows imagines a scenario in
which a Horten Ho-229 attacks
B-17G bombers in 1946.

20 AH november 2016
THE HORTEN BROTHERS
JET FLYING WING
THE NEVER-BUILT HORTEN HO-229 HAS BEEN THE
SUBJECT OF MORE SPECULATION AND MYTHS THAN
ANY OTHER WORLD WAR II AIRPLANE BY STEPHAN WILKINSON
<PMRM\[_MZMZ[\OWQVO\W
be two BMW 003s, but when
they underperformed the
Hortens switched to Junkers
Jumo 004Bs. The Ho IX V2
(Versuch 2, or Test 2the V1
was an unpowered research
OTQLMZ WNNQKQITTa NTM_ \PZMM
times, crashing fatally at the
MVLWN \PM\PQZLQOP\_PMV
one of its two Jumos failed.
No Horten IX ever flew
again, but the brothers had
undeniably built and tested
\PM_WZTL[Z[\\]ZJWRM\aQVO
_QVO<PM0W1@>Z[\M_
in March 1945, more than 3
years before Northrops eight-
RM\A*!aQVO_QVOJWUJMZ
\WWSW1VIV]UJMZWN _Ia[
the Hortens were well ahead
of Jack Northrop and his engi-
neers, though Northrop never
admitted that. After the war,
it was suggested to Northrop
that he hire the brothers.

REIMAR HORTEN AND HIS OLDER


.WZOM\Q\\PMaZMR][\OTQLMZ
designers, he said conde-
scendingly. The success of the
Ho IX was pointed out to him,
but Northrop dismissed it as a

BROTHER WALTER WERE GERMAN


Gotha design, not a Horten.
Northrop was wrong, but
the source of his confusion

AIRCRAFT HOMEBUILDERS.
_I[\PMNIK\\PI\\PM4]N\_IM
knowing the tiny Horten
garage operation could never
mass produce twin-engine
RM\ NQOP\MZJWUJMZ[ \]ZVML
\PMXZWRMK\W^MZ\W/W\PII
Their relatively short aircraft-building careers extended from large railroad car manufac-
1933 until the end of World War II, though they did some minor turing company with aircraft-
work in Argentina after the war as expatriate Nazis. Had they building experience. As a
lived 40 years later, chances are they would have been busy mem- ZM[]T\ \PM 0WZ\MV RM\ PI[
bers of an EAA chapter in Germany, making a living selling kits come down to us with a con-
NWZ\PMQZPQOPXMZNWZUIVKMaQVO_QVO[IQTXTIVM[ fusing suite of names. The
The Hortens werent Burt Rutans. Talented, yes, but not the IK\]IT[WTMRM\XW_MZML_QVO
aeronautical geniuses theyve been called by some. They built a \PI\M__I[\PM0W1@>
series of increasingly sophisticated iterations of the same basic The German air ministry
designgraceful sweptwing, tailless gliders, though several of (Reichs luft fahrtministerium, or
their wings were powered. The Hortens produced a grand total :45 OI^M \PM XZWRMK\ IV
WINGING IT Above: The of 44 airframes of their dozen basic designs. History has por- WKQITUISMIVLUWLMTLM[-
rst of two H IILs built in trayed them as aeronautical visionaries, for in 1940 Messer- ignationHo-229. Because
Lippstadt in 1937 was own schmitt Me-109 pilot Walter Horten, who scored seven Battle of production was assigned to
by Reimar Horten at a glider Britain victories as Adolf Gallands wingman, proposed putting Gotha, some sources still refer
contest. Opposite: First IXIQZWN /MZUIVa[VM_I`QITW_RM\MVOQVM[QV\WI0WZ\MV to the airplane as a Go-229.
Lieutenant Walter Horten glider. The result was the Ho IX. (Brother Reimar was the aero- Many Luftwaffe aircraft
piloted an Me-109E with dynamicist and designer; Walter was the facilitator, eventually were built by a variety of
Jagdgeschwader 26 during PWTLQVOIVQUXWZ\IV\4]N\_IMXW[Q\QWV\PI\ITTW_MLPQU\W manufacturers, but a Junkers
the Battle of Britain. LQ^MZ\OW^MZVUMV\[]XXTQM[[\IIVLNIKQTQ\QM[NWZPQ[JZW\PMZ remained a Ju, a Heinkel an

22 AH november 2016
He, a Dornier a Do no matter who actually manufactured it, so
Go-229 is a misnomer. The Smithsonians National Air and
Space Museum, citing the RLM designation, calls a major arti-
fact in its collection that is about to undergo serious conserva-
tion a Horten 229. This despite the fact that no production
Horten 229 ever existed; what the Smithsonian has is the never-
completed Ho IX V3 built by Gotha.
It bears mentioning that neither Northrop nor the Hortens
QV^MV\MLaQVO_QVO[*W\P\PMKWVKMX\IVLIK\]ITaQVO_QVO[
have been around since the 1910s. In fact, by the late 1920s
\PMZMPILJMMVMVW]OPM`XMZQUMV\[_Q\PaQVO_QVO[\PI\\PM
KWVO]ZI\QWV_I[KWV[QLMZMLXI[[uIVLJW\P2IKS6WZ\PZWX
and the Hortens were late to the party.

T
SOARING BATWING
he Hortens have also been credited with designing and
THE HORTENS
The pilot testing this H IV
J]QTLQVO\PM_WZTL[Z[\[\MIT\POP\MZ<PI\Q[IUWZM glider had to y while lying
LQK]T\KTIQU\W[]XXWZ\1\[IXWX]TIZK\QWVQV\PM
PRODUCED A
prone in its cockpit.
Hitlers wonder weapons community, and it got a
JWW[\QVI!6WZ\PZWX/Z]UUIV[XWV[WZMLTUHitlers mention of this plan came in a
Stealth Fighter, a National Geographic documentary. The doc
tried to show that a modern replica of the National Air and GRAND TOTAL OF ! JWWS_ZQ\\MVJa:MQUIZ
at a time when the basics of
Space Museums Ho IX V3 bombarded by microwaves revealed
UWLMZI\MZILIZLMMK\QVOXZWXMZ\QM[6WZ\PZWX/Z]UUIV[ 44 AIRFRAMES U.S. stealth technology were
JMKWUQVOX]JTQKSVW_TMLOM
prototyping shop built the replica for $250,000. Thats a bargain
for an hour-long video broadcast on the History Channel that OF THEIR DOZEN There is no mention of any
attempt to achieve stealthy
Q[[\QTTJMQVOLQ[K][[MLJa_PI\[WUMKITT\PM6IXSQV_IMI
LQOI\_PMZM\PMXTIV[NWZ[WUMWN \PM4]N\_IM[NIV\I[aOP\MZ[ BASIC DESIGNS. properties for the Ho-229 by
anybody involved in the actual
_MZMZ[\[SM\KPML-VOQVMMZQVOLZI_QVO[NWZ\PM0WZ\MVRM\ fabrication of the prototypes.
reveal this to be not far from the truth.) NASMs restoration facility
Northrop Grumman built the Horten replica entirely of suggesting that an all-wood ran extensive digital-micros-
_WWLQ\[XTa_WWL[SQV[TIaMZML_Q\PZILIZIJ[WZJMV\KIZJWV Horten might have been able copy, X-ray diffraction and
impregnated glue. Only the externally radar-visible instrument \WLWIaJaWN *ZQ\IQV[Ja Fourier-transfer spectroscopy
XIVMTJIKSQVOIVLZ[\[\IOMKWUXZM[[WZLQ[S[_MZMUM\ITAM\ then obsolete Chain Home tests on the wooden struc-
the Horten brothers original airplane also had an 11-foot-wide low-frequency radar array, ture of their Horten aircrafts
center section made of welded steel tubing, and it carried two but it wouldnt have been able wing and found no evidence
turbojet engines. Neither of these were part of the Northrop to bomb anything. of any carbon or charcoal
Grumman replica. It could be argued that all this metal might Narration over the film impregnation of the glue. The
PI^MZMMK\MLI\TMI[\[WUMUQKZW_I^MMVMZOa\PI\XMVM\ZI\ML says that it reveals just how JTIKS [XMKS[ \PI\ 6WZ\PZWX
\PMXTa_WWL*]\6WZ\PZWX/Z]UUIVNMT\\PI\\PMQZ[XMKQITOT]M close Nazi engineers were to Grumman had assumed were
made the replica totally opaque to radar. unleashing a jet that some say evidence of the Hortens
The replicators also left out the original Ho IX V3s eight large could have changed the course attempt to create a radar blan-
IT]UQV]UN]MT\IVS[6WZLQL6WZ\PZWX/Z]UUIVQVKT]LM WN \PM_IZ6W\JTWWLaTQSMTa SM\_MZMNW]VL\WJM[QUXTa
the underwing bombs that would have been necessary for any if only because by that time, oxidized wood.
I\\IKSWVIZILIZLMNMVLML\IZOM\-`\MZVITTaZIKSMLWZLVIVKM the Germans were literally out Reimar Horten originally
COURTESY OF WOLFGANG MUEHLBAUER; RIGHT: SDDEUTSCHE ZEIGUNG ARCHIV

LM[\ZWa[IVa[MUJTIVKMWN [\MIT\P<PM6I\/MWTUMVLML]X of gas. planned to sheathe the Ho IX


PREVIOUS PAGES: 2016 JACK FELLOWS, ASAA; OPPOSITE & ABOVE RIGHT:

The heart of the Horten in aluminum, which hardly


stealth assertion is a claim suggests that he had stealth
by the brothers, made long as an objective. It was only
after the war ended, that they when he discovered to his sur-
indeed had intended to fasten prise that the Messerschmitt
the layers of the Ho-229s 5MZWKSM\XTIVM_I[KW^-
plywood sheathing with glue ered in plywood that he real-
mixed with radar-absorbing ized high speed didnt rule out
charcoal. Perhaps they did using wood. He then switched
UMIV\WLW\PI\J]\\PMZ[\ to more easily obtainable ply-

november 2016 AH 23
TECH NOTES HORTEN HO IX V3

DRAG RUDDER
SPECIFICATIONS
ENGINES HEIGHT CEILING
Two Junkers Jumo 004B-2 9 feet 3 inches 52,000 feet
ELEVON turbojets generating WEIGHT ARMAMENT
1,986 lbs. thrust each 11,198 lbs. (empty) Two forward-ring,
WINGSPAN 19,887 lbs. (gross) wing-mounted Mk 103
55 feet 5 inches MAXIMUM SPEED 30mm cannons
WING AREA 607 mph R4M rockets
558 square feet Two 1,100-lb. bombs
CLIMB
LENGTH 4,330 feet per second Note: performance specs
24 feet 7 inches are estimates

OUTER FLAP

BRAKE CHUTE
COMPARTMENT
INNER FLAP

HYDRAULIC FLUID
RESERVOIR

HYDRAULIC
SYSTEM
DISTRIBUTION
BOARD

AIR INTAKE

EJECTION
SEAT

SKIN FIXING
FITTING
FUEL
PIPELINE
CASTORING NOSE
WHEEL ON WELDED ENGINE
STEEL TUBE FORK EXHAUST
NOZZLE

JUNKERS JUMO
004B-2 TURBOJET

24 AH november 2016
HOW STEALTHY?
Although the Ho-229s wooden
skin would have been virtually
invisible to radar, reections from
the aircrafts engines and welded
tubular frame could have been
detected. Another metal
component, never installed, would
have been the Rheinmetall-Borsig
MK 103 30mm cannons intended
for the ghter (below left). More
heavy metal included the sturdy
tricycle undercarriage. The main
wheels (below right) were
deployed by means of a spring
and retracted by a single hydraulic
jack through cable-drive pulleys.

