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Government of Karnataka

SCIENCE

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PART-1

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ENGLISH MEDIUM

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SEVENTH STANDARD
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KARNATAKA TEXT BOOK SOCIETY (R.)


100 Feet Ring Road, Banashankari 3rd Stage,
Bengaluru - 560 085.
Preface
The Textbook Society, Karnataka, has been engaged in producing
new textbooks according to the new syllabi which in turn are designed on
NCF - 2005 since June 2010. Textbooks are prepared in 12 languages;
seven of them serve as the media of instruction. From Standard 1 to
4 there is the EVS, mathematics and 5th to 10th there are three core
subjects, namely, mathematics, science and social science.

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NCF - 2005 has a number of special features and they are:

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connecting knowledge to life activities.
learning to shift from rote methods.

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enriching the curriculum beyond textbooks.
learning experiences for the construction of knowledge.
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making examinations flexible and integrating them with classroom
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experiences.
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caring concerns within the democratic policy of the country.


making education relevant to the present and future needs.

softening the subject boundaries integrated knowledge and


the joy of learning.
the child is the constructor of knowledge.
The new books are produced based on three fundamental
approaches namely, Constructive approach, Spiral approach and
Intergrated approach.
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The learner is encouraged to think, engage in activities, master


skills and competencies. The materials presented in these books are
integrated with values. The new books are not examination oriented
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in their nature. On the other hand they help the learner in the all
round development of his/her personality, thus help him/her become
a healthy member of a healthy society and a productive citizen of this
great country, India.
Mathematics is essential in the study of various subjects and in
real life. NCF 2005 proposes moving away from complete calculations,
construction of a framework of concepts, relate mathematics to real
life experiences and cooperative learning. Many students have a maths

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phobia and in order to help them overcome this phobia, jokes, puzzles,
riddles, stories and games have been included in textbooks. Each
concept is intoduced through an activity or an interesting story at the
primary level. The contributions of great Indian mathematicians are
mentioned at appropriate places.
We live in an age of Science and Technology. During the past
five decades man has achieved great things and realized his dreams

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and reached pinnacle of glory. He has produced everything to make life
comfortable. In the same way he has given himself to pleasures and

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reached the stage in which he seems to have forgotten basic sciences.
We hope that at least a good number of young learners take to science

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in higher studies and become leading scientists and contribute their
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share to the existing stock of knowledge in order to make life prosperous.
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Ample opportunity has been given to learners to think, read, discuss
and learn on their own with very little help from teachers. Learning is
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expected to be activity centered with the learners doing experiments,
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assignments and projects.


6th standard Social Science Textbook has been prepared based

on the prescribed syllabus. And all the features of NCF 2005 and KCF
2007 have been included in the Text Book. This new Text Book has given
importance to enhance the creativity of students by including activities.
Many projects are included to help students to gain knowledge. This
Text Book has been written in such a way that students need not
memorise historical dates and other information.
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The Textbook Society expresses grateful thanks to the


Chairpersons, Writers, Scrutinisers, Artists, Staff of DIETs and CTEs
and the Members of the Editorial Board and Printers in helping the
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Textbook Society in producing these textbooks.


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Prof. G.S. Mudambadithaya


Nagendra Kumar
Chief Coordinator
Managing Director
Curriculum Revision and
Karnataka Textbook Society R.
Textbook Preparation
Bengaluru, Karnataka
Karnataka Textbook Society R.
Bengaluru, Karnataka

iii
Chairpersons Speak

NCERT has framed National Curriculum Framework-2005


considering the educational changes at the global level. Based on
this, Karnataka Curriculum Framework has been designed by
involving teachers, subject experts and those who are interested

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in education.

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Keeping in view the meaning and nature of science, the

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text book has been prepared on the basis of constructivism.
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Observation and experimentation are the basis of science. They
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are closely related to constructivism. An effort has been made to
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provide ample opportunities and encouragement to the children


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to draw conclusions by doing activities which promote thinking,


exploring and self experience. It helps to apply scientific concepts

to real life experience and examples.

We hope that the box items such as Word help, Know this
and Think given in each unit promote meaningful learning by
involving the children in self-learning and participatory learning.
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We expect that the teachers and parents will help the children to
develop research mind and creativity by giving co-operation and
guidance to conduct the experiments and project works.
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We thank all who involved in the preparation of the text book.


Suggestions to improve the quality of the text book are always
welcome.

Dr. G.M. Nijaguna


Dr. H.S. Ganesha Bhatta
Chairpersons

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Text Book Committee
Chairpersons:
1. Dr. G.M. Nijaguna, Prinicipal(Retd.) Vijaya College, RV Road, Bengaluru.
2. Dr. H.S. Ganesha Bhatta, Principal, MES College of Education,
Rajajinagar, Bengaluru.
Members:

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1. Dr. P. Nagaraju, Vice Principal, Vijaya College, RV Road, Bengaluru.
2. Sri M. Manjunathachar, H.M. GHS,Talamari, Raichur Dist.

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3. Smt. Vimala Unni, # 77, Himagiri Apts., 15th Cross, Malleshwarm,
Bengaluru.
4. Smt. Anuradha, Asst. teacher, Govt. PU College, Thekkatte,

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Kundapura Tq., Udupi Dist.
5. Smt. A.N. Shamala, Asst. teacher, Saraswathi Vidyanikethan,
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Dommasandra, Anekal Tq., Bengaluru.
6. Sri. L.D. Murahari, Asst. teacher, G.H.S, Kodambala, Humnabad Tq.,
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Bidar Dist.
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7. Sri V.B. Shinge, Drawing teacher, Karnataka High School, Dharwad.
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Scrutinizers:
1. Dr. R. Shailaja, Director, Regional Environmental Studies Center,

South Zone, 143, Infantry Road, Bengaluru.


2. Sri. B.N. Suryanarayana, Principal(Retd.), KVS, West of Chord Road,
Bengaluru.
Editorial Board:
1. Dr.K.S. Sameera Simha, Professor(Retd.), Vijaya Teachers College,
Bengaluru.
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2. Sri B.R. Guruprasad, Scientist/Public Relations Officer, ISRO,


Bengaluru.
3. Dr. Katre Shakuntala, Professor of Zoology(Retd.), Bangalore University,
Bengaluru.
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4. Prof. V. V. Anand, Regional Institute of Education, Mysuru.


Chief Co-ordinator:
Prof. G.S. Mudambadithaya, Co-ordinator, Curriculum revision and
Text book preparation, KTBS, Bengaluru.
Chief Advisors:
Sri Nagendra Kumar, Managing Director, KTBS, Bengaluru.
Smt C. Nagamani, Deputy Director, KTBS, Bengaluru.
Programme Co-ordinator:
Smt. N.R. Shylaja Kumari, Senior Assistant Director, KTBS, Bengaluru.

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About the Revision of Textbooks
Honourable Chief Minister Sri Siddaramaiah who is also the Finance
Minister of Karnataka, in his response to the public opinion about the
new textbooks from standard I to X, announced, in his 2014-15 budget
speech of constituting an expert-committee, to look into the matter.
He also spoke of the basic expectations there in, which the textbook
experts should follow: The textbooks should aim at inculcating social

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equality, moral values, development of personality, scientific temper,

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critical acumen, secularism and the sense of national commitment,
he said.
Later, for the revision of the textbooks from class I to X, the

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Department of Education constituted twenty seven committees and
passed an order on 24-11-2014. The committees so constituted were
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subject and class-wise and were in accordance with the standards
prescribed. Teachers who are experts in matters of subjects and syllabi
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were in the committees.
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There were already many complaints, and analyses about the


textbooks. So, a freehand was given in the order dated 24-11-2014 to the

responsible committees to examine and review text and even to prepare


new text and revise if necessary. Eventually, a new order was passed
on 19-9-2015 which also give freedom even to re-write the textbooks
if necessary. In the same order, it was said that the completely revised
textbooks could be put to force from 2017-18 instead of 2016-17.
Many self inspired individuals and institutions, listing out the
wrong information and mistakes there in the text, had send them
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to the Education Minister and to the Textbook Society. They were


rectified. Before rectification we had exchanged ideas by arranging
debates. Discussions had taken place with Primary and Secondary
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Education Teachers Associations. Questionnaires were administered


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among teachers to pool up opinions. Separate meetings were held with


teachers, subject inspectors and DIET Principals. Analytical opinions
had been collected. To the subject experts of science, social science,
mathematics and languages, textbooks were sent in advance and later
meetings were held for discussions. Women associations and science
related organistation were also invited for discussions. Thus, on the
basis of all inputs received from various sources, the textbooks have
been revised where ever necessary.

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Another very important aspect has to be shared here. We constituted
three expert committees. They were constituted to make suggestions
after making a comparative study of the texts of science, mathematics
and social science subjects of central schools (NCERT), along with
state textbooks. Thus, the state text books have been enriched based
on the comparative analysis and suggestions made by the experts. The
state textbooks have been guarded not to go lower in standards than
the textbooks of central school. Besides, these textbooks have been

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examined along side with the textbooks of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala,

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Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra states.
Another clarification has to be given here. Whatever we have done
in the committees is only revision, it is not the total preparation of the

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textbooks. Therefore, the structure of the already prepared textbooks
have in no way been affected or distorted. They have only been revised
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in the background of gender equality, regional representation, national
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integrity, equality and social harmony. While doing so, the curriculum
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frames of both central and state have not been transgressed. Besides,
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the aspirations of the constitution are incorporated carefully. Further,


the reviews of the committees were once given to higher expert

committees for examination and their opinions have been inculcated


into the textbooks.
Finally, we express our grateful thanks to those who strived in
all those 27 committees with complete dedication and also to those
who served in higher committees. At the same time, we thank all the
supervising officers of the Textbook Society who sincerely worked hard
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in forming the committees and managed to see the task reach its logical
completion. We thank all the members of the staff who co-operated in
this venture. Our thanks are also due to the subject experts and to the
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associations who gave valuable suggestions.


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Narasimhaiah Prof. Baraguru Ramachandrappa


Managing Director Chairman-in-Chief
Karnataka Textbook Society (R) Textbook Revision Committees
Bengaluru. Karnataka Textbook Society (R)
Bengaluru.

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Revision Committee
Chairman-in-Chief :
Prof. Baraguru Ramachandrappa, State Textbook Revision Committees,
Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru.
Chairperson :
Dr.S.Shishupala, Professor and Chairman, Department of microbiology,
Davanagere University, Davanagere

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Members:

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Smt.K. Mamatha, Asst. teacher, GHS, Kengeri Upanagara, Bengaluru.
Sri.K.S. Gireesh, Asst. teacher, GHS, Jalige, Devanahalli Tq., Bengaluru
Rural Dist.

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Smt. G. Renuka, Asst. teacher, GHS, Honnashettihally, Gubbi Tq., Tumakuru Dist.
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Smt. R.N. Vasantha Sujay, Asst. teacher, GHS, Hebbala, Bengaluru.
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Smt. A. Lakshmidevi, Asst. teacher, GHPS, Kaveripura, Bengaluru.
Smt. B. Hemalatha, Asst. teacher, GLPS, K. Narayanapura, Bengaluru.
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Artist :
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Sri. U. Hazarat Ali., Lecturer, Department of Fine Arts,Tumkur University,


Tumakuru.
High Power Review Committee Members :

Dr. T.R. Anantharamu, Senior Scientist(Retd.), Geological Survey of India,


Bengaluru.
Prof. V.S. Vatsala, Principal (Retd.), M.E.S College, Malleswaram, Bengaluru.
Dr. G.M. Nijaguna, Principal (Retd.), Vijaya College, Basavanagudi, Bengaluru.
Prof. K.S. Nataraj, Professor of Physics(Retd.), National College, Jayanagara,
Bengaluru.
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Translators :
Sri M. Manjunathachar, H.M. GHS, Magadipalya Cross, Kunigal Tq.
Tumakuru Dist.
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Smt. Anuradha, Asst. teacher, Govt. PU College, Thekkatte, Kundapura Tq.,


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Udupi Dist.
Smt. A.R. Shubha, Asst. teacher, G.H.S, Rajanukunte, Bengaluru.
Smt. Vijaya Upadhyaya, J.P Nagar, 1st phase, Bengaluru.
Chief Advisors :
Sri. Narasimhaiah, Managing Director, Karnataka Textbook Society,
Bengaluru.
Smt. C. Nagamani, Deputy Director, Karnataka Textbook Society, Bengaluru.
Programme Co-ordinator :
Smt. N.R. Shylaja kumari, Senior Assistant Director, KTBS, Bengaluru.

viii
PART-1

CONTENTS

PAGE
Sl.No. UNIT
NO.

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1. Food and its Constituents 1 - 14

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2. Cell and Cellular Organization 15 - 26
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Friction 27 - 44
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4. Acceleration 45 - 57

5. Energy 58 - 71

Properties of Solids, Liquids


6. 72 - 79
and Gases
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7. Heat and Temperature 80 - 87


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8. Acids, Bases and Salts 88 - 113

9. Atom 114 - 127

10. Hard water and Soft water 128 - 139

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UNIT - 1
FOOD AND ITS CONSTITUENTS
After studying this unit you :
recognize the sources and constituents of food.
appreciate the importance of balanced diet.

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explain the meaning, types and importance of carbohydrates,

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proteins and lipids with examples.
cultivate healthy food habits.

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Teacher : You all seem to be very cheerful and active.
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what is making you so happy today?
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Mohan : Oh! I had my favourite breakfast -idli
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along with sambar and chutney.


Teacher : What did you have Razia?


Razia : Chapathi and vegetable curry.
Teacher : What did you have Gurmeet?
Gurmeet : Bread and omelette.
Teacher : What about you John?
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John : I had a few biscuits and milk.


Teacher : Ramu, what about you?
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Ramu : I had a ragi ball, toor dhal sambar and


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vegetable curry with rice and butter milk.


In previous classes, you have learnt that we need food
for energy, growth and maintenance of our body. We obtain
food from plant and animal sources. From the conversation,
I learn that your breakfast includes different items. Do you
think, your breakfast contains all the constituents of food
and in right quantity?
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As you know, healthy food includes carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and roughage.The food
which includes the essential nutrients in a definite quantity
is termed as balanced diet.

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Fig. 1.1 : Sources of balanced diet


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Know this :
Water is essential for every organism on earth. Sufficient
quantity of water is required by our body cells for their proper
functioning. Our body metabolism also depends on water. Water
helps our body to absorb nutrients and to discharge wastes.

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Here is an analysis of Ramus breakfast. It includes,
ragiball - contains carbohydrates and
roughage.
sambar and
vegetable curry - contain proteins, lipids, vitamins,
minerals and roughage.
rice - contains carbohydrates.

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butter milk - contains all components of milk

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with almost no fats.
What is your conclusion? Is Ramus breakfast a balanced

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diet?
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Is it possible to obtain all the nutrients from a single food
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Activity 1.1 : With the help of your teacher, prepare a chart
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of various sources of food and the nutrients in them.


Activity 1.2 : Make a list of breakfast items of your friends.


Tick the nutrients present in them in the table given below.
Breakfast Carbo-
Name Proteins Lipids Vitamins Minerals Roughage
items hydrates
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Whose food is balanced? Why?
In this unit, you learn more about carbohydrates, proteins
and lipids.
1. Carbohydrates :
Carbohydrates are commonly
called sugars or saccharides. They

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are made up of carbon, hydrogen

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and oxygen.
Observe the structure of a

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carbohydrate molecule shown in
the figure. Red balls represent
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carbon atoms, black balls oxygen
Fig. 1.2 : Structure of a
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and green balls represent hydrogen.


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carbohydrate molecule
The tubes shown here bind all
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these together. Major portion of energy released in our body


is from carbohydrates.
Types of carbohydrates :
There are three types of carbohydrates. They are
monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
Do you know why the patients and athletes are given
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glucose?
Glucose is a simple sugar unit (molecule). What do fruits
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contain? They contain another simple sugar called fructose.


Glucose and fructose are called monosaccharides. Another
type of sugar called galactose also belongs to this group . All
these contain six carbon atoms. Hence, they are called hexose
sugars. Sugar with five carbon atoms are called pentoses.
Ribose and deoxyribose are pentoses. Thus, monosaccharides
are carbohydrates containing one simple sugar molecule. They
are sweet to taste and soluble in water.

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Know this :
Glucose, fructose glucose fructose galactose
and galactose
have same general
molecular formula
and differ only in
the structure,

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arrangement of the
C6H12O6

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C6H12O6 C6H12O6
various atoms with
in the molecule. Fig. 1.3 : Structure of simple sugars

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Do you drink milk every day? Have you tasted milk
without sugar? Is it sweet? Do you know that milk contains
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a sugar called lactose. The sugar that you add to milk is
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sucrose or common sugar. Both lactose and sucrose are


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the examples of disaccharides. Even maltose present in
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cereals is a disaccharide. A disaccharide is made of two units


of monosaccharides. Disaccharides are also sweet to taste


and soluble in water.
Lactose (milk sugar) = Glucose + Galactose
Sucrose (cane sugar or = Glucose + Fructose
table sugar)
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Maltose (malt sugar) = Glucose + Glucose


Oligosaccharides may be formed by the linkage of two
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to ten monosaccharide units. Linkage between two adjacent


monosaccharides is called glycosidic bond.
A plant cell has a cell membrane and a cell wall. Usually
the cell wall is made up of cellulose. Cellulose is formed of
many (more than 10) monosaccharide units. Hence, it is called
a polysaccharide. Another example of a polysaccharide is
starch. Starch is the reserve carbohydrate in plants.

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Starch is tasteless and insoluble in water. It breaks up
into glucose molecules in the process of degestion which are
absorbed by the blood in our body.

Glycogen is another polysaccharide which is found in


animals including human beings. Glycogen is described as
animal starch.

