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April 11,1939. K.

PRITSCHOW 2,153,813
Filed Sept. 30, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet l

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April 11, 1939. K. PRlTscHow 2,153,813
Filed Sept. 30, 1956 4 Sheets-Sheet 2





April 11, 1939. K. PRITSCHOW 2,153,813
Fil ed Sept. 30, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 3

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April 11, 1939- ' K. PRIT'SCHOW ' 2,153,813
Filed Sept. 30, 1936 4 Sheets-Sheet 4

Patented Apr. 11, 1939
, 2,153,813



Karl Pritschow, Brunswick, Germany, assignor. to

Voigtlander & Sohn Aktiengesellschaft,
Brunswick, Germany, a joint-stock company of
Application September 30, 1936, Serial No. 103,334
\ . In Germany March 7, 1935
6 Claims; (01.. 95-44) '
This invention relates to improvements in pho the height of the eye, as distinguished fromy'elxpoi
tographic cameras, and more particularly in sures which are made by means of the view-?nder ,
cameras of the type in which a bright view ?nder, and its ?eld lens which require the'c'amera to]
is provided above the camera lens, which view be held comparatively low. > ,, " 7
5 ?nder comprises an object lens, a mirror adapted Other objects of the improvements ,williappearjvf
to direct the rays passing through said lens up from the following description. _
wardly, and a ?eld lens, the pencil of rays ema For the purpose of explainingv the invention'jj
nating from the object to bephotographed pass several examples embodying the same havebeen
ing through the ?nder without obstruction and shown in the accompanying drawings in which _ .
10 dispersion by a focusing screen. As is known in the same reference characters have been used in' F10?
the art, ?nders of this type produce a bright and all the views to indicate corresponding parts.
correct image, as compared to ?nders in which In said drawings, ' I I '
the image of the object to be photographed is Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation showing the
produced on a focusing screen. Such bright view camera.
1'5 ?nders are particularly useful when the image Fig. 2 _is a plan view partly in section taken '15
inspected therethrough has the same or substan on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1, ' '
tially the same size as the image produced on the Fig. 3 is an elevation showing the connection
focusing screen. However, by means of a ?nder between the range ?nder and the camera lens,
of this type focusing of the camera is not possible, Fig. 4 is a side view of Fig. 3 partly in section,v
20 and therefore focusing is effected by axially shift-~ Fig. 5 is a sectional elevationof the camera, 20
ing the exposure lens, after ?rst'determining the" similar to the one illustrated in Fig. 1 and show
distance of the object either by means of a range ing a modi?cation of, the range ?nder and the]
finder or by estimation. Thus for correctly connection thereof with the camera lens,
setting the camera two different operations are Fig. 6 is a sectional plan view taken on the line
25 needed. pf-Fig. 5, I _ 25
One of the objects of the improvements is to =an"'elevation partlylin section similar
Provide a camera of the class indicated in which to'tliesectional elevation showing in Fig. 1 and
the setting of the camera by means of the view showing another modi?cation of the range ?nder
?nder and focusing can be made in a more simple and its connection with the camera lens, ' '
30 and speedy way, and with this object in view my Fig. 8 is a top plan view partly in section taken
invention consists in combining, with the camera on the line 8-8 of Fig. 7,
and its view ?nder, a range ?nder which is ar 3 ' Figs. 9 and 10 are sectional elevations showing _
ranged in the camera'so that the view ?nder and other modi?cations of the range ?nder,
the range ?nder are inspected from the same Fig. 11 is an elevation partly in section showing
61: CA side of the camera and substantially in the same another modi?cation of the range ?nder, 35
direction, so that it is necessary only slightly to Fig. 12 is a top plan view partly in section taken
displace the eye raatively to the?nders for ?rst on the line l2,l2 of Fig. 11, , _ ' g _
determining the distance of the object and focus Fig. 13 is,a sectional elevation partly in section
ing the camera lens, and thereai'ter.ascertaining showing another modi?cation of the range?nder,
40 the section of the scene appearing on the sensi Fig. 14 is a top plan view partly in section taken ,40
tized surface by means of the view ?nder. on the line I4-Il of Fig. 13, and
Another object of the improvements is to pro Fig. 15 is a sectional plan view showing another
vide a camera of the class indicated in which the modi?cation of the range ?nder. ,
section of the image inspected through the range In the example shown in Figs. 1 and 2 the
45 finder is exactly the same as that inspected camera comprises a casing I having a front wall
through the view finder and that projected on the 2 and atop wall 3, and divided by a partition I in _

