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CHAPTER 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter reviews the existent literature relating to the three parent
disciplines of this research, namely, e-commerce, the retail industry,
potential of e-retailing and e-retailing success factors and barriers.

Spiller, P., Lohse, G. (1997) completed work on A Classification of Internet Retail


Stores. Their work presents a classification of on-line retail stores based upon
convenience sample of 137 Internet retail stores. Their research identified five different
on-line store design strategies: Super Stores, Promotional Stores, Plain Sales Stores, One
Page Stores and Product Listings. They differ mainly in terms of the stores size, the
quantity of extra information and appetizers, and the interface design including
consistency, page lengths, image sizes and navigation capabilities.

Alba, Lynch, Weitz, Janiszewski, Lutz, Sawyer and Wood (1997) suggest that a key
difference between online and offline shopping is the ability of online shoppers to obtain
more information about both price and non-price information as a result of reduced
search cost. Because consumers are able to obtain more price information online and
compare across online retailers with a few clicks, they are more likely to shop online
when the price of a product is high rather than low as it saves consumers from having to
go out to acquire the cheaper options.

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Hossain, N. (2000).studied E-Commerce in Bangladesh: Status, Potential and
Constraints. The objective was to study the status, statutes, potential and constraints to e-
commerce development in Bangladesh. He found that the potential for use of e-
commerce by Bangladeshi consumers and businesses with foreign firms is much brighter,
and can play an important role in boosting the countrys exports. He added that lack of
awareness among the policymakers was a major restraint in introducing e-commerce. He
concluded that Bangladesh must liberalize the telecom and IT sector, along with that
countrys financial and commercial procedures must be reformed for the successful
implementation of e-commerce. For the success of e-commerce the Bangladeshi
companies have to attain internationally accepted certification on quality control,
competitive price and timely delivery. The major constrains to execute e-commerce
successfully in Bangladesh were too few telephone connections, absence of a strong
independent regulatory body for the telecommunication sector, Interest rate ceiling on
export loan and absence of encryption law that precludes acceptance of digital signature.

Morrison and Firmstone (2000). looked at the social function of trust and its implications
for e-commerce. They identify different components of trust building online and the
potential trust problems that exist in the online environment. Firstly, the authors
distinguish between personal and abstract trust. Personal trust is the trust that exists
between close individuals in that they will perform in line with the aspirations of that
person. Abstract trust is trust in systems; they refer to it as trust in organizations, markets
and state systems. In the case of online shopping, personal trust could be the trust that
exists between the consumer and the (r) etailer. Abstract trust could be the trust that exists
between the consumer and the Internet as a shopping medium.

Massagli, M. (2000) studied E-Tail V/S Retail: The Future of Downtown Regional
Shopping Centre. The objective was to explore potential impacts of E-Retailing on place
based shopping. The researcher has collected data by taking interview of professionals
selected from the field of retail, planning and real estate. The researcher has analyzed five

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factors. They are experiential components, sense of place, community benefits, exterior
&interior layout and accessibility and convenience. The result revealed that E-Retailing
couldnt substitute the traditional shopping. Further he said that in future both the
retailing format will merge and develop a hybrid retail format.

Persson, C. (2001). studied Strategies for enhancing consumer interaction in electronic


retailing. The objectives of his study were to examine the potential for e-commerce by
identifying and analyzing factors that are important for the consumers in making use of
the new medium. The results of the studies indicate that all three strategies can give
important contributions to the establishment of ease-of-use in e-commerce. The Multi-
Channel Retailing strategy seems to be the most useful strategy in the short run. The
Analytical technology strategy and the Hypermedia interface strategy have the potential
to become important strategies in the future of e-commerce.

Prassas, G., Pramataris. K., Papaemmanouil, O. (2001). studied Dynamic


recommendation in e-retailing. The objective was to study the application of
recommender systems for electronic retail sites and forms (Shopping list
recommendations, Recommendations at check-out, Product assortment) that online
recommendations. They have studied the techniques mainly used for the automatic
generation of recommendations that is data-mining and collaborative filtering. They have
developed a hybrid recommendation model that combines both data mining and
collaborative filtering techniques.

Gunnesson, T., Soderlund, K. (2001). completed work on Creating competitive


advantage in mature e-retailing market. The purpose of the study is to know the sources
of advantage that make e-retailer offering better than competitors e-retail offering. They
have collected data by taking interview of five consultants from three consultancy firm.
They found that the company should transfer the advantages gained in the e-retail arena
to strengthen competitive position in retailing as a whole.

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Kolsaker and Payne (2002). studied gender based trust concerns in e-commerce. They
have done survey of 150 people split 75 male and 75 female by using convenience
sampling. They found that gender did not influence trust levels in online shopping. They
break down online trust into three elements--security, integrity and confidentiality. They
identified that consumers are concerned with the security of payment details online. They
also found that consumers are also concerned with confidentiality in terms of the privacy
of personal information given over the Internet.