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When there is excess of glucose in our body, a part of it is
converted into glycogen. It is usually stored in the liver and

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muscles, especially skeletal muscles. Extra glucose is also
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converted into fat. Both glycogen and fat provide us energy
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during starvation.
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Know this :
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Human liver stores about 100 g of glucose as glycogen while


skeletal muscles store about 400 g of glucose as glycogen.

Importance of Carbohydrates :
1. Glucose is the principal source of energy for all our
activities.
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2. Deoxyribose, a pentose sugar is a part of our genetic


(hereditary) material.
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3. Starch and glycogen serve as energy storage products.


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4. Polysaccharides like cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and


pectin though do not supply energy, are important as
fibrous components (roughage) of our food.
Think :
We cannot digest cellulose and other fibrous materials. Why?

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2. Proteins :
Know this :
Proteins are made up
Group
of amino acids. Amino acids Carbon
contain carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen and nitrogen. There are
20 different types of amino

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acids. These amino acids are

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linked by peptide bonds to Amino group Carboxyl group
form proteins (polypeptides).
Fig.1.4 : Structure of a

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generalised amino acid
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molecule
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Amino acids can be grouped as essential amino acids and


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non-essential amino acids.
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i) Essential amino acids :


These are not synthesized in our body but are required for
the growth and function of our body. Hence they have to
be taken as a part of the diet. Essential amino acids are
present in soyabean, pulses, meat, milk etc. For example,
lysine and valine.
Among the twenty types of amino acids, only nine are
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essential. Such amino acids can be obtained by different


sources of food.
ii) Non-essential amino acids :
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These are synthesized in our body. Hence, they need not


be a part of our diet. For example: proline and serine.
Types of proteins :
We consume pulses or dhals and milk regularly. Do you
know why? They contain proteins. Even egg and meat are
rich in proteins. Egg white contains proteins (albumins) that
are made up of only amino acids. Such proteins are called
simple proteins.
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You know that our blood is red in colour. Can you
name the substance that gives red colour to our blood? It is
haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is made up of a simple protein
called globin and a non-protein part called haem. Such
proteins which are made up of a protein and a non-protein
component are called conjugated proteins.
Activity 1.3 : Contact a diagnostic laboratory or hospital

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and obtain the haemoglobin values of at least 20-25 persons.

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Compare the values and find out how many of them have
normal haemoglobin level and how many have less than the

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normal amount? What conclusions do you draw?
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Importance of proteins :
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1. Proteins are present in the cell membrane, hair, nails,
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bones, cartilage, tendons and muscles.


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2. They regulate various life processes.
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3. They increase the rate of chemical reactions in


our body.
4. They cause the muscle contraction and help in our
movement.
5. They help in transporting substances. For example,
haemoglobin transports oxygen.
6. They provide immunity to the body.
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7. They help in blood clotting and prevent bleeding.


8. They are essential for the growth of our body parts.
3. Lipids :
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Like carbohydrates, lipids are also made up of carbon,


hydrogen and oxygen. But, they contain less oxygen than in
carbohydrates. A lipid molecule is made up of building blocks
called fatty acids linked by ester bonds. Lipids are insoluble
in water. But are soluble in organic solvents like ether.
Are you fond of butter, ghee and cheese? What are they?
They are animal fats. Similarly, we consume vegetable oils
like groundnut oil, mustard oil, sesame oil and coconut oil.
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Fats and oils made up of fatty acids and glycerol are simple
lipids. Fats are solids and oils are liquids at room temperature.
When lipids combine with other groups like glucose and
protein etc., they form compound lipids.
Lipoprotein is an example of compound lipids.
Importance of lipids :
1. Along with carbohydrates, lipids (fats) also provide

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energy.

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2. Fats act as thermal insulators and help in maintaining
body temperature.

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3. Lipids are a part of cell membrane.
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Know this :
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Fatty acids may be saturated with no double bonds in
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the molecule or unsaturated with one or more double


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bonds. Vegetable oils like sunflower oil, soyabean oil
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are unsaturated while animal fat and vegetable oils like


coconut oil, palm oil etc., are saturated. Saturated fats are
dangerous as they lead to narrowing of blood vessels which
in turn leads to high blood pressure, heart attack etc.
3. Necessity of fibre in food :
Suresh was suffering from stomach pain. When teacher
asked, he told that he felt difficult to pass stool that day. This
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is called constipation. You might have heard that doctors


usually suggest eating banana at the time of constipation.
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It is very important to have enough fibre in our food. Fibre


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prevents hardening of stool, after digestion of the food. Green


vegetables, fruits, and millets like ragi, pearl millet, foxtail
millet, kodo millet etc., are rich in fibre. They help in proper
digestion of food and prevents constipation.
Activity 1.4 : List out the food items which contain fibre.
With the help of the teacher know the percentage of fibre in
these food items.

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Know this :
Food items and their energy value in kilo calories (Kcal)
against quantity (Reference: Dietary guidelines for Indians,
National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad, 1998).
Food Items Quantity per serving Energy in Kcal
Rice 1 cup 170
Bread 2 slices 170

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Upma 1 cup 270
Idli 2 No. 150

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Dosa 1 No. 125
Poori 1 No. 100

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Cereal flakes with milk 1 cup 220
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Boiled Dhal cup 100
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Boiled egg
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Fish (fried)
1
2 big pieces
90
220
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Omelette 1 160
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Vada 2 No. 140


Cheese balls 2 No. 250

Ice cream cup 200


Tea/Coffee 1 cup 100
Milk 100 g 70
Cashew nuts 10 No. 95
Peanuts 50 No. 90
Apple 1 medium 65
Banana 1 medium 90
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Guava 1 medium 50
Grapes 30 No. 70
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Jack fruit 4 pieces 90


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Mango 1 medium 180


Moosambi/Orange 1 medium 40
Papaya 1 piece 80
Water Melon 1 slice 15
Sapota 1 medium 80
Soya bean 100g 432
Peas 100g 315
Bengal gram 100g 360

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Word help :
Calorie - quantity of heat required to raise
the temperature of 1g of a substance to 10 C.
1 Calorie = 4.2 joules

Know this :

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Malnutrition: The term malnutrition refers to a condition

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which occurs due to an absolute deficiency or excess of one
or more essential nutrients. It includes under nutrition,
over nutrition, imbalance and specific deficiency.

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We need food for energy, growth and maintenance of our
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body.
Food is obtained from plant and animal sources.

A balanced diet includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids,


vitamins, minerals and roughage.
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen.
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The three types of carbohydrates are monosaccharides,


oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
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Proteins are made up of amino acids.


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The two types of proteins are simple proteins and


conjugated proteins.
Lipids are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. But
they contain less oxygen than in carbohydrates.
The two types of lipids are simple lipids and compound
lipids.

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Tips
Have a balanced diet for a healthy body.
Avoid junk food, select your food wisely.
Drink atleast 2 litres of clean water per day.

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Exercises

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I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/
incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer

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and put a tick () mark against it :
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1. One of the following is an energy source for our body.
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a) carbohydrates b) minerals
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c) vitamins d) roughage

2. The number of molecules of simple sugars in an


oligosaccharide is
a) three b) two to ten
c) more than ten d) two
to

3. The principal energy source in our body is


a) glucose b) maltose
t

c) starch d) glycogen
No

4. The constituents of food which serve as thermal


insulators are
a) carbohydrates b) proteins

c) fats d) roughage

12
II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :
1. A simple lipid which is solid at room temperature
is ___________.

2. An example of conjugated protein is___________.

3. In carbohydrates, hydrogen and oxygen are present in

d
a ratio of _____________.

he
4. Proteins are made up of ______________ .

is
5. An example of animal carbohydrate is___________.
re S B
bl
III. Match the following :
be T

A B
pu
K

1. fructose a) roughage
2. glycosidic bond b) simple lipid

3. cellulose c) simple proteins


4. proteins made up of d) linkage between two
only amino acids monosaccharides
5. vegetable oil e) monosaccharide
f) oligosaccharide
to

IV. Answer the following questions :


t

1. Name any three constituents of our food.


No

2. Which two constituents of food provide energy for our


body?

3. What are carbohydrates? Give two examples.

4. Write a difference between monosaccharides and


oligosaccharides. Give an example for each.
13
5. Mention the importance of the following.
a) carbohydrates b) proteins c) lipids
6. Name the storage carbohydrate in plants and the
storage carbohydrate in animals.
7. Differentiate an amino acid from a protein.

d
8. What are proteins? Give two examples.

he
9. Define simple proteins. Give an example.
10. What do you mean by a conjugated protein? Give an

is
example.
re S B
bl
11. What are lipids? Give two examples.
12. Write a difference between fat and oil. Give an example
be T
pu
for each.
K

13. What are simple lipids? Give an example.


Project Work

Collect information about the causes, effects and


remedies of malnutrition.
Organise a poster exhibition in your school to create
to

awareness about the importance of balanced diet.


Highlight the effects of malnutrition and under nutrition.
t

Take up a survey of a community to know about the food


No

habits of its residents. With the help of your teacher,


prepare specific questions and seek answers from the
people included for the survey. Analyze the data and draw
conclusions regarding their nutritional status and health.


14
UNIT - 2
CELL AND CELLULAR ORGANIZATION
After studying this unit you :
understand and describe the structure of a cell.
distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
differentiate unicellular and multicellular organisms.

d
develop the skill of drawing the diagram of a cell and

he
labelling its parts.
appreciate different levels of organization of organisms.

is
re S
In your previous classes, you have come to know that on
our planet earth, there are numerous varieties of plants and
B
bl
animals living in different habitats. In addition to them, there
are also a variety of organisms like viruses, bacteria, lower
be T
pu
forms of plants and animals. These organisms are not visible
K

to the naked eye but are visible under a microscope. Hence,


such organisms are called micro-organisms.

Know this :
Anton van Leeuwen hoek, a Dutch
optician, observed that tiny objects appear
big when viewed through the lenses. Using
the lenses, he designed an instrument
to

through which he could see objects,


Fig 2.1: Leeuwen hoek
ordinarily not visible to the naked eye. With observing throgh the
the help of this microscope he studied Microscope designed
t

micro organisms. by himself.


No

Activity 2.1 : Make a list of different types of microscopes.

What is the body of these organisms made up of ?


You already know that every organism is made up of tiny
units called cells.
Who discovered the cells?

15
Robert Hooke, an English scientist discovered the cells.
When he viewed a thin slice of cork through a microscope, he
was amazed to see tiny compartments closely arranged like a
honeycomb. He named these tiny structures as cells.
Know this :
Parashara, an ancient Indian sage, lived around first
century AD. He has written a book called Vrikshayurveda.

d
In this book, he has described various aspects of plants

he
and agriculture. According to him, a leaf (parna) contains
a number of tiny structures not visible to the human eye.
He named them rasakoshas (now called cells). He even

is
re S
says that these rasakoshas contain a pigment (varnike)
B
bl
which helps in preparing food.
be T

What is a cell made up of ?


pu
A cell is made up of a colourless jelly-like substance
K

called protoplasm It is enclosed by a membrane called the


cell membrane or plasma membrane. Each cell contains a


nucleus and cytoplasm. Protoplasm inside the nucleus is
nucleoplasm which is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
The Protoplasm present between the nucleus and the plasma
membrane is known as cytoplasm. Inside the cytoplasm,
there are several tiny structures called cell organelles.
to

Word help :
Organelle - Living component in a cell with specific
t

structure and function.


No

Are the cells of all organisms similar?


Yes. The basic structure of cells of different organisms is
similar. A cell is described as the basic structural and
functional unit of an organism. Like bricks forming structural
units of a house, cells are the structural units of the body of
an organism. Cells are of various shapes and sizes.

16
Know this :
The largest cell is ostrich egg which is about 15 cm long,
13 cm wide and nearly 2 kg in weight.
The longest animal cell is nerve cell which measures
about 90 cm in length.
The longest plant cell is sclerenchyma fibre from Hemp
plant and it measures about 100 cm in length.

d
The smallest cell is the bacterial cell, mycoplasma which

he
measures 0.1 micro metre(m) to 0.25 micro metre (m)
in size.

is
Now, let us understand the cellular organization in
re S
organisms.
B
bl
In organisms, there are two basic types of cells based on
be T

their structure. They are prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.


pu
In lower organisms,
K

the body is made up ribosome


of a simple cell. In
this cell, the nucleus cell wall
is not surrounded by
a nuclear membrane.
cell
Such a nucleus is called membrane
a primitive nucleus.
to

Usually its genetic DNA


material is represented
by naked Deoxy Ribo
t

Nucleic Acid (DNA). The


No

Fig. 2.2 : Structure of a prokaryotic cell


cell is surrounded by a
cell membrane and a cell wall. The cytoplasm shows small
ribosomes but organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic
reticulum and golgi complex (see figure 2.2) are absent. A
cell with this pattern of structure is called a prokaryotic
cell and the organism that possesses this type of a cell is
called a prokaryote. Prokaryotic cells are seen in bacteria,
cyanobacteria and mycoplasmas.
17
Word help :
The word prokaryote is derived from two Greek words:
Pro and karyon Pro means first or primitive and karyon
means nucleus.
In majority of organisms, the cell has a nucleus surrounded
by a nuclear membrane. Inside the nucleus, the genetic

d
material is present in the form of chromatin. Such a nucleus

he
is called a true nucleus. Cytoplasm shows large ribosomes
and organelles like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and

is
golgi complex. A cell with this pattern of structure is called a
re S
eukaryotic cell and the organism that possesses this type of
B
bl
cell is called a eukaryote. All organisms other than bacteria
be T

are examples of eukaryotes.


pu
Word help :
K

The word eukaryote is derived from two Greek words:


Eu and Karyon. Eu means true and karyon means


nucleus.

cell membrane

cytoplasm golgi complex


to

vacuole centriole
nuclear membrane
nucleus

nucleolus
nucleoplasm
t

chromatin endoplasmic
No

reticulum
ribosome ribosome
mitochondrion
lysosome

Fig. 2.3
Structure of a eukaryotic cell

18
Different parts of a eukaryotic cell and their functions :
Parts of a cell Functions
Controls and co-ordinates
all the activities of the
Nucleus cell. Hence, it is called the
headquarter of the cell.

d
Helps in producing energy
Mitochondrion from food. Hence, it is called

he
the power house of the cell.
Helps in protein synthesis.

is
re S
Ribosome Hence, it is called protein
factory of the cell.
B
bl
be T
pu
Centriole Helps in cell division.
K

Stores wastes, secretions


Vacuole and reserve food products
produced in the cells.
It transports substances from
Endoplasmic
one part of the cell to the other
reticulum
and from one cell to another.
to

It helps in the secretion of


Golgi complex chemicals required for cellular
t

activities.
No

Helps in the digestion of organic


substances present in the cell.
It destroys its own cell when
Lysosome
cell becomes old or damaged.
Hence, it is also called suicide
bag of the cell.
Fig. 2.4: Eukaryotic cell - Parts and their functions

19
Know this :
In plants with eukaryotic cells, another type of organelles
called plastids are present. Among the different types of
plastids, the green coloured chloroplasts are most common
and these help in photosynthesis.

d
Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells :

he
Sl.
Feature Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
No.
1. Nature of Primitive or True nucleus

is
re S
nucleus incipient, without with a definite
B
bl a nuclear
membrane
nuclear
membrane
be T
pu
2. Genetic Represented by Organized
K

material naked DNA into definite


chromosomes

3. Cell organelles Absent Present


like
mitochondria,
golgi complex,
endoplasmic
reticulum
to

4. Ribosomes Small Large

Activity 2.2 : Demonstration of cells in the onion peel.


t

(by the teacher)


No

Take a clean glass slide with a drop of water on it. Remove a


small piece of onion peel and place it on the water drop. Put a
small drop of eosin or saffranin stain on the peel. Now place
a cover glass on the peel and examine under a compound
microscope. Identify the cell wall, cytoplasm and nucleus in
the cells.

20
Organisms may be made up of a single cell or many
cells. If the body of organisms consists of only one cell, then
such organisms are called unicellular organisms. In such
organisms, the single cell feeds, grows, respires, excretes,
responds to stimuli and reproduces like any higher or complex
organism. Within the cell, there are various structures
specialised for carrying out specific functions. Unicellular

d
organisms include Bacteria, certain Algae such as Chlorella,

he
Protozoans such as Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, etc.

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K

Amoeba Euglena Paramecium

Fig. 2.5 : Unicellular organisms

There are organisms whose body is made up of many


cells. Such organisms are called multicellular organisms.
to

They can be either Hydra like micro scopic organism or large


in size.
t
No

Hydra Ant Elephant Banyan tree


Fig. 2.6 : Multicellular organisms

21
Usually in multicellular organisms, the cells are differentiated
to perform specific functions. There are multicellular
organisms in which cells are not differentiated into tissues.
They show cellular grade of body construction but in most of
the multicellular organisms, we observe that cells differentiate
into true tissues and organs for specific functions. Thus they
show tissue level, organs-system level of body organization.

d
Let us consider Human as an example and study the

he
various levels of body organization.

Organism Many systems work together in our

is
re S
body to carry out the life processes.
B
bl
be T
pu
Organ It is a combination of different organs
K

System which work together to carry out a


particular function.

Organ It is a combination of different types


of tissues which performs a specific
function.
to

Tissue A tissue is a group of cells with similar


structure and function.
t
No

It is a tiny basic unit of an organism.


Cell

Fig. 2.7 : Levels of organization in the human body


What conclusion do we draw from the above information?

22
We realize that in multicellular organisms with tissues,
organs and organ-systems, there is division of labour.
Activity 2.3 : Prepare a list of various tissues and organs of
a flowering plant and also prepare a list of various tissues,
organs and organ systems in humans. Know each of their
functions from your teacher and appreciate the concept of
division of labour.

d
he
Flowering plant Human

is
re S
Tissues Organs Tissues Organs Organ systems
B
bl
be T
pu
K

Remember
to

Leeuwenhoek invented the micro organisms.