sensitized surface. Therefore, after the char toan exposure chamber 5 and a ?nder chamber
ester of the image has been ascertained by means 6. In the front wall 2 there is a camera lens 1
of the view ?nder, and the camera lens has been which is adapted to be shifted in axial direction.
brought to focus by means of the range ?nder, the Asshown, the lens is mounted in a tube 8 which is 50
exposure may be directly made, without first slidable in a tubular member 9 ?xed to the front
returning the eye into the position'for looking wall 2.
through the view ?nder. This is particularly The view ?nder comprises a positive object
important, because after focusing the exposure lens l0 ?xed to the front wall 2,v an inclined mirror
55 may be made directly with the camera'located at ll adapted to re?ect upwardly the rays passing
2 2,128,218 v *

through the lens i2, and a horizontal ?eld lens For taking a photograph the photographer at
I2 mounted in the top wall 2. As shown, the said ?rst directs the view ?nder III, II, |2 towards the
?eld lens i2 is square in plan view. object to be photographed and he ascertains the
On the top wall 25. range ?nder is mounted, section of the object which he desires to project
which comprises an elongate casing l4 ?xed to on the sensitized ?lm. After the position of the
the top wall 3 and formed at its ends with for camera has thus been ascertained, the photog
wardly directed branches Ii. In the said rapher looks through the range ?nder while lift
branches negative lenses l2 are mounted, and at ing the camera to the proper position relatively
the rear of the said lenses mirrors l1 and I2 to the eye, and he turns the mirror I! by means
10 mounted at angles of 45 relatively to the optical of the milled disk 42 until the two sections oi 10
axes of the lenses IS, the said mirrors l1, l2 the image appearing in the range finder are in
being adapted to re?ect the rays passing through register. By means of the milled disk 42 the
' the lenses |6 inwardly and towards each other. cam disk 21 is turned which acts through the
Between the mirrors l1 and I2 there are mirrors - lever 22 on the mirror I1. By the same opera
15 l9 and 22, which are disposed one above the tion of the milled disk the camera lens is shifted
other and which cross each other, the mirror |2 axially into the proper position by means of the
beingin position for being impinged upon by the pinion 25, the toothed segment 24 and the lever
upper half of the pencil of rays re?ected by the 22.
mirror l1, and the mirror 22 being in position for When the view ?nder and thereafter the range
re?ecting the lower section of the pencil of rays finder are used, only slight displacement of the 20
re?ected by the mirror I2. By means of the eye of the photographer is necessary, because
mirrors i9 and 20 the complementary pencils of both ?nders are inspected from the same side.
rays are re?ected rearwardly to a system of The construction of both ?nders is such that the
mirrors adapted to throw the rays upwardly. As same section of the object which appears in the
shown, the said system of mirrors comprises view ?nder appears in the range ?nder, and
mirrors 2| and 22 inclined rearwardly and down therefore the photograph may be directly taken
wardly, the mirror 2| being in position for being with the camera located near the eye. Thus the
impinged upon by the pencil of rays re?ected by image produced on the sensitized surface appears
the mirrors I9, 22 and for re?ecting the same quite natural, because it is taken from a point
downwardly and forwardly to the mirror 22, and near the eye of the photographer. .
the mirror 22 being adapted to re?ectthe rays In Figs. 5 and 6 I have shown a modi?cation in
upwardly. As shown, the mirrors 2| and 22 are which a range ?nder of different construction is
provided by a pentagonal prism comprising the provided. As shown the said range ?nder con