Chiang and Dholakia (2003). carried out a survey amongst 147 adults to examine
consumers' intention to shop online during the information acquisition stage. The study
incorporated three essential variables that were likely to influence consumer intentions: a)
convenience characteristic of shopping channels, b) product type characteristics, and c)
perceived price of the product. They found that convenience and product type influence
consumer intention to engage in online shopping. When consumers perceived offline
shopping as inconvenient, their intention to shop online was greater.

Kim, D., Yang, Z., Jun, M. (2003). have studied Customers perceptions of online
retailing service quality and their satisfaction. The objective of their study was to
identify key underlying dimensions of online retailing service quality as perceived by
online customers. For the study purpose they have indentified six key online retailing
service quality dimensions as perceived by online customers which were reliable/prompt
responses, access, ease of use, attentiveness, security, and credibility. They have prepared
questionnaire as data collection tool and done the survey of 260 full time and part time
MBA students and undergraduate students of USA. The finding of this research
confirmed that there is a strong and positive relationship between online retailers service
quality and their customer satisfaction. They found that three dimensions, reliable/prompt
responses (service), attentiveness, and ease of use, had significant impacts on both
customers perceived overall service quality and their satisfaction. They also suggest
online retailers implement information systems that integrate all their online and offline

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operations to improve their delivery performance. Along with that online retailers must
have enough staff members to answer customers diverse questions via telephones and e-
mail.

Colby, D. (2004). studied E-Retailing: The Real Story. Their objective of the study was to
highlight some of the considerations and concerns of creating an E-Retail business. They
found that the industry will continue to grow and offer tremendous opportunities to the
entrepreneur that is willing to invest the time and effort required to make a business a
success. They found that the Internet can be fun and offers the challenge of an ever
changing environment.

Plessis, P., Mostert, P., North, E. (2004). studied Period of Internet Usage: An Indicator
of the Buying Behavior of Internet Users. They have studied the relationship between the
Period of Internet usage and Online buying pattern of Consumer. They have used data
collection method and 1005 responses were received. They found that the period of
Internet usage significantly influenced the decision to purchase via the Internet. Another
finding was that the period of Internet usage significantly influenced whether those
shopping on the Internet searched for, or considered searching for, product and service
information online prior to purchasing from non-Internet-based sellers.

Asim, M., Hashmi, Y. (2005). completed work on E-LOYALTY. The purpose of the study
was to gain deeper understanding of how to create loyal customers on website .They have
adopted case study approach to investigate two website. The data were collected through
Personal and Telephonic Interview. They found that companies providing online service
must first identify the means to increase the overall Interactivity of their website and then
begin to consider towards customer loyalty.

Maarten C.W. Janssenand Rob van der Noll (2005). studied Internet retailing as a
marketing strategy from Erasmus University Rotterdam and Tinbergen Institute. Their

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study provides a theoretical framework that analyzes firms incentives to sell online and
the extent to which consumers will substitute the Internet for the conventional retail
channel. The research reveals that the main reason consumer prefer to purchase online is
the fact that they do not have to travel a physical distance. Factors like payment method,
delivery time play a vital role for the consumer to decide whether to choose online or
from traditional shopping.

Wang, M. (2005). has done a research on A study on B2C consumer behavior model from
Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua
University. The purpose of this study was to develop a complete and detailed consumer
behavior model for B2C electronic transactions. He has developed a B2C consumer
behavior model, the Ten-Step Model which was completely highlighting the important
steps during e-shopping. He has suggested that the service providers must focus from the
consumers point of view instead of from sellers point of view.

Rotem-Mindali, O., Salomon, and I. (2006). have studied The impacts of E-retail on the
choice of shopping trips and delivery: Some preliminary findings. The objective of the
study was to develop a conceptual model of the decisions households make with regard to
information gathering, purchase transactions and delivery mode. To collect data, they
have developed a structured questionnaire and respondents were asked to assess a large
variety of aspects concerning their shopping habits, preferences as well as attributes
concerning their accessibility to and usage of IT-based applications. They found that a
number of respondents use internet to collect the information before purchasing product.
Study also revealed that the major reason to purchase online was the cheaper price of the
product followed by busy schedule.

Collier, J., Bienstock, C. (2006). studied Measuring Service Quality in E-Retailing. The
objective of the study was to develop a framework for how customers judge e-service
quality by looking at quality evaluations in the process, outcome and recovery of a

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service experience in e-retailing. For the same, they have developed a questionnaire
containing three major sections. They have done the survey of 266 respondents. In
Section 1, the respondents were asked to recall the last transaction that they have made
with e-retailer and questions related to the process and outcome quality were asked.
Section 2 asked the respondents to respond to service recovery questions if they had
experienced a problem with their transaction. Section 3, which asked satisfaction,
behavioral intention, and demographic questions. The result revealed that process quality
of an e-service experience plays a crucial role in the overall evaluation of e-service
quality. So service providers need to be aware that a bad experience in the e-service
process can have a ripple effect with subsequent evaluations of the service experience. If
a customer has a bad experience in regards to the interactivity or functionality of the web
site, then a customer might make an overall eservice quality judgment even before a
transaction took place.