Robert Hooke discovered the cell.
Cell is the basic unit of an organism.
t


No

Organisms which possess simple cells with primitive


nucleus are called prokaryotes.
Organisms which possess complex cells with true nucleus
are called eukaryotes.
There are different levels of organization among organisms
such as cell, tissue, organ and organ system levels.
Tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and
function.
23
Organ is a combination of different types of tissues which
performs a specific function.
Organisms with a single cell are called unicellular
organisms.
Organisms with many cells are called multicellular
organisms.

d
Tips

he
Every organism, simple or complex has a right to live on
the earth. Therefore, live and let live.

is
re S
EXERCISES
B
bl
I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/
be T
pu
incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer
K

and put a tick () mark against it :


1. Micro organisms are invented by


a) Leeuwenhoek b) Parashara
c) Robert Hooke d) Robert Brown
2. Cell is discovered by
to

a) Leeuwenhoek b) Robert Brown


c) Robert Hooke d) Parashara
t

3. A true nucleus is present in


No

a) prokaryotic cell b) bacterial cell


c) virus d) eukaryotic cell
4. The power house of a cell is
a) nucleus b) ribosome
c) mitochondrion d) lysosome

24
5. A group of cells with similar structure and
function is a
a) tissue b) organ
c) organ system d) organism
II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :
1. The combination of different organs which carry out a

d
particular function is called ____________ .

he
2. Ribosome helps in ____________ .

is
3. Lysosome helps in the digestion of ____________ .
re S B
4. Paramecium is an example for ____________ organisms.
bl
be T

5. The part which controls and co-ordinates all the


pu
activities of the cell is ____________ .
K

6. In a prokaryote, genetic material is represented


by ____________.
III. Answer the following questions :
1. Define a cell. Explain the structure of a typical cell.
2. Draw a neat diagram of a eukaryotic cell and label its
to

parts.
3. Differentiate between an organ and a tissue.
t

4. Mention the functions of the parts of a eukaryotic cell.


No

5. Distinguish between the following pairs-


a) prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
b) unicellular and multicellular organisms.
6. Draw a neat labelled diagram of a prokaryotic cell.
7. Describe the structure of a eukaryotic cell.
25
8. Name the four levels of body organization in organisms.
9. Mention the advantage of tissue-organ level of body
organization.
Project work
With the help of your teacher, study the various parts
of simple and compound microscopes present in your

d
school. Classify the parts into optical and mechanical

he
parts. Calculate the magnification power of each type of
microscope. Which of the microscopes is advantageous

is
and why? Make sketches and label the parts.
re S B
bl
Use this :
1.Magnification power of
be T
pu
simple microscope = magnification power of eye lens
K

2. Magnification power of
compound light microscope = magnification power of

eye lens X magnification power of objective lens.


Collect a water sample from a nearby pond or tank in the
presence of your teacher. Place a drop of this sample on
a glass slide and observe under a compound microscope.
Look out for the presence of living organisms. If possible,
to

identify them with the help of your teacher.


Collect a water sample from a pond or tank in the presence
of your teacher. Boil tap water mixed with dry grass taken
t
No

in a large beaker. Cool this and mix it with the water


sample (from pond) taken in a glass trough or large beaker.
Leave it for a few days. Then, take drops of this sample on
a glass slide and observe under the microscope. Observe
the presence of Amoeba, Paramecium and such other
organisms.


26
UNIT - 3
FRICTION

After studying this unit you :


give illustrations of friction in day-to-day life.

d
explain the cause for friction.

he
define the term friction and its types.
measure the frictional force.

is
re S
make a list of various factors affecting the friction.
B
bl
compare the magnitudes of different types of friction.
be T
pu
classify the effects of friction.
K

reason out the need for friction.


distinguish between advantages and disadvantages of


friction.
differentiate the methods of increasing and decreasing
the friction.
to

You might have seen that a moving ball slows down and
stops after travelling some distance. Why is the sharp tip of
t
No

a pencil become blunt while writing? why your bicycle slows


down when brakes are applied? When you strike a matchstick
against the smooth surface of an old match box it will not
light up. Why? Why is it difficult to write on a smooth and
slippery black board?

27
d
is he
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K

Fig. 3.1

A body sliding over the surface of the other slows down. We


know that force make the bodies to move or stop the moving
bodies. Friction is such a force which tends to slow down or
stop the moving bodies. Frictional force always acts in the
to

direction opposite to motion.


t

A moving ball slows down because of the friction between


No

the surfaces of the ball and the ground. Pencil becomes blunt
because of friction between its tip and the surface of the paper.
Friction between the brakes and the wheel stops the vehicle.
Match stick do not light up due to lack of friction with the
worn match box. Similarly writing wont be clear on smooth
black board because of least friction.

28
Frictional force :
Activity 3.1 : Try sliding
a wooden block kept on a
rough flat table as shown
in the figure. Push the block
with a small horizontal

d
force, it does not move. Can

he
you say that there is
another horizontal force

is
re S
opposing the applied force?
B
bl
Yes, this opposing force is Fig. 3.2
be T

known as the frictional


pu
force, which is excerted by the table on the wooden block.
K

When the applied force is gradually increased the block


starts moving. Now actually the applied force exceeds the


maximum frictional force.

A force that always opposes the relative motion of two


surfaces in contact with one another is called frictional force.
to

How is Friction Caused?


t

A frictionless surface is only an imagination. All surfaces


No

experience friction as they rub across each other. How ever


smooth any two surfaces may be, on observing through a
microscope you will see the irregularities on their surfaces. So
when two bodies are placed upon one another the irregularities
of the surfaces interlock.

29
Think :
Is there any place where there is absolutely no friction?

When a force is applied on a body sliding over another,


its interlocked irregularities collide each other. Mutual forces

d
between them opposes their sliding.

he
Measuring Frictional force :

Frictional force can be measured by a spring balance.

is
re S B
bl
Activity 3.2 : Keep a stone on a table and tie a thread
around it. Pull the stone using a spring balance as
be T
pu
shown in the figure. Observe that the stone initially does
K

not move. However when the applied force is gradually


increased for a moment it just begins to slide. Note down


reading on the spring balance. This gives the force of friction
which opposes the applied force.
t to
No

Fig. 3.3 : Pulling a stone using spring balance

30
Factors affecting friction :
Activity 3.3 : Take an empty box, tie a string around it and
pull the box slowly on a smooth surface of a floor. Do you
feel any friction? Try pulling the same box on the different
surfaces over the floor, such as a thick sheet of cloth, a sheet
of coir mat, a sheet of rubber, a sheet of greasy paper and

d
finally on a sand bed. What change do you observe in the

he
magnitude of friction ?
Repeat the same activity using a heavily filled box. Observe
the difference. What might be the reason for this difference?

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K

A boy pulling a box A camel walking on a


on a sand bed desert feels friction
Fig. 3.4
to

Frictional force is caused due to inter molecular interactions


between the bodies.
Frictional force always opposes relative motion.
t
No

Frictional force vary in strength according to how hard


the two surfaces are pressed against one another and how
slippery or how rough the surfaces are.
The harder you press the two surfaces together, larger the
frictional force they experience.
Frictional force is more for rough surfaces and less for
smooth surfaces.
31
Types of Friction :
Let us compare the friction between the surfaces of two
stationary bodies, to the surfaces of two sliding and rolling
bodies.
1. Static friction :

Activity 3.4 : Try to slide a heavy box

d
over the floor, A Small push does

he
nothing. You find it particularly hard
in the beginning because, the contact
points of irregularities between the

is
re S
box and the floor have settled inter-
B
bl
locking one another. This opposition is
due to friction which prevents two
Fig. 3.5 : A person
pushing a big heavy
be T

surfaces to slide across one another.


pu
box on the floor.
K

The force of friction acting between the two bodies does


not allow them to start slide upon one another is called


static friction.
Think :
Why do automobiles require a push by heavy (first)
gear in the beginning of their movement?
to

2. Sliding friction :
(Continuation of the previous activity 3.4)
t

Activity 3.5 : To get the box moving, more force is required


No

to overcome static friction between the surfaces. Now push


with more horizontal force than the static friction can excert.
Once the box is moving static friction is replaced by another
frictional force, which acts to stop the surfaces from sliding.
The force of friction acting between the two bodies when
they are sliding upon one another with a uniform speed is
called sliding friction.
32
It is easier to keep the box moving than to get it started,
therefore sliding friction is generally less than the static
friction.
3. Rolling friction :
Have you ever felt rolling a pencil
between your palms is easier than rubbing

d
without a pencil? Try this.

he
In the previous activity 3.5, could it
be easy to push the heavy box over roller

is
re S
wheels? Think.
B
bl
Rolling bodies are not free from friction.
be T

When the surface of one body rolls over


pu
the surface of the other, the force of
K

Fig. 3.6
opposition offered to its motion is called Rolling a pencil

rolling friction. between the palms


Actually rolling reduces friction. It is
always easier to roll than to slide a body over another. Hence
rolling friction is less than the sliding friction. Ball bearings
works on this principle.
to

Know this :
Static friction > Sliding Friction > Rolling Friction.
t

Effects of Friction :
No

1. Friction Opposes motion :


When force is applied on a body to move over the other
body, the irregularities of the surfaces interlock. Frictional
force created due to this cause always acts in the opposite
direction of the applied force. Therefore Friction always
opposes the motion of the body and tries to stop it
33
Example: Bicycle braking system works on the basis of
this effect of friction.

d
is he
re S B
bl Fig. 3.7 : Bicycle brake system
be T

2. Friction produces heat :


pu
K

Activity 3.6 : Take an iron nail, rub it on a rough stone


surface. What do you observe? The nail becomes hot because

of the friction. It is for the same reason that your palms get
warm when rubbed against each other. The jar of the mixer
grinder gets hot when run for a few minutes. In fact all moving
parts of the machines get hot because of friction.
t to
No

Mixer grinder with a jar Hand pump

Fig. 3.8

34
Know this :
In ancient times fire was produced by rubbing fire stones.

Think :
Why do meteors catch fire and burn completely before
reaching the earth?

d
3. Friction causes wear and tear :

he
Have you ever compared the sole of an old shoe with that

is
of new one? The soles of old shoes are worn out. Do you know
re S
why? It is because, when we walk or run, the sole material
B
bl
gets worn out due to friction with the floor.
be T
pu
Similarly the tyres of the vehicles, rubber bushes of
K

furniture wear out due to friction. Moving parts of the machine


under friction are frequently replaced due to wear and tear.

to

Fig 3.9: Worn out tyres and shoes


t

Friction - A necessary evil :


No

Friction plays a very important role in many of our life


situations. So friction necessarily provide some advantages.
Just think, Is it easier to catch a slippery fish in your
hand? Would it be simply possible to hold a wrestler who has
applied oil on his body? No, we can not hold any thing without
friction. Wall holds a screw or a nail only because of friction.
35
Have you seen
the buffalo race on a slushy
track (Kambala)? Could it
become more difficult or
easier to ride your bicycle
on a wet muddy track?
However if there is no

d
friction, the bodies will
Fig. 3.10 : Buffalo race on

he
either slip or will not move.
a muddy track (Kambala)
Further more the moving
bodies will not stop. Even we can not walk properly without

is
re S
friction. It is very difficult to walk on smooth and wet floor as
B
bl
friction is very less. While we walk, friction between the ground
and the feet prevents us from slipping.
be T
pu
Think :
K

Why does the wheel of a vehicle caught in a slushy


ditch simply rotates there as it tends to move forward?

Do you know, we can not even write on anything without


friction, and even no knot could be tied without friction
Example, Match stick catches fire because of heat produced
by the friction. Without friction the pulley of a motor can not
to

move the conveyor belt to run a machine.


t
No

Fig. 3.11: A conveyor belt pulling a wheel

36
However in some other cases friction is an evil, and it
creates some disadvantages.
Force of friction brings about wear and tear in moving
bodies. You might have seen worn out tyres of the automobiles,
worn out soles of the shoes, worn out mechanical parts and
ball bearings of the machines due to friction. Friction reduces

d
the speed of the machines. The movable parts of a machine
produce huge amount of heat, it leads to much loss of energy.

he
Therefore the energy required to operate the machine increases
by friction and friction reduces efficiency considerably.

is
re S
So friction is both useful and harmful at different situations
B
bl
and hence it is a necessary evil.
be T

Methods of increasing friction :


pu
K

Even though friction is an evil, it is necessarily required at


a desired level for the better grip in our day-to-day activities.

In order to increase friction generally the surfaces in contact


are made rough.
Have you observed spikes provided in the shoes of athletes,
cricket players and rock climbers? Spikes increase friction
and provide desired grip in their movement.
to

You might have seen automobile handles, steerings, foot


rests, the handles of sports bats, suit cases, walkers and
t

ramps. They are generally covered by holding grips of grooved


No

rubber, They provide required friction in handling them.


Usually rubber bushes are fixed at the bottom of ladders,
walking sticks and furniture to avoid slipping.
Have you seen the flooring of toilets, bath rooms, step
edges of staircases? They have rough surfaces to provide grip
while walking on them.

37
Worn out tyres of the vehicles
may skid on the sharp turns of the
roads due to less friction, and can
cause serious accidents. It is for the
same reason that special kinds of
treads and groves are made in new
tyres.

d
Braking system of the vehicles

he
are provided with rough surfaces to
acquire required friction, Grinding Fig. 3.12
stones of the flour mills are designed New tyre with heavy

is
re S
with rough groves to increase friction treads and groves
B
in grinding.
bl
Do you know why kabaddi players and wrestlers rub their
be T

hands with soil ? Weight lifters, gymnants use some coarse


pu
K

meterial ? It is to increase friction for better grip.



to

Kabaddi players Wrestlers


t

Fig. 3.13
No

Increase in friction saves the energy in the above situations.


Methods of reducing friction :
We know that friction is basically created due to inter
locking irregularities of two surfaces.
In certain situations however friction is undesirable must
be reduced so as to increase efficiency. In order to reduce
friction generally the surfaces in contact are made smooth
and slippery.
38
Have you played carrom?
A fine talcum powder is sprinkled
on the carrom board. Do you
know why? It is to reduce friction
between the board and the
striker, so that the striker and

d
coins movement become easier.

he
Think :
Fig. 3.14
Why are gel pens used for Playing carrom

is
re S
faster hand writing?
B
bl
You might have felt very comfort
be T

able to peddle your bicycle, when its


pu
chain and hubs are properly oiled.
K

Similarly when a few drops of oil are


poured on the hinges of a door, the


door moves smoothly. Here oil acts as
a lubricant to reduce friction.
A lubricant is a substance which
reduces friction between surfaces in
Fig. 3.15
contact. Lubricating the bicycle
to

Oil, grease, graphite and soap


solutions are commonly used as lubricants in machines. A
thin layer of lubricant separates the two moving surfaces, so
t
No

that they do not rub against each other directly.


Activity 3.7 : Take a sheet of paper. Hold it horizontaly
and allow it to fall down. Observe the time taken to fall.
Now crumple the same paper into shape of a ball and again
allow it to fall down. You notice that the crumpled paper ball
reaches the ground quicker than the spreaded sheet. Do you
know why?

39
Air and fluids like water
offer friction to the bodies
moving through them. Modern
automobiles, aircrafts, boats
ships and submarines are
given a streamlined shape so
that they offer least friction to

d
the air or water. Fig 3.16

he
Submarines stream-lined shape

Think :

is
re S
Why have fishes and birds stream lined shape?
B
bl
It is strainless to move on scating rollers, than to walk or
be T
pu
run. Do you know why? We know that the wheel is one of the
K

greatest inventions of the mankind. Wheels can easily roll and


hence they reduce sliding friction. Rolling friction is generally

less than sliding friction.


It is for the same reason, many heavy objects and luggages
are fitted with small wheels called rollers.
Ball bearings used to run heavy machines and wheels of
the automobiles reduces the friction to a large extent.
t to
No

Pulling a luggage bag ball bearings


with rollers
Fig 3.17

40
Remember
Friction is a force which tends to slow down or stop the
moving bodies.
Friction opposes the relative motion between the two
surfaces in contact.

d
Friction is caused due to interlocked irregularities of the
surfaces in contact.

he
Friction depends on how hard the two surfaces pressed
together, and how rough they are.

is
re S
Without friction no bodies will move, and even moving
B
bl
bodies will not stop.
be T
pu
Static friction does not allow the surfaces in contact to
K

start slide upon one another when they are at rest.


Sliding friction does not allow the surfaces in contact to

slide with uniform speed.


Rolling friction does not allow the surfaces in contact to
roll over another.
Things moving under friction produce heat, noise, wear
to

and tear resulting in loss of energy.


Friction can be reduced by using lubricants, polishing
surfaces, stream- lining and by using ball bearings.
t
No

Tips
Apply oil or grease on the movable parts of the machines
to reduce friction.
Carry heavy things on rollers with ball bearings to save
energy and to reduce friction.

41
Do not use highly polished flooring tiles in toilets and
bathrooms.
Replace worn out tyres of the vehicles to avoid accidents
due to skid.
Use foot wears and seat belts with proper grip to gain
necessary friction.

d
Exercises

he
I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/

is
re S
incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer
B
bl
and put a tick () mark against it :
be T
pu
1. Friction is caused mainly due to
K

a) softness of the surfaces


b) hardness of the surfaces

c) irregularities of the surfaces

d) smoothness of the surfaces


to

2. Proper arrangement of frictions in their decreasing


order is
t

a) rolling, static, sliding.


No

b) rolling, sliding, static.

c) sliding, static, rolling.

d) static, sliding, rolling.

42
3. The increasing order of friction in the following
substances is
a) sand, glass, wood. b) glass, wood, sand.

c) glass, sand, wood. d) wood, glass, sand.