RHEINMETALL-BORSIG
MK 103 30MM CANNON

MAIN GEAR

AUXILIARY SPAR

REAR SPAR

ELEVON LINKAGE

FUEL TANKS
ILLUSTRATIONS: STEVE KARP;

ELECTRIC
PHOTO: NATIONAL ARCHIVES

FUEL PUMP MAIN SPAR

november 2016 AH 25
\PM\M[\XQTW\I[[QOVML\W\PM
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he tried to flare for landing
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The Hortens also needed to
UNFULFILLED MISSION wood veneer, but for reasons that had nothing to do with its ILIX\KI[\WKWUXWVMV\[\W
Test pilot Erwin Ziller starts radar attenuation and everything to do with its availability. \PMQZ0W1@IQZNZIUM_PQKP
the Ho IX V2s engines at Its also worth noting that the Ho-229 was intended to be led to its ungainly nosewheel.
Oranienburg in February ILIaOP\MZIJWUJMZQV\MZKMX\WZ\PW]OPM^MV\]ITTaI[_I[ <PMIQZXTIVM[UIQVOMIZQ[
1945. Ziller was killed when \Z]MWN [WUIVa4]N\_IMNIV\I[aOP\MZ[Q\_I[\W]VLMZ\ISMI NI[PQWVMLNZWU5M!XIZ\[
the V2 lost an engine and ^IZQM\aWN W\PMZZWTM[?IT\MZ0WZ\MVPILWZQOQVITTaIL^WKI\ML IVL\PMMVWZUW][VW[M_PMMT
crashed during its third test RM\XW_MZJMKI][MI[IOP\MZXQTW\PQU[MTNPM_IV\ML\WJ]QTL ITUW[\NMM\QVLQIUM\MZQ[\PM
ight. Opposite top: The IJM\\MZIQZXTIVM\PIV\PM.WKSM?]TN ._!_PQKPPMKWV[QL- \IQT_PMMT\QZMIVLZM\ZIK\QWV
uncompleted Ho IX V3 at MZML\WJMIVQVNMZQWZ[XQVXZWVMLM[QOV UMKPIVQ[U NZWU I 0MQVSMT
wars end. Opposite bottom: ;W_Pa_W]TL[\MIT\PPI^MJMMVIKZQ\MZQWVQN IV0W! 0M Greif, a benighted
After the war, the V3 was _W]TLVM^MZKWVNZWV\ZILIZ'1\_I[V\0Q\TMZ[[\MIT\POP\MZ PMI^aJWUJMZ1\_I[INWZ\]Q
assembled for display at _I[[QUXTaQV\MVLML\WJM0Q\TMZ[IMZWLaVIUQKITTaMKQMV\ \W][KPWQKMVWVM\PMTM[[<PM
Chicagos Douglas factory. NI[\UIVM]^MZIJTMOP\MZ W^MZ[QbM VW[M_PMMT X]\ \PM

H
0W1@I\ILMOZMMIVOTMWN 
W_LQL\PM0Q\TMZ[[\MIT\PNQOP\MZUa\P\ISMZWW\' QVKQLMVKMI\ZM[\_PQKPNIKQTQ-
+MZ\IQVTa \PMZM[ NMZ\QTM OZW]VL ]XWV _PQKP []KP \I\ML\ISMW_Q\PW]\ZMY]QZ-
TMOMVL[KIVJM[W_VIUWVO\PMUWLMTJ]QTLMZ[IVL QVO\PMNWZKMN]TZW\I\QWVW\PMZ
_IZOIUMZ[_PWTW^MVW\PQVOUWZM\PIVUa[\MZQW][ Horten designs had needed.
4]N\_IM_WVLMZ_MIXWV[\PI\_W]TLPI^MZM^MZ[ML\PMKW]Z[M )N\MZ\PM_IZIV]UJMZWN 
WN \PM_IZPILQ\WVTaTI[\MLIVW\PMZUWV\P*]\VWVM[MMU 0WZ\MVLM[QOV[_MZMM`IU-
\W]VLMZ[\IVL\PMaMIZ[TWVOXZW\W\aXQVO\M[\QVOXZWL]K\QWV ined by the Allies, initially
XZWKM[[\PI\Q[IVMKM[[IZaXIZ\WN JZQVOQVOI[WXPQ[\QKI\MLIQZ- \PM*ZQ\Q[P1N IVaKWV[XQZIKa
KZIN\NZWUVIXSQV[SM\KP\WKWUJI\-`IK\Ta\PZMMaMIZ[IVLI \PMWZQ[\[VW\QKML\PMJaTQVMI\
LIaXI[[MLJM\_MMV\PM5M[[MZ[KPUQ\\5M\_QVRM\[Z[\ \PMJMOQVVQVOWN \PQ[IZ\QKTM
QOP\IVL\PMJMOQVVQVOWN Q\[WXMZI\QWVITZMILQVM[[.WTTW_QVO \PMaTTJaVW_JMPaXMZ^MV-
[]KPI[KPML]TM\PM0W!_W]TLPI^MJMMVZMILaNWZKWUJI\ \QTI\QVO NWZ \PM ?QTSQV[WV
QVMIZTa!  :MXWZ\_ZQ\\MVJaIKWU-
<PM0W1@XZMK]Z[WZWN \PM!_I[\PM_WZSWN IOIZIOM UQ\\MM WN  *ZQ\Q[P I^QI\QWV
[PWX<PM>IVL>^MZ[QWV[_MZMJ]QT\QV_PI\_I[M[[MV- authorities headed by soaring

THE HO IX,
\QITTaI\PZMMKIZ_WZS[PWXW]\WN TIZOMTa]VIQZ_WZ\Pa[\Z]K- M`XMZ\ 3MVVM\P ?QTSQV[WV
\]ZITUI\MZQIT<PMKMV\MZ[MK\QWV[\MMT\]JQVO_I[U]KPTQSM _I[[]XXW[MLTaPQOPTaKZQ\QKIT

PRECURSOR OF
_PI\\WLIa[]KM[NWZJ]QTLQVO\ZILMMTMK\ZQKITKWVL]Q\IVL WN \PM0WZ\MV[1N 3MVVM\P
\PM0WZ\MV[_MZMVW\WZQW][NWZ][QVOPW][MPWTLOZILMXTa_WWL and I are related, it is to the

THE HO-229, WAS


^MVMMZNWZ\PMQZIQZXTIVM[M`\MZVIT[PMI\PQVO [IUMLMOZMM\PI\0MVZaIVL
0W_XZWNM[[QWVIT_MZM\PM0WZ\MV[';WUMWN \PMQZ_WZS 0IZZQ[WV.WZLIZM

THE WORK OF A
ZIQ[M[Y]M[\QWV[?IT\MZ0WZ\MV_I[I[[QOVML\PMRWJWN KIT- *ZQ\Q[P I^QI\QWV _ZQ\MZ
K]TI\QVO\PM>[KMV\MZWN OZI^Q\aNWZM`IUXTM_PQKPPMLQL 4IVKM +WTM IXXIZMV\Ta I

GARAGE SHOP.
][QVOI[\MMTUMI[]ZQVO\IXM=VNWZ\]VI\MTaPMVM^MZVW\QKML [MZQW][0WZ\MVKWV[XQZIKQ[\
\PI\\PMZ[\KMV\QUM\MZ[WN \PM\IXMPILJZWSMVW[WPQ[ _ZW\M \PI\ \PM ?QTSQV[WV
NIT[MUMI[]ZMUMV\[LM\MZUQVML\PI\\PMIQZXTIVMVMMLML[]J- :MXWZ\_I[I_IaWN PMTX-
[\IV\QITJITTI[\QV\PMVW[M;QVKM\PM+/_I[KMV\QUM\MZ[W ing to shield the reality of the

26 AH november 2016
W
PaIaQVO_QVO' MVWZUW][_PQTMIaQVO_QVO
?PI\[ _ZWVO can spread the entire load
with the conven NZWU_QVO\QX\W_QVO\QX\P][
tional designs allowing for a lighter and
that have served so well since UWZMMKQMV\[\Z]K\]ZM<PM
\PM MIZTa ![' +MZ\IQVTa weight is spread out where the
there have been some useful TQN\Q[[WIaQVO_QVOKIVPI^M
^IZQI\QWV[KIVIZL[X][PMZ[ ITIZOMMKQMV\PQOPI[XMK\
[MUQ\IQTTM[[LMT\I[JTMVLML ratio span without requiring a
_QVOJWLa XZWXW[IT[ M^MV PMI^aNZIUM_WZS\W[]XXWZ\Q\
Vincent Burnellis perennial .WZ I [\MIT\Pa IQZXTIVM I
TQN\QVON][MTIOM KWVKMX\ \Z]MaQVO_QVOPI[ILQ[\QVK\
J]\\PMX]ZMaQVO_QVOPI[ IL^IV\IOM"1\LWM[I_Ia_Q\P
IT_Ia[JMMVIVW]\TQMZ?PI\ ITT ZILIZZMNTMK\Q^M ^MZ\QKIT
Q[Q\[IXXMIT' []ZNIKM[XIZ\QK]TIZTa[\IJQTQb
<PMWZM\QKITTa \PM IL^IV MZ[IVLZ]LLMZ[<PQ[XT][Q\[
\IOM[ WN  I NTaQVO _QVO IZM wooden construction and lack
[]J[\IV\QIT ) KWV^MV\QWVIT WN ZILIZZMMK\QVOXZWXLQ[K[
LM[QOVI*WMQVOI+M[[ Q[_PI\OI^M6WZ\PZWX/Z]U
VI;SaPI_SIV.:IX\WZ mans Ho IX replica its com
aW]VIUMQ\PI[_QVO[\PI\ XIZI\Q^MTa[UITTZILIZKZW[[
contribute lift despite inevi [MK\QWVVW\IUQZIKTMOT]M
table induced and parasitic <PM LQ[IL^IV\IOM WN  I
LZIOXT][IN][MTIOMMVOQVM NTaQVO _QVO Q[ Q\[ VI\]ZIT
nacelle(s) and an empennage QV[\IJQTQ\a _Q\P VW \IQT \W
that contribute nothing but provide counterbalance in
drag. Zero lift. Indeed a con XQ\KPIVLaI_<PM0WZ\MV[
ventional horizontal stabilizer overcame much of this with
often adds negative lift MVTQOP\MVML_QVOIQZNWQTIVL
downforceto an airplane. KWV\ZWT[ ]ZNIKM LM[QOV J]\
AM[\PMN][MTIOMKIVKIZZaXI[ their airplanes still exhibited
[MVOMZ[KIZOWWZWZLVIVKM \PMKTI[[QKNTaQVO_QVO_IL
J]\[WKIVIaQVO_QVO LTM[MUQ\MKPVQKITTa\MZUML
One of the major functions ,]\KPZWTT<PM0W1@>[
of a fuselage is to support the NTQOP\[PILITZMILaZM^MITML
empennage that provides UWLMZI\MTI\MZITQV[\IJQTQ\a1\
XQ\KPIVLaI_KWV\ZWTNWZI _W]TLPI^MUILM\PM0W!
Horten achievement so that greater powers could seize the ideas KWV^MV\QWVITIQZXTIVM)a a dreadful gun platform as
and keep them unseen for decades[it] dismissed their ideas QVO_QVO\W\ITTaMTQUQVI\M[\PM a fighter and a handful as a
IVL_WZS[I[IXXIZMV\QOP\[WN NIVKa#[\MUUQVOQ\[MMUML drag of an aft fuselage and JWUJMZ<PQ[_I[\PMKPIZ
from what felt like a British attitude of the Hortens being men MUXMVVIOM1VNIK\M^MZaXIZ\ acteristic that doomed the
without the proper background. WN IaQVO_QVOQ[ITQN\QVO[]Z 6WZ\PZWXA*!aQVO_QVO
1KIVVLVWVMWN \PQ[QV\PMM^MVPIVLMLZQOWZW][I]\PWZQ NIKM)VITT_QVOIQZKZIN\IT[W in its competition with what
OPPOSITE & BOTTOM: NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM; TOP: NATIONAL ARCHIVES

