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SOCIETY AND CULTURE

with Family Planning, STD, HIV & AIDS


Revision No.:
Prepared by: Mr. RODERICK O. MENDOZA
Reviewed by:
Approved by:

Asian Institute of Maritime Studies


Maritime Campus, Arnaiz Avenue, cor Roxas Boulevard, Pasay City
Philippines 1300
Website: www.aims.ph
Contact No.: (632) 8312467/8322467/8332467/8342467 THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
LEARNING OUTCOMES

1. Define Human Society


2. Enumerate the various characteristics of Human
Society.
3. Discuss the types of Societies in the Philippines.
4. Define what Community is.
5. Explain the different approaches to the study of
Community.
6. What are the criteria for the classification of
Community.
7. Differentiate the Interaction Pattern between Rural
from Urban community
THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
The term Society is the most fundamental one in Sociology.
It is derived from the Latin word Socius, which means
companionship or friendship.
Companionship means sociability.
It is this element of sociability which defines the true
essence of society.
Aristotle said that Man is a social animal. He cannot live
alone i.e. he always lives in the company of other people.
Both nature and necessity compel him to live in a society.
THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
For a common man, society implies a group of
some people.
But for Sociologists, it is not just a group of people
but it is a set social relationships which exists
when the members are aware of each others
existence and have some interests or objects in
common.
It is a group of people who share a common
culture, occupy a particular territorial area and feel
themselves to constitute a unified and distinct
entity.
It is the mutual interactions and interrelations of
individuals and groups.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Society is a web of social relationship. MacIver
A society is a collection of individuals united by
certain relations or mode of behavior which
mark them off from others who do not enter
into these relations or who differ from them in
behavior Morris Ginsberg
Society is a system of usages and procedures
of authority and mutual aid of many
groupings and divisions, of controls of
human behavior and liberties (MacIver and
Page)
The term society refers not to group of
people, but to the complex pattern of the
norms of interaction, that arise among and
between them (Lapiere)

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Hunting And Gathering Societies

Introduction Gerhard Lenski pointed out in his


Human Societies, that it is the oldest and the
simplest type of society is the Hunting and
Gathering Society.
Hunting & gathering society relies heavily on
hunting wild animals and gathering food for its
survival.

Example:
(i) San people of Kalahari desert in Southern
Africa
(ii) Bushmen of Southwestern Africa

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Hunting And Gathering Societies
Characteristics

Characteristics Description
Small in Size These societies consist of very small but scattered groups.
The environment in which they live cannot support a large
number of people. So, their numbers do not exceed 40-50
members.
Nomadic In Nature These people are constantly on the move because they have
to leave one area as soon as they have exhausted its food
resources.
Not Desire To Acquire For two reasons, firstly, no individual can acquire because
Wealth there is no wealth. Secondly, there basic norm was sharing
Family And Kinship Are The only 2 interconnected social institutions which were
The Only Defined family and kinship. Family is all and all for them. Kinship was
Institutions the basis of these groups as they were related by ancestry
and marriage.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Hunting And Gathering Societies
Characteristics

Characteristics Description
Small in Size These societies consist of very small but scattered groups.
The environment in which they live cannot support a large
number of people. So, their numbers do not exceed 40-50
members.
Nomadic In Nature These people are constantly on the move because they have
to leave one area as soon as they have exhausted its food
resources.
Not Desire To Acquire For two reasons, firstly, no individual can acquire because
Wealth there is no wealth. Secondly, there basic norm was sharing
Family And Kinship Are The only 2 interconnected social institutions which were
The Only Defined family and kinship. Family is all and all for them. Kinship was
Institutions the basis of these groups as they were related by ancestry
and marriage.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Hunting And Gathering Societies
Characteristics

Characteristics Description
Absence Of Political Statuses in these societies are essentially equal and hence
Institution the difference between the leader and followers is not there.
Most decisions are made through group discussion.
Warfare is unknown to Limited Or No Division Of Labor There is gender-based
these people division of labor but there is no gender inequality as such
Constant Need To Face Some hunters and gatherers constantly face the danger of
Danger extinction in a struggle against adverse environments.
Among the Itibamute Eskimos, for example a familys fate
rests in the hands of the father, who must find and catch the
game, build the house and maintain the family.
Simple Religious Belief is not developed among these people into unseen spirits that
Religion must be taken into account but not necessarily worshipped.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Herding or Pastoral Societies