Mostaghel, R. (2006). studied Consumer Satisfaction: Service Quality in Online


Purchasing In Iran. They have conducted a survey of 500 respondents with the help of
Questionnaire. They have studied the most dimensions of service quality that affects
consumer satisfaction in online purchasing in Iran. They found that the most important
factor in service quality is fast access followed by design of website and 24*7*365 user
accessibility and brand image of service provider.

Xuan, W. (2007). completed work on Factors affecting the achievement of success in E-


Tailing in Chinas retail Industry: A case study of the Shanghai Brilliance Group. In his
research he studied how is e-tailing being used in the Shanghai Brilliance Group. He also
studied the barriers to the implementation of e-tailing in the Shanghai Brilliance Group
and factors for achieving successful e-tailing in the Shanghai Brilliance Group. The
major findings were e-commerce is poorly implemented in the Shanghai Brilliance Group
and its subsidiaries. He also found nineteen barriers that can be further divided into two
categories, namely, external barriers and internal barriers for the implementation of e-
tailing in the Shanghai Brilliance Group. Major external barriers to e-retailing were high

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cost of internet access, lack of efficient payment facilities and banking services, advanced
retail network and lack of trust towards e-retailer. Major internal barriers were senior
management commitment to e-commerce, knowledge towards e-commerce, IT expertise,
profit objective and organizational culture.

Sinha, P., Kar, S. (2007). studied An Insight into the Growth of New Retail Formats in
India. Their study investigates modern retail developments and growth of modern
formats and challenges and opportunities available to the retailers to succeed in India.
They conclude that it is not all about deciding the format but all about serving the
consumer better, faster and at less cost. The most important issue in e-tailing is credibility
and trustworthiness of the supplier. They added that consumer is the focus of retail
business and the retailers should serve the consumer better, faster and at less cost.

Araghchi, S. (2007). studied Service quality, customer satisfaction, customer experience


and behavioral intention in Iranian retail store. The objective of the study was to
investigate and determine the nature of service quality construct and its relationship with
these of Customer Satisfaction, Customer Experience and Behavioral Intention. The
study also aim to identify which dimension that is best predictor of service quality, in
terms of generating the outcome that identifies the dimension regarding service quality in
Irani Retail store. The researcher has done the survey of 500 respondents with the help of
questionnaire as a data collection tool. The major findings were reliability of the store
and its service plus responsiveness are the most important dimensions in compare with
other three dimension.

Brown, B., Oleksik, G., Bisdee, D (2007). studied Consumer attitude review internet
shopping. The aim of the research was to establish how consumers perceive the internet
as a sales channel, the reasons for using it or not using it, how consumers use the internet
to purchase goods/services and their experiences of such use. The study investigates the

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factors affecting internet purchasing behavior such as consumer attitude, belief,
personality, nature of website and so on.

Devendra P.S (2007). has done study on Is Retailing in India Boon or Bane. He has done
the study with the help of secondary data. He found that rising disposable income in the
middle class and lower middle class with an increase in employment opportunities for
young adults in IT and IT enable sectors are the major reasons for growth in retail sector
in India. He added that along with serving the needs of upper class people, organized
retailers should also focus on satisfying needs of lower class people too.

Tractinsky, N., Lowengart, O. (2007). studied Web-Store Aesthetics in E-Retailing: A


Conceptual Framework and Some Theoretical Implications. Their study examines the
role of aesthetic design in Web-based stores. They found that web-store designer should
take into consider both classical and expressive dimensions at a time of developing
website. The classical dimension was associated with clean and orderly design and with
user perceptions of the websites usability. While expressive dimension represent designs
perceived by users to be original and creative. The website aesthetics should be designed
by focusing on type of merchandise they sell and type of customer they target. So e-
retailers should tailor their web-store design according to the combinations of consumer
and product characteristics.

Mohanty & Panda (2008). opines about retailing as a sector of India occupies important
place in the socio-economic growth strategy of the country. India is witnessing retailing
boom being propelled by increasing urbanization, rising purchasing power parity (PPP)
of ever growing Indias middle class, changing demographic profiles heavily titled young
population, technological revolution, intense globalization drive etc.

Srivastava, R. (2008). studied Changing retail scene in India. The purpose of the study
was to study changes in retail taking place in India in view of many MNCs and large

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industries entering into this segment. He has used secondary data for the study purpose
and collected data from industry sources which included national and international
published sources from 1993-2006. He found that there is an impact of modern retail on
traditional retail players. He added that malls with multiplexes such as cinema theatres,
food courts, and play places for children are becoming the centre for family outings. He
further said that small retailers have also improved their service to stay in the
competition. Services like credit limits and home service are helping them to hold on to
their customers.