II. Fill in the blanks by choosing correct words from

d
the list given in the brackets :

he
(less, heat, opposite, reduce, greater, more.)

is
1. Friction always acts in the direction __________ to the
re S
direction of the applied force.
B
bl
2. Friction produces __________.
be T
pu
K

3. Static friction is __________than the sliding friction.


4. Frictional force is __________ in smooth surfaces.

5. Lubricant __________ the friction between the surfaces


in contact.
III. Match the friction managing agents given in list
A with their applications given in list B :
to

A B
t

1. spikes a) air crafts


No

2. treads and groves b) rollers


3. talcum powder c) ball bearings
4. grease d) carrom board
5. stream-lining e) tyres
f) shoes
43
IV. Answer the following questions :
1. What is friction? Explain how it is caused.
2. Name the two important factors which affect friction?
3. Make a list of the effects of friction.

d
4. Why is friction called a necessary evil?

he
5. State two advantages of friction.
6. State two disadvantages of friction.

is
re S
7. What is a lubricant? Give two examples.
B
bl
8. How does a lubricant reduce friction?
be T
pu
9. How can you say that sliding friction is greater than
K

the rolling friction?


10. Explain why objects moving in fluids must have


stream-line shapes.

V. Give reasons for the following :


1. A ball rolling over the ground slows down.
to

2. The surface of a conveyor belt is made rough and tight.


t

3. The worn out tyres are discarded.


No

44
UNIT - 4
ACCELERATION
After studying this unit you :
differentiate between uniform and non-uniform motion.
establish relation between non-uniform motion and

d
acceleration.

he
define the terms acceleration, uniform acceleration and
deceleration.

is
re S
identify the acceleration in the direction opposite to the
motion.
B
bl
distinguish between acceleration and deceleration.
be T
pu
explain the graphical representations of accelerated
K

motion.

make a list of illustrations of accelerated motion in


day-to-day life.
calculate the numerical values related to acceleration.

You might have enjoyed a ride on a bicycle. While you are


to

moving along a given direction observe your position will be


changing. In other words, you will be moving with a velocity
t

which means that there will be a change in position along a


No

given direction.

If a body changes its position equally at equal intervals of


time it is said to be moving uniformly.

45
Consider the situations given.
Situation 1 : Imagine that you are riding a bicycle at a
steady pace along a straight path. If you are moving with a
velocity of 2 ms -1, it means that you will cover a distance of
2 metre in one second, 20 metre in ten seconds, 200 metre
in hundred seconds and so on, covering equal distances in
equal time intervals. So in such cases velocity does not

d
change .

he
Velocity (ms-1)

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K

time(s)
Fig. 4.1
Fig. 4.2

Riding a bicycle Graph showing no change


in velocity over time

If a body changes its position unequally at equal intervals


of time it is said to be non uniform motion.
Situation 2 : Suppose you are
to

in a hurry! You may begin to speed


up your bicycle by covering the
distance more and more quickly. If
t
No

you cover a distance of 2 metre in


one second, 30 metre in ten seconds
and 500 metre in hundred seconds,
your velocity will be 2 ms -1 at the end
of first second, 3 ms -1 at the end of Fig. 4.3
Riding a bicycle
tenth second and 5 ms -1 at the end of
hundredth second.

46
Here the change in position is continuously increased with
respect to time. So your velocity changes in an increasing
order. (See figure 4.4)
Finally, when the destination is near, now you are not
in a hurry, you obtain a modest push. Here the change in
position is continuously decreased with respect to time. So

d
your velocity changes in a decreasing order.

he
(See figure 4.5)

is
re S
Velocity (ms-1)
B
bl
Velocity (ms-1)

be T
pu
K

time(s) time(s)
Fig. 4.4 Fig. 4.5
Graph showing increase Graph showing decrease
to

in velocity over time in velocity over time


t

In the above situations whether velocity may increases or


No

decreases, it keeps on changing.


What is this change in velocity over time called?
Know this :
Change in velocity is the difference between initial velocity
and final velocity of a body in an interval of time.

47
Change in velocity with reference to time is called
acceleration. Acceleration measures how quickly velocity
changes, whether you are speeding up, slowing down or
changing the direction, you are accelerating! So, acceleration
of a body is defined as the rate of change of its velocity.
change in velocity
Acceleration (a)
=

d
time taken

he
Acceleration
=final velocity - initial velocity = v-u
time taken t

is
u = initial velocity, v = final velocity, t = time.
re S B
The S.I unit of velocity is ms-1(metre per second) and that
bl
of acceleration is ms-2 (metre per second square).
be T
pu
Know this :
K

Physical quantities are of two types. Vector quantities


and scalar quantities. A vector quantity consists of both

magnitude and direction. The magnitude tells you how


much of the quantity exists. While the direction tells you
which way the quantity is pointing.
Force, displacement velocity and acceleration are some
of the vector quantities. Whereas length, time, mass,
to

volume, distance travelled and speed are some of the


scalar quantities which have only magnitude but not
t

direction.
No

For example, if the height of a tree is 15 m (magnitude) it


is not necessary to mention whether it is from top to bottom
or bottom to top.

Think :
It a body moves with uniform velocity its acceleration is
zero ms-2. Why?

48
Deceleration :
Consider a vehicle race. When the race is over, generally
they cross the closing line and tend to attain rest. It is
because the velocity is decreasing over the time and hence the
acceleration is negative thus they come to a stop. We often
call this process as deceleration or retardation. It is just a
special type of acceleration of a body where forward velocity

d
diminishes until come to rest.

is he
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
t
to
No

Fig. 4.6 : Racing bikes at the closing line

The negative acceleration is called deceleration.

decrease in velocity
Deceleration = ms-2
time taken

49
Uniform acceleration :

Situation 3 : Consider a body moving with a velocity of


2 ms-1 at the end of 5 minutes, let its velocity be 4 ms-1 at
the end of 10 minutes. Further it is 6 ms-1 at the end of 15
minutes and so on. What is the amount of increase in velocity

d
over every 5 minutes?

he
Yes, here the increase in velocity during every 5 minutes

is
is 2 ms-1 and hence the acceleration is uniform.
re S B
bl
be T
pu
acceleration (ms-2)

K

to

time (minutes)
t

Fig. 4.7
No

Graph showing equal change


in velocity over time

Acceleration is said to be uniform if the body changes


its velocity by equal amounts in equal intervals of time.

50
To help you to recognize the acceleration, here are some
instances of motion with and without acceleration.
Accelerated motion Non accelerated motion
The ball kicked by a foot A scooter climbing up a
ball player The velocity smooth straight hill at a
of the ball changes from steady speed No change
zero to its maximum. So in velocity or direction.

d
the ball is accelerating

he
forward.
A motor bike is about to A car traveling straight

is
stop at a traffic signal forward on a level road at a
re S
Here velocity changes from steady speed No change
B
bl
its maximum to zero. So it
is accelerating negatively
in velocity or direction.
be T
pu
(deceleration).
K

An elevator lift just starts An elevator lift moving


to move from first floor straight upward at a

to fifth floor Velocity steady speed from first


is changing from zero floor No change in
to its maximum. So it is velocity or direction, hence
accelerating upward. no acceleration.
t to
No

Fig. 4.8 : Elevator lift


Think :
All non accelerated motions are not decelerated
motions. Why?

51
Worked examples :
Final velocity Initial velocity v-u
Acceleration = = ms-2
time taken t

(1) Find the acceleration gained by a body in 5 seconds if its


initial velocity is 20 ms-1 and final velocity is 40 ms-1.

d
Solution :

he
Data :
Initial velocity u = 20 ms-1

is
re S
Final velocity v = 40 ms-1
B
bl
Time interval t = 5 seconds
be T

Acceleration a =?
pu
a = v-u ms
-2
K

a = 40 ms - 20ms

-1 -1

5s

a= 20ms-1
5s
a = 4ms-2
Acceleration gained by the body is 4 ms-2
to

(2) A motor cyclist moving with certain velocity comes to rest


in 6 seconds. Calculate the initial velocity if he was
t

decelerated by - 3 ms-2.
No

Solution :
Data :
Final velocity v = 0
Time interval t = 6 seconds
Deceleration (a) = - 3 ms-2
Initial velocity u = ?

52
a = v-u
t
o-u
-3 ms-2 =
6s

- u ms-2 X 6 s.

d
= - 3

he
- u = - 18 ms-1

u = 18 ms-1

is
re S
Initial velocity of the motor cycle is 18 ms-1
B
bl Remember
be T
pu
K

If a body changes its position equally at equal intervals of


time it is said to be uniform motion.

Non uniform motion of a body is the unequal change in


its position at equal intervals of time.
Change in velocity is the difference between initial velocity
and final velocity of a body in an interval of time.
to

Acceleration of a body is the rate of change of its velocity.


Acceleration of a body change even with the change in its
direction of motion.
t
No

Acceleration is a vector quantity having both magnitude


and direction.
Deceleration is the negative acceleration where the velocity
of a body decreases over the time interval.
Uniform acceleration of a body is the change in velocity
by equal amounts in equal intervals of time.
53
Tips
Use straight and smooth roads to accelerate the vehicles.
Remember, over speed is fatal.
Avoid unnecessary braking while riding the vehicle to
maintain acceleration.
Acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the force

d
applied on it along the direction of motion. So apply force

he
along the direction of your motion and gain required
acceleration.

is
Friction reduces the acceleration of a body. So control
re S
unwanted friction in motion.
B
bl Exercises
be T
pu
K

I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/


incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer

and put a tick () mark against it :


1. If a body moves with uniform velocity then its
acceleration is
a) uniform b) nonuniform
to

c) zero d) negative

2. Acceleration of a body is the rate to change of


t
No

a) distance travelled b) speed


c) displacement d) velocity

3. The acceleration of a body is 3 ms-2. This means that


the velocity changes in every two seconds by
a) 2 ms-1 b) 3 ms-1
c) 6 ms-1 d) 9 ms-1

54
4. The velocity time graph implies that

velocity(ms-1)
the body
a) moves with constant velocity

b) has an initial velocity and uniformly


decelerated to attain rest 0 time(s)

d
c) starts from rest and has a uniform

he
acceleration

d) has an initial velocity and non uniform acceleration

is
re S
5. A physical quantity having both magnitude and
B
bl
direction is
be T
pu
a) time b) acceleration
K

c) speed d) distance travelled


II. Fill in the blanks by choosing correct words from


the list given in brackets :

(deceleration, zero, ms-2, magnitude, 5 ms-1, acceleration)


to

1. The S.I. unit of acceleration is ___________ .

2. The negative acceleration is called ___________ .


t
No

3. If a moving body comes to a stop, its final velocity


is___________ .

4. The velocity gained in 5 seconds by a body moving with


uniform acceleration of 1 ms-2 is___________ .

5. A scalar quantity has only___________ .

55
III. Match the following :

A B
At definite time intervals:

1. equal change in position a) uniform acceleration

d
2. unequal change in position b) deceleration

he
3. increase in velocity c) nonuniform
acceleration

is
re S
4. decrease in velocity d) nonuniform motion
B
bl
5. equal change in velocity e) acceleration
be T
pu
f) uniform motion
K

IV. Answer the following questions :


1. State the difference between uniform and nonuniform


motion.

2. Define acceleration with an example.


to

3. Distinguish between acceleration and deceleration.


t

4. What is meant by uniform acceleration? State its


No

S.I. unit.

5. Explain the term deceleration with an example.

6. Calculate the acceleration of a body if it starts from


rest and attains the velocity 20 ms-1 in 10 seconds.

56
7. An object moving at a velocity 24 ms-1 is brought to
a halt in 8 seconds by applying a force in opposite
direction to the motion. Calculate the acceleration.

8. If a vehicle is accelerated to 5 ms-2, how much time


does it take to attain a velocity of 27 ms-1 which initially

d
starts with 2 ms-1 ?

he
9. What does it imply and why? If :

is
a) acceleration of a body is zero ms-2
re S B
bl
b) initial velocity of a body is zero ms-1
be T

c) final velocity of a body is zero ms-1


pu
K

V. Give reasons for the following :


1. A car travelling on an uneven mud road is an example of


non-uniform motion.

2. Acceleration and deceleration have the same units yet


they have difference.
to

Project Work
t
No

Represent the following data in a velocity time graph and


determine the type of acceleration.

Velocity (ms-1) 5 10 15 20 25 30

Time (s) 0 10 20 30 40 50


57
UNIT - 5
ENERGY
After studying this unit you :
recognise the components of mechanical energy.
define potential energy and kinetic energy.

d
reason out the cause for potential energy and kinetic

he
energy of a body.
give examples for kinetic energy and potential energy.

is
differentiate between kinetic energy and potential energy.
re S
make a list of the uses of kinetic energy and potential
B
bl
energy in our day-to-day life.
be T
pu
establish relation between mass and velocity, mass
K

acceleration and height, mass force and acceleration,


work, force and displacement of a body.

identify the factors which affect the amount of work done


by a body.
calculate the amount of work done by a body in terms of
force and displacement.
make a list of the units used to represent energy, force,
to

work, and displacement.

You know that energy is the capacity of a body to do


t
No

work. Energy is measured by the work that the body can do.
Energy exists in many forms such as heat, light, sound, wind,
electricity, chemical energy, solar energy, magnetic energy
and nuclear energy etc.
Energy exists prominently in the mechanical form which
makes the body to work by virtue of its position or motion.

58
Activity 5.1 : Consider the following Pictorial examples.
List A List B

d
he
Arrow on a stretched bow. Arrow in motion

is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K

Wound up spring of a doll. Clapping doll


Rock on a hill top. Rolling rock down the hill.


t to
No

Water stored in a dam. Running stream of water


from the dam.
Fig. 5.1

In the above examples the mechanical energy of the


items in list-A is in stored form by virtue of their position.
59
But the energy acquired by the items in list-B is in the
form of motion by virtue of change in position. Let us see
how the position and change in position of a body leads to
potential energy and kinetic energy respectively.
1. Potential energy :
The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position
is called potential energy.

d
he
Know this :
The word potential comes from a Latin word which means

is
to be able.
re S
Let us try the following activities to understand potential
B
energy. bl
be T
pu
Activity 5.2 : Take a catapult.
K

Hold the rubber slings at its


ends, and stretch them as

shown in the figure. Do you feel


a pull back? Yes, they tend to
Fig. 5.2 : Stretched catapault
regain their original position.
A catapult acquires potential energy at a stretched position.
Activity 5.3 : Take a spring.
to

Put it vertically on a table


and compress the spring
vertically downward. Do you
t

feel a push back? Yes it tends


No

to regain its original position.


Generally a spring acquires Fig. 5.3
Potential energy at a Compressed spring on a table.
compressed or stretched
position. When this energy is released an equalent amount
of work can be done. The potential energy of the compressed
spring is used for firing a bullet from a gun.

60
Think :
Elasticity or position sustainity of a body is the real
cause of its potential energy.

Know this :
An object at rest can have potential
energy due to its raised position.

d
The higher an object is raised above the

he
ground level, the greater is its potential
energy.

is
re S
Greater the mass of the body, the
Fig. 5.4 :
B
bl
greater is the potential energy. Uploading wooden
logs to a truck
be T
pu
Expression for potential energy of a body at height h
K

Consider a body of mass m kg. If it


is lifted through a height h metre from


the ground level, work is done on the body
against the gravitational force g. The
amount of work done in doing so is mgh
joules(J) which is stored in the body as
potential energy. This is calculated by the
to

formula Fig. 5.5 : A sand


P.E = mgh J bag of m kg lifted to
a height h metre
t

Know this :
No

Work done = (force) (displacement)


Potential energy = (mass acceleration due to gravity) (height)
P.E = (m g) h
P.E = mgh
here g = acceleration due to gravity.
g = 9.8 ms-2
61
2. Kinetic energy :

The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion is


called kinetic energy.
Know this :
The word kinetic comes from a Greek word which means

d
motion.

he
Kinetic energy is measured by the amount of work the

is
body can do before coming to rest. A moving vehicle, a moving
re S
bullet, flowing water, moving air, a falling body, a swinging
B
bl
pendulum, a moving ball, all of these possess kinetic energy.
be T
pu
Know this :
K

In hydro power stations the kinetic energy of the falling


water rotates the turbine connected to an electric generator,


thus the electrical energy is generated by the kinetic energy
of water.

Try the following activities to understand kinetic energy.


to

Activity 5.4 : Let us play the game of carrom.


t

You set all the coins in the


No

centre of the board. Hit them


with the help of a striker. What
happens? The striker makes
the coins move because of its
kinetic energy due to motion. Fig. 5.6 : Striker making
the coins move

62
Activity 5.5 : Have you played cricket?
Take a plastic ball and a
rubber ball of same size. Throw
them at the stumps one after
the other with the same force.
Which ball is more likely to hit
them harder? Obviously the
rubber ball, because it is Fig 5.7 : Throwing a ball

d
heavier. Thus the rubber ball towards stumps

he
possess more kinetic energy than the plastic ball.
Activity 5.6 : Take a

is
used battery cell and an
re S
empty match box. Place
B
bl
the match box at the foot
of an inclined plane, as
be T

shown in the figure


pu
inclined at small height.
K

Roll the battery cell down


the inclined plane so as

Fig. 5.8
to hit the match box. The
Rolling inclined plane experiment
kinetic energy of the
rolling cell displaces the match box. Measure the displacement.
Now raise the inclination so that to make it more steep. Let
the cell roll down again and hit the match box with more
speed. Measure the displacement. Raise the inclination and
to

repeat the activity. What is your observation?


From the above activities (5.4, 5.5 and 5.6) we can
conclude that :
t
No

1. Bodies in motion have kinetic energy.


2. If two bodies of same size and different mass are
travelling at the same speed then the body of greater
mass has greater kinetic energy.
3. If the speed of a body increases, its kinetic energy also
increases and if the speed decreases its kinetic energy
also decreases.