Herding society refers to any form of


society whose main subsistence
comes from tending flocks and herds
of domesticated animals. In practice,
subsistence needs are often met by
a combination of herding with
hunting and gathering and other
forms of agriculture.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Characteristics Description
Relatively Larger In In comparison with the hunting and
Size gathering societies, herding, societies, are
larger in size and due to their
technological invention of the
domesticated animal which can be used
for human food
As A Better Pastoralism has proved to be a better
Productive Strategy productive strategy than hunting and
gathering for it provides an assured food
supply and permits the accumulation of
surplus resources
THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
Characteristics Description
Beginning Of Since pastoralism contributes to the
Inequality accumulation of surplus resources, some
individuals who have better access to
surplus, become more powerful than
others.
Nomadism Coupled , like the hunters and gathers, are nomadic
With Trading because of their seasonal need to find
Herding people sufficient grazing areas for their herds.
Their nomadic way of life often brings
pastoralists into contact with their groups.
This helps them to develop trading.
THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
Characteristics Description
Pastoralism and Pastoral people tend to develop their own religious
beliefs. They commonly believe in a God or Gods
Development of who take an active interest in human affairs, and look
Religious Belief y after the people who worship them. Judaism,
Christianity and Islam originated among pastoral
peoples.
Technology has i).The herding society tends to place a higher value on
their temporary territories than do the hunting and
led to several gathering societies. Disputes over grazing rights with
social changes other herding societies sometimes result in warfare.
among which the (ii).Slavery, unknown in hunting and gathering
societies, make its appearance as captives in war are
following may be put to work for their conquerors. Herding Or Pastoral
noted Societies

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY

A horticultural society is a social system


based on horticulture, a mode of production
in which digging sticks are used to cultivate
small gardens.
Came into existence about 4000BC today in
sub- Saharan Africa.

Examples for horticultural societies:


(i) Gururumba Tribe in New Guinea.
(ii) Masai people of Kenya Horticultural
Societies

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Characteristics Description
Domestication Of Plants specialize in the domestication of plants such as wheat,
Horticulturists rice etc. More advanced horticultural societies have metal
tools and weapons and not ploughs.
Horticulturalists Are Unlike the pastoralists, horticulturalists, are relatively
Better Settled Than better settled. They develop settlements that have larger
Pastoralists populations and migrate in search of better conditions
Slash And Burn The subsistence strategy of the horticulturists is slash and
Technology burn technology .This people clear areas of land, burn the
trees and plants they have cut down, raise crops for 2 or 3
years until the soil is exhausted and then repeat the
process
Relatively More This society assures better food supply of surplus.
Complex Division Of Existence of surplus leads to specialization of roles.
Labor Advanced horticultural societies sometimes consisting of
as many as 5000 people support specialists producing and
trading with a variety of Horticultural Societies

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY

An agricultural society focuses on mode of


production primarily on agriculture and
production of large fields. Based on the
invention of the plough around 3000B.C., the
agrarian revolution marked its beginning. Use
of plough increases the productivity of the
land.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Characteristics Description
Characteristics Of Agricultural Cultivation Of Land Through Plough With the use of the plough
Societies increased productivity and made the increased yield more
reliable.
Combining Irrigation Size of the agricultural societies is much greater than that of
Techniques with the use of horticultural and pastoral communities. Court system of
Plough increased production providing justice also emerges.
and ability to renew the soil.
Appearance of cities The specialists who engage themselves in non agricultural
activities tend to concentrate in some compact places which
ultimately led to the birth of the cities.
Agricultural societies lead to Evolution Of Distinct Social Classes Agricultural societies
the establishment of more produces relatively greater wealth, which is unequally shared.
elaborate social institutions. 1st time, two distinct social classes those who own the land
and those who work on the lands of others- make their
appearance.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES

Industrial mode of production began


in England about 250 years ago.
Industry literal meaning is a
classification that refers to a group of
companies that are related in terms of
their primary business activities An
industrial society is a system in which
large number of labor and machinery
is involved in production of goods and
services.

THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY


Characteristics Description
Industrial Society Is Industrial revolution transformed much of the Europe and
Associated With United States by replacing essentially agriculturally based
Industrial Revolution And societies with industrial societies based on the use of
Industrialism machines and non- animal resources to be harnessed.
Industrialism is based on the application of scientific
knowledge to the technology of production, enabling
new energy sources to be harnessed.
Technology Initiating Vast New technologies such as steam engine, atomic energy
And Rapid Social Changes tend to bring about social changes as the economic and
other institutions constantly adjust to altered conditions.
Larger Societies With The high level of productivity of industrial societies
Huge Populations further stimulates population growth with increasing
members living in cities and metropolitan areas.
Populations of these societies often run to tens or
hundreds of millions.
THE STUDY OF HUMAN SOCIETY
Community

A community is the people living in an area or the


area they live in
Three Types of Communities

Rural Urban Suburban


Rural Community

A community is called rural if


it is located in the country
there are less than 2,500 people
farms and homes are far apart
the majority of people depend on agriculture
transportation carries small groups of people
Cars, trucks, tractors, etc.
Urban Community

A community is called urban if


it is located in a large town or city
there are more than 2,500 people
homes and apartments are close together
the majority of people depend on industry
and business
transportation carries large groups of people
Trolleys, subways, buses, etc.
Suburban Community

A community is called suburban if


it is located near the outskirts of a large
town or city
homes are close together
the majority of people depend the work in
the cities
People living in suburbs work in the
city and have transportation to get to
work