Joseph, M., Soundararajan, N., Sabu, S. (2008). studied Impact of Organized Retail on
Unorganized Retail. The objective was to study impact of organized retail sector on
unorganized retail sector. They have collected data from 2020 unorganized small retailers
across 10 major cities; 1318 consumers shopping at both organized and unorganized
retail outlets; 100 intermediaries; and 197 farmers. Detailed interviews were also carried
out for 12 large manufacturers, 20 small manufacturers and six established modern
retailers. The major findings of the study show that unorganized retailers in the vicinity
of organized retailers experienced a decline in their volume of business and profit in the
initial years after the entry of large organized retailers. The adverse impact on sales and
profit weakens over time. There was no evidence of decline in overall employment in the
unorganized sector as a result of entry of organized retailers. They further added that
there is competitive response from traditional retailers through improved business
practices and technology upgradation.

Othman, N. (2008). studied Integrating consumer trust in building an e-commerce


website. His research aims to find a practical solution on how to integrate trust during the
design and development process of an e-commerce website. The research examines
consumers trust and behavior by understanding the concept of trust, reviewing several
trust related models, mechanisms. He found that consumer characteristics have direct
influenced on consumer purchasing intentions while web merchants should have

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trustworthiness characteristics such as ability, integrity and benevolence for consumer to
evaluate and decide.

Akash (2009). says that Retail business in India, as anywhere else in the world, plays a
crucial role in an economy. Retail in India has the potential to add value over Rs 2,00,000
crore ($45billion)business by the year 2010 generating employment for some 2.5 million
people in various retail operations and over10 million additional workforce in retail
support activities including contract production and processing, supply chain and
logistics, retail real estate development and management. Gibson, CEO Retail
Association of India opines (2007) that modern retailing today is growing faster than
expected while the current growth rate is around 30 percent, the sector is expected to
grow at 40- 50 percent on a year basis.

Delafrooz, N., Paim, L., Haron, S., Sidin, S., Khatibi, A. (2009). studied Factors affecting
students attitude toward online shopping. The aim of their study was to examine the
significance of attitude toward online shopping. They have adopted questionnaire as a
data collection tool and done survey of 500 post graduates students with the help of
random survey. They have studied factors related to online shopping orientation
(includes Utilitarian Orientation and Hedonic orientation) and perceived benefit (includes
Homepage, Wider selection, Price, Customer service, fun) that affect attitude toward
online shopping. The findings suggest that utilitarian orientations, convenience, price and
wider selection are an important determinant of consumers attitude toward online
shopping.

Chari, A., Raghavan, M. (2010). studied Foreign Direct Investment in Indias Retail
Bazaar: Opportunities and Challenges. The study was based on secondary data. The
study found that the potential benefits from allowing large retailers to enter the Indian
retail market may outweigh the costs. Entrance of large foreign discount store retailers

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could help tackle inflation. Technical know-how from foreign firms will improve supply
chain in India.

Dash, M. (2011). studied Next-Generation Retailing in India: an Empirical Study Using


Factor Analysis with objective to find out the factors of next-generating retailing. The
questionnaire was designed to collect data. 200 samples were selected with simple
random sampling method from Visakhapatnam. He has analyzed 14 variables for study
purpose and with help of factor analysis method; he has developed three groups which
include technology, innovative format decision and Customer Centricity. On the basis of
analysis, he defined `Next-Generation Retailing' as "the newer and younger generation of
organized retail industry evolution which is multidimensional and far more advanced
than its previous generations.

Howes and Davies (n.d.). argued that three purchasing activities: search for products,
management of search criteria, and comparison of found products, are important for
Internet shopping., Bickerton,B. ,Pardesi et al. (2000) note that not all products and
services are equally suited to be sold via the Internet. Greenbury, in Maruca (1999)
supports this view by stating that people will increasingly want to shop on the Internet for
at least a certain range of products because of convenience. Therefore, marketers are
interested in understanding the relationship between a consumers choice of channel and
the information search via the Internet.

Zaveri, B. (n.d.). has done study on Online versus offline shopping activities of female
internet users in selected cities of Gujarat. She has conducted her study in four major
cities of Gujarat which are Ahmadabad, Surat, Vadodara and Rajkot with 650
respondents participating in it. The findings of the study revealed that female shoppers in
Gujarat prefer to buy books, flowers, computer software, book railway tickets and do
banking through internet. When it comes to products like clothes, accessories or shoes,

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female buyers use internet to collect primary details only, but opt to buy them from the
store instead of placing an order online.

Tripathi, A. (n.d.).studied Emerging trends in modern retail formats & customer


shopping behavior in Indian scenario: A Meta analysis & review. The objectives of the
study were to explain the emerging trends in the development of Modern Retail formats
in Indian Context and the Consumer Shopping Behavior among the Modern Retail
Formats with special reference to Delhi & NCR. The empirical data has been collected
with the help of secondary data as well as Primary resources by taking the interview of
shopkeeper from selected malls. He has also studied the Factors affecting shoppers
behavior. The outcomes of the study were Indian consumers are still family-driven
entities and more sensitive to quality, customer service and status. Study also revealed
that Retailers would have to provide new delivery formats and value shopping to
customer. It is also observed that in the changing retailing environment, understanding
the psyche of customer is critical to success in retailing.

