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Sunday Review 9.18.


Equilibrium Stage

What is an equilibrium stage?

Process where **SOMETHING HAPPENS**

- Two phases are created
- Two phases come in contact
- Could be vapor liquid
- Third component moves from one stream to other
- Two liquids are separated

Limiting Separation

In single stage, the maximum amount of liquid or vapor that can be produced is F.

If V approaches F, then the slope of the operating line is 0 , and the line is horizontal .

- Vapor composition will be that of the feed, since everything is being vaporized

If V approaches 0, then the slope of the operating line is -infinity, and the line is vertical .

- Liquid composition will be that of the feed, since everything is going to liquid stream

Energy Balance

FhF+Qflash = VHV+LhL

- Duty on flash is generally 0 since insulation and flash is considered adiabatic

- Hs are enthalpies of feed, vapor, and liquid streams: internal energy plus PV (heat of

Sizing a Flash Drum

D related to vapor velocity
Hv related to vapor velocity
Hl related to level control
Hf related to flooding

Properties that effect size:

- Flow rate (MOST IMPORTANT)
- Properties of vapor and liquid streams

Separated based on differing density, need to make sure flow rate isnt too fast or vapor stream
will carry liquid droplets with it


Max permissible vapor velocity uperm=Kdrum sqrt((pl-pv)/pv) UNITS: FT/S Kdrum: FT/S
- HERE we solve for the maximum velocity the vapor can travel without having liquid
- Kdrum is empirical constant dependent on type of drum

Kdrum = (1.0 ft / s)exp A + Bln Flv +C(ln Flv )2 + D(ln Flv )3 + E(ln Flv )4

A E are in book and Im not writing them down

Flv =
- WL and Wv are liquid vapor flow rates in weight units per hour EX lb/hr

Typically Kdrum ranges from .1 to .35


Have known vapor rate, V, convert uperm into a horizontal area

V=uperm(ft/s)(3600s/hr)(Ac(ft^2))(pv)(lbmft^3) / MWvap(lbm/lbmol)

Solve for cross sectional area

V (MWV )
Ac =
uperm 3600 rV

For vertical drum, D is D=sqrt(4Ac/pi)


SET length/diameter ratio

Vertical flash drums htotal/D ranges from 3 to 5

- Find the actual value by minimizing the total vessel weight

**You will use this equation to find htotal or D most often**

The height of the drum above the centerline of the feed nozzle, hv, should be 36 in plus 1/2D of
feed line. The minimum of this distance is 48 in.

The height of the center of the feed line above the max level of the liquid pool should be 12 in
plus D of feed line. The minimum distance for this free space is 18 in.

The depth of liquid pool hL can be determined using the desired surge volume


Vsurge is called Vpool in other books which makes more sense bcuz its the volume of the liquid
in the flash drum

if htotal/D is less than 3 need a larger liquid surge volume

if it is greater than 5 a horizontal flash drum should be used
horizontal is used when large liquid surge volumes are needed bcuz additional surge volume is
created by increasing length

Drum is considered full when only use 80% of drum for liquid, the remaining should be for
vapor flow

min diameter of drum Dmin=sqrt(4Atotal/pi)

length of the drum h that can hold the full volume of surge liquid is h=Vliq/(.8Atotal) OR


Multicomponent flash calculations

Find V/F using Rachford-Rice equation

V C (Ki -1)zi
f = =0
F i=1 1+ (K -1) V

Once V/F is found, the compositions leaving the flash unit can be found:

xi =
1+ (Ki -1)
Ki zi
yi = Ki xi =
1+ (Ki -1)