said re?ecting surfaces 2| and 22 and faces 22 sists exclusively of mirrors, 'the lenses being
86 disposed relatively to each other at right angles. omitted. Thus the rays of the pencils passing
In the path of the rays re?ected by the mirror 22 through the range finder are parallel to one an
a. positive lens 24 is mounted in an opening of other. The base line of the range ?nder is like
the top wall of the tubular casing i4. The lenses wise arranged at the rear of the square ?eld lens
l2, l2 and 24 provide two reverse Galileo tele l2, and at the ends of the said base line angu
scopes which have the lens 24 in common, and larly disposed mirrors 41 and 42 are provided, 40
which have a large ?eld of sight and are adapted the said mirrors being parallel to each other.
to produce a small image of the object to be The mirror 41 is a completely re?ecting mirror,
photographed which is correct in elevation and while the mirror 42 is partly permeable to light
lateral direction. ' as is known in the art. At the rear of the mir
45 The crossing edges of the mirrors l2 and 22 ror 42 a re?ecting system is provided for direct 45
appear in the range ?nder as a section line which ing the rays upwardly, the said re?ecting system
separates the complementary sectional images of comprising re?ecting surfaces 2| and 22 formed
the object. on the sides of a pentagonal prism, the construc
The mirror |! is mounted on a vertical axis tion of the said prism being the same as that
22, and it is adapted to be turned about the said described with reference to Figs. 1 and 2. In the 50
axis, in accordance with the distance of the'object front wall, or at a suitable part between the mir
to be photographed, so that the complementary rors 41 and 42 and the said front wall, windows
pencils are correctly combined in the range ?nder, 45 are provided the dimensions of which are such
as is known in the art. The shaft 22 of the mirror that the section of the object to be photographed
55 I1 is connected with the focusing device of the viewed through the range ?nder is substantially 55
lens I, so that the said lens is focused by the the same as that viewedthrough the view finder
setting of the mirror H, or vice versa. Any suit and projected on the sensitized surface when the
able mechanism may be provided for this pur eye of the attendant is disposed relatively to the
pose. As is shown in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, at opposite ?eld lens l2 and the range ?nder so that it is
sides of the tubular member 2 arms 22 are located as near thereto as possible and the sight is still 60
within the camera casing the hub 22 of which is sharp. At the rear of the mirror 42 and above
rockingly mounted on a shaft 22 secured to the the prism 2|, 22 a window 42 is made in the top
side wall of the casing. Pins 2| ?xed to the wall 2 of the casing | . By constructing the range
tube 2 are passed through slots 22 and 22 made ?nder with the window 42 located at one side of
respectively in the tubular member 2 and the arm the camera the attendant is enabled to look 65
22. One of the arms 22 carries a toothed segment through the range ?nder with one eye and
24 which is in mesh with a pinion 25 secured to through the view ?nder with the other eye, so
an arbor 26 mounted in one of the side walls of that the necessary displacement of the eyes from
the camera casing. To the arbor 26 a cam 21 the range finder to the view ?nder or vice verse
70 is secured which is engaged by an arm 22 is small. 70
mounted on a pivot bolt 22. An upwardly di The mirror 41 is operatively connected with
rected ?nger 42 of the arm 22 engages an arm the focusing mechanism .of the camera lens by
4| connected with the mirror H. To the shaft 22 mechanism similar to the one described with
a milled disk 42 is secured. ' reference to Figs. 3 and 4. -
75 The camera is used as follows: The image of the object viewed directly 76
. We 3