\I\Q^M\MKPVQKITXIOM?QTSQV[WV:MXWZ\<PMXIXMZLWM[ ITTW_[ NWZ \PM MNNQKQMVKa WN  JMKIUM \PM +WV^IQZ *#


XWQV\W]\\PI\*ZQ\Q[PMVOQVMMZ[\MVLML\W\Z][\_QVL\]VVMTLI\I [XIVTWILQVO5]KPWN IKWV JWUJZ]V IKK]ZIKa _I[
UWZM\PIV\PMaLQLQVQOP\I[[M[[UMV\[J]\ILUQ\[\PM0WZ\MV[ ventional airplanes weight is impossible to achieve when
had no access to such a tunnel. It calls the Hortens careers a concentrated near its center aI_ZWTT KW]XTQVO LM\MZ
remarkable record of progress in spite of [such] obstacles. TQVM PMVKM \PM ^QLMW[ WN  UQVML\PMUMIVLMZQVOQOP\
7VM\PQVO\PI\LQLJIM?QTSQV[WV[KWUUQ\\MM_I[\PI\[W JMVLa_QVO*WMQVO,ZMIU path. Nor did it help that one
TQ\\TMWN :MQUIZ0WZ\MV[_WZS_I[WN \PM[TQOP\M[\][M\W\PM liners looking as though A*!_MV\W]\WN KWV\ZWTIVL
/MZUIV_IZMWZ\:MQUIZ_I[NIZUWZMQV\MZM[\MLQVZMKWZL \PMaZM\ZaQVO\WKTIXPIVL[ KZI[PML NI\ITTa L]ZQVO [\ITT
[M\\QVOIVLKWUXM\Q\QWVOTQLMZ[IVLPMKWV\QV]ML\WLM[QOVIVL IJW^M \PMQZ N][MTIOM[ <PM \M[\QVOQV2]VM! 
J]QTL\PMU\PZW]OPW]\\PM_IZ;WUMPQ[\WZQIV[QVNIK\\PQVS forces concentrated at the *a\PM\QUM/W\PI\WWSW^MZ
\PI\PM^QM_ML\PMRM\_QVOI[IaQVOZu[]Uu\PI\_W]TLPMTX wing/fuselage juncture of a \PM0W!XZWRMK\\PM0WZ
PQUOM\IRWJQV\PM=;WZ*ZQ\IQVIN\MZ\PM_IZ:MQUIZ_W]TL conventional airplane are ten brothers had lost interest
PI^MTW^ML\WKIZZaWVPQ[KIZMMZQV\PM;\I\M[,M[XQ\MUMUJMZ
[PQXQV\PM6IbQ8IZ\aIVLPQ[_WZSI[I4]N\_IMI[[I]T\OTQLMZ
QV[\Z]K\WZPMPILZ[\\ZQML\WMUQOZI\M\W)UMZQKIQV! J]\
had been refused an exit visa since he was thought to have had
IKKM[[\WKTI[[QMLQVNWZUI\QWV

november 2016 AH 27
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

18 19 20 22 23 24
21
17

28 29

27 31

25 26
30

32

HORTEN HO IX V3 COCKPIT

1. Canopy xing stub 12. Flaps position indicators: right engine


2. Canopy emergency 23. Oil pressure right engine
CONSPIRACISTS
(from top) landing, take-
jettison handle spring (left) off, up 24. Ambient temperature
3. Undercarriage position 13. Altimeter (removed)
CLAIM THAT
gauge
indicators 14. Repeater compass 25. Brake chute doors
4. Ignition breakers left/right 15. AFN2 direction nder
NORTHROP STOLE
opening lever
engine indicator 26. Spoiler release lever
5. Vertical speed indicator 16. Fuel gauges 27. Rudder pedal/hydraulic
6. Turn and bank indicator
7. Airspeed indicator
17. Throttles
18. Hydraulic system pressure
toe brake (left)
28. Oxygen pressure THE HORTENS
8. Low fuel warning
9. Canopy emergency
gauge (removed)
19. Oil pressure left engine
29. Oxygen indicator
30. Control column variable- SECRETS FOR ITS
jettison handle (right)
10. Canopy rail
20. Exhaust temperature
left engine
length xing handle
31. Rudder pedal/hydraulic OWN FLYING WINGS.
11. Emergency circuit 21. RPM left/right engines toe brake (right)
breaker 22. Exhaust temperature 32. Ejection seat lever

28 AH november 2016
IVLUW^MLWV\W\PMQZXTIVVMLUI[\MZXQMKMI[Q`\]ZJWRM\a-
ing wing Amerika Bomber. The Ho XVIII never was built,
J]\Q\TTMLIVW\PMZVQKPMQV\PM6IXSQV_IM;WUM[\QTT[Ia\PM
Amerika Bomber (several German airframers were racing to
J]QTLWVM_I[QV\MVLML\WLZWXIVI\WUQKJWUJWV6M_AWZS
.WZ\]VI\MTa\PM/MZUIV[_W]TLVM^MZPI^MJMMVIJTM\WJ]QTL
[]KPI_MIXWVPI^QVOTW[\\PMQZ6WZ_MOQIVLM]\MZQ]U[W]ZKM
J]\\PMaLQLPI^M\PMKIXIJQTQ\a\WX]\\WOM\PMZILQZ\aJWUJI
TIZOMKWV^MV\QWVITJWUJMVKI[MLQV[\ZWVOTaZILQWIK\Q^MUI
terial that would have polluted a wide area with radiation.
<PW]OP6WZ\PZWX_IV\MLVW\PQVO\WLW_Q\P\PM0WZ\MV
JZW\PMZ[\PMKWUXIVaLQLIKY]QZM[M^MZITWN \PMQZOTQLMZ[
for research after WWII, leading conspiracists to claim that
6WZ\PZWX[\WTM\PM0WZ\MV[[MKZM\[NWZQ\[W_VaQVO_QVO[
)K\]ITTa6WZ\PZWXLMXQK\MLIV0W>1OTQLMZQVXW[\_IZI^QI PHOENIX WING
\QWVUIOIbQVMIL[I[IVM`IUXTMWN WVMWN \PM6IbQI\\MUX\[ The V3s center section
\WILIX\=;aQVO_QVOLM[QOVNWZM^MV\]ITUQTQ\IZa][M awaits preservation at the

T
Udvar-Hazy Center. Below:
PM;UQ\P[WVQIV[0W1@>_I[JZW]OP\\W)UMZQKII[ Karl Heinzel works on the
XIZ\WN 7XMZI\QWV;MIPWZ[MI=;6I^aKW]V\MZXIZ\ ying wing in Suitland, Md.
to the better-known Operation Paperclip campaign to
IKY]QZMI[UIVaQV\MZM[\QVO4]N\_IMIQZKZIN\I[XW[[Q-
JTM*]\Q\_I[VM^MZW_VIVLQVNIK\_I[WVTaPITNKWUXTM\ML \W \PM =; _Q\P \PM KMV\MZ a parabolaa wing with a
1\_I[Z[\I[[M[[MLI\\PM:WaIT)QZKZIN\-[\IJTQ[PUMV\QV section, and another was later near-circular leading edge
*ZQ\IQV\PM[W]ZKMWN \PM?QTSQV[WV:MXWZ\LI\IIVL_I[ found some distance from the planform, which would pro-
\PMV[MV\\WJW\P?ZQOP\IVL.ZMMUIVMTL[NWZ)ZUa)QZ Gotha shop. vide the minimum induced
.WZKM[[KZ]\QVa<PMRM\_QVOMVLML]X[\WZMLW]\LWWZ[QV <PM0WZ\MV[TI[\P]ZZIP drag and maximum lift.
+PQKIOWI\INIKQTQ\a\PI\_I[QV\MVLML\WJMKWUMIVI\QWVIT took place without their par- The Hortens built just one
IQZU][M]U1V!\PM;UQ\P[WVQIVIKY]QZML\PMIQZXTIVM \QKQXI\QWV1V2]Ta!\PMZM parabola- wing glider but
\PW]OPQ\_I[Ja\PMVJILTaJMI\MV]XJaV]UMZW][UW^M[IVL was a notorious occurrence at VM^MZM_Q\#\PMIQZXTIVM_I[
exposure to the weather. It was moved once more to a secret :W[_MTT65SVW_VNWZM^MZ torched after warping and
government warehouse, according to published reports. That IN\MZ I[ \PM :W[_MTT 1VKQ becoming unglued during
_IZMPW][M_I[IK\]ITTa\PM;UQ\P[WVQIV[Y]Q\M]V[MKZM\;]Q\ LMV\1\ITTMOMLTaQV^WT^ML\PM winter storage. But wait,
TIVL5LZM[\WZI\QWVNIKQTQ\a_PMZMQ\[\IaMLNWZXT][aMIZ[ KZI[PWN IaQVO[I]KMZIVL \PMZM[ UWZM[]XXW[MLTa
part of that time stored in an open wooden shed. \PM[VI\KPQVOJa\PM)ZUa)QZ the AAF found out about
<PMIZ\QNIK\Q[QV[IL[PIXM\WLIaU]KPWN Q\[XTa_WWL[PMI\P- Forces of the bodies of three the Horten parabola wing
ing delaminated and rotting, its metal frame and landing gear ITQMV[IJWIZLQ\<PM:W[_MTT and decided to build a pow-
KWZZWLMLIVLXIZ\[UQ[[QVO6);5PI[Q\WV\PM[PWZ\TQ[\NWZ 1VKQLMV\MVOMVLMZMLLMKILM[ MZML^MZ[QWV\W[MKZM\Ta\M[\
UIRWZ_WZSIVL\PM>KIVK]ZZMV\TaJM[MMVI\\PMU][M]U[ _WZ\PWN \IJTWQL[XWZ\ZIaQVO :MQUIZ[\PMWZa1\_I[\PQ[
ZM[\WZI\QWVNIKQTQ\aQV\PM=L^IZ0Iba+MV\MZI\,]TTM[)QZXWZ\ \PM OW]ZLPMILML -<[ XMZ- IQZXTIVMTWWSQVO]VKIVVQTa
That work will not be restoration but conservation: stopping haps still stored in freezers in TQSM \_W\PQZL[ WN  I NTaQVO
the rot and corrosion, cleaning up the airframe and assembling I PMI^QTa O]IZLML )ZMI  [I]KMZ\PI\KZI[PMLQV6M_
the center section and outer wings into a single unit. Those wings hangar. The government tried 5M`QKWQV!
UIaWZUIaVW\PI^MJMMVXIZ\WN \PM>7VTaWVM_QVOKIUM \WM`XTIQVI_Ia\PMKZI[PJa 6WJWLaPI[aM\M`XTIQVML
[IaQVO Q\ PIL JMMV I PQOP the aliens, however. 
altitude weather balloon; it
_I[IK\]ITTaI[MKZM\[]Z^MQT- For further reading, contributing
lance balloon intended to keep editor Stephan Wilkinson recom-
\ZIKSWN ;W^QM\I\WUQKJWUJ mends: The Horten Brothers
testing. But some observers and Their All-Wing Aircraft,
with more specialized knowl- by David Myhra; and Horten
PHOTOS: NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM

MLOMPILIVQV\ZQO]QVO\PMWZa 0W!;XQZQ\WN <P]ZQVOQI"


1V ! :MQUIZ 0WZ\MV The Horten All-Wing Jet
decided that the ultimate Fighter, by Andrei Shepelev and
NTaQVO_QVO[PIXM_W]TLJM Huib Ottens.

november 2016 AH 29
back in the saddle At the
Carolinas Aviation Museum in 2011,
Captain Chesley Sully Sullenberger
sits in the cockpit of the Airbus A320
he ditched in the Hudson River on
January 15, 2009 (opposite).
SULLY
SPEAKS OUT
THE MIRACLE ON THE HUDSON WAS NO MIRACLE;
IT WAS THE CULMINATION OF A 35-YEAR MILITARY
AND AIRLINE FLYING CAREER INTERVIEW BY CARL VON WODTKE

november 2016 AH 31
phantom menace
Of his time in F-4s,
Sullenberger said,
Its the best ying
Ive ever done.