63
Expression for kinetic energy :
Consider a body mass m kg moving with the velocity v
ms-1. If a constant force F Newton is applied against the motion
of the body to bring it to rest, the work done is equal to its
kinetic energy.
This is calculated by the formula

d
KE = 1 mv2 J
joules
2

he
Equation for force :

If a body of mass m kg having an acceleration a ms-2, then

is
re S
its force F is represented by an equation.
B
bl F = m.a N
be T
pu
Work :
K

Consider the following example.


If a man fails to lift a heavy stone no


work is said to be done. But certainly work
is said to be done if he lifts it with his full
effort. Do you know why?
In an ordinary sense, performing an
activity is commonly considered as work. But
to

work has unique meaning. Work is said to


be done only if the force displaces the body
in its own direction of action.
t

Fig. 5.9
No

Note : A man lifting a


No work when there is no displacement. heavy stone
No displacement when there is no force.
Activity 5.7 : Make a list of the situations where work is
done by the force applied. Identify the force being used and
the displacement caused.

64
Factors affecting the work :
Activity 5.8 : Ask your physical education teacher to conduct
a sport event, say disc throw.
Throw the disc with a
possible force and measure
the displacement. Repeat
the throws gradually
increasing the applied force

d
and note down the

he
displacements. What do
you observe? Fig. 5.10 : Throwing a disc
It is very clear that the magnitude of displacement is

is
re S
increasing over the increase in the magnitude of force
applied.
B
bl
be T

Hence force and displacement are the factors which affect


pu
the work.
K

Note :

Greater is the displacement, greater is the work.

Measurement of work :
If F is the force acting
to

on a body and S is the


distance travelled by a
body in the direction of
t

force, then work done by


No

the force in moving a body


is equal to product of the Fig. 5.11
magnitude of force and the
distance travelled by a body in the direction of force.
Work = Force displacement along the direction of force.

W=Fxs

65
Worked examples :
(1) If a force of 10 newton moves a body through a distance
of 4 metre, calculate the work done in the direction of
force.
Solution : Know this :
In S.I. System the unit of
Data : F = 10 N

d
force is newton (N) and
unit of displacement is

he
s = 4m
metre (m). So unit of work
W = ? is newton metre (joule).

is
re S
W = Fs 1 joule = 1 newton metre
B
bl
W = 10 N 4 m
be T
pu
W = 40 J.
K

(2) Calculate the displacement of an object in the direction


of force applied if 40 joule work is done by the force of
5 N.
Solution :
Data : F = 5 N
to

W = 40 J
t

s = ?
No

W = Fs
s = W
F
40 Nm
s = 5N

s = 8m

66
Remember
A body can have two types of energy _ Potential and Kinetic.
Potential energy and Kinetic energy taken together
constitute mechanical energy.
The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position

d
or shape is called potential energy.

he
A moving object possess kinetic energy.

is
Potential energy depends upon the mass of the body and
re S
the height to which it is raised.
B
bl
Kinetic energy depends upon the mass of the body and
be T
pu
its velocity.
K

Potential energy _ P.E = mgh J.


Kinetic energy _ K.E = 1 mv2 J.


2
Force _ F = ma N
Work done _ W = Fs J.
Potential energy of a body can be increased by raising it
to

to more height or by bringing in to a definite shape.


Kinetic energy of a body can be increased by increasing
t

the force applied and reducing the friction.


No

Tips
Do not step out suddenly from a moving vehicle. Other
wise kinetic energy acquired by your body will make you
to fell down.

67
Try to gain more kinetic energy by running fast before
jumping in athletic events, such as long jump and high
jump.

Do not waste energy as it can be referred as stored work.

Exercises

d
he
I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/
incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer

is
and put a tick () mark against it :
re S B
bl
1. Mechanical energy is the combination of
be T

a) potential energy and kinetic energy.


pu
K

b) solar energy and heat energy.


c) wind energy and electrical energy.

d) water energy and bio energy.

2. Potential energy of a body increases with increase in


a) mass of the body.
to

b) height of the body.


c) both mass and height of the body.
t

d) speed of the body.


No

3. The object which has greater kinetic energy is :


a) mass = 3 kg, velocity = 4 ms-1.
b) mass = 5 kg, velocity = 6 ms-1.
c) mass = 8 kg, velocity = 2 ms-1.
d) mass = 10 kg, velocity = 3 ms-1.
68
4. The S.I. unit of work is
a) newton b) watt
c) joule d) metre

5. The work is said to be done when a body is


a) at rest

d
b) displaced along the force applied

he
c) stationary even under an applied force

is
re S
d) under a pair of equal and opposite forces
B
bl
II. Fill in the blanks by choosing correct words from
be T
pu
the list given in brackets :
K

(kinetic energy, force, rest, mass,


displacement, potential energy.)

1. Water stored in an over head tank is an example


for __________.

2. Rolling rock down the hill is an example for __________.


to

3. Kinetic energy is measured by the amount of work the


body can do before coming to __________.
t
No

4. If two bodies are moving at the same speed, the


body with the greater __________ has greater kinetic
energy.

5. Amount of work done increases with increase in the


magnitude of __________.

69
III. Match the physical quantities given in list A
with their corresponding formula given in list B :
A B
1. mechanical energy (M.E) a) m a
2. potential Energy (P.E) b) u + at
3. kinetic Energy (K.E) c) FS

d
4. force (F) d) mgh

he
5. work (W) e) KE + PE
f) 1mmv2

is
re S
2
IV. Answer the following questions :
B
bl
be T

1. What are the two forms of mechanical energy?


pu
K

2. What do you mean by potential energy? Give two


examples.

3. What is kinetic energy? Give two examples.


4. On what factors do the potential energy of a body
depend?
5. When does a body is said to possess kinetic energy?
to

6. Differentiate between potential energy and kinetic


energy.
t
No

7. Name two factors which affect the work done by a body.


8. In which case do we consider the potential energy to
be equal to zero?
9. What is the relationship between kinetic energy of a
body to its mass and speed?

70
10. Calculate the amount of work done when you push a
table through a displacement of 8.5 m, with an applied
force of 20 N.
11. What is the displacement a toy car when 30 J of work
is done by an applied force of 6 N?
12. 68 J of work is done by a compressed spring when

d
released. If it displaces an object through 8 m, calculate

he
the force excerted by the spring.

is
re S
V. Give reasons for the following :
B
bl
be T

1. Flowing water is used to generate hydro electricity.


pu
K

2. A deformed spring possesses potential energy.


3. Kinetic energy of a body at rest is assumed to be equal


to zero.

Project Work

Prepare a spring and a thread pendulums. Observe their


to

oscillations. Give a brief description about of the conversion


of energy occurring from potential energy to kinetic energy
t

and kinetic energy to potential energy.


No

71
UNIT - 6
PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES
After studying this unit you :
reason out the differences in molecular arrangement in
solids, liquids and gases.

d
state the properties of solids, liquids and gases through

he
activities.
compare the properties of solids, liquids and gases.

is
re S
develop the skill to conduct experiments.
B
bl
You have observed wood, stone, water, milk, smoke and
be T
pu
fog in your surroundings. These things are in different states
K

of matter. What are these physical states of matter? They are


solids, liquids or gases. They are quite different too. What is

the reason for these different states of matter?

The physical states of matter are due to the arrangement


of molecules in them. They also have differences in their
properties.
t to
No

Solid Liquid Gas

Fig. 6.1
Arrangement of molecules in solid, liquid and gas

72
Know this :
Plasma, the fourth state of matter is an ionized gas. It is
found in stars, lightning, auroras, flames and some types
of X-rays.

d
he
Fig. 6.2 : Lightning

is
re S
Properties of solids :
B
bl
Activity 6.1 : Take a fairly big pebble and try to fit it into
a small glass. Will the pebble fit into the glass? It is not
be T

possible how ever much you try. This is because the pebble
pu
K

is a solid and is rigid. This shows that solids have a definite


shape.

Activity 6.2 : Take a


measuring jar and pour
100 ml of water into it.
Tie a solid to one end of
a thread andimmerse
to

into the measuring jar in


such a way that it does 250 ml 250 ml
not touch the walls of the
150 ml
t

jar. What do you observe? 150 ml


No

The water level in the 50 ml 50 ml


measuring jar rises. Note
the rise in water. Note that
a larger solid displaces Fig. 6.3
more water level. This Solids occupy space
shows that solids occupy and have definite volume
space and have a definite
volume.

73
You would have noticed how a vegetable vendor measures
the quantity of vegetables you ask for. If you ask for 1 kg of
potatoes, what does he do? He will take the 1 kg weight and
place it in a pan of his common balance. What happens to
the balance? The pan with the 1 kg weight tilts down and the
empty pan goes up. This shows that solids have weight.
Take a piece of thread and pull it apart. Take a porceline

d
cup and drop it. What happens? The thread gets cut and cup

he
gets broken.Some solids break.
Is it easier to cut a rubber ball than a piece of wood? Yes.

is
re S
This tells us that some solids are soft while some are hard.
B
bl Know this :
be T

A sponge is a solid, yet it can be compressed, why? A sponge


pu
has pores filled with air. When compressed, the air in the
K

pores escapes. It can be compressed only to its existing


volume. Its density does not change.


Some solids can be compressed a little depending on the
material they are made up of.
Experiment :
Ball and ring experiment :
to

Take an iron ball and the ring


in which the iron ball pass through
t

easily. Pass the ball through the


No

ring. It passes through the ring iron ball


easily. Now heat the ball for about
5 minutes. Try to pass the ball
through the ring. What happens? before after
heating heating
The ball does not pass through the
ring. This shows that solids expand Fig. 6.4
Solids expand on heating
on heating.

74
Ice melts at 00C and iron melts at 15400C. Solids have a
definite melting point.
Properties of liquids :
Activity 6.3 : Lift a small empty bucket. Now fill the bucket
with water and lift. What do you feel? The bucket when
filled with water becomes heavier than the empty bucket.
This shows us that water has mass.

d
he
Activity 6.4 : Pour water into a

is
measuring jar and measure the quantity
re S
of water in it. If we are able to measure the
B
bl
quantity of water it means water is a liquid
having volume. Observe that water could
be T
pu
be poured into the jar and it occupies
K

space. Fig. 6.5


Measuring jar

containing water

Activity 6.5 : Pour 100 ml of any liquid into a measuring


jar, a conical flask and a beaker. Observe the shape taken
by the liquid in all the three vessels. Are they same? No.
to

Water take the shape of the containers it is poured into. That


is, water do not have a definite shape.
t
No

Fig. 6.6 : Liquids take the shape of the containers they are kept in

75
Properties of gases :
Activity 6.6 : Tie a balloon filled with air at one end of a
scale and another balloon which is not filled with air at the
other end of the same scale.
Balance the scale at the centre with your finger. What
do you observe? The scale tilts to the side of the inflated

d
balloon. This shows that air has mass.

he
Activity 6.7 : Fill air into a balloon, football and a tyre tube.
Observe their shapes. Do they all have same shape? No.

is
re S
Gases take the shape of the object they are filled into. They
also occupy the maximum space as they spread. Gases do
B
bl
not have definite shape.
be T
pu
Gases can be stored in cylinders and transported as they
K

can be compressed.

Think :
Now a days helium gas is used to fill balloons instead
of hydrogen gas. Why?
to

Experiment :
(Teacher assistance required to conduct this experiment)
t

Take a clean, dry, cylindrical transparent tube opened at


No

both ends. Take two cotton dabs one dipped in hydrochloric


acid and the other in ammonium hydroxide. Insert them at
either ends of the tube and plug the tube ends using corks.
Slightly heat the tube. What do you observe? A white ring is
formed inside the tube. This white ring is ammonium chloride
formed by the fusion of the diffused vapours of ammonium
hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. This experiment shows that
gases diffuse.
76
cotton piece with cotton piece with
hydrochloric acid ammonium hydroxide

white ring
burners

d
he
Fig. 6.7 : Gases diffuse

is
re S
The process of spreading of vapours of camphor, the smell
B
bl
of flowers, smell of good food, a lighted agarbathi or perfume
be T

through air is called diffusion.


pu
K

Remember

Physical states of matter are due to their molecular


arrangement.
The four states of matter are solid, liquid, gas and plasma
state.
to

Solids have a definite shape, volume and occupy space.


Solids have a definite melting point and mass.
t
No

Solids expand on heating.


Solids could be soft or hard and could break.
Liquids have definite mass, occupy space and they flow.
Liquids do not have a definite shape.
Liquids spread when spilt.

77
Gases have mass and occupy space.
Gases do not have a definite shape and volume.
Gases can be compressed to a large extent.
Gases diffuse.

Tips

d
he
Solids, liquids and gases must be handled carefully.
Wherever the liquids are spilt, care should be taken.

is
re S B
bl Exercises
be T
pu
I. Underline the word which does not belong to the
K

group :

1. carbon dioxide, carbon, hydrogen, carbon monoxide.

2. porceline, wood, iron, milk.

II. Give two examples for each of the following :


to

1. Substances which have a definite shape.

2. Substances which flow.


t
No

3. Substances which are invisible but diffuse.

III. Answer the following questions :


1. What is the reason for the different states of matter?
2. How are the properties of a brick different from that of
air?
78
3. Write two similarities between the properties of gases
and liquids.
4. What is diffusion? Can liquids diffuse?
5. Conduct an experiment to show that gases diffuse and
explain it.

d
6. Conduct an experiment to show that solids expand on
heating and explain it.

he
IV. Give reasons for the following :

is
re S
1. Solids have a definite shape.
B
bl
2. Liquids are capable of changing their shape.
be T
pu
3. Camphor could be smelt from a short distance.
K

4. Gases can be compressed.


5. A bucket filled with water will be heavier than an empty


bucket.


t to
No

79
UNIT - 7
HEAT AND TEMPERATURE
After studying this unit you :
define heat and temperature.
make a list of the differences between heat and
temperature.

d
explain the construction of a laboratory thermometer.

he
develop the skill of drawing the diagram of a lab
thermometer.
explain the construction of a clinical thermometer.

is
re S
develop the skill of drawing the diagram of a clinical
B
bl
thermometer.
measure the temperature using lab thermometer and
be T
pu
clinical thermometer.
K

Have you experienced the weather changes that happen


from morning till evening? When do you feel cool and when

do you feel warmer? Why does it happen?


We feel cool in the morning and in the evening. We feel
warmer during mid day. This is because of the variation in
the suns radiations which we receive.
Rubbing the palms and folding the body are very common
to

during cold season. While rubbing the palms muscular energy


gets converted into kinetic energy of the palms, which leads
to friction, then in turn produces heat.
t
No

While cleaning utensils and washing clothes, if you use


hot water, cleaning will be easier. The dirt goes off easily as
the hot water has more energy than the cold water.
Think :
How does a petrol engine or a diesel engine work?
Why is the dissolution faster in hot water than in
cold water?

80
Activity 7.1 : Take a beaker containing cold water and
another one containing hot water. Put a drop of ink to each
of them.

ink drop

d
he
cold water hot wa
water
ater

is
re S
Fig. 7.1
B
bl
What differences do you observe in two beakers?
be T
pu
K

In the beaker containing cold water, ink spreads slowly,


whereas in the beaker containing hot water, ink spreads

faster. The spreading of ink takes place due to the movement


of water molecules.
The atoms and molecules in matter are in continuous
motion. So they possess kinetic energy.
The sum of kinetic energy of all the molecules in a matter
to

is called heat.
As heat is a form of energy, the unit of energy itself is the
t

unit of heat. So, S.I. unit of heat is joule (J).


No

Sources of heat :
1. Sun is the primary source of heat energy.
2. Heat is obtained by burning fuel.
Example : wood, kerosene, L.P.G., coal and petrol
are some commonly used fuel.

81
3. Electricity produces heat.
Example : electric iron, electric boiler etc., are some
electrical appliances which convert electrical energy
into heat.
Temperature :
Activity 7.2 : Touch a beaker containing cold water. What

d
do you feel? Heat the beaker for 2 to 3 minutes. Now touch

he
the beaker. What do you feel?

In the above activity, we feel cold while we touch the beaker

is
re S
before heating it. We feel hot after heating it. Heat changes
B
bl
a cold body into hot body. Heating increases the degree of
hotness of any system.
be T
pu
The measure of degree of hotness of a body is called
K

temperature.

While heating, energy of the system increases. So the


kinetic energies of the molecules increase. Thus the average
kinetic energy of the molecules also increases.
Temperature is defined as the average kinetic energy of
the molecules.
to

We understand from the above activity, heat is the cause


of increases in temperature, and temperature is the effect of
t

heat.
No

Sum of kinetic energy of all the molecules


Average kinetic energy =
Number of molecules

Activity 7.3 : Dip a small piece of hot iron into a small


quantity of cold water in a cup. After sometime the piece of
iron becomes cold and water becomes warm. The heat from
the piece of iron is transferred to water.

82
Heat transfers from hot body to cold body.
Differences between heat and temperature :
Heat Temperature
1. Temperature is the measure
1. Heat is a form of energy.
of degree of hotness.
2. S.I. Unit of temperature is

d
2. S.I. Unit of heat J (joule)
K (kelvin).

he
3. The sum of kinetic energy
3. The average kinetic energy
of all the molecules in a
of the molecules.
matter.

is
re S
In our day to day life, we come across a number of objects.
B
bl
Some of them are hot and some of them are cold.
be T
pu
Activity 7.4 : Classify the following substances into hot and
K

cold objects and write them in the table given.


ice cream, metal handle of a frying pan,

glucose solution, cooker consisting of steam,


juice kept in the refrigerator, boiling milk.
Hot substance Cold substance
t to
No

We see that some objects are cold and some are hot. Some
objects are hotter than others and some are colder than others.
How do we decide which object is hotter than the other?