Albarq, A. (n.d.). studied Intention to shop online among university students in Jordan.
The aim of the research was to study the acceptance level of internet shopping among
higher learning institution particularly in Jordan. The study investigates possible factors
that influence consumer Internet intention towards students online shopping behavior in
Jordanian university. He has analyzed factors like usefulness and ease of use that
influence students buying intention. He found the relationship between perceived
usefulness and attitude was positive and there was also a positive relationship between
perceived usefulness and intention to shop.

Yashaswi(n.d.). studied e-Retailing: Is India ready for it? He said that the ultimate aim
of the e-retailer is to develop a sustainable competitive advantage. Further he has
discussed various advantages and disadvantages of e-retailing from consumer side. He
also discussed various challenges faced by service providers such as e-customer

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retention, customer service, and secure payment. He has also discussed infrastructure
which is required for providing e-retailing facility from service provider side such as
architecture of the website-payment system, supply chain management, troubleshooting
help desk, customer data base management and so on. Further he added that Internet is no
magic wand, it is yet marketing tool, and like all other marketing tools, it will work only
if used wisely.

Mahajan, V., Srinivasan, R. (n.d.). studied The Dot.com retail failures of 2000: Were
there any winners? The objective of their study was to find out the reasons for success
and failure in dot.com service providers. For the study, they have done the survey of 48
dot.com retailers. The study identified1-800contacts.com as the sole winner, using two
performance indicators: percentage change in stock price since the initial public offering
and stock options underwater. The reasons that they have found behind the success were
(stock market) customers rewarded a dot.com retailer that offers a physical product; has a
search good, an existing product, offline experience, and no product customization; and
does not depend on alliances for its success. Customers rewarded a dot.com retailer that
uses the Internet as an additional channel to augment its existing channels. It rewarded an
offline retailer that understood its traditional business.

Szymanski, D., Hise, R. (n.d.). studied e-Satisfaction: An Initial Examination from Texas
A&M University. The objective of the study was to find the determinants of e-
satisfaction. They have examined the role of online convenience, merchandising, site
design and transaction security in consumer e-satisfaction. For the study they have
identified 2108 online shoppers and e-mailed the survey and received 1007 responses.
They found that out of all four factors the most important factor were in consumer e-
satisfaction assessments are site design and convenience followed by online security play
an important role in e-satisfaction. Good site design includes having fast, uncluttered, and
easy-to-navigate sites. Convenience includes saving time and making browsing easy.

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Kierkegaard, P. (n.d.). studied Fear of e-shopping anxiety or phobia? His study focused
on finding the reasons behind the reluctances from consumers to purchase online. He
found that a number of people fear online shopping and mistrust the technology. So
service providers must develop the trust to reduce the perceived risk.

Chai, L., Piew, T. (n.d.). have studied The effects of shopping orientations, online trust
and prior online purchase experience toward customers online purchase intention. The
aim of their research was to evaluate the impacts of shopping orientations, online trust
and prior online purchase experience to the customer online purchase intention. They
have conducted a survey of 250 respondents by using convenience sampling. They found
that impulse purchase intention, quality orientation, brand orientation, online trust and
prior online purchase experience were positively related to the customer online purchase
intention. Further they added that E-retailers may offer loyalty programmes or club
memberships for those online customers who exhibit strong brand orientation to increase
the level of online trust. E-retailers must provide honest and trustworthy information to
the potential web shoppers at all time.

Lee, K., Tan, S. (n.d.). completed work on E-retailing versus physical retailing. Their
objective of the study was to find out more about consumers choice with regard to
shopping for goods at the virtual storefront vis--vis the physical store and to identify
various factors that impact their choice and how consumers make the choice between
virtual versus storefront shopping. The major findings were consumers were more likely
to shop on-line for products with well-known brands than lesser-known ones. However,
they are less likely to shop on-line from lesser-known retailers who carry well-known
brands than from reputable retailers, even if the latter carry lesser-known brands.

Walczuch, R., Seelen, J., Lundgren, H. (n.d.). have done study on Psychological
determinants for consumer trust in e-retailing. They have studied Personality-based
factors, Perception-based factors, Experience-based factors, Knowledge-based factors;

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and Attitude. The major findings were Consumers seem to make their decision to trust an
e-retailer on a rather rational basis. They found that Knowledge base factors and
Experience Base factors plays a vital role to consumer at a time to purchase from E-
Retailer.