CAPTAIN CHESLEY SULLENBERGER


WAS THE RIGHT PERSON, IN THE
RIGHT PLACE, AT THE RIGHT TIME.
0Q[MV\QZMaQVOKIZMMZPILXZMXIZMLPQUNWZ\PM \PM +TQV\ -I[\_WWLLQZMK\ML UW\QWV XQK\]ZM
]VQUIOQVIJTMKZQ[Q[PMIVLKWXQTW\2M;SQTM[NIKML JI[MLWV;]TTMVJMZOMZ[JM[\[MTTMZHighest Duty
WV2IV]IZa!_PMV\PMQZ)QZJ][)TW[\ [\IZZQVO<WU0IVS[IVL[M\\WJMZMTMI[MLWV
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IN\MZ\ISMWNZWU6M_AWZS[4I/]IZLQI)QZXWZ\
<PM=;)QZ_Ia[XQTW\[_MZMI\IJW]\NMM\ Tell us a little bit about how you got into ying.
W^MZWVMWN \PM_WZTL[UW[\LMV[MTaXWX]TI\MLKQ\- *a\PM\QUM1_I[1SVM_1_IV\ML\WaIQZXTIVM[
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32 AH november 2016
in glidersand in the four years I was at the Air How do you think your Air Force training pre-
.WZKM)KILMUa1M_I\PW][IVLPW]Z[_PQKP1U pared you for Flight 1549? I think anyone who
told is quite remarkable; Im not sure it has been
done since. Mostly in instruction given to other ANYONE WHO has been a military aviator brings to the table a
certain discipline, a certain diligence. Its an atti-
KILM\[\MIKPQVO\PMU\WaIQZXTIVM[IVLOTQLMZ[
on my weekends and after school. And then I went HAS BEEN A tude with which we approach the job, its a pro-
fession, its a calling. And its something that if you
to graduate school at Purdue, then Air Force pilot
\ZIQVQVOIVLJMKIUMIOP\MZXQTW\;WQ\[JMMV MILITARY answer that calling, it leads one to be a continuous
lifelong learner, to constantly be striving for excel-
something thats been a lifelong passion and con-
tinues to be so. AVIATOR TMVKM\W\Za\WIT_Ia[UISM\PMVM`\QOP\JM\\MZ
\PIV\PMXZM^QW][WVM1VW]ZUQTQ\IZaLMJZQMVO[

You had kind of a mentor in L.T. Cook. Sounded BRINGS TO IN\MZM^MZaQOP\_M_W]TLVW\PWTLJIKSIVLQV


brutally honest discussions we would hold each
like he was the right person for you at the time.
He was a cropduster that I was introduced to, and THE TABLE other, leaders and followers alike, accountable to
the same high professional standards. We talked
if he liked the look of you hed take you on as a
student. He did, he had his own grass strip east of A CERTAIN about what worked and what didnt, and why and
what we could do to make it better next time. So
Sherman, Texas. He had a couple of airplanes,
one he sprayed witha Super Cuband then he DISCIPLINE, its that sort of rigor that I think military aviators
bring to any flying they do. Its a professional
PIL\PQ[)MZWVKI,+\PI\PM\I]OP\UM\Wa
QV1[WTWMLXZM\\aY]QKSTa7N KW]Z[MaQVO_I[I A CERTAIN attitude, to the nth degree. And you understand
clearly, youve done your homework, there are
little bit simpler then. I think I had a little over 7
hours when I soloed. It was a great way to learn DILIGENCE. no major gaps in your knowledge. You under-
stand high-altitude aerodynamics, high-altitude
deeply internalized, well-learned fundamental physiology, you understand the mechanics of all
skills that would last a lifetime and be accessible the systems of the airplane, you leave no stone
M^MVLMKILM[TI\MZM^MV\PW]OP1LJMMVaQVORM\[ unturned, and you know not just what and how
for a long time. to do things, but you know why we must do them.
And I think thats certainly part of our National
You were named the outstanding cadet in air- Transportation Safety Boards formal lessons-
manship at the Air Force Academy. To what do learned process also when they investigate major
you attribute that honor? ?MTTZ[\WN ITT1LQL[W transportation accidents. Pilots of my genera-
much of it, both as an instructor in the glider pro- tion can quote you chapter and verse of the last
gram and in the aero club in powered airplanes. I half century of seminal accidentswhere they
also did parachuting, and I think just the fact Id occurred, why, and what we learned from them
done so much and I had such a passion for it, it sort and how that knowledge has informed not only
of set me apart from my contemporaries. Thats our airplane designs but our policies, our pro-
really it; its not that I was the best in every way, cedures and our training.
its just I had approached it with such passion and
done so much of itand been noticed.
mentor and student
You went on to y F-4s in Britain and at Nellis Air In 1968 Sully poses with
Force Base. What did you think of the Phantom? L.T. Cook, who taught him
It was an older airplane even then, a workhorse of to y in his Aeronca 7DC.
(RIGHT) AP PHOTO/STEVE DAY; OPPOSITE & RIGHT: COURTESY OF CHESLEY SULLENBERGER

the Vietnam era, and of course my active service


was toward the end of the Vietnam War. I never
PREVIOUS PAGES: (LEFT) AP PHOTO/THE CHARLOTTE OBSERVER/TODD SUMLIN;

actually went to Vietnam, never saw combat, and


then much of the rest of my active duty service was
L]ZQVO\PM+WTL?IZ.TaQVOIRM\OP\MZQ[\PMXQV-
nacle of tactical military aviation. Its like driving
a Formula One racer on steroidsin three dimen-
sions, not just two. Its thrilling, its demanding.
Unless youre someone whos done it, words fail me
in describing to you what its like and what it takes,
M`KMX\\W[Ia\PI\Q\[\PMJM[\aQVO1^MM^MZLWVM

You need to be on at all times. Yeah, especially as


_M_MZMaQVOQVNWZUI\QWVI\]T\ZITW_TM^MT[_PQTM
I was at Nellis over the desert ranges, 100 feet above
the ground at 600 knots. Youre covering a nautical
mile every six seconds, youre traveling just over
1,012 feet per second.

november 2016 AH 33
[PWKSWN \PQ[_I[QV\MV[MIVLW]ZJWLQM[ZMIK\ML
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academy days Walk us through the decision-making process _MLVM^MZ\ZIQVMLNWZ\PQ[IVLQVNIK\QVW]ZIQZTQVM
Air Cadet Sullenberger you went through after you struck that ock of QOP\[QU]TI\WZ[aW]KIVVW\\ZIQVNWZ_I\MZTIVL-
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34 AH november 2016
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OPPOSITE PHOTOS: COURTESY OF CHESLEY SULLENBERGER; RIGHT: AP PHOTO/TRELA MEDIA

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You mention in your book the Airbus A320s


various safety systemsdid that in your mind
help or hinder, or both, your ability to ditch in the
Hudson, because I know you specically men-

november 2016 AH 35
AS [FIRST OFFICER] JEFF SKILES WOULD TELL ME LATER,
YOU PUT A $62 MILLION AIRLINER IN THE RIVER AND THEY
CALL YOU A HERO. IS THIS A GREAT COUNTRY, OR WHAT?
november 2016 AH 37
celebrated crew of the wing to get to the nose-high attitude we To what do you attribute the public fascination
From left: Sully, First needed for entry into the water, to get to the slow- with your successful ditching? I think just the way
Ofcer Jeffrey Skiles est rate of descent that we could. And it turned out it happened, when it happened at the time in the
and Flight Attendants we discovered laterthe investigators discovered _WZTL[PQ[\WZaL]ZQVO\PM !VIVKQITUMT\-
Donna Dent, Doreen Ja[\]LaQVO\PMLI\INZWU\PMLQOQ\ITQOP\LI\I down when it seemed as if everything was going
Welsh and Sheila Dail ZMKWZLMZ\PI\QV\PMTI[\NW]Z[MKWVL[WN \PMQOP\ wrong and no one could do anything right. It had
meet with New York ITQ\\TMSVW_V[WN\_IZMNMI\]ZMWN \PMaJa_QZM IMK\ML[WUIVaXMWXTM[WVMOI\Q^MTa\PI\[WUM
City Mayor Michael system known only to a few software engineers at people had begun to question human nature and
Bloomberg on Airbus, but to no airline pilots and no airline opera- wonder if it was really mostly about self-interest
February 9, 2009, to tors, prevented me from achieving that last little and greed. And then this group of people all came
receive keys to the city. bit of performance because of something called together, rose to the occasion and in concert made
Opposite top: Sully the phugoid mode. And had that not inhibited it their mission in life to see that good was done and
and Skiles prepare to our performance, had that not, as the NTSB in that lives were saved. I think at a time when we all
complete their ight to the report euphemistically said, attenuated my needed it, it gave people hope, it reassured us that
Charlotte, N.C., on inputsnose-up commandwe wouldnt have there was still this human potential for good in each
October 1, 2009. hit quite so hard, we wouldnt have had as much of us. And I think one of the biggest surprises for
damage and [Flight Attendant] Doreen Welsh all of us directly involved is that this story did not
might not have been injured in the back when a fade away at the end of the news cycle like most
XQMKMWN [\Z]K\]ZMKIUM]X\PZW]OP\PMWWZIVL stories do, because of the way it happened when
\PMIQZXTIVMUQOP\PI^MWI\MLITQ\\TMJQ\PQOPMZ it happened and the way that it continues to touch
in the water and a little bit longer. So its a mixed and inspire people, even people not associated with
blessing: It prevented us from making egregious \PQ[QOP\)VL[W1NMMTI[XMKQITZM[XWV[QJQTQ\a\W
errors, but we didnt anyway, and at the very end this story to treat it with the respect that I feel for it,
it prevented us from getting the nose up quite as because of the way it touches people.
much as we theoretically should have been able to.
And the people of New York, too, were part of
How do you think it might have been different if that whole equation. Absolutely. So as a result of
you were, say, ying a Boeing airliner? Except for \PQ[JW\PW]ZZ[\WKMZ2M;SQTM[IVL1NMMTIV
\PI\WVMQOP\KWV\ZWTUWLM1LWV\\PQVSQ\_W]TL obligation to use this notoriety for good, to use this
PI^MUI\\MZML)[TWVOI[1_I[aQVOIVIQZXTIVM bully pulpit to improve the safety of the traveling
\PI\_I[[QUQTIZTaKWVO]ZMLQVW\PMZ_WZL[\PM public, to improve the state of the piloting profes-
overall geometric structure of the airplane was simi- sion. Not to do so would be a dereliction of duty
lar, with low-slung engines in about the same posi- in our minds, because we feel like we owe it to our
tion, I think we would have had a similar outcome. colleagues still working at all the airlines to do that.

38 AH november 2016
Since weve been chosen temporarily by fate as the
de facto spokespersons for the profession, we dont
want to let them down.

Tell us a little bit about what youve been up to


since your 2009 book. A lot. People know that a
aMIZIN\MZ\PMNIUW][QOP\1ZM\QZMLIN\MZR][\W^MZ
30 years from the airlines, but they dont always
SVW_ITT\PM\PQVO[1^MLWVM\PI\1ZMITTaLQLV\
ZM\QZM#1R][\\ZILML\PI\WVMXZWNM[[QWVNWZ[M^-
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5ISQVOI,QMZMVKM";\WZQM[WN >Q[QWVIVL+W]ZIOM
.ZWU)UMZQKI[4MILMZ[\PI\1U^MZaPIXXa_Q\P
1XZWTMIJW]\ILWbMVXMWXTMIVL_PMV1KPW[M
XMWXTM_PWU1ILUQZML\WXZWTMI[M`MUXTIZ[WN 
TMILMZ[PQX1VMQ\PMZI[SMLVWZKWV[QLMZML\PMQZ
XWTQ\QKITITQI\QWVJ]\QV[\MIL1KPW[MXMWXTM_PW QVL][\ZQM[)VL1^MIT[WJMMVIVIL^WKI\MNWZ\PM
PILM`PQJQ\MLUWZITKW]ZIOMIVLJaLWQVO\PM [INM\aWN \PM\ZI^MTQVOX]JTQK#1^M][ML\PQ[VW\WZQ-
ZQOP\\PQVOI\\PMZQOP\\QUMNWZ\PMZQOP\ZMI[WV[
\PMaPILUILMILQMZMVKMQVXMWXTM[TQ^M[)VL I FEEL AN M\aNWZOWWL\WOW\W+IXQ\WT0QTT1\M[\QMLR][\I
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[W\PI\[[WUM\PQVO1^MJMMVXI[[QWVI\MIJW]\Ua
_PWTMTQNMIVL1_I[^MZaNWZ\]VI\M\WPI^M[WUIVa OBLIGATION []JKWUUQ\\MM[1_I[QV?I[PQVO\WV,+R][\
last month to try to improve aviation safety and
W]\[\IVLQVO)UMZQKIV[XIZ\QKQXI\MQV\PQ[[\WZa
IVLKWUM]X_Q\PIV[_MZ[\WITT\PMY]M[\QWV[1 TO USE THIS \Za\WQVKT]LMQV\PM.))ZMI]\PWZQbI\QWVJQTTUMI-
[]ZM[\PI\_W]TLUISMaQVO[INMZNWZM^MZaJWLa
had about leadershiplike are leaders born or
made, how important is culture, how do you man- NOTORIETY... ;W\PI\[IJQONWK][WN UQVM;W1^MJMMV^MZaJ][a
QV\ZaQVO\W[Ia\PI\M^MV\PW]OP1PILIaMIZ
IOMaW]ZW_VMOWIVLXZM^MV\Q\NZWUOM\\QVOQV
your way? So that was a real labor of love, and that TO IMPROVE KIZMMZQVaQVOM^MVJMNWZM\PMNIUW][QOP\
IVL\PMV\PMZM_I[\PMNIUW][QOP\_PQKP_I[
KIUMW]\QV1^MJMMVLWQVOITW\WN [XMMKPM[
around the country and in fact around the world. THE SAFETY OF IUIRWZKWV\ZQJ]\QWV\W[INM\a1U\ZaQVO\WSMMX
WV_WZSQVO[W\PI\Q\UIaJM\PI\QN 1UNWZ\]VI\M
1^M\ITSML\WI]LQMVKM[I[UIVaI[XMWXTM
NZWU)][\ZITQI\W;_Q\bMZTIVLIVLM^MZa_PMZMQV THE TRAVELING IVL_WZSPIZLMVW]OPUaOZMI\M[\KWV\ZQJ]\QWV[
still lie ahead.
JM\_MMV)VLI[1^M\ZI^MTML\PM_WZTLIVLUM\
QUXWZ\IV\XMWXTMQVKT]LQVO[WUM_WZTLTMILMZ[ PUBLIC.... What do you think are the main challenges the
1^MTMIZVMLITW\IJW]\LQMZMV\I]LQMVKM[IVL airline industry faces today? 1\PQVS\PMUIQV
1_WZS^MZaPIZL\WLW\PI\M^MZa\QUM1[XMIS\W KPITTMVOMQ[\WVL_Ia[\WSMMXUISQVOIQZ\ZI^MT
themaudiences as diverse as nuclear power [INMZ?M^MUILMP]OM[\ZQLM[XIZ\QK]TIZTaQV\PM
WXMZI\WZ[\WVIVKQITZQ[SUIVIOMZ[\WUMLQKIT IL^IVKML?M[\MZV_WZTLIVLM[XMKQITTaQV\PM
XZWNM[[QWVIT[1^MLWVMITW\WN \ITSQVO\WUMLQKIT =VQ\ML;\I\M[QV\PMTI[\LMKILM1VNIK\\PMTI[\
audiences about how weve made aviation so safe help on the way XI[[MVOMZNI\ITQ\aWVITIZOM=;RM\TQVMZQV\PM=;
IVL\PM_Ia[\PI\_MKIV\ZIV[NMZ\PI\SVW_TMLOM Ferries and a NYC _I[aMIZ[IOWQV6W^MUJMZ<PI\[VW\
PREVIOUS PAGES: AP PHOTO/EDOUARD H.R. GLUCK; OPPOSITE: AP PHOTO/STEPHEN CHERNIN;