83
Activity 7.5 : Take three large beakers. Name them as 1, 2
and 3. Fill some ice cold water in beaker 1. Fill some hot
water in beaker 2. Mix some ice cold water and hot water
in beaker 3. Dip your left hand in beaker 1, right hand
in beaker 2. Keep the hands for 2 - 3 minutes. Put both the
hands simultaneously in beaker 3.

d
is he
re S B
bl
be T
pu
1 2 3
K

Ice cold water


Ice cold water Hot water
and hot water

Fig. 7.2
What do you feel? Do both the hands get the same feeling?
No, both the hands do not get the same feeling. The left
hand feels hot and the right hand feels cold.
In such a situation, it is difficult to decide, how hot an
object is?
to

A reliable measure of the degree of hotness of an object is


temperature.
t

Measurement of Temperature :
No

Temperature is measured by a device called thermometer.


Thermometer is an instrument that measures the
temperature of a system quantitatively.
There are different types of thermometers which are
classified on the basis of their application and working
principle. The most commonly known thermometers are
laboratory thermometer and clinical thermometer.

84
1. Laboratory thermometer :
A laboratory thermometer
consists of a thick walled glass capillary.
One end of it has a thin walled glass
bulb filled with mercury or red coloured
alcohol. The air inside the capillary is
removed and the other end is closed.

d
The capillary is fitted inside a glass

he
tube. The whole length is graduated
suitable to enable us to measure the
temperature.

is
re S
Fig. 7.3
Laboratory thermometers
B
bl
Activity 7.6 : Measure the temperature of different
be T

substances using laboratory thermometer.


pu
K

2. Clinical thermometer :
A clinical thermometer mercury bulb

is designed for clinical use


of human and animals. It is
made of a fine capillary with Scale
a bulb filled with mercury
constriction
at one end. Near the bulb
it has a narrow bend
to

known as constriction. The


constriction prevents the Fig. 7.4 : Clinical thermometer
t

back flow of mercury when


No

it is taken out of a patients mouth or armpit. Before using it


again, the thermometer is jerked so that the mercury flows
back into the bulb.
To reduce the risk of cross - contamination between
patients, it has to be sterilized after each use.
The normal temperature of human body is about 98.60F
(370 C). Our body temperature cannot fall below 950 F or rise

85
above 1080 F. Hence the range of clinical thermometer is
between 950 F and 1080 F.(350 to 42.20C)
F= Fahrenheit, C=Celcius

Activity 7.7 : Take a clinical thermometer from your


lab. Measure your body temperature. Measure the body
temperature of your friends. Follow the safety rules.

d
Differences between laboratory thermometer and clinical
thermometer :

he
Laboratory thermometer Clinical thermometer

is
re S
1. Used to measure the 1. Used to measure the
temperature in the temperature of human
B
bl
laboratory. body and animal body.
be T

2. Range of temperature is
pu
2. Range of temperature is
from 950 F to 1080 F.
K

from - 300 C to 1100 C.


(35o C to 42.2o C)

3. Constriction is absent. 3. Constriction is present.


Now a days many other advanced types of thermometers
are used. For example, digital thermometer, constant
volume gas thermometer, platinum resistance thermometer,
thermoelectric thermometer etc.
Remember
to

The sum of kinetic energy of all the molecules in a matter


is called heat.
t

Heat is a form of energy.


No

The measure of degree of heat of a body is called


temperature. It is the average kinetic energy of the
molecules.
Temperature is measured in terms of Kelvin.
The thermometer is an instrument that measures the
temperature of a system quantitatively.
A laboratory thermometer is used to measure the
temperature of different systems in the laboratory.
86
A clinical thermometer consists of constriction.
A clinical thermometer is used to measure the temperature
of human beings and animals.
Tips
Do not wash a clinical thermometer using hot water.
Sterilize a clinical thermometer before using.

d
Exercises

he
I. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :
1. The primary source of heat is ____________.

is
re S
2. In hot water the movement of molecules is ____________.
B
3. bl
Temperature is measured by ____________.
be T

4. The S.I unit of heat is ____________.


pu
5. The S.I unit of temperature is ____________.
K

II. Answer the following questions :


1. Write the differences between heat and temperature.


2. Draw a neat labelled diagram of a laboratory
thermometer.
3. Draw a neat labelled diagram of a clinical thermometer.
4. Write the differences between a laboratory thermometer
to

and clinical thermometer.


5. Heat transfers from a hot body to a cold body. Give an
illustration.
t
No

Project work
o
Give the equivalent value of temperature of 0 C and
100o C in Fahrenheit.
Measure and make a list of atmospheric temperature
for a week.


87
UNIT - 8
ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS
After studying this unit you :
name some common acids, bases and salts.
explain the meaning of acids, bases and salts.

d
identify organic and mineral acids.

he
define acids and bases.
List out and explain the physical and chemical properties

is
of acids and bases with activities and experiments.
re S
make a list of the properties of salts.
B
bl
develop the skill in drawing neat diagrams showing the
be T
pu
experimental set up related to acids and bases.
K

differentiate between the properties of acids and bases.


make a list of the uses of acids, bases and salts.


define indicators.
explain the meaning of neutralization and formation of
salts.
explain the meaning of pH value, what does it indicate
to

and its importance in life.

You have already learnt the meaning of compounds. You


t

also know the names and formulae of some of them. Can


No

you name some compounds? Some of these compounds


are naturally occurring and are essential for life. Chemical
compounds are broadly classified into three groups. They are -
1. Acids.
2. Bases.
3. Salts.

88
Let us now study about acids, bases and salts in detail.
1. Acids :
The food that we eat daily consists of cereals, vegetables,
fruits etc.
Activity 8.1 : Squeeze out
the juice of a lime and taste a

d
drop of it. What does it taste

he
like? It is sour. This sour taste
is due to the presence of a

is
chemical compound called
re S
Fig. 8.1 : Lime is sour to taste
Citric acid. Can you name
B
bl
some other edibles that taste sour?
be T
pu
K

Know this :
The word acid comes, from the Latin word acidus which

means sour.

Most citrus fruits like lemon, orange, gooseberry and


grapes are sources of vitamin C. Vitamin C is chemically called
ascorbic acid. Vinegar, tamarind, milk, curd and tomato also
to

contain acids.
When a person is stung by
bees or bitten by red ants, he
t
No

experiences a burning
sensation on his skin. Do you
know why? This is because
these insects inject an acid into
the body when they bite or Fig. 8.2 : Red ant and bee
sting. This acid is formic acid.

89
Types of acids :
Acids can be classified into two groups. They are organic
(carbonic) acids and mineral (acarbonic) acids.
1. Organic acids :
Acids that occur naturally are called organic acids. The
table given below gives some naturally occurring acids and

d
what they occur in.

he
With suitable reference fill in the blanks to
complete the table.

is
re S
Sl.No. Organic Acid Occurs in
B
1. bl
Citric acid and
lemon, orange
be T

ascorbic acid
pu
K

tamarind, unripe mango,


2. Tartaric acid
grapes

3. Lactic acid milk

4. Oxalic acid

5. Folic acid
to

6. Acetic acid

7. Tannic acid
t
No

8. Malic acid

Know this :
Tartaric acid is used in making jams and carbonated grape
beverages. It cleans and polishes metals, hence tamarind is
used while washing and cleaning brass vessels.

90
2. Mineral acids (inorganic acids) :
Mineral acids are made or prepared from minerals present
in the earth. The common mineral acids are sulphuric acid
(H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3).
An acid has two parts - 1) the hydrogen part and
2) the acid radical part. This can be understood from the table

d
given below.

he
Acid Hydrogen part Radical Part

is
_
re S
HCl H+ Cl
__
B
bl
H2SO4 2H+ SO4
be T
pu
When acids dissolve in water they split up into their
K

hydrogen part and radical part.


Know this :
A radical is a charged group of atoms.
dissolves in H2O _
HCl H+ + Cl
hydrogen chloride
to

ion ion

dissolves in H2O __
t

H2SO4 2H+ + SO4


No

hydrogen sulphate
ion ion

In the above examples we see that when acids dissolve in


water, they give a positive hydrogen ion.
An acid is a compound which when dissolved in water
gives only hydrogen ions (H+) as the positive ion.
91
Properties of acids :
Physical properties of acids : Caution !
1. Taste : Acids are sour to taste. Do not taste any
acid directly.
2. Conductivity : A few drops Do not add water
of an acid in water makes water
to acids.
a good conductor of electricity.

d
he
3. Solubility : Acids are soluble in water. Acids should
be added to water drop by drop with constant stirring.
The beaker containing this solution becomes hot as it

is
re S
is an exothermic reaction.
B
bl
Corrosiveness :
be T

Activity 8.2 : Carefully put


pu
K

a few drops of (concentrated) sulphuric


acid on a piece of cloth. What do you

observe? The acid destroys the cloth


creating a hole. Acids can destroy
paper, wood, metals and cause burns
on skin. Most acids are corrosive in Fig. 8.3
nature. Acids are corrosive

Know this :
to

Acids are not stored in metal containers. Acids corrode


metals like iron and aluminium. So they are not stored in
t

metal containers but are safe to be stored in glass containers.


No

Litmus effect :
Activity 8.3 : Squeeze out the
juice of a lime into a bowl. Dip a
blue litmus paper into it. What Fig. 8.4 : Blue litmus paper
do you observe? Acids turn blue with a drop of acid
litmus red.

92
Know this :
Johann Rudolf Glauber was born in 1604
in Germany. He was an alchemist and
chemist. Some science historians
described him as one of the very first
chemical engineers. He was known to
have supplied medicines and provided

d
medical treatment to the poor. He
improved the process for the manufacture

he
of nitric acid and was the first to produce
Fig. 8.5 : Johann
Rudolf Glanber
hydrochloric acid.

is
re S
Johann Rudolf Glauber was known to have manufactured
sodium sulphate which he called sal mirabilis meaning
B
bl
wonderful salt. It was later known as glaubers salt
be T

after him.
pu
K

Chemical Properties of acids :


1. Reaction of acids with metals :

burning splinter
Experiment : Take dilute
hydrochloric acid in a test tube
and put two or three strips of
magnesium wire into it. What do hydrochloric acid
you observe? A gas is liberated. magnesium wire
Bring a burning splinter near the
to

mouth of the test tube. The gas


Fig. 8.6 : Reaction of
burns with a POP sound. This gas
magnesium wire with HCl
is hydrogen. producing hydrogen
t
No

Some metals react with dilute


acids to form salt and liberate hydrogen.
Metal + acid salt + hydrogen ()
Know this :
Salt here does not refer to common salt (NaCl). It is the
compound formed when acids react with elements and
compounds.
93
Example :
a) Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride +
Hydrogen ()
b) Zinc + Sulphuric acid Zinc sulphate + Hydrogen()
Metals like sodium, potassium and calcium react violently
with dilute acids.

d
he
Metals like gold, silver and copper are less reactive metals
as they cannot replace the hydrogen atom from acids.

is
2. Reaction of acids with carbonates and bicarbonates :
re S B
Experiment :
bl
Take about 0.5 g of calcium carbonate(CaCO3) in a test
be T
pu
tube and close it with a two holed cork. Insert a funnel and
K

a delivery tube as shown in the figure.


funnel
delivery tube
to

Carbon
dioxide gas
t

Hydrochloric
No

acid Calcium
Hydroxide

Calcium Carbonate

Fig. 8.7 : Reaction of calcium


carbonate with HCl producing CO2

94
Take a small test tube containing lime water or calcium
hydroxide- Ca(OH)2 and place it at the end of the delivery tube
as shown in the figure.
Pour dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl) into the test tube
through the funnel. What do you observe? A brisk effervescence
is observed. This evolved gas passes into the lime water. What
do you observe now? The lime water turns milky. The gas

d
evolved is carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide turns lime

he
water milky.
Metal carbonates/ bicarbonates + Acid Salt

is
re S
+ Carbon dioxide + Water.
Example :
B
bl
be T

a) Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid Calcium chloride


pu
+ Water + Carbon dioxide .
K

b) Sodium bicarbonate + Hydrochloric acid Sodium chloride


+ Water + Carbon dioxide .


Know this :
The reaction of sodium carbonate with sulphuric acid is
used to prepare carbon dioxide in the laboratory.
to

Acids are widely used in our homes and in industries.


Uses of acids :
t

1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is used :


No

to manufacture glue.
to purify common salt.
in the preparation of glucose and chlorides.
for bleaching in textile industry.
to clean metals before they are tinned, soldered or
galvanised.

95
Know this :
Galvanisation is the process of coating iron or steel with
zinc either by immersing in a bath of molten zinc or by
deposition from a solution of zinc sulphate. This is done to
avoid corrosion.

2. Nitric acid (HNO3) is used :

d
to etch designs or names on metals

he
like copper, brass and bronze.
in the purification of precious metals

is
re S
like gold and silver.
B
bl
to extract metals from their ores.
be T

in the manufacture of some dyes,


pu
perfumes, plastics, rayon (artificial
K

Fig. 8.8
silk), fertilizers (like ammonium nitrate), Etching design on

explosives (like TNT- trinitro toluene a metal vessel


and nitro glycerine) and medicines.

Know this :
An ore is a naturally occurring mineral that yields metals
to

or valuable minerals.

3. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is used :


t

to refine petrol.
No

Know this :
in the manufacture of
f e r t i l i z e r s ( a m m o n i u m Sulphuric acid is called
the King of acids as it
sulphate, superphosphate),
has so many uses.
detergents, drugs, plastics,
paint and chemicals (copper sulphate, epsom salt.)
in paper, leather, textile and automobile industries.

96
Know this :
Epsom salt is magnesium sulphate (MgSO4. 7H2O) It is a
naturally occurring mineral in water. Its name is derived
from the town of Epsom, England where the compound was
first distilled.
4. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is used :

d
in the preparation of aerated soft drinks.

he
5. Aqua Regia is used :
in etching designs on metals like gold and platinum.

is
re S
Know this :
B
bl
Aqua Regia is a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid
be T

and concentrated nitric acid in the ratio 3 :1. This mixture


pu
dissolves noble metals like gold and platinum.
K

Bases :

Have you tasted a bitter gourd?


What does it taste like? Obviously it is
bitter as its name suggests. This bitterness
is due to a chemical compound in it.
Chemical compounds that are bitter to
taste are called bases.
to

Just like how acids have a hydrogen Fig. 8.9


part, bases have a hydroxyl (OH) part. A Bitter guard
t

base is made up of one or more hydroxyl


No

(OH) groups attached to a metal.


Base Metal part Hydroxyl group
-
Na OH Na+ (OH )
Ca OH2 Ca++ 2(OH - )
When bases dissolve in water they split up into the metal
part and the hydroxyl group as shown in the above table.
97
Know this :
The oxides and hydroxides of metals are bases.

Do all bases dissolve in water? No, all bases do not dissolve


in water. The bases that dissolve in water generate hydroxyl
ion [(OH)-] and are called alkalis.

d
Know this :

he
All alkalis are bases but all bases are not alkalis.

is
re S
Bases that dissolve in Bases that do not dissolve
B
bl
water are alkalis. in water are non-alkalis.
be T
pu
Sodium hydroxide. Aluminium hydroxide.
K

Potassium hydroxide. Copper hydroxide.


Properties of bases :

Physical properties of bases :


1. Taste : Bases are bitter to taste.
to

2. Feel : Bases are soapy to touch.


3. Conductivity : Solutions of bases are good conductors
t
No

of electricity.
4. Corrosiveness : Some bases are corrosive in nature.

Know this :
NaOH is the most corrosive base. Carbonic acid is the least
corrosive acid.

98
5. Litmus effect :
Activity 8.4 : Dip a red litmus paper in a solution of sodium
hydroxide solution. What do you observe? Bases turn red
litmus paper blue.

d
Fig. 8.10
Red litmus paper with a drop of a base

he
Activity 8.5 : Make your own litmus

is
paper at home. Boil some pieces of red
re S
cabbage in a vessel of water. Cool and
B
bl
strain out the coloured water. Cut strips
of blotting paper and dip them into this
be T
pu
coloured solution. Remove and place
K

them on a plastic sheet to dry. Your Fig. 8.11


Red cabbage
home made litmus paper is ready.

Chemical properties :
Bases react with acids to form salt and water. For example,
when the base, calcium hydroxide reacts with sulphuric acid,
the salt calcium sulphate and water are formed.
to

Calcium hydroxide + Sulphuric acid Calcium sulphate


(salt) + Water.
Sodium hydroxide + Hydrochloric acid Sodium chloride
t
No

(salt) + Water.
Indicators :
Indicators are chemical substances to indicate if a
substance is acidic, basic or neutral (neither acidic nor basic).
The most commonly used indicator is litmus. Turmeric
and red cabbage are natural indicators. The other indicaters
used in a laboratory are methyl orange and phenolphthalein.
99
The following table gives the change in colour when
different indicators are added to acids and alkalis.

Colour in Colour in
Sl. No. Indicator
acids alkalis
Red- Cabbage
1. red green
(purple)

d
Turmeric water no change in
2. reddish brown

he
(yellow) colour

3. Blue litmus red _____

is
re S
4. Red litmus _____ blue
B
5.
bl
Methyl orange red yellow
be T
pu
K

6. Phenolphthalein colourless pink


Uses of bases :
The most commonly used bases are sodium hydroxide,
calcium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide.

1. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (caustic soda) is used :


in textile, plastic and soap industries.
to

to refine petroleum.
in the manufacture of rayon, medicine and paper.
t
No

2. Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] (slaked lime) is used :


in white washing.
as an antidote for acid poisoning.
in the manufacture of bleaching powder, cement, mortar
and fungicides.
for removing fur from animal skin.

100
3. Ammonium hydroxide [NH4(OH)] is used :
to remove ink from clothes and grease stains.
in the manufacture of fertilizers like ammonium nitrate,
dyes, plastics and nylon.
Know this :

d
Ammonium hydroxide is the only base that does not have a
metal atom. Instead it has a (NH4)+ radical in it.

he
Neutralization :

is
re S
Experiment :
B
bl
Take about 10ml of sodium hydroxide solution in a conical
be T
pu
flask. Using a dropper add a few drops of phenolphthalein
K

and stir. What is the colour of the solution? It becomes pink


in colour as sodium hydroxide is an alkali.

burette burette

sulphuric
acid
to

v
v

conical flask
t

sodium hydroxide
No

and
white tile phenolphthalein

Fig. 8.12
Neutralization reaction
Now add a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid using a
burette and shake the flask. What do you observe?