Sahney, S., Shrivastava, A., Bhimalingam, R. (n.d.). have studied Consumer Attitude
towards Online Retail Shopping in the Indian Context. The objective of the study was to
look into the various aspects of online shopping in modern day environment and to
identify those factors that affect the development of attitudes towards online shopping.
They have used questionnaire as data collection tool and done the survey of 160
respondents. They have studied aspects which were reliability and trust, security,
aesthetics, continuous improvement, access to foreign goods and post purchase service
related to online retail store. Their sampling units were educated middle and upper class
people who were aware of online retail shopping. They found that reliability and trust
were the most important criteria as per Indian consumer for online retail store followed
by information and post-sales service and security. They also found that aesthetically
well arranged site will improve their mood of consumer and motivate them to browse
through the site. They also found that men prefer online retailing as it is a more
convenient way of shopping where they can sit at home and shop but women prefer to
shop by going out which they feel is fun and relaxation.

Wang, M. (n.d.). has done a study on Assessment of E-Service Quality via E-Satisfaction
in E-Commerce Globalization. His primary focus was on to access e-service quality via
customers e-satisfaction. He used three e-satisfaction methods which were text comment
(writing comments related to e-retail store from where customers purchases), categorized
rating (filling a questionnaire) and overall rating. He found that high quality e-service is
the key to success for e-retailers doing business in competitive global e-commerce
environment. Along with that, it is necessary for e-retailer to build trust among the
customers by satisfying customers.

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Haque, A., Khatibi, A. (n.d.). have done study on E-shopping: Current Practices and
Future Opportunities towards Malaysian Customer Perspective. The aim of the study
was to establish a preliminary assessment, evaluation and understanding of the
characteristics of Internet shopping in Malaysia. They have developed a structured
questionnaire as data collection tool and done the survey of Internet users who were
willing to give response. The sample size was 450. They found that there is a significant
relationship between internet shopping and shopping through TV/telephone. They also
found that the major reason not to purchase from internet was lack of confidence and
trust in using internet to purchase product along with lack of awareness related to benefit
from internet purchase. They also recommended that the website should be designed such
as way that not to confuse the Malaysian online potential customer. E-retailers must
develop a privacy policy for their customers on discloser on personal information in order
to reduce the concern for privacy.

Singh, M., Banga, A. (n.d.). studied FDI Retailing in India. The objective of their study
was to analyze the reason why foreign retailers are interested in India and the strategies
adopted by them to enter India. They found that the major reasons behind the interest are
strategic location & geography, versatile demographics and vast growing Economy. They
also found that foreign retailers have adopted manufacturing and local sourcing,
franchising, test marketing, wholesale cash-and-carry operation and distributor.

Norazah, S., Ahamd, M., Thyagarajan, V. (n.d.). studied Motivation and concern factors
for internet shopping: A Malaysian perspective from Multimedia University, Cyberjaya
Malaysia. The objective of their study was to focus on the concern factors, which affect
the online buyers in Malaysia. They have developed a questionnaire as data collection
tool and done survey of 579 randomly selected respondents who had experience in
browsing or purchasing through the Internet. The questionnaires were distributed to the
respondents chosen at random at various locations such as cyber cafes, higher learning
institutions' labs, and shopping malls. They have included eight factors for the study
which were privacy concern, reluctant to change concern, quality concern, security

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concern, trust concern, connection speed concern, payment concern and non-disclosure of
complete product information concern. They found that the most important factor as per
respondent was privacy followed by reluctance to change, quality, security, trust,
connection speed, payment and non-disclosure of complete product information. They
further suggest e-retailers that the transactions must be secure and safe and trusted in
order to attract and maintain existing users of the Internet.

Sirari, A., Bohra, N. (n.d.). studied Foreign direct investment (FDI) in India service
sector (A study of post liberalization). The objectives of their study were to study the FDI
inflows in Indian Service Sector from 1991-2010 and to study the relationship between
service sector growth and India economy. The study was based on secondary data. They
have collected data from India and Ministry of Commerce and Industry data, RBI
bulletin, online data base of Indian Economy and newspapers. They found that FDI
shown a tremendous growth in from 2000 -2010 that is three times then the first decade
of FDI in services sector. Banking & Insurance is first and Telecommunication is second
segment of service sector which pick the growth from 2000-2010 of reforms. FDI create
high perks jobs for skilled employee in Indian service sector. The study also suggests that
FDI in retail sector must be allowed.

N.S.D.C studied Human Resource and Skill Requirements in the Organized Retail sector.
They have studied on mapping of human resource skill gaps in India till 2022.They have
studied functional skill and soft skill required to operate the store. Along with that they
have also identified gap. They found that projected human resource required in 2022 in
retail industry will be 176,252,000.

Sudalaimuthu, S., Lilly, J. (n.d.). studied Emerging Trend of E-Commerce in India. They
have studied various categories of e-commerce which include B2B, B2C, C2C, and C2B
and growth of internet in India. They have used secondary data for their study purpose.
They concluded that e-commerce has a huge potential and will fundamentally change the

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way businesses are done. It has advantages for buyers as well as sellers and this win-win
situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Along with that, they also concluded that e-
commerce has some weak links but with improvements in technology, they will be ironed
out, making the e-commerce easy, convenient and secure.