\WUMLQKQVM\WUISMXI\QMV\KIZM[INMZ1^MIT[W Fire Department boat \Z]MI\\PMZMOQWVIT[IT\PW]OP\PMTI[\ZMOQWVITIQZ-


JMMVIKWV[]T\IV\\WQVL][\ZaIOIQVWVIXXTaQVO rescue passengers and line accident now has been awhilethe February
aviation-type methods to chemical and other crew from Flight 1549. !KZI[PWN +WV\QVMV\IT+WVVMK\QWV+WTOIV
)QZQV*]ITW1\[JMMVTIZOMTaL]M\W\PM
MWZ\[WN \PM^QK\QU[NIUQTQM[WN \PM*]ITWKZI[P
ABOVE RIGHT: AP PHOTO/SETH WENIG; RIGHT: AP PHOTO/STEPHEN DAY

because of their ardent support for safety mea-


[]ZM[\PI\\PM+WVOZM[[QVZMITTaQUXZW^ML
[WUM\PQVO[QVKT]LQVOXQTW\M`XMZQMVKMUQVQU]U[
that were really very low before and now are more
reasonable. So theres still a lot of pressure, espe-
KQITTa_Q\PQV\PMZMOQWVITQVL][\Za\WLW\PQVO[
\PI\IZMR][\OWWLMVW]OP\WLW\PQVO[\PI\IZMTM[[
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\PM.))IVLW\PMZ[\PI\_PMV_MOW]XQVIV
IQZTQVMZ\WOM\PMZ_PI\_MZMZMITTaLWQVOQV[XQ\M
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I\]JMTTML_Q\PXMWXTM\PZW]OP\PM]XXMZI\UW[
XPMZMWZ UQTM[IJW^M\PMMIZ\PI\ XMZKMV\

november 2016 AH 39
as a whole needs to look at this broken economic
UWLMT\PI\[WUMWN \PMZMOQWVITIQZTQVM[KWV\QV]M
\W\Za\W][MIVL[WUMWN \PMTIZOMUIRWZKIZZQMZ[
have helped to create because they have created
I[a[\MUQV_PQKP\PM[UITTMZZMOQWVIT[KWUXM\M
WV\PMJI[Q[WN KW[\\WJM\PMQZZMOQWVITITQI\M1V
W\PMZ_WZL[\PMTIZOMUIRWZKIZZQMZ[WN\MVKPWW[M
\PMTW_M[\JQLLMZ\WJM\PMQZITQI\MQVIZMOQWV
IVL[W1\PQVS\PMa^MPMTXML\WKZMI\M\PMXZWJTMU
IVL\PMaPI^MIZM[XWV[QJQTQ\aQVPMTXQVO\W`Q\

How about the increasing reliance on automa-


tiondo you think theres been an erosion in air-
line piloting skills? 1VW\WVTa\PQVS\PI\J]\[\]LQM[
have indicated that. And its even worse than that.
There have been several studies that have shown
\PI\VW\WVTaPI[W^MZZMTQIVKMWVI]\WUI\QWVOQ^MV
XQTW\[NM_MZWXXWZ\]VQ\QM[\WUIV]ITTaXZIK\QKMa-
QVO[SQTT[IVL\PI\\PMQZaQVO[SQTT[PI^M[WUM_PI\
eroded because of that, but even worse, these stud-
QM[PI^MNW]VL\PI\JMQVOIVWJ[MZ^MZIUWVQ\WZWN 
I]\WUI\ML[a[\MU[aQVO\PMIQZXTIVML]ZQVOTIZOM
of the speed of sound, in a hostile environment XWZ\QWV[WN \PMQOP\PI[MZWLML\PMXQTW\[IJQT-
with outside air pressure one-quarter that at the
WE NEED TO
Q\a\WJMUMV\ITTaMVOIOMLSMMX\ZIKSWN _PI\[
surface and outside temperatures to minus 70, and PIXXMVQVO_Q\P\PMIQZXTIVMIVLZM[XWVLY]QKSTa
we must return it safely to the surface every time.
FIND BETTER
MVW]OPIVLMMK\Q^MTaMVW]OP_PMV\PMaVMML
We make it look easy, but its not. So we cant take \WQV\MZ^MVM;WQ\[[IXXML\PMQZaQVO[SQTT[Q\[

WAYS TO KEEP
W]ZMaMW\PMJITT?MPI^M\W][MJQOLI\I_MPI^M [IXXML\PMKWVLMVKM\PMaPI^MQV\PMQZUIV]IT
\W][MITTSQVL[WN [INM\aZMXWZ\QVOIVLI]LQ\QVO aQVO[SQTT[IVLQ\[[TW_ML\PMQZ_QTTQVOVM[[IVL

PILOTS SHARP,
[a[\MU[\WTWWSNWZZQ[S[IVLUQ\QOI\M\PMUJMNWZM \PMQZIJQTQ\a\WY]QKSTaIVLMMK\Q^MTaQV\MZ^MVM
they can lead to a bad outcome. And we need to _PMV\PMaU][\M`MZKQ[M\PMQZaQVO[SQTT[IVL

TO KEEP THEM
UISM[]ZM\PI\I[_M\ZIV[Q\QWVNZWUUaOMVMZI- QV[\MILSMMXWV\ZaQVO\W][MWZ`\PMI]\WUI\QWV
\QWVWN XQTW\[\W\PMVM`\OMVMZI\QWV[\PI\\PMaPI^M ;W\PQ[TIKSWN IJQTQ\a\WY]QKSTaIVITabMIVLO]ZM

ENGAGED IN
\PI\[IUMLQTQOMVKM\PI\[IUMLQ[KQXTQVM\PI\[IUM W]\_PI\[OWQVOWVJMKI][MWN \PQ[UMV\ITTa\IS-
]VLMZ[\IVLQVO\PI\R][\OWWLMVW]OPQ[V\IVL\PI\ QVOI[\MXJIKSIVLVW\JMQVOI[IK\Q^MTaUMV\ITTa
they have learned and internalized the lessons of
EVERY ASPECT
MVOIOML_Q\P\PM_PWTMXZWKM[[\PZW]OPW]\\PM
historic accidents to remember why its important QOP\Q[_PI\\ZW]JTM[UMM^MVUWZM\PIV\PMTIKS

OF THE FLIGHT.
\PI\_MLWITT\PM\PQVO[_MLW\WSMMXW]ZXI[[MV- WN WZ\PMLQUQV]\QWVWN UIV]ITaQVO[SQTT[*]\
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What is your opinion of the airline pilot short- M^MZaI[XMK\WN \PMQOP\)VLQ\UIaUMIV\PI\
age, and why do you think fewer youngsters _MVMML\WZM\PQVS\PMLM[QOVWN W]ZKWKSXQ\[\W
are interested in learning to y? Well, all of us OQ^MXQTW\[IUWZMIK\Q^MZWTMIVLPI^M\PMI]\W-
choose our life path based upon not only our pas- UI\QWVLWUWZMWN \PMUWVQ\WZQVOQV[\MILWN \PM
sion but its ability to be a viable, sustainable path ZM^MZ[MJMKI][MP]UIV[IZMVW\QVPMZMV\TaOWWL
for ourselves and eventually for our families. Your I\UWVQ\WZQVO
passion only carries you so far. At some point all of
][IZMOWQVO\W_IV\\WJMIJTM\WPI^M\PMUMIV[\W A lot of people consider you a hero, and in your
J]aIKIZ\WOM\UIZZQML\WJ]aIPW][M\WPI^M book you said youre not comfortable with that.
a path that makes economic sense for us. And if How do you feel about that now? ?MTT1^M[XMV\
\PMMV\ZaTM^MT_IOM[IVL_WZSQVOKWVLQ\QWV[IVL aMIZ[KWUQVO\W\MZU[_Q\P\PI\)VL1^MOW\\MVI
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VW\[]KQMV\\WLW\PI\WN KW]Z[M\PMaZMVW\OWQVO _Ia)VL1\ISMQ\I[IZMITZM[XWV[QJQTQ\aNWZUM
to attract experienced applicants in the numbers grateful survivor to be the public face of this event, and to receive
\PMa_W]TLTQSM<PMZMQ[V\K]ZZMV\TaI[PWZ\IOM The captain talks with XMWXTM[\PIVS[JMKI][M\PMaPI^MIVMML\WOQ^M
WN XQTW\[QV\PQ[KW]V\ZaJ]\\PMZMQ[I[PWZ\IOMWN  Flight 1549 passenger Q\)VL1_IV\\WPWVWZ\PI\J]\I\\PM[IUM\QUM
XQTW\[_QTTQVO\W_WZSNWZ[\IZ^I\QWVNWWL[\IUX Pam Seagle beside the 1SVW_\PI\_PQTM_M_MZMLWQVOW]ZRWJ[\PI\
TM^MT_IOM[I\[WUMWN \PM[UITTM[\KIZZQMZ[\PI\ A320 fuselage at the LIa_MLQLW]ZRWJ[M`KMX\QWVITTa_MTTXZWJIJTa
PI^MIZQOP\TaLM[MZ^MLZMX]\I\QWVNWZJMQVOVW\ Carolinas Aviation better than could have been expected under the
OWWLXTIKM[\W_WZS)VL[W1\PQVS\PMQVL][\Za Museum in June 2011. circumstances. 