101
As dilute sulphuric acid is added, the pink colour of the
solution fades. On adding more drops of dilute sulphuric acid,
the pink colour disappears, making the solution colourless.
What does this indicate? The solution is now acidic in nature.
Now add a drop of sodium hydroxide solution and stir. The
solution becomes pink again. Add a drop of dilute sulphuric

d
acid. What happens? The solution becomes colourless.

he
The reaction of a base with an acid to form the respective
salt and water is called neutralization reaction. The resulting
solution is called the neutralised solution.

is
re S
A neutralised solution is so called as the acidic and basic
B
bl
nature of the solution is cancelled out producing a neutral
be T

solution.
pu
K

Applications of neutralisation :
The process of neutralisation is so very useful in

day-to-day life.
Bee stings are acidic. An application of baking powder
(sodium bicarbonate), a base on the sting area helps to
neutralise and hence ease the pain and burning sensation
on the skin.
to

Our stomach contains traces of dilute hydrochloric acid


which is required for the digestion of food. The formation of
t

too much of acid in the stomach due to unhealthy eating or


No

not eating on time can cause discomfort and damage the inner
layer of the stomach. This can be eased by taking antacids
(which are bases) that help to neutralise the stomach.
Farmers mix lime (calcium oxide) to the soil which is acidic
to neutralise the soil to make it fit to grow plants. Plants cannot
grow well in soil which is too acidic or too basic in nature.

102
Acids and bases - a comparison :

Property Acids Bases.


Taste sour bitter
irritates/ burns
Feel soapy to touch
skin.

d
Action with litmus turns blue litmus Turns red litmus
paper red. blue.

he
some are
Corrosiveness corrosive
corrosive.

is
re S
conducts conducts
Conductivity
electricity electricity.
B
bl
Action with each
reacts with bases reacts with acids
be T

forming salts and forming salts and


pu
other
water water.
K

Salts :

You already know that salts are prepared by the


neutralisation reaction of acids and bases. You also know
that salts can be formed by the reaction of acids with metals,
metal oxides, metal carbonates and metal bicarbonates.
to

Properties of salts :
The general properties of salts are :
t

1. Most salts are solids with high melting and boiling


No

point.
2. Most salts are soluble in water.
3. Salts soluble in water make the solution a good
conductor of electricity.

103
Uses of important salts :
1. Sodium chloride (Common salt) is :
required in small quantities by the human body and adds
taste to our food.
very essential in pickling and curing of fish and meat.
used in pottery glazing.

d
necessary in the manufacture of chlorine, hydrochloric

he
acid, sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide and sodium
bicarbonate.
2. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) (washing soda) is used :

is
re S
to wash clothes
B

bl
to refine petroleum
be T

in the manufacture of caustic soda, borax, detergents,


pu
paper and glass.
K

3. Sodium bicarbonate ( NaHCO3) (baking soda) is used :


in bakery products like bread and cakes


as an antacid
in fire extinguishers.
4. Copper sulphate (CuSO4) (blue vitriol)
is used :
to manufacture medicines.
to

as a fungicide.
Fig. 8.13
for electroplating, making dyes and in Fire extinguisher
t
No

calico printing.
5. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) is used :
in glass, fertilizer and refrigeration industries
manufacture of gun powder.
6. Potash Alum [KAl(SO4)2] is used :
in the purification of water and in the tanning industry.

104
Know this :
Tanning is a process of making leather from the skin of
animals.

7. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) is used :


in developing films. Today it is not in much use as we have
digital photography.

d
pH Value :

he
Is it possible to measure the acidity or basic strength of

is
substances? It can be measured using a special scale called
re S
the pH scale.
B
bl neutral
be T

acid base
pu
K

lemon cabbage water


juice
hydrochloric milk milk of
acid magnesia
to

Fig. 8.14 : pH scale


t
No

Know this :
pH is the measure of concentration of hydrogen ion
and it indicates acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

If the value on a pH scale is zero to less than seven (i.e


0,1,2,3,4,5,6 and not 7) the substance is acidic in nature.

105
If the value on a pH scale is greater than seven upto
fourteen (i.e 8,9,10,11,12,13,14) the substance is a base.
What happens if the pH scale indicates seven ? A pH value
of seven indicates that the given solution is neither an acid
nor a base. It is neutral.
Importance of pH in our daily life :

d
The pH range within which the human body functions

he
is 7 to 7.8. The human stomach produces hydrochloric acid
(1.5 to 4 pH ) to help digestion. An increase in this acid can

is
re S
be managed by taking an antacid (a mild base) to neutralise
the excess acid.
B
bl
be T
pu
saliva 6.5 - 7.5 pH
K

upper stomach (fundie) 4.0 - 6.5 pH


lower stomach 1.5 - 4.0 pH


duodenum 7.0 - 8.5 pH
small intestine 4.0 - 7.0 pH
large intestine 4.0 - 7.0 pH
to

Fig. 8.15
Human digestive tract pH range chart
t

The pH range in the mouth should be around 6.5 to 7.5.


No

If the pH value falls below 6.5, the acidity increases causing


tooth decay. This could be prevented by cleaning the teeth
with tooth paste which is basic.
The pH of soil plays a great role in the growth of plants.

106
Remember
Chemical compounds are classified into acids, bases and
salts.
Acids can be classified as organic acids and mineral acids
(inorganic acids).

d
Acids that occur in nature are called organic acids.

he
Mineral acids are prepared from minerals obtained from
the earth.

is
When acids dissolve in water it splits up into its hydrogen
re S
part and radical part.
B
bl
An acid is a compound which when dissolved in water
be T

gives only hydrogen ions as the positive ion.


pu
K

Acids are sour to taste, corrosive.


Acid in water makes the solution conductive.

Acids turn blue litmus red.


Acids react with metals to form the respective salts and
liberate hydrogen.
Acids react with metal carbonates and bicarbonates to
to

form salts, carbondioxide and water.


Hydrochloric acid is used to manufacture glue, purify
common salt, to prepare glucose and chlorides. It is also
t
No

used in the textile industry and in cleaning metals before


tinning, soldering or galvanising.
Nitric acid is used to etch designs on copper, brass or
bronze vessels and in the purification of precious metals. It
is used to extract metals from their ores and manufacture
some dyes, perfumes, plastics, rayon, fertilizers, explosives
and medicines.

107
Sulphuric acid is used to refine petrol, manufacture
fertilizers, detergents, drugs, plastics, paint and chemicals.
It is also used in the paper, leather, textile and automobile
industries.
Carbonic acid is used in the preparation of soft drinks.
Aqua Regia is used in etching designs on precious metals.

d
Bases when dissolved in water give rise to a metal part

he
and a hydroxyl group.
Bases are bitter to taste.

is
re S
Bases are soapy to touch.
B

bl
Solutions of bases in water are good conductors of
electricity.
be T
pu
Some bases are corrosive.
K

Bases turn red litmus blue.


Bases react with acids to form salt and water.


An indicator is a chemical substance to indicate if a
substance is acidic, basic or neutral. Turmeric and red
cabbage are natural indicators.
to

Litmus paper, methyl orange and phenolphthalein are


other commonly used indicators.
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) is used in textile, plastic
t
No

and soap industries, in refining petroleum and in the


manufacture of rayon, medicine and paper.
Calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) is used in white washing,
in the manufacture of bleaching powder, cement and
fungicides. It is also used as an antidote for acid poisoning
and removing fur from animal skin.

108
Ammonium hydroxide is used to remove ink and grease
stains from clothes. It is also used in the manufacture of
fertilizers, dyes, plastics and nylon.
A neutralised solution is a solution which is neither acidic
nor basic in nature.
Salts are formed by neutralising reaction or by the reaction

d
of acids with metals, metal oxides, metal carbonates or

he
metal bicarbonates.
Most salts are solids with high melting and boiling

is
re S
point. They dissolve in water making the solution a good
conductor of electricity.
B

bl
Sodium chloride is essential for the human body. It is used
be T
pu
in pickling and curing of fish and meat.
K

Washing soda is used in washing clothes and refining


petroleum.
Baking soda is used in making bakery products.
Copper sulphate is used in the manufacture of medicines
and as a fungicide.
to

Potassium nitrate is used in glass, fertilizer and refrigeration


industries.
t

Potash Alum is used in the purification of water.


No

Silver nitrate is used in developing films.


A scale called the pH scale is used to measure the acidity
or basicity of substances.
A value zero to less than seven on the pH scale indicates
an acidic substance.

109
A value greater than seven to fourteen on the pH scale
indicates a base.
Exactly seven on the pH scale denotes a neutral solution
or substance.
An increase in acidity in the stomach causes discomfort.

d
An increase in acidity in the mouth can cause tooth decay.

he
Tips
Avoid eating junk food which affects the digestion in our

is
re S
body.
B

bl
Develop good eating habits. Eat like a king in the morning.
Eat vitamin C rich fruits and vegetables which strengthens
be T
pu
your immune system.
K

Exercises

I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/


incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer
and put a tick () mark against it :
to

1. The one which is not an organic acid


a) lactic acid b) acetic acid
t

c) carbonic acid d) citric acid


No

2. Hydrochloric acid is used in


a) purifying precious metals like gold
b) refining petrol
c) purifying common salt
d) preparing soft drinks

110
3. Caustic soda is not used in this industry
a) textile b) rayon
c) soap d) cement
4. The chemical used by farmers to neutralise acid content
in the soil is
a) calcium oxide b) calcium hydroxide

d
c) calcium carbonate d) calcium chloride

he
II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

is
1. Vitamin C is chemically called ___________ acid.
re S B
bl
2. Mineral acids are also called ___________ acids.
be T
pu
3. Bases that dissolve in water are called ___________.
K

III. Write the chemical names for the following :


1. common salt 2. caustic soda 3. washing soda


4. slaked lime 5. baking soda 6. epsom salt.

IV. Match the following organic acids given in list A


with the food items given in list B :
to

A B
1. lactic acid a) lettuce leaves
t
No

2. folic acid b) apple


3. tannic acid c) unripe mangoe
4. tartaric acid d) tomatoe
5. malic acid e) tea
f) vinegar
g) milk

111
V. Answer the following questions :
1. What are organic acids?
2. Make a list of four physical properties of
a) acids

b) bases

d
he
3. What are indicators? Give two examples.
4. What is a neutralisation reaction?

is
re S
5. Mention two applications of neutralisation reaction?
B
bl
6. What is pH value? If the pH value of a substance is
be T

13, what does it indicate?


pu
K

7. A solution indicates seven on the pH scale, what does


this tell you about the solution?

8. Write two uses of each of the following :


a) hydrochloric acid
b) sulphuric acid
to

c) caustic soda
d) slaked lime
t
No

e) sodium chloride
f) baking soda
g) washing soda
9. Hydrogen is liberated when acids react with metals.
Explain this with the help of an experiment.

112
10. Explain the reaction of an acid with calcium carbonate
with the help of a diagram.
11. Write an experiment to show the neutralisation of a
base with an acid.
12. Make a list of four differences between the properties
of acids and bases.

d
he
13. What is the importance of pH value in daily life.

VI. What happens when :

is
re S
1. a blue litmus paper is dipped in lime juice?
B
bl
2. potassium reacts with sulphuric acid?
be T
pu
3. calcium reacts with sulphuric acid?
K

4. mangnesium carbonate reacts with sulphuric acid?


5. a base reacts with an acid.

VII. Give reasons for the following :


1. A person bitten by red ants experiences a burning
sensation on the skin.
to

2. A drop of concentrated sulphuric acid on a piece of cloth


creates a hole in it.
t
No

3. Acids are not stored in metal containers.


4. All alkalis are bases but all bases are not alkalis.

113
UNIT - 9
ATOM
After studying this unit you :
define the term atom.
make a list of the assumptions made by John Dalton.

d
make a list of the sub atomic or fundamental particles

he
of an atom.
recognise the position of the fundamental particles of an
atom.

is
re S
compare the basic properties of fundamental particles of
B
an atom. bl
be T

explain the structure of hydrogen atom.


pu
K

define terms like atomic number and mass number.


identify the shells in an atomic structure.

calculate the maximum number of electrons a shell can


contain.
define electronic configuration.
draw the atomic structure of the first twelve elements.
to

The ancient Indian philosopher Maharishi Kanada


postulated that if matter is broken up, smaller and smaller
t
No

particles of the same are obtained. As we do so, a stage will


be reached where it cannot be further broken up or divided.
Greek Philosophers like Laccippus and Democritus named it
atom meaning indivisible. These concepts were abstract and
were not based on experiments.

114
John Dalton, a British Chemist, accepted this philosophy.
After a series of experiments, he proposed his atomic theory
called Daltons Atomic Theory.
Daltons atomic theory was based on the laws of chemical
combination.
Know this :

d
There are two laws of chemical combination.

he
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical
reaction.

is
In a chemical substance, the elements are in definite
re S
proportions.
B
bl Know this :
be T
pu
John Dalton was British scientist. At the
K

young age of twelve, he assisted his elder


brother in running his school. His most

influential work in chemistry was his atomic


theory proposed in 1808. This became one of
the foundations of chemistry. He also
Fig 9.1 conducted studies on colour blindness and
John Dalton called it Daltonism.
to

Daltons Atomic Theory :


John Dalton put forth his atomic theory in 1808. The
t

postulates or assumptions made by him were as follows.


No

All matter is made up of small indivisible particles called


atoms.
Atoms can neither be created nor be destroyed.
There are many kinds of atoms as there are elements.
Atoms of a given element are identical in mass and chemical
properties.

115
Atoms of different elements have different masses and
chemical properties.
It is the atom in an element that takes part in a chemical
reaction.
Atoms of different elements combine in simple integral
ratios to form compounds.

d
Atoms of different elements can be hold apart by their
atomic weight.

he
Know this :

is
re S
Atomic mass is the mass of an atom expressed in atomic
mass units (amu). One amu also called as dalton, equals
B
bl
1 th the weight of an atom of carbon 12.
12
be T
pu
Daltons atomic theory and the idea of the indivisibility of
K

the atom was accepted for many years. Later scientists like

William Crookes (1878), J. J. Thomson (1879) and Goldstein


(1866) brought out theories against that of Daltons.
Some of John Daltons assumptions about atoms were
not precise. It was modified and today we call it the modern
atomic theory.
to

Fundamental particles of an atom :


Just as cells are the basic unit of organisms, atoms are the
basic unit of matter. It is clearly understood that an atom can
t
No

be further divided into smaller particles called sub - atomic


particles.

Sub - atomic particles :


The sub - atomic particles of an atom are electrons,
protons and neutrons. These particles are present in almost
all atoms. The actual number of sub - atomic particles may
vary from element to element and is always a whole number.

116
Now you may be curious to know where in an atom are these
sub atomic particles.

Position of Sub - atomic particles :


All atoms have a specific region in them called the nucleus.
Protons and neutrons are situated in the nucleus of an atom
and hence are called nucleons. Then where are the electrons?

d
he
electron

is
nucleus
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K

neutron proton

Fig. 9.2 : Sub-atomic particles


in an atom

Just as the planets revolve around the sun in fixed orbits,


the electrons of an atom move around its nucleus along fixed
to

paths called orbits.


Know this :
t

J.J. Thomson discovered the electron, Goldstein discovered


No

the proton and James Chadwick discovered the neutron.

Characteristics of electrons :
Electrons are negatively charged particles found in all
atoms.
The mass of an electron is about 1 of the relative mass
1840
of hydrogen atom.
117
Know this :

Sir Joseph John Thomson was a British


Physicist. He discovered the electron
and was awarded the Nobel Prize in
physics for this discovery in 1906.

d
He was also the first scientist to

he
separate isotopes of chemical elements.
His model of the atom was not

is
Fig 9.3
re S
Sir J.J. Thomson
accepted after new models were
B
proposed by Ernest Rutherford in 1911
bl and Niels Bohr in 1913.
be T
pu
K

Characteristics of protons :

Protons are positively charged particles found in all atoms.

The relative mass of a proton is 1 amu.


Know this :
The relative mass of the atom of an element is defined as
to

the average mass of the atom, as compared to 1 th the


12
mass of one carbon -12 atom.
t
No

Characteristics of neutrons :
Neutrons do not have charge and hence are neutral
particles.

The relative mass of a neutron is the same as that of a


proton i.e. 1 amu.

118
Know this :

Sir James Chadwick was a British


Physicist. In 1935, he received the Nobel
Prize in Physics for the discovery of the

d
Fig. 9.4 neutron. He also determined the mass of a

he
Sir J. Chadwick neutron.

Let us now sum up the position, relative charge and relative

is
re S
mass of the sub atomic particles.
B
bl
Sub - atomic
Position
Relative Relative mass
be T

particle charge (amu)


pu
K

outside the 1 of
Electron nucleus, in Negative 1840

specific orbits hydrogen atom

Proton in the nucleus Positive 1

zero
Neutron in the nucleus 1
(no charge)
to

You already know that neutrons are sub atomic particles


present in all atoms, except hydrogen. Now let us study the
structure of the hydrogen atom.
t
No

Structure of Hydrogen atom :


The symbol used to represent a hydrogen atom is H. The
term hydrogen comes from the greek word meaning water
former. It is the lightest and simplest known atom.
Sir Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen and identified
it as an element in 1766. Livoisier named it hydrogen.