Malyadri,P. , Rao,K.(n.d.). have done study on Indian Retail Marketing Scenario A


Pivotal Role Towards Economic Growth. The objective of their study was to examine
various components that are supporting retail marketing to accomplish double digit
economic growth in the years to come. The study was based on secondary data. They
concluded that retail industry is attracting investment at domestic and global level in
several support industries such as IT, supply chain, warehouse distribution and so on.
They further added that industry can generate employment opportunities to millions of
people in small town and cities which will ultimately result in equitable and inclusive
growth. They suggested that the Government and RBI need to evolve suitable lending
policies that will enable retailers in the organized and unorganized sectors to expand and
improve efficiencies. They added that use of technology to the greatest extent possible
may also help strengthening the retailer position in the marketing channel. Along with
that initiative for more and more non-store retailing centers would also ensure a strong
retailing organization.

Gopal, V., Suryanarayana, A. (n.d.). have done study on Growth Drivers and Challenges
for Organized Retailing in India. Their study was based on secondary data. Their study
shows that some of the growth drivers for Indian retail industry are economic growth of
India, demographic changes of India, growth of nuclear families in India, technological
advancement, rise in use of plastic money, change in the consumer behavior. Along with
growth drives, study also revealed challenges such as absenteeism of industry status,
rules related to FDI, inadequate supply chain, inadequate power supply, and unfriendly
labor and tax laws that hinders growth of retail sector. They concluded that retailers have
to invest heavily in technology to monitor stocks and their movement, both in-stores as
well as en route. Retailers must adopt the concept of quick response delivery system and

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efficient customer response. They also added that government must increase their
participation to develop retail industry.

Amin (n.d.).had done study on Challenges of Retailing in India. For the study purpose he
has done the survey of 1,948 retail stores in 41 large cities of India. The sample consists
of traditional or grocery stores (64 percent of the sample), consumer durable stores (26
percent), and modern-format stores (10 percent). He has used 20 major obstacles faced by
the retailers in India. They were electricity problem, access to finance, corruption,
problems related to land, tax problems, informality, Crime & disorder, obtaining permits,
tax administration, Pricing regulations, Transportation, Court functioning, Skill shortage,
Policy uncertainty, Store hour restrictions, Customs, Telecom, Labor laws, Macro
instability, FDI restrictions. The result showed that inadequate power supply, access to
finance, corruption, tax rates, and land-related problems are the most important obstacles
to further growth in retail industry.

Duffy and Dale (n.d.). identified ten processes that are critical to success of Electronic
Commerce based on interviews with consultants experienced in EC engagement. One of
them is to understand the consumer behavior. Therefore, in order to build a better B2C
environment to facilitate the commercial transactions, it is necessary to understand the
behavior differences between the virtual store consumer and physical store customer.

Ha,H., Coghill,K.(n.d.). completed work on online shoppers in Australia: dealing with


problem. The study examines the behavior of the two groups of respondents in this
survey who have and have not encountered problems with online purchases. The findings
also show that most respondents would seek redress if they were unhappy with their
online purchases and if they knew how to proceed and that most of them would settle
disputes directly with e-retailers. Also, online shoppers who had encountered problems
were more likely to continue purchasing via the Internet than online shoppers who had

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not encountered any problems. This suggests that respondents find that the benefits
offered by e-retailers outweigh the risks associated with it.

Burt,S. ,Sparks,L.(n.d.). studied E-commerce and the retail process: A review. The
objective of the study was to review the impact of e-commerce on the retail process. The
focus was to study how retail processes and procedures could be affected by e-commerce.
They concluded that the largest retailers were pursuing Internet-enabled advantages and
cost reductions in operations, which could translate to an enhanced competitive position
in process, structure and relationship terms. They further added that consumer reactions
to the new real and virtual offers will be fundamental to their success and failure, but as
yet consumer reactions are not fully understood.

Eid, M. (n.d.).studied Determinants of e-commerce customer satisfaction, trust and


loyalty in Saudi Arabia. The objective of the study was to identify the factors that
influence the extent to which Saudi consumers trust, are satisfied with, and are loyal
towards B2C e-commerce. A structured questionnaire has been prepared as data
collection tool. A survey of 235 students and working people who have experience of
B2C e-commerce has been done. He found that B2C e-commerce customer loyalty in
Saudi Arabia is strongly influenced by customer satisfaction but weakly influenced by
customer trust. He added that Saudi online consumers perceive those e-commerce
websites as trustworthy if they provide greater level of integrity, reliability and/or
credibility in their user interface.

Toker,A., Varnali,K.(n.d.). have done a study on A Framework for E-Potential


Assessment in Online Markets. The aim of this research was to develop a framework to
assess e-potentials of various product categories in driving online shopping preferences.
A structured questionnaire has been prepared and with the help of random sampling
method they have done survey of 224 respondents. They have identified four criteria
which are shopping experience, perceived level of risk, niche orientation and information

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intensity which affect e-potential. On the basis of these four criteria they found that the e-
potential of software, tickets, books and magazine is high while perfume, fresh-fruit and
furniture is less in Turkey.