40 AH november 2016
How does it feel
to have Americas
everyman actor
playing you?
Well, Jimmy Stew-
art wasnt available
[laughter]. I think its
a great choice.

veteran filmmakers Whats the nature of


The A320 glides over the your involvement?
Hudson River (above) in Ive had a small role as
Sully, directed by Clint a consultant on the
Eastwood and starring lm, which Im very
Tom Hanks (shown below glad, because, I mean,
discussing a scene). its my life and the life
of my family and the
lives of the people on
our ight. So this
obviously matters to
me. And Im really
impressed with the

SULLY: THE MOVIE


way that theyre
handling it. The few
times my wife and I
When did you learn a screenwriter and He actually came to had a chance to visit
they wanted to make came up with a script. the house last May on the set during
a movie from your And then it had not [2015], and then once lming, it seemed like
book, and what was found a home until some of the casting everybody in the cast
your reaction? early May 2015, when decisions were made and crew, and there
Well it was in 2010 the script was read by Tom Hanks came to were sometimes
that I was approached Clint Eastwood and he the house last summer. hundreds of people
by a producer who loved it. He immedi- Principal photography there, treated this with
optioned the dramatic ately contacted War- began in New York in the kind of respect
rights to my rst book, ner Bros., and the train late September, and it that I really was
Highest Duty: My left the station and has was all completed by impressed by.
Search for What Really been hurtling down late November or early
Matters, and she hired the tracks ever since. December. And of Whats it been like
OPPOSITE: AP PHOTO/CHUCK BURTON; ABOVE: WARNER BROS.; RIGHT: STEVE SANDS/GC IMAGES

course its in post- working with a


production now and Hollywood legend
it will be released in like Clint Eastwood?
theaters in the U.S. It must be a privilege.
on September 9. So It is. Class act, very
the story has found dedicated, been doing
a good home, its in this a long time. Very
good handsveteran successful coming off
lmmakers and great the heels just a year
storytellers. And of ago with American
course Tom Hanks is Sniper. And hes got a
our everyman, hes well-earned reputation
played a lot of real for being very efcient
people before, includ- and getting it done
ing people Ive met, quickly, on time and
like Captain James under budget. And
Lovell of Apollo 13, taking good care of
so were looking for- the story.
ward to it. C.v.W

november 2016 AH 41
bustling airfield
Curtiss JN-4Ds on the
ight line prepare to take
off while other Jennies
undergo maintenance at
Rockwell Field in 1918.

42 AH november 2016
TRAINING COMBAT
PILOTS ON NORTH ISLAND
IN A SERIES OF PREVIOUSLY UNPUBLISHED IMAGES,
RENOWNED NEW YORK NEWS PHOTOGRAPHER
EDWARD N. JACKSON DOCUMENTED EARLY FLIGHT
TRAINING AT ROCKWELL FIELD BY JOSEPH J. CARO
IT WAS SWELTERING HOT
ON NORTH ISLAND DURING
THE SUMMER OF 1918, RECALLED
PHOTOGRAPHER EDDIE JACKSON.
Clouds of dust and sand turned your eyelids into grainy sand- old lieutenant, who just a year
paper and permeated your clothing right down to your private earlier had been a press pho-
parts, he wrote. I couldnt use my camera equipment for days tographer in New York City.
at a time for fear of damaging its delicate workings. August, I Rockwell Field was origi-
found, is not the best time of the year to be in the San Diego nally known as the Signal
area of California. Corps Aviation School, but
Jackson had spent more than a month photographing the new it was renamed in September
U.S. Army training facilities at Camp Lewis in Washington state 1912 to memorialize 2nd Lt.
and Camp Kearny in southern California as part of his assign- Lewis C. Rockwell, killed in
ment from the Army Signal Corps. In May he had moved farther the crash of a Wright Model
south to document the new pilot training facility at Rockwell B at College Park, Md. The
Field on North Island. It was a formidable task for the 35-year- IZMI[KTMIZ[SQM[I\\MZZIQV
good beaches and protected
waters had attracted aviation
pioneer Glenn H. Curtiss
to North Island, where he
established an aviation school
in February 1911. Curtiss
invited the Army and Navy to
[MVLWKMZ[\WPQ[VM_[KPWWT
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contracted with the Signal
+WZX[\WZMTWKI\MQ\[MLOTQVO
pilot training facility from
College Park to sunny San
,QMOW<PMZ[\QOP\[\]LMV\
contingent was just three men.
Pilots from the American
6th and 7th Aero squadrons
attended ground school and
]VLMZ_MV\JI[QKQOP\\ZIQV-
ing at Rockwell Field. For a
short time they even helped
build and repair the aircraft
\PMaM_2IKS[WVVW\ML
We all lived in canvas tents
a few yards from the dirt run-
way he wrote, and were
often called to help fill pot-
holes and to clear the runway
of landing-damaged planes.
Jackson recalled that on his

44 AH november 2016
observers-eye view
Eddie Jacksons shot of
Rockwell from a Jennys rear
cockpit. Opposite: Camera in
hand, the photographer poses
with a pilot before a ight.
ALL PHOTOS COURTESY OF JOSEPH J. CARO
detail work Mechanics
overhaul Curtiss OX-5
engines (top), and Army
personnel apply Allied
cockades to Jenny wings.
learning their trade
The pilot of a Canadian-
built Curtiss Canuck practices
ight maneuvers. Below: An
Z[\LIaI\:WKS_MTT.QMTLI observer prepares for a
+]Z\Q[[262MVVaPQ\IXW\ photo session aloft.
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WN \PMKWKSXQ\\PMXQTW\TI]OP
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LAUGHINGLY SAID aMIZQV.ZIVKMMIZVQVO[M^MZIT
UQTQ\IZaKWUUMVLI\QWV[IVL
THAT HE HADNT IJI\\TMMTLXZWUW\QWV\WKIX
\IQV_Q\P\PM\P,Q^Q[QWV
SEEN A BRIGHTER Joseph Caros book 7V)[[QOV
SHADE OF GREEN UMV\" <PM /ZMI\ ?IZ takes
readers from Jacksons prewar
THAN MY FACE press photography through military
training and the war itself, to his
IN A LONG TIME. assignment as President Woodrow
Wilsons postwar photographer in
Europe. See edwardnjackson.com
for more info.

november 2016 AH 47
DRONES:
THE HOLLYWOOD
CONNECTION
ACTOR REGINALD DENNY WAS INSTRUMENTAL
IN LAUNCHING THE TARGET DRONE, AND HIS
FACTORY LAUNCHED A NEW STAR BY ROBERT GUTTMAN

48 AH november 2016
dual roles Actor Reginald
Dennys interest in ying
models led him to play a vital
part in radio-controlled
aviation during World War II.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS
(UAS), BETTER KNOWN AS DRONES,
HAVE GENERATED PLENTY OF
CONTROVERSY IN RECENT YEARS.
In addition to questions surrounding their employment in mili- Royal Flying Corps during
tary strikes, the explosive growth of drones in hobbyist circles World War I, serving as an
has forced the FAA to formulate rules governing their private observer/air gunner in Bristol
][M.M_IZMI_IZMPW_M^MZ\PI\\PMZ[\ZMUW\MTaXQTW\ML F.2B Fighters with a home
[KITMLIQZKZIN\LI\MJIKS\W![aQVOUWLMTPWJJaQ[\[)VL defense night fighter squad-
WVMWN \PMUW[\[]ZXZQ[QVOIVLTQ\\TMSVW_VI[XMK\[WN \PMZ[\ ron. He was wounded, appar-
military drones is their connection to Hollywood. ently by friendly anti-aircraft
That Tinseltown connection was embodied by Reginald ZML]ZQVOIVQOP\\QUMQV\MZ-
Denny, a well-known stage and screen actor who appeared in ception training mission. He
VMIZTaTU[QV\PMKW]Z[MWN IKIZMMZ[XIVVQVOUWZM\PIV ZMKW^MZML[]KQMV\Ta\WKWU-
half a century. Born in Britain, he was the son of a stock com- plete his pilot training, but not
pany actor who performed in Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. in time to see any aerial com-
showman Denny displays Denny began acting professionally at age 6, and appeared in bat before the war ended.
his wares to a budding PQ[Z[\UW\QWVXQK\]ZMQV!0MIT[WJMKIUMI*ZQ\Q[PIUI- Denny resumed his acting
generation of Junior Birdmen. teur boxing champion. Denny interrupted his career to join the career after WWI and starred
in numerous Holly wood
[QTMV\TU[JW\PLZIUI[IVL
comedies. Once the talkies
arrived, however, his English
accent and advancing age
meant that he was more in
demand for character parts,
and he became a familiar face
in a wide variety of support-

PREVIOUS PAGES: JIM DUNKIN; OPPOSITE & ABOVE: RIGHTER FAMILY ARCHIVES; RIGHT: PETE SOULE
ing roles, usually as an impec-
cable English gentleman or
military officer. Denny also
continued to fly, joining an
elite group of Hollywood
stunt pilots known as the
Thirteen Black Cats. That
group included Art Goebel,
winner of the tragic 1927 Dole
Air Race from California to
Hawaii, during which six of
the eight airplanes that par-
ticipated crashed, with the loss
of 10 lives.
Dennys interest in remote-
KWV\ZWTaQVOJMOIVWVMLIa
in the early 1930s when he
WMZML\WI[[Q[\IVMQOPJWZ[
son who was trying to fly a
model airplane. The plane

50 AH november 2016
higher aims Paul Whittier
(left) and the actor ready
their RP-1 for a ight in 1935.
Below: Dennys Hollywood
hobby shop was in business
from 1935 to 1963.

crashed, and a contrite Denny insisted upon building a new one design after Righter demon-
for the boy. That experience got the actor hooked on model air- strated its reliability by con-
plane building to such an extent that in 1934 he opened a hobby
shop, selling models of his own design. It quickly expanded into DENNY HAD THE structing 10 prototypes and
Z]VVQVO\PMUITTI\W]\NWZ
a business, Reginald Denny Industries, through which he mar-
SM\MLPQ[TQVMWN ,MVVa8TIVMaQVOUWLMT[ VISION TO REALIZE 50 hours. That demonstra-
tion marked the beginning of
Denny also sold miniature gasoline engines for model planes.
Designed and built by 1928 California Institute of Technology THE MILITARY a fruitful association between
the two men that would con-
OZIL]I\M?IT\MZ:QOP\MZPQ[,MVVaUQ\M_I[\PMZ[\\Z]TaZMTQ-
able model airplane engine on the market. Denny selected the POTENTIAL OF tinue for many years.
During that period Denny

EMPLOYING also became acquainted with


the work of fellow model air-

REMOTELY plane and radio enthusiast


Kenneth Case, who had devel-

CONTROLLED oped an efficient miniature


radio-control system. Denny

MODEL AIRPLANES had the vision to realize the


military potential of employ-

AS AERIAL TARGETS. ing remotely controlled model


airplanes as aerial targets. At
a meeting on the subject that
he arranged with Lt. Col. W.S.

november 2016 AH 51
first army Uav A series Thiel of the Coast Artillery, Denny learned it cost the U.S. Army demonstrated several more
of photos shows the RP-4 $300 to tow an aerial target behind an airplane. Such targets improved prototypes before
being prepared for a test were regarded as less than ideal for training because they had \PM)ZUaIKKMX\ML\PM:8
launch in 1939. The model to be towed in a straight line, they didnt resemble real airplanes 53 of which were ordered in
would be adopted under the and gunners often couldnt tell if they had hit the target. May 1939 under the Army
military designation OQ-1. Moreover, the towing aircraft and their crews could be struck LM[QOVI\QWV79ZMMK\QVO
JaO]VZM,MVVaXZWXW[ML\PI\IZMUW\MKWV\ZWTTMLUWLMT Q\[KTI[[QKI\QWVI[I[]J[KITM
IQZXTIVM_W]TL[MZ^M\PMX]ZXW[MNIZUWZMMMK\Q^MTaIVLPM \IZOM\ <PM 79 WZLMZ
persuaded the Army to allow him to proceed with its develop ZMXZM[MV\ML\PMZ[\WN I\W\IT
UMV\1V!,MVVaIVLVIVKQMZ8I]T?PQ\\QMZM[\IJTQ[PML WN  !\IZOM\LZWVM[WN ITT
\PM:ILQWXTIVM+WUXIVa_Q\P\PMOWITWN LM^MTWXQVOZILQW types that Radioplane would
controlled airplanes for use by the military as aerial targets. XZWL]KML]ZQVO?WZTL?IZ11
,MVVa1VL][\ZQM[Z[\ZMUW\MKWV\ZWTTMLIMZQIT\IZOM\_I[ 1V!:ILQWXTIVM[:8
\PM:8:ILQW8TIVMIXW]VLPQOP_QVOUWVWXTIVM LM[QOV LM[QOVI\ML 79
_Q\PINWW\_QVO[XIV1\_I[XW_MZMLJaIPX[\ZWSM by the Army, succeeded the
KaTQVLMZMVOQVMJ]QT\Ja?IT\MZ:QOP\MZ)N\MZ,MVVaIVL 79 WV \PM XZWL]K\QWV
:QOP\MZLMUWV[\ZI\ML\PM:8\W\PM)ZUaQV.MJZ]IZa!  line. It featured a number of
\PMWKQIT[_MZM[]KQMV\TaQUXZM[[ML_Q\PQ\[XW\MV\QIT\W improvements, including a
invite Denny to continue development. Radioplane built and VM_KaTQVLMZPWZQbWV\ITTa