through the semi-transparent mirror 48 is super spected by means of a positive ocular lens 84.
posed upon the image re?ected by the mirrors 4!The other parts of the *range ?nder are similar
and 48, and in order to distinguish the two ' in construction to those shown in Figs." 1 and 2,
images for convenience in setting the mirror 41 and the same reference characters have been
a colored screen may be provided in the path used to indicate corresponding parts. The range
of the rays passing from the mirror 41 to the ?nder is preferably mounted at the front side of
mirror 48, as is indicated at 48. ' . i the camera casing and in front of the ?eld lens
In Figs. 7 and 8 I have shown another modi I2. The ocular lens 84 is foldably mounted on
?cation, in which the range finder is located in the hinged cover plate 83 of they ?nder. , Pref
ll) front of the ?eld lens I2 of the view ?nder, and erably its hinge is carried by a slide 8i mounted
in which the ocular lens of the range finder is on guide ways 85 provided on the cover plate 83,
located as high as is possible, in view of the the lens being preferably held in set position: by
dimensions of the camera. the said ocular lens means of a spring 82. Thus the lens 84 maybe
being mounted on the upperpartof one of the shifted upwardly and downwardly for permitting
15 hinged plates, formingtheviewing or focusing sharp inspection of k the real image produced by
hood of the view ?ndenln consequence, the the lenses. 86. By means of the range ?nder
necessary displacement of the eye in successively shown in Figs. 11 and 12 a comparatively small
inspecting the?nders is reduced to a minimum. imageof the object is produced in which also the
.In the said. ?gures the partsof.v the camera crossing_-,line_..of;, the crossing mirrors i8, 28 is
so :are the same asthose described with reference , sharp. " Fi-irther, the proper position of the eye
.to,.Figs.1 to
6,. andthe
lens, by
?nder isconnected
similar (to
is at. a; comparatively large distance above the
ocular lensf84;
.ftheoneshown'in Figs..,3 and 4.. . 1; , Inthefforeg'oingreference has been made to
~-The.range.?nder comprises two mirrors U and v camerasgin' which the range ?nders are inspected
188:: located near the front wall of the camera _7.jrojm above: [In Figs. 13 to 15 vI .have shown
casing .l,'-; a- pair of crossing mirrors "and 88, ' modi?cationsun- which the range?nders are
I a. pentagonal prism having two reflecting- sur inspected from the rear of the camera. The
faces 8| and 62-,a-negativelens located above section of .the scene viewed throughiithe range
the said prism, and a positive lens "the mount finderv is the same as that viewed viljhrough the
- ing 58v of which is hinged to the hinged front wall view ?nder, and therefore the section of the
, ,53, ofthe vviewing or: focusing hood of the view scene to be photographed may be selected by
?nder. c.-The~mirror 51 is adapted to be turned means of. the view ?nder, and the exposure may
about a. vertical axis 85. _ ~ . be made while the photographer looks through
The connection between the said mirror 51 \the range ?nder and while the camera is located
' sand the focusing device is similar-to .the one , at the height of the eye, thus producing a natural
shown in Figs. 5 and 6. The shaft 85 is con photograph of the scene.
nected with an arm 88 which is acted upon by In Figs. 13 and 14 the construction of the
the upwardly directed arm of a lever 18 rockingly camera is the same as that described with ref
mounted at I8. The downwardly directed arm erence to Figs. 1 to 12, and the same letters of
of the said leveris engaged by a cam TI secured .reference have been used to indicate correspond 40
to an arbor 18. On the said arbor a milled disk ing parts. At the rear of the viewing or focus- -
'81 is mounted. Further, a pinion I8 is secured ing hood 88 an elongate casing 88 is mounted on
to the arbor 18, and the said pinion is in engage the top wall 3 of the camera casing and the said
-ment with a toothed sector I4 formed on one casing is provided at its front side with windows .
of two arms 68 rockingly mounted at 18. To the - 88.- At the rear of the said windows there are 45
tube 8 pins H are secured which pass through angularly disposed mirrors 8| and 82 which are
slots 12 and 18 made respectively in the tube"__8 parallel to each other and which have their re
and the tubular member 8. I ?eeting surfaces respectively at their front and
'The camera isyused in the same way as; rear. sides, the mirror 8| completely re?ecting
cameras described vwith reference to Figs. ltoi6. th'ejgrays impingingithereon, and the mirror 82 50
However, the size-ofthel'image'viewed through beingpartly transparentr Thus the rays coming
.the' range '?nder'is" comparatively small, which . from'jthe object are reflected by the mirror 8|
' 'is not objectionable'yffor 'the reason that falarge '. and thrown on the reflecting rear?face ofjthe
size image is viewed rough the view ?nder-for mirror 82, from which theyiare further reflected
ascertaining the sectiopof the scene to be Qhotoi ,1 *rea'rwardly and through a window 83. The pen 55,.
graphed. Thepos'itionof the eye inspectingjthef cil-,of rays coming from the object to be photo
?nders is substantially the same, and only slightgraphed and meeting the mirror 82 partly passes
di iacement of the eye, is, needed when the h; through the said mirror and through thevwin
if ers are used. ' " " ow 83a vThus two images are produced, which
' n Fig. 9 I have shownva'd'in? ?cation which, are brought into register by turning the mirror 60
is similar to the constructions own in Figs. 7 8! about its verticaljaxis, as has been described
and 8, in which, however, the pentagonal prism with reference to Figs. 5 and 6.
8|, 82' is .located above the field lens ii, the In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 15 at the
base line of the range ?nder being accordingly rear of the focusing or viewing hood (not shown)
- located higher than the ?eld lens II. an elongate casing 95 is mounted on the top wall 65
In the modification shown in Fig. 10 the pen 8 of the camera casing, which casing is formed