Tanwar, S., Kaushik, N., Kaushik, V. (n.d).have done study on Retail Malls: New Mantra
For Success. The aim of their study was to analyze the established players in National
Capital Region. The study was based on secondary data. They conclude that making the
biggest mall with top class retailers is not a key to success. A cool and refreshing
environment is required which makes shopping enjoyable and put smile on the face of
shoppers. They further added that mall should be designed in a manner that the new and
innovative aspects can be added later on to keep up consumers delight. Successful malls
are those which will adjust its mall culture with the customer sensitiveness and
preference.

Gupta, A. (n.d). studied Foreign Direct Investment In Indian Retail Sector: Strategic
Issues and Implications. The objective of study was to analyze the strategic issues
concerning the influx of foreign direct investment in Indian retail industry. Study also
analyzes the reason why foreign retailers are interested in India, the strategies they adopt
to enter India and their prospects in India. The study was based on secondary data. The
study conclude that India is at a stage where it needs US investments, technology and
management policies to sustain and enhance its economic growth. She further added that
strategy of allowing FDI should be backed by proper reform measures and India should
learn from experience of other developed and developing countries and develop their own
strategies, laws and regulations. The government should strictly enforce the quality
standards for local production and imports. The major reason for foreign companies
attraction to India is huge population, huge employment opportunity in retail sector,
presence of less organized retailers, improved living standards, friendly business
environment and growing purchasing power.

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Oliveira, Claudio, L.Antonio, L. (n.d). studied A Model For Evaluating B2C E-
Commerce Website: Application In The CD E-Retailing Industry In Brazil. The objective
of the study was to develop and test a model for evaluating B2C e-commerce websites
quantitatively and to identify features of a virtual store that influence the users purchasing
process via internet. The population of the study was all Brazilians who have purchased a
CD at least once using Internet as transaction/information channel. They have conducted
survey 496 respondents by using simple random sampling. The questionnaire has been
used as a data collection tool. They found that ease of use, trust, pleasure and
attractiveness of CD e-retailing website were key issues to develop positive attitude and
increasing users intention to purchase CDs via internet. They also concluded that virtual
stores should concentrate in continuous enhancement of their website to increase traffic
and sales.

Srikanth, V., Dhanpal,R.(n.d). studied A Business Review of E-Retailing in India. The


objective of the study was to focus on e-retailing concept/framework, e-retailing pros and
cons and how to make e-retailing venture successful. He found that an organization
required a unique idea/product to sell, a perfect business plan, technology plan, e-retailers
back office management and payment gateway to start an e-retailing business. The study
also mentioned that the government has to take effective steps to resolve all the barriers
for e-commerce growth. They further added that government should reduce internet cost
and offer attractive plans to corporate and end users to increase the use of internet.

Rofiq, A., Mula, J.(n.d).studied The Effect of Customers Trust on E-Commerce: A


Survey of Indonesian Customer B to C Transactions. The objective of the study was to
analyze the effect of vendors ability, benevolence and integrity towards e-commerce
customers trust. The population selected for the study was the entire number of
Indonesian internet users who were involved in e-commerce transaction via internet.
They have done survey of 236 respondents with non-probability sampling method. The
questionnaire has been used as data collection tool. They found that people spent more
time on internet tend to purchase more online. They also added that vendors integrity has

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direct positive influence on customer trust. They also recommended that e-commerce
players must provide proper information to the customer and offer satisfactory service to
customer. Along with that e-commerce businesses in Indonesia need to maintain the
reputation of vendors.

Flynn,L.,Goldsmith,R.(n.d). studied The Impact of Internet Knowledge on Online Buying


Attitudes, Behavior, and Future Intentions: A Structural Modeling Approach. The
objective of the study was to test a conceptual model of the influence of perceived
Internet knowledge on Internet-related attitudes, online buying, and buying intentions.
They have done survey of 566 students by using convenience sampling. The
questionnaire has been used as a data collection tool. They found that as consumers gain
knowledge of a product field they are likely to buy more and feel more secure in their
purchases. The study further added that greater knowledge leads to more buying, which
in turn increases knowledge of the product category. They suggested that e-retailers must
provide information to consumers to increases their knowledge related to e-commerce
which will promote online buying The information should stress the fun and safety of
Internet. As consumers learn more about online buying, their safety concerns should
decrease, thus leading them to shop online.

Review of literature helps identifying that no such work has been undertaken related to
Consumer Awareness and Potential of E-Retailing in South Gujarat. Hence, the
researcher wanted to study the awareness and potential related to e-retailing in South
Gujarat Region. Along with that researcher also want to study factors affecting success of
e-retailing website from consumer perspective which will help e-retailers to develop
seamless website. In this study the researcher also attempted to study potential of e-
retailing from retailers perspective too.

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