52 AH november 2016
opposed engine driving contrarotating propellers. The U.S.
Navy also used it under the designation TDD-1 (for Target
Drone, Denny).
Featuring steel-tube construction, the OQ-2 was 8 feet 8
inches long, had a wingspan of 12 feet 3 inches and weighed
104 pounds. Powered by a 7-hp Righter engine, it had a top
speed of 85 mph and could remain airborne for an hour. The
drone was launched from a catapult and, although equipped
with a wheeled landing gear, was typically recovered by a para-
chute stowed inside the fuselage. While not as fast as a full-sized
airplane, the diminutive drone seemed to be moving faster than
Q\IK\]ITTa_I[UISQVOQ\ILQK]T\\IZOM\\WPQ\
In 1943 the OQ-2 was superseded by the improved OQ-3,
the most-produced variant, with 9,403 examples built. The
OQ-3 was sturdier than the OQ-2 and had a more powerful
8-hp engine that increased its maximum speed to 102 mph. It
was also simpler, dispensing with the contrarotating propellers
and wheeled landing gear, and relying solely on the parachute
for recovery.
Although Radioplanes activities and products were consid-
MZMLPQOPTaKTI[[QMLWVWVMWKKI[QWVQV2]VM!IV)ZUa
public relations photographer with the 1st Motion Picture Unit,
Sergeant David Conover, visited the factory in Van Nuys, Calif.,
to document its operations. Conover was evidently less interested
in what was being built in the plant than he was in a particu-
TIZTaI\\ZIK\Q^MNMUITM_WZSMZ\PMZM6WZUI2MIVM,W]OPMZ\a
1\UIaPI^MJMMV\PMZ[\\QUM,W]OPMZ\a_I[VW\QKMLJ]\Q\ model employee
would not be the last. Conover arranged a modeling audition Norma Jeane Dougherty,
for her that eventually led to a contract with the Blue Book
Model Agency. She subsequently changed her hair color and WHILE NOT AS FAST later to gain fame as Marilyn
Monroe, assembles an OQ-3
VIUMMV\MZQVO\PMXW[\_IZTUQVL][\ZaI[5IZQTaV5WVZWM
After WWII, Radioplane was involved in modifying four AS A FULL-SIZED at the Radioplane factory in
the summer of 1945.
/Z]UUIV..0MTTKI\OP\MZ[I[ZILQWKWV\ZWTTMLLZWVM[\Wa
reconnaissance missions through the nuclear blast zone at Bikini AIRPLANE, THE OQ-2 Hills Cemetery.
Atoll during Operation Crossroads in 1946. The four Hellcats
_MZMW_VNZWU=;;Shangri-La, and Denny was on board the DRONE SEEMED TO The company Reginald
Denny had founded contin-
aircraft carrier at Bikini to assist in setting up the drones and
ensuring they worked correctly. BE MOVING FASTER ued to produce improved ver-
sions of its target drones, the
Denny sold his interest in Radioplane in 1948, after post-
war demand for radio-controlled targets began to diminish. THAN IT ACTUALLY most successful of which was
the MQM-36 Shelduck, with
He continued to play character roles on the large and small
[KZMMV0Q[TI[\TU_I[\PM.ZIVS;QVI\ZIKZQUMKIXMZAssault WAS, MAKING IT 60,000 built during a decades-
long production run. When

taking wing
DIFFICULT TO HIT. Northrop bought the com-
pany in 1952, it became the
Radioplane Division. Later
the name was changed to the
OPPOSITE & RIGHT: NATIONAL ARCHIVES; ABOVE: DAVID CONOVER/YANK

An OQ-2A drone is
catapulted skyward. Ventura Division, Northrop
on a Queen in 1966, and his last Corporation. 
television appearances were
in the campy Batman series Robert Guttman writes frequently
that same year. He died of a for Aviation History from
stroke while visiting his native Tappan, N.Y. For more on
England, but he was buried Reginald Denny and Radioplane,
near his adopted home, at see ctie.monash.edu.au/hargrave/
Forest LawnLos Angeles denny.html.

november 2016 AH 53
A P-38 PILOT
REMEMBERED
AT A VE-DAY EVENT IN FRANCE, A COMMUNITY
THAT HAD DEFIED THE GERMANS DURING THE WAR
CAME TOGETHER TO HONOR A FALLEN AMERICAN
AIRMAN BY GARY METIVIER AND MARY MASONHOLDER WILSON

lightning strike
A Ninth Air Force
P-38J strafes a freight
train. Major Lawrence
Herrick (opposite) died
PHOTOS: NATIONAL ARCHIVES

in northern France
while leading an attack
on trains resupplying
the Germans in 1944.

november 2016 AH 55
ON AUGUST 5, 1944, MAJOR
LAWRENCE HERRICK SET OUT
FOR THE FRENCH COUNTRYSIDE
ON ANOTHER MISSION IN HIS
LOCKHEED P-38J LIGHTNING.Allied forces were already making rapid advances As he pulled up and turned from his target, a loud
following the June 6 Normandy invasion, pav- explosion rocked the countryside.
ing the way for the three squadrons of the 370th Herricks fellow 485th pilots documented what
Fighter Group to set up camp in Cardonville, \PMa[I_4QM]\MVIV\?QTTQIU<9]QTIVPQ[_QVO-
about 12 miles west of Omaha Beach. Their UIVZMKITTML"1M_V]UJMZ\_WXW[Q\QWVWV
mission: stop the trains that were resupplying the a mission over France with the squadron com-
Germans as the Allies pushed them back. mander. [He] went down to strafe a locomotive.
Major Herrick, who at age 24 had already been We had not dropped our bombs. The major made
decorated with the Air Medal and the Distin- a low pass and blew up the boiler of the loco-
guished Flying Cross for his actions in Germany UW\Q^MIVL1NWTTW_MLIJW]\ aIZL[JMPQVL
and occupied territories, found himself com- When Major Herrick had completed a 180-
manding the 485th Fighter Squadron in northern degree turn and had reached approximately 2,500
France. His entire squadron was composed of NMM\1[I_PQ[IQZXTIVMM`XTWLM
pilots in their mid-20smen who were willing and 0IZZa4I_LMZZMKWZLML":QOP\IN\MZPMX]TTML
eager to do whatever it took to get the job done. W\PM\IZOM\1[I\]XZQOP\JM[QLMPQU0MTT1
Herricks son Richard would later learn his wasnt more than 50 feet away, maybe, when that
NI\PMZPILIXI[[QWVNWZaQVO1VITM\\MZ\WUa []KSMZ_MV\1\_I[R][\TQSMIKTIaXQOMWVJMQVOPQ\
UW\PMZPM[IQLPM_W]TLZI\PMZOWWV[WUMaQVO if youve ever seen them. Powder, just plain pow-
missions than have a two-day pass, he said. LMZ1U[]ZMIJWUJ_MV\W1_I[aQVOV]UJMZ
As the pilots fanned out looking for targets, it 0MIVL9]QTIV_MV\LW_V\W[\ZINMI\IZOM\IVL
LQLV\\ISMTWVONWZ0MZZQKS\WVLPQ[<PMJQTTW_- _MM_KW^MZ)[\PMaUILMITMN\\]ZVIVLX]TTML
ing trail from its smokestack marked a train loaded WIVLKIUMJIKS]X_Q\PIT\Q\]LM1R][\RWQVML]X
with supplies chugging its way through the farms real quick with him and, bang, it went up like that.
and small towns. 4WKITNIZUMZ[_MZMUQVLQVO[PMMXIVLKW_[
The American pilots knew that many of these and harvesting wheat and hay when the explosion
ABOVE: NATIONAL ARCHIVES; OPPOSITE PHOTOS: REUGNY-NEUILLE.BLOGSPOT.FR
trains were operated by French crews that had stopped them in their tracks. Georges Duchemin
been forced into service by the occupying Ger- _I[IUWVO\PMU1_I[PMZLQVO[PMMXQVIMTL
mans. Herricks next moves were made to save near my parents farm called la Touchareau, he
those French lives if possible, but those maneuvers [IQL1\_I[IZW]VL"IU1\PMVPMIZL\PM
would put his life on the line. He had to carefully noise of several airplanes coming from Crotelles
balance his concern for French civilians with his IVLaQVO\W_IZL:M]OVa)[\PMa_MZMW^MZ\PM
WKQITWJRMK\Q^M"4I_ZMVKM0MZZQKS[RWJ_I[\W *MTIQZNIZU1[I_WVMWN \PMULQ[QV\MOZI\QVO
get rid of that train, said Richards sister, Mary in the air in a violent blast. One engine and one
Masonholder Wilson. _QVONMTTQVIMTLJMTWVOQVO\WUaXIZMV\[IVL
Witnesses on the ground watched as Herrick SMX\J]ZVQVONWZITWVO\QUM1Y]QKSTaJZW]OP\
[_WWXMLLW_VW^MZ\PM\ZIQV1\_I[I_IZVQVONWZ the sheep back to the farm and went closer to the
mission ready \PMKZM_UMVIKPIVKMNWZ\PMU\WR]UXWJMNWZM crash site.
Herrick poses with his PMKIUMJIKSIZW]VL\WVQ[P\PMRWJ.IQZ_IZV- Children and adults ran to the scene to collect
P-38J before setting ing given, Herrick moved in to take out the train. parts of the aircraft. Grard Brmon, then 16,
out on a sortie from With machine guns and cannon blazing, he strafed ZMUMUJMZML";]LLMVTa\PMIQZKZIN\M`XTWLML
Cardonville, France. it rather than dropping the bombs he was carrying. _PQTMaQVOW^MZ\PM*MTIQZNIZU?M_MZM^MZa

56 AH november 2016
scared because we thought debris would fall on us.
A parachute with no pilot hanging under it came
LW_VIVLWI\MLVMIZ*W]IZL?M_MV\\W\PM
crash site with my brother with a tool box and a
bag. The Germans were there so we waited until
they left and removed the regulation device from
one of the propellers and took it with us.
A younger boy, Jacques Niot, was there too. His
parents worked for the French railroad north of
:M]OVa*MKI][MWN \PMOZW_QVOLIVOMZ[WN I\\IKS[
on trains by the Allies, they had sent the boy and
his grandparents to live with friends on a farm in
the area.
Niot recovered an ammo belt from one of the
machine guns as others collected props and other
parts. Jacques proudly took his prize home to show
his family. His grandfather was angry and fright-
ened, warning that the Germans were searching
homes and if they found the belt the family would
be in danger. He said they must bury it.
They dug a hole and went to lay the belt in it.
One of the bullets just hopped into my pocket,
Jacques would later tell the Herrick family.
A group of adults attended to the downed pilots
body. Dr. Lucie Dezderl, who worked in a nearby whole town in jeopardy. They told the people of
sanatorium, had seen the plane explode and went Reugny that if they didnt cough up the pilot, 20
to the scene to help. Months later, she would send
a note and a lock of hair to Herricks young widow WHEN people would be executed in the morning, Mary
?QT[WVM`XTIQVML*]\Ja\PMVM`\UWZVQVO\PM
in the United States, telling her that her husband
LQLVW\[]MZIVL\PI\[PMPILUW^MLPQUW]\WN  MAJOR Germans conceded there was only one pilot. They
lifted the execution threat but gave strict orders on
the sun and cared for his body. The pilots remains
were placed on a ladder and taken to a farm. HERRICK HAD the handling of the pilots body.
<PM/MZUIV[_MZM^MZaKTMIZ?QT[WVTMIZVML
The Germans moved in, convinced there was a
second pilot on board because of the twin-engine COMPLETED A from eyewitnesses, there was to be no homage
paid to this American pilot. Simple burial. No
planes design. They demanded to know where
that second pilot was. The Herrick family would 180-DEGREE _WZL[[XWSMV*]\\PM\W_V[XMWXTMLMNQML\PM
/MZUIV[<PMaJZW]OP\W_MZ[OI\PMZMLIZW]VL
later learn of a threat that put the future of the
TURNI SAW the cemetery and French soldier Albert Planke
braved execution by giving a moving speech. One
HIS AIRPLANE of Herricks propellers served as his gravestone.
*IKSQV1W_I\PMXQTW\[_QNM2MIVVM\\M[\QTTPIL
EXPLODE. no idea that her husband was dead. She was about
\WOQ^MJQZ\P\W\PMQZ[MKWVL[WV:QKPIZL1_I[
born three weeks after my fathers fatal crash,
Richard explained.
Little would be said about his fathers death in
the years that followed. Jeannette remarried and
focused on taking care of her familywhich soon
OZM__Q\P\PMJQZ\PWN LI]OP\MZ5IZa1VaMIZ[\W
come, Mary found herself wanting to know more
about her half-brothers father.
Prior to Jeannettes death in 2000, Richard
learned of the lock of hair and letter from the
pilots requiem sanatorium doctor, giving him a starting point for
A propeller from his investigation into the circumstances surround-
Herricks downed ing his fathers death. After retirement, Richard
Lightning (left), and Mary began a long, emotional journey to
recovered by Reugny VLIV[_MZ[:QKPIZLZMIKPMLW]\\W\PM.WZKML
townspeople, would Landing Organization for details about the crash.
serve as the majors *I[MLQV+PIZ\ZM[\PMOZW]X_WZS[_Q\P\PMNIU-
gravestone (above). ilies of Allied aviators who have fallen in France.