tagonal prism 8|, 8!" is located in a cut-out _with forwardly directed branches 96 located at
portion made in the field lens l2. Otherwise the f' either side of the viewing or focusing hood and
construction and operation of the cameras extending to the front side of the camera casing.
shown in Figs. 9 and 10 is the same as that de The optical system of the range ?nder comprises 70
scribed with reference to Figs. 7 and 8. , j A negative lenses'84 located at the front ends of
In Figs. 11 and 12 I have shown a modi - the branches 86, angular mir'rors or re?ecting
tion in which the range ?nder comprises positive roof edge prisms 81, 88, a pair of pentagonal
object lenses 88, the said lenses producing a real prisms 88 having their reflecting surfaces dis
75 image of the object, and the said image is in posed vertically, and a positive ocular lens I88.
4. 2,103,813
Between the negative lenses 94 and the mirrors located above said camera lens and comprising
91 and 98 positive reversing lenses HJI are locat an object lens, an inclined mirror adapted to
ed. The mirror 91 is adapted to be turned about throw the rays emanating from the object to be
a vertical axis I02, and it is connected with the photographed upwardly, and a ?eld lens, and a
camera lens by mechanism similar to the one range ?nder having its base line located in front
shown in Figs. 3 and 4. of the upwardly directed portion of said view
'QBy means of the optical system of the range ?nder and comprising a pair of positive lenses
?nder a real image of the scene is produced, and and mirrors located at the ends of said base line
the pencils of rays passing through the lenses in positions for being impinged upon by the rays
10 94 are divided by the superposed pentagonal emanating from the object to be photographed 10
prisms 99, 99 into upper and lower sections and for directing the rays towards each other,
representing complementary parts of the scene, mirrors in the path of said re?ected rays adapt
and the said sections are correctly combined by ed to re?ect rays coming from complementary
setting the mirror 91 in accordance with the dis portions of the object to be photographed rear
15 tance of the object. - wardly and to combine the same into a. pencil 15
In the constructions shown in Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6, corresponding to the object to be photographed,
'7, 8, ll, 12, 13, 14, and 15 the paths of the pencils a mirror adapted to re?ect the said combined
of rays are located laterally of the ?eld lens [2 or pencil of rays upwardly, and a positive lens in
the viewing or focusing hood. Thus, the room the path of the said re?ected combined pencil
2% left by the comparatively large view ?nder and of rays, and means for setting the elements of 20
its hood is made use of for disposing the range the said range ?nder in accordance with the dis
?nder. The aggregate transverse extent of the tance of the object to be photographed into posi
field lens of the view ?nder and of the mirrors. tions for combining the complementary pencils
of the range ?nder is substantially equal to the of rays passing through said range ?nder into a
' entire space interval between the planes of the pencil correctly representing the object to be 25
side walls of the casing. photographed.
I claima; 3. A camera as claimed in claim 2, in which
l. A camera comprising a casing having an the focal length of the said positive lenses locat
exposure-opening, a camera lens, a view ?nder ed at the ends of the base line is such that the
located above said camera lens and comprising image of the object to be photographed produced 80
an inclined mirror adapted to throw upwardly by the said lenses is located between the said
the rays emanating from the object to be photo combining mirrors and the upwardly re?ecting
graphed, and a range ?nder having its base line mirror.
located in front of the upwardly directed por 4. A camera as claimed in claim 2, in which
tion of said view ?nder and comprising a pair the upwardly re?ecting mirror is located between
of mirrors located respectively at the ends of the said combining mirrors and the said positive
said base line in positions for being impinged lens located in the path of the re?ected com
upon by the rays emanating from the object to bined pencil of rays.
be photographed and for directing the said rays 5. In a photographic camera the combination
towards each other, mirrors in the paths of said of a box, a camera lens set in the front wall of 40
re?ected rays and adapted to combine rays com the box, a view ?nder including an object lens
ing from complementary portions of the object set in the front wall of the box, a re?ector within
to be photographed into a pencil corresponding the box, and a ?eld lens set horizontally in the
to the said object and to direct the same up top wall of the box and of less transverse extent
' wardly, and means for setting the elements of than the width of the box, through which the 45
said range ?nder in accordance with the distance view is to be seen from above, and a range ?nder
of the object to' be photographed into positions including a casing mounted transversely at the
for combining the complementary pencils-of rays ,top and within the con?nes of the box and in
passing through said range ?nder into a pencil the plane of the ?eld lens and extending laterally
" correctly representing the object to be photo~ beyond and on opposite sides of the ?eld lens of 50
graphed, in which camera the view ?nderends the view ?nder, said range ?nder including en
in a viewing hood, and in which the range finder trance apertures on each side of the ?eld lens
comprises a positive object lens and a positive of the view ?nder and two relatively adjustable
ocular lens mounted on the front wall of said mirrors arranged within and at opposite ends of
viewing hood, said positiveiocular lens being the said casing and means for combining in a 55
hinged to the said wall. _ . single ?eld of view the rays reflected by the two
2. Acamera comprising a'casing having an said mirrors.
exposure opening, camera lens, a view ?nder . KARL PRI'I'SCHOW.