119
Know this :
Sir Henry Cavendish was a British
physicist and chemist. In 1766 he
discovered the properties of hydrogen,
identified it as an element and called
it inflammable air. Later he also
showed that water was a compound

d
Fig. 9.5 of hydrogen and oxygen. His work on

he
Sir Henry Cavendish electricity resulted in many
fundamental laws.

is
re S
In the structure of the hydrogen atom
we see that the nucleus contains one
B
bl
proton. An electron orbits the nucleus. electron
be T

nucleus
pu
The number of protons in an atom of
K

an element is unique to that particular proton


element and this number is called its

atomic number. As hydrogen has one


proton, its atomic number is one. Fig. 9.6
Hydrogen atom
Every atom of an element has a
unique number called mass number. The mass number of
an atom is the total number of protons and neutrons in the
nucleus of that atom. As hydrogen has one proton and no
to

neutrons, its mass number is one.


32
Shells of an atom :
t

18
No

8
The orbits around 2
the nucleus of an atom are nucleus
called shells. In these shells
electrons revolve round the K
nucles in different orbitals . The L
M
shells are named as K, L, M, N N
etc. Fig. 9.7
Electronic shells of an atom
120
K - Shell :
The shell closest to the nucleus is the K - Shell or first
shell. It can contain a maximum number of 2 electrons.

L - Shell :
The shell next to the K - Shell is the L - Shell or the second
shell. It can contain a maximum number of 8 electrons.

d
he
M - Shell :
The shell next to the L - Shell is the M - Shell or the third

is
shell. It can contain a maximum number of 18 electrons.
re S B
bl
N - Shell :
be T

The shell next to the M - Shell is the N - Shell or the fourth


pu
shell. It can contain a maximum of 32 electrons.
K

Maximum number of electrons in a shell :


How is the maximum number of electrons in a particular


shell calculated? It is calculated using the formula 2n2 where
n is the shell number. For the K - Shell n =1, for the L - Shell
n = 2 and so on.
Calculate the maximum number of electrons in each shell.
to

Maximum number
Name of shell n 2n2
of electrons
t

K 1 2 12 = 2 2
No

L 2 2 22 = 8 8
M ______ __________ _____________
N ______ __________ _____________
O ______ __________ _____________
P ______ __________ _____________

121
Electronic configuration :
The distribution of electrons in various shells of an atom
is called its electronic configuration. Look at the following
table to understand the atomic structure and electronic
configuration of the first twelve elements.
Eletronic
Atomic

d
Element Symbol configuration
structure

he
K L M N

is
re S
Hydrogen H 1
B
bl
be T
pu
K

Helium He 2

Lithium Li 2 1
t to

Beryllium Be 2 2
No

Boron B 2 3

122
Carbon C 2 4

Nitrogen N 2 5

d
is he
re S
Oxygen O 2 6
B
bl
be T
pu
K

Fluorine F 2 7

Neon Ne 2 8
to

Sodium Na 2 8 1
t
No

Magnesium Mg 2 8 2

Fig. 9.8 : Atomic structure and electronic configuration of elements.

123
Remember

The Daltons atomic theory was put forth in 1808 by John


Dalton.

Electrons, protons and neutrons are the sub atomic


particles of an atom.

d
he
Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus of an atom.

Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom.

is
re S
Electrons are negatively charged particles. Its mass is
B
bl
about 1 of the relative mass of the hydrogen atom.
1840
be T
pu
Protons are positively charged particles. Its relative mass
K

is 1 amu.

Neutrons are neutral.(Neither negative nor positive)

Atoms of all elements except hydrogen have neutrons.

The relative mass of a neutron is 1 amu.


to

James Chadwick discovered the neutron.

Hydrogen is the lightest and simplest known atom.


t
No

Sir Henry Cavendish discovered hydrogen.

The number of protons in an atom represents its atomic


number.

The total number of protons and neutrons of an atom is


called mass number.

124
The orbits of an atom are called its shells. The K- Shell
contains a maximum of 2 electrons, the L - shell 8, the
M - shell 18 and the N - Shell 32 electrons.

The formula to calculate the maximum number of electrons


in a shell of an atom is 2n2, where n = 1,2,3,4,5.

d
Exercises

he
I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/

is
re S
incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer
and put a tick () mark against it :
B
bl
be T

1. The maximum number of electrons that the N - Shell


pu
can hold is
K

a) 12 b) 18

c) 2 d) 32

2. The scientist who named electrons is

a) J. J. Thomson b) John Dalton


to

c) Kanada d) James Chadwick

3. The scientist who discovered the neutron is


t

a) Ernest Rutherford b) J. J. Thomson


No

c) James Chadwick d) John Dalton

4. The sub - atomic particles in the nucleus is


a) electrons and orbit b) electrons and neutrons

c) neutrons and protons d) protons and electrons

125
5. The maximum number of electrons in the M shell is

a) 2 b) 18

c) 50 d) 32

6. The symbol for hydrogen atom is

d
a) He b) H2

he
c) Hg d) H

is
II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :
re S B
bl
1. The basic unit of an element is ____________.
be T
pu
2. The smaller particles in an atom are called ____________ .
K

3. The charge of an electron is ____________.


4. The relative mass of a proton is ____________ amu.

III. Match the elements given in list A with their


electronic configurations given in list B :
to

A B
1. Hydrogen a) 2
t
No

2. Nitrogen b) 2, 8, 2
3. Lithium c) 2, 8
4. Neon d) 2, 5
5. Magnesium e) 1
f) 2, 1

126
IV. Answer the following questions :
1. What is atomic number?

2. What is 1 amu?

3. Explain sub-atomic particles.

d
4. What is mass number?

he
5. What is electronic configuration?

is
6. What are the characteristics of
re S B
bl
a) electrons
be T
pu
b) protons
K

c) neutrons

7. Make a list of any four postulates of Daltons atomic


theory.

8. Neutrons are called neutral particles. Why?


to

Project work
t

Make a model showing the atomic structure of an element.


No

Prepare a chart showing the symbols and electronic


configuration of the first twenty elements.

127
UNIT - 10
HARD WATER AND SOFT WATER
After studying this unit you :
recall the meaning of hard water.
define the term hard water.

d
make a list of the salts present in hard water.

he
make a list of the disadvantages of hard water.
define the term soft water.

is
re S
conduct simple experiments to soften hard water.
B
bl
appreciate the uses of soft water.
be T

differentiate between hard and soft water.


pu
recognise the different types of hydrogen atoms.
K

define the term heavy water.


recognise the physical properties of heavy water.


mention the uses of heavy water.
state the disadvantages of heavy water.

You know that the surface of the earth has many water
to

bodies. The largest sources of water are the seas and oceans.
Do you think that all this water is usable by man? No. Do
you know why?
t
No

Know this :
22 nd March is celebrated as world water day.

Have you ever tried to dissolve the substances such as


sugar, jaggery and salt in water ? Do they dissolve? Most
of the substances dissolve in water. Why? This is because
water is a universal solvent.

128
Let us find out what happens to water when materials or
chemicals dissolve in it.
Experiment :
Take equal quantities of distilled water in five test tubes
namely A, B, C, D and E. Dissolve chlorides of sodium,
potassium, ammonium, calcium and magnesium in each test

d
tube respectively.
Pour a small quantity of soap solution into each test tube

he
and shake the test tubes well. What do you observe?

is
re S
A B C D E
B
bl
be T
pu
K

sodium ammonium magnesium


chloride chloride calcium chloride
potassium
chloride chloride
Fig. 10.1 : Water samples
The test tubes A, B and C produce lather with soap
to

solution the test tubes D and E do not produce lather with


the soap solution.
t
No

What do you conclude from this ? Calcium and magnesium


salts in water prevent soap solution from lathering.
Hard water :
Water is termed hard water if it contains dissolved salts
of chlorides, sulphates and bicarbonates of calcium and
magnesium.
Example : water of some wells, sea water etc.
129
Soft water :
Water that is free from calcium and magnesium salts
that cause hardness of water is called soft water.
Examples : Rain water and distilled water.
Know this :
Hard water could contain one of these compounds.

d
Calcium chloride, calcium sulphate, calcium bicarbonate,

he
magnesium chloride, magnesium sulphate and magnesium
bicarbonate.

is
re S
Areas that have hard water face some difficulties.
B
Disadvantages of hard water :
bl
Have you observed that water from all sources do not
be T
pu
produce lather with soap? Do you know why?
K

When clothes are washed in hard water the magnesium


ions (Mg++) and the calcium ions (Ca++) present in hard water,

react with soap to form scum, which is insoluble in water.


This results in wastage of soap. Moreover the clothes do not
become clean.
Most industries need super heated steam for different
processes carried out by them. To produce this super heated
steam, water is boiled in huge boilers and passed through
to

pipes.

If hard water containing calcium bicarbonate is used


t
No

for this purpose, the calcium bicarbonate decomposes to


insoluble calcium carbonate.
boiling
Calcium bicarbonate Calcium carbonate +
Carbon dioxide + Water.
The calcium carbonate thus formed deposits at the bottom
of the boiler and the walls of pipes. This deposit is stone like
and is called scaling.

130
d
he
Fig. 10.2 : Scaling in pipes

The deposit of calcium carbonate in the boiler is a bad

is
conductor of heat. As more and more hard water is boiled more
re S
deposit is formed. When water is further heated, it is noticed
B
bl
that it takes more time for the water to boil. The deposited
layer of calcium carbonate could develop cracks and pressure
be T

could increase inside the boiler. This could lead to a dangerous


pu
boiler blast. Hence hard water is neither economical nor safe
K

to be used in industries.

When utensils are washed in hard water, they tend to lose


their luster. These utensils generally have a dull, dirty look.

Types of hard water :


Hard water is of two types they are, temporary hard water
and permanent hard water.
to

1. Temporary hard water :


Temporary hardness of water is caused due to the dissolved
t

bicarbonate of calcium and magnesium. It can be removed


No

by the process of boiling. The bicarbonates decompose to


carbonates. The carbonates can be filtered out.
2. Permanent hard water :
Permanent hardness is caused due to the dissolved
chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium. It can be
removed by adding sodium carbonate or by passing permanent
hard water through zeolite.

131
Hard water needs to be softened as it has some
disadvantages. Depending on the salts dissolved in water,
different methods can be administered to soften hard water.
Methods to soften hard water :
1. Boiling :
Hard water has to be boiled and filtered to remove

d
hardness.

he
2. Adding sodium carbonate (washing soda) :

is
Activity 10.1 : Take 20 ml of hard water in a beaker. Add
re S
a spoon of sodium carbonate to it. What do you observe? An
B
bl
insoluble precipitate is formed.
This precipitate is either calcium carbonate or
be T
pu
magnesium carbonate depending on the salt present in
K

the hard water sample taken. Remove the precipitate by


filtration. The water, so obtained is soft.

To further test this water, pour some soap solution in it


and shake well. Does it lather? Yes,it does, showing that
the water is soft.

3. Ion exchange process : inlet for brine


to

hard water solution


Permanent hardness is
due to the dissolved salts of soft water
outlet for
t

chlorides and sulphates of soft water


No

permutit
calcium and magnesium. This
type of hardness can be
removed by the process of ion coarse
exchange. sand and
gravel
Hard water is passed
other uses
through a mixture called
zeolite to obtain soft water. Fig. 10.3 : Ion exchange process
132
Zeolite is a mixture of sodium, aluminium and silicates. When
hard water is passed though this mixture, the calcium ions
and the magnesium ions of hard water are replaced by the
sodium ions of the mixture making the water soft. Zeolite is
widely used in domestic and commercial water purification.

Know this :

d
An example of zeolite is natrolite Na2Al2Si3O10. 2H2O.

he
Synthetic zeolite is called permutit and hence this process
is also called permutit process.

is
re S
Uses of soft water :
B
bl
1. By using soft water to wash
be T
pu
cloths we can minimise the
K

use of soap and cloths will


be cleaned better.

2. The life span of appliances


are prolonged when soft
Fig. 10.4 : Soft water
water is used.
lathers with soap
3. Soft water helps to improve
to

digestion.

Differences between hard water and soft water :


t
No

Hard water Soft water


1. Hard water does not 1. Soft water lathers easily
lather with soap easily. with soap.
2. It contains dissolved 2. It does not contain
salts of calcium and dissolved salts of calcium
magnesium. and magnesium.

133
Types of hydrogen atom :
You are familiar with the
electron
structure of the hydrogen atom.
There are three types of hydrogen
atoms. What is the difference nucleus
between these atoms? showing

d
one proton
A hydrogen atom with one

he
proton and one electron is called Fig. 10.5
protium. Structure of hydrogen atom

is
A Hydrogen atom with a proton, a neutron and an electron
re S
is called deuterium.
B
bl
A Hydrogen atom with a proton, two neutrons and an
be T
pu
electron is called tritium.
K

Know this :
Elements that have the same number of protons and

different number of neutrons are called isotopes.


Heavy water :
Deuterium reacts with oxygen to form a compound called
deuterium oxide (D2O). This is called heavy water.
to

Know this :
The American chemist Herold.C.Urey
discovered deuterium. He won the Nobel
t

Prize in chemistry for this discovery in 1934.


No

He isolated deuterium, the stable isotope


of hydrogen by repeatedly distilling a sample
of liquid hydrogen.
Harold.C.Urey had a significant role in Fig. 10.6
developing the atom bomb, but his theories Herold.C.Urey
on the development of organic life from
non - living matter made him known in the scientific field.

134
Physical properties of heavy water :
The physical properties of heavy water are very different
from that of water, because of the differences in the atomic
masses of hydrogen and deuterium.
Know this :
The atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.0079 amu and that of

d
deuterium is 2.014 amu. (amu - atomic mass unit)

he
Heavy water is about 10% heavier than normal water.
This is due to the extra neutron in deuterium.

is
re S
The following table gives a comparison of the physical
B
bl
properties of water and heavy water.
be T
pu
Water Heavy water
K

1. Freezes at 0 oC 1. Freezes at 3.82 o C


2. Boils at 100 oC 2. Boils at 101.42 oC


3. Ice floats 3. Ice sinks

Uses of heavy water :


to

Heavy water is used to prepare deuterium and in nuclear


reactors. You will study about the nuclear reactor in higher
classes.
t
No

Disadvantages of heavy water :


Though water is very essential to us, heavy water has some
disadvantages.
1. Heavy water is mildly toxic.
2. It is injurious to living organisms.
3. It is unfit for agriculture.
135
Remember
Water is a universal solvent.
Hard water contains dissolved chlorides, sulphates and
bicarbonates of calcium or magnesium.
Water that is free from all calcium and magnesium salts

d
that cause hardness of water is called soft water.

he
Temporary hardness of water is caused due to the dissolved
bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium.

is
re S
Permanent hardness of water is caused due to the dissolved
chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium.
B

bl
Hard water can be made soft by boiling, adding sodium
be T
pu
carbonate or by the ion exchange process.
K

Temporary hardness of water can be removed by boiling.


Permanent hardness of water can be removed by adding


sodium carbonate or by the ion exchange process.
Soft water is more economical and efficient as it prolongs
the life span of electrical appliances and it lathers readily
with soap than hard water.
to

A hydrogen atom with a proton and an electron is called


protium.
t

A hydrogen atom with a proton, a neutron and an electron


No

is called deuterium.
A hydrogen atom with a proton, two neutrons and an
electron is called tritium.
The oxide of deuterium is heavy water.
Herold. C. Urey discovered deuterium.

136
Heavy water is about 10% heavier than normal water.

Heavy water freezes at 3.82 oC and boils at 101.42 oC .

Ice floats in water whereas it sinks in heavy water.

Heavy water is used to prepare deuterium and in nuclear


reactors.

d
Heavy water is mildly toxic, injurious to living organisms

he
and unfit for agriculture.

is
Tips
re S B

bl
Use soft water to wash clothes and utensils as it avoids
be T

the wastage of soap.


pu
Use water limitedly.
K

Exercises

I. Four alternatives are given under each complete/


incomplete statement. Choose the correct answer
and put a tick () mark against it :
to

1. The chemical formula for calcium bicarbonate is


a) CaHCO3 b) Ca (HCO3)2
t
No

c) CaH(CO3)2 d) Ca2(HCO3)2

2. Permanent hardness of water is due to the dissolved


chlorides and sulphates of

a) Na and Mg b) Ca and Fe
c) Ca and Mg d) Na and Mn

137
3. The number of protons, neutrons and electrons in
deuterium is
a) 1,1,1 b) 1,0,2
c) 0,1,1 d) 1,2,3

II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words :

d
1. Temporary hardness of water is due to the dissolved

he
bicarbonate of__________ and _________.

2. Water for commercial needs can be purified using

is
re S
__________.
B
bl
3. Hydrogen has ___________protons and ___________
be T

neutrons.
pu
K

4. The temperature at which hard water freezes


is __________.

5. Hard water boils at __________ 0C.

6. The total number of __________ and __________ in an


atom is its mass number.
to

III. Underline the word which does not belong to


the group :
t

1. hydrogen, helium, tritium, deuterium.


No

2. calcium chloride, magnesium sulphate, carbon dioxide,


calcium bicarbonate.
IV. Name the following :
1. The isotope of hydrogen in heavy water.

2. The scientist who discovered deuterium.


138
3. A method to remove temporary hardness of water.
4. A mixture of the oxides of sodium, aluminium sand
and water.
V. Answer the following questions :
1. Write the two disadvantage of hard water.

d
2. What is soft water?

he
3. Explain two methods of softening hard water.
4. What are the uses of soft water.

is
re S
5. Differentiate between hard water and soft water.
B
bl
6. Name the salts present in hard water.
be T
pu
7. What is the use of zeolite?
K

8. Describe an experiment to detect hardness and softness


of water.

VI. What happens when :


1. Hard water is used to wash clothes.
2. Ice is dropped into a beaker containing heavy water.
3. Utensils are constantly washed with hard water.
to

4. Washing soda is added to a beaker containing hard


water.
t

VII. Give reasons for the following :


No

1. It is dangerous to use hard water in industrial boilers.


2. Heavy water is unfit for agriculture.
3. The physical properties of heavy water are different
from that of normal water.


139