november 2016 AH 57
The organization, headed by president Jean Pierre, reugny reunion He had held onto the bullet all of those years,
follows up on requests from families for research (From left) Reugny Richard recalled in amazement. He said he
help. Group members also serve as crash site guides Mayor Axelle Trehin, hoped one day to be able to return it to the family.
and host American families traveling to France in Richard Herrick, Mary Mary sat down with another elderly gentleman
search of answers. Wilson and Jacques _PWPILJ]QT\0MZZQKS[KWVIVLX]\\PMXQTW\
The group put out a call for information, lead- Niot pose for a photo into it. He had tears in his eyes, she said. They
ing to a breakthrough when a teenager in Reugny, in 2015. Above right: are so appreciative of what the American soldiers
Guillamme Metayer, who kept a historical blog The plaque honoring did for them. There can be no other place on earth
about his town, connected with the organization. Herrick in Reugny. for us like Reugny. My brothers found a father that
Another Reugny resident, Daniel Sellier, gathered Below: The .50-caliber they never got to know.
Z[\PIVLIKKW]V\[NZWUTWKIT[ round that Niot saved. 0MZZQKS[[WVVITTaPILIV[_MZ[\WY]M[\QWV[
Researcher Christian Dieppedalle, work- that had haunted him for decades. He knew that
ing with Forced Landing, spent months digging his father died doing what he loved, that he died a
through American archives, reviewing eyewitness hero, trying to save French lives. He was a great
accounts and doing extensive research on the pilot who did his job to protect our freedom,
squadron and its airplanes and pilots. Dieppedalle Richard said. He was a great husband, and I think
put together a comprehensive account of what he would have been a great father. But like so many
happened leading up to, during and after the loss W\PMZ[PMQ[IPMZW_PWUILM\PM]T\QUI\M[IKZQKM

HERRICKS SON
of Lawrence Herrick. In the Letts, Iowa, librarydesigned by Rich-
Things began to move quickly, and the Herrick IZLILQ[XTIaKI[MQ[TTML_Q\PUMUWZIJQTQI\MTT-

FINALLY HAD
family was invited for the May 8, 2012, celebration ing the P-38 pilots story. A legacy honored in a
of VE-Day in France. Daniel Sellier would serve small town in France now lives on in the small town

ANSWERS TO
as their host. that Lawrence Herrick called home and where he
The family was overwhelmed by the way the was laid to rest after the war. 

QUESTIONS
community honored the fallen pilot, especially
considering that, until their visit, they had no idea Gary Metivier is an award-winning journalist and

THAT HAD
Herrick had been hailed as a hero and memorial- author. His childrens book Saluting Grandpa pays
ized in the town square. There is a plaque in the tribute to the Honor Flight program. Retired teacher

HAUNTED HIM
town square, Richard explained. We discovered Mary Masonholder Wilson works as a reporter with
that is where they have a celebration every year. Iowas Columbus Gazette. Further reading: The

FOR DECADES.
They even teach local schoolchildren about the 370th Fighter Group in World War II in Action
pilot who gave his life for them. Over Europe With the P-38 and P-51, by Jay
Generations of French families turned out to Jones. For more on the Forced Landing Organization,
meet them, including many who had been there see forcedlanding.pagesperso-orange.fr/8.htm.
on the day of the crash. Among them was the now
old man who as a boy had recovered the ammo belt
from the wreckage. My meeting with the Herrick
family was a moment of intense emotion, said
Jacques Niot, and I must confess that my eyes
PHOTOS: REUGNY-NEUILLE.BLOGSPOT.FR

were getting wet at the very moment I donated


the bullet and the model to Richard. I had been
waiting for this moment for 70 years! Besides the
NIK\\PI\1ULMMXTaOZI\MN]T\W\PM[IKZQKMWN \PQ[
JZI^MWKMZ_PWIKKMX\ML\WTW[MPQ[TQNMNWZ][
and more generally to the American people at that
moment, it has been a big part of my youth that
struck me with an immense intensity.

58 AH november 2016
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REVIEWS

FLYING WINGS
& RADICAL THINGS
Northrops Secret Aerospace Projects
& Concepts 19391994 prototype bat bomber
A YB-49 over Edwards AFB.
by Tony Chong, Specialty Press, 2016, $44.95.
LMKTI[[QML+WUXZMPMV[Q^M
Rarely does an aerospace book reach the market chapter notes back up the
as extensively researched and as beautifully illus- text, and a detailed list of
trated as Tony Chongs chronicle of Northrop company projects is included.
Corporations secret projects. > The author, who worked
at Northrop for nearly 30
years as a model-maker, does
> This is a former employees 1939 to its consolidation with ing board, like the early- a superb job of putting all the
labor of love, not a writers Grumman in 1994, the evo- 1950s N-65 interceptor lay- materials together for what
project. Starting with Jack lution of one of the great outs and the mid-1960s Q[TQSMTa\WJM\PMLMVQ\Q^M
Northrops unusual N-1M all- American aerospace giants is Truck-Airplane-Boat (TAB) account of the companys
wing proof-of-concept dem- told through the lens of the Verticraft amphibian proposal. developments as a separate
onstrator, the author covers innovative designs the com- Scale drawings, detailed entity. Only someone who
the companys designs all the pany never stopped generat- models, color artwork or spent a lifetime invigorated
_Ia\PZW]OP\PMaQVO_QVO[ ing during those 55 extraordi- archival photos complement by the Northrop legend could
apotheosis in the form of the nary years. Many are familiar, the descriptions of virtually produce such a monumental
B-2 stealth bomber. such as the P-61 Black Widow every design, whether suc- record of its accomplish-
In seven chapters that and the T-38 Talon, but others cessful or not. Some have ments. Jack Northrop would
stretch from the founding of are little-known concepts that never been seen before be proud!
an independent Northrop in did not get beyond the draw- because they were recently Philip Handleman

60 AH november 2016
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entirely of American volun- ;\M^MV):]V_PWPI[R][\ WVM[NZWU\PMXMZQWLI[_MTT IQZUMV_MZMWXMZI\QVOQVLQN-
teers. In December 1916, added to that library. I[]XLI\M[WV\PM[Y]ILZWV ferent sectors at the time).
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yette Escadrille. The UMUJMZ[PQXQV\PM4MIO]M and the newly restored Lafa- _WZ\Pa]XLI\M\WMIZVI[XW\
sheer number of books and of World War I Aviation yette Memorial outside Paris. in the WWI aviation enthusi-
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history includedthat have ZW][QVO[\WZaI[_MTTI[IVa \QWV\PMI]\PWZ[KTIQU\PI\ Jon Guttman

FIGHTING COCKPITS
In the Pilots Seat of Great Military
Aircraft From World War I to Today and uniformed heads of the
by Donald Nijboer, photography by Dan Patterson, Air Force shortly beforehand,
Zenith Press, 2016, $40. [XIZSMLPQ[QZM
,WZZ[QVOTM[W]\NWZUMZ
/M\\QVOIOWWLXPW\WWN IKWKSXQ\Q[IKPITTMVOMNWZUW[\ defense secretary Robert
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makes this a book to buy for the home library, PWTTW_QVOW]\WN \PM)QZ
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Q\aWN QOP\_I[UI\KPMLJaIVQVKZMI[MQVMY]QXUMV\IVL by Robert F. Dorr, drove Bob, who saw a robust
QV[\Z]UMV\I\QWV6QRJWMZZM^MIT[PW_QUXWZ\IV\MIKPQV[\Z]- self-published, 2015, $14.95. Air Force as the answer to
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WN ?WZTL?IZ1IQZKZIN\\WIUWLMZVLIaN\POMVMZI\QWV _PI\PMXMZKMQ^MLI[\PMMUI[- ciate his treatise on how the
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OPPOSITE: U.S. AIR FORCE

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Walter J. Boyne \PMZQVOWN JW\P\PMKQ^QTQIV Philip Handleman

november 2016 AH 61
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FLIGHT TEST

X MARKS
THE SPOT
1. Who ew the Bell X-2
to an unprecedented
Mach 3.196 on September
27, 1956?
A. Jean Ziegler
B. Ivan C. Kincheloe
C. Milburn G. Apt
D. Charles E. Yeager

2. What was a feature


of the Bell X-22?
A. Tiltwings
B. Double tiltrotor wings
C. Autogyro rotors
D. Quadruple ducted fan
>

tiltrotors

MYSTERY SHIP
3. What role did the
Grumman X-29s y-by-wire
Can you identify this computer system play
doubly unique aircraft? in its ights?
See the answer below. A. Enhanced its
maneuverability
B. Compensated for its
inherent instability
C. Adjusted the fuel/air
mixture

HOLLYWOOD
D. Monitored the
pilots G responses

FLYBOYS 4. Which company was


not involved in producing
Match the lm star with his real-life warplane. the X-31 enhanced-
maneuverability ghter?
A. Charlton Heston 1. Handley Page Halifax A. Lockheed
B. Charles Bronson 2. Boeing B-17G B. Messerschmitt
C. James Stewart 3. Grumman F6F-5 C. Blkow
ABOVE: HISTORYNET ARCHIVE; RIGHT: NATIONAL ARCHIVES

D. Denholm Elliott 4. Avro Lancaster D. Blohm


E. Toshiro Mifune 5. Curtiss R5C-1
5. What did the
F. Gene Autry 6. Consolidated B-24H
McDonnell-Douglas X-36
G. Wayne Morris 7. Boeing B-29 have in common with the
H. Donald Pleasance 8. Tachikawa Ki-36 Horten Ho-229?
I. Clark Gable 9. North American B-25J A. Canards
J. Tyrone Power 10. Curtiss C-46 B. Fly-by-wire computer
Jimmy Stewart during WWII C. No vertical tail surfaces
D. Thrust vectoring
HOLLYWOOD FLYBOYS: A.9, B.7, C.6, D.1, E.8, F.10, G.3, H.4, I.2, J.5, X MARKS THE SPOT: 1.C, 2.D, 3.B, 4.A, 5.C
ANSWERS: MYSTERY SHIP: Kouns-Craft Dirigible Helicopter. Learn more about it at HistoryNet.com/aviation-history.

november 2016 AH 63
aero artifact

DIAL-A-DRONE
OPERATOR
U
nmanned aircraft systems have been around longer than most people
realize, as Robert Guttman explains in the article beginning on P. 48.
Radioplanes RP-4 (military designation OQ-1), shown at left being
prepared for launch by Captain G.V. Holloman, was proposed as a
cheaper and safer alternative to towed targets for aerial gunnery practice
during World War II. These early drones were operated by means of a
telephone-style dial control, shown below. The September 1940 issue of
Model Airplane News explained, Banks, climbs, dives and almost every
W\PMZQOP\UIVM]^MZKIVJMIKKWUXTQ[PMLJaI[MZQM[WN KWV\IK\[NZWU
the ground operator, reaching the model through shortwave frequencies.

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64 AH november 2016
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