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IMPROVING STUDENTS WRITING SKILL BY USING GRAPHIC

ORGANIZER AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS ENGLISH


EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND
TEACHERS TRAINING LANCANG KUNING UNIVERSITY
PEKANBARU

Herdi, Anas Yasin, Hermawati Syarif


Language Education Program, State University of Padang
herdy_philiang@Yahoo.com

Abstrak: Permasalahan penelitian ini adalah kemampuan menulis. Penelitian


tindakan kelas ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi apakah graphic organizer
strategy dapat meningkatkan kemampuan menulis mahasiswa dan untuk
menjelaskan faktor yang mempengaruhi peningkatan kemampuan menulis.
Penelitian ini telah dilakukan di program studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Lancang Kuning
Pekanbaru. Metode penelitian ini adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK).
Sampel penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa tahun kedua kelas A yang berjumlah
duapuluh lima mahasiswa. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua siklus, yang setiap
siklusnya teridiri dari lima kali pertemuan. Peneliti dan kolaborator mendapatkan
data pada setiap siklus dari mengobservasi, catatan lapangan, wawancara, dan
latihan dan tes menulis.Setelah menganalisis dan mengkalkulasikan data,
ditemukan bahwa graphic organizer strategy dapat meningkatkan kemampuan
menulis mahasiswa dalam konten, organisasi, kosa kata, tata bahasa, dan
mekanik. Ini dapat dilihat peningkatan dari rata-rata hasil belajar dari 61.76
pada preliminary test, 73.6 setelah siklus 1, dan 79.04 setelah siklus 2. Faktor
yang mempengaruhi peningkatan kemampuan menulis paragraph mahasiswa
adalah materi, media, aktivitas kelas, majemen kelas, strategi guru, dan
pendekatan guru. Berdasarkan penemuan pada penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan
bahwa, graphic organizer stategy dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan
kemampuan menulis mahasiswa dan graphic organizer stategy dapat membangun
kepercayaan diri dan partisipasi mahasiswa.

Key words: writing skill, graphic organizer strategy

INTRODUCTION particular purpose. Those experts


Writing is one of four skills should above put down the perception of
be mastered by students, as Bryne writing based on the real activity
(1991:1) states that writing is one of which prefers conveying the ideas,
the language skills, which is use for information, thought, and even
medium of communication, argument through the written
especially in direct communication. language.
Likewise, Richard (2003:8) defines Based on the researchers
that writing is written teaching experience, particularly in
communication that work much on teaching writing, it is found that the
ability to generate expression in great number of the second year
Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

students of class A of English connections in ones strategic


Education Department Faculty of thinking. It is one way of arranging
Education and Teachers Training of concepts to organize the prior
Lancang Kuning University had knowledge and generate a lot of
problems in English writing. First, ideas in which one word as a topic
the students had low ability in links to the other related word. Also,
generating, organizing, and Perles (2012) asserts that the ways
elaborating ideas, for they did not in using graphic organizer technique:
understand how to specify this. brainstorming, structuring, and
Second, the students were confused restructuring. Firstly, brainstorming
in using correct grammar. Third, the is one of the steps of the writing
students had limited vocabulary process such as the students minds,
(diction). The last, the students were sitting, and thinking of the topic.
poor in using mechanical convention Then, the teacher asks the students to
in their composition. As the result, brainstorm the topic to get
they were not able to construct the information and ideas referring to the
writing well. topic. Secondly, structuring means
All above, one of the the teacher chooses a topic and
important factors causing students gathers ideas or information about
poor writing skill is the technique the topic to help the students use a
used by the teacher where the teacher different graphic organizer to
uses inappropriate writing teaching structure their thoughts. Lastly,
techniques or strategies, teaching restructuring means encourages the
media, and teaching materials. The students to use an organizer after
writing teaching techniques or they finish their first draft in order to
strategies in the classroom normally make sure that the information is
employed by the teacher may not well structured.
work very well or be monotonous In addition, there are some
and not interesting for the students. suggestions coming from some
As a result, the students have researchers who used graphic
difficulty developing themselves in organizer technique to solve the
teaching and learning process. problems in writing. As Sharrock
Hence, the role of the teacher (2008) and Emerson (2010) found
extremely demanded as a motivator, that graphic organizer is the effective
facilitator, and educator, is most writing strategy. And the series of
important thing to use the effective studies, principally by Clark in Zaini
way of teaching so that the students et. al. (2010), examined that graphic
will be well trained or well organizer not only enables students
experienced, especially in writing to record and categorize information,
class. but also help students to understand
Extracting from the facts difficult concepts, generate thoughts,
above, one of possible solutions to and identify connections between
overcome the problem is by making ideas. It means that graphic organizer
use of graphic organizer technique. strategy can help students to write in
Ellis (2004) states the spatial English especially in writing text.
arrangement of graphic organizers Sharrock (2008) and Emerson (2010)
allows the students to identify the argue that graphic organizer strategy
missing information or absent can help students to make a good

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

topic sentence, supporting idea, Academic Year 2013/2014. The


supporting details, and concluding number of the students was 25. The
sentence so that students can write class chosen was due to the writing
well and readers can understand the difficulties experienced by the
idea. students. This research was done in
Related to the explanation two cycles by using graphic
above, it is necessary to apply organizer to improve the students
graphic organizer technique in order writing skill. Each cycle of this
to overcome the problem of the research consisted of five meetings.
students writing because it enables This research was done on
the students to have a lot of ideas by September 9th up to November
making concepts of topic being 18th2013. The research dialed with
discussed before writing. As they the discussion of the research
make the more concepts, it can result findings based on the research
in the more ideas that can be questions. The questions were
expressed through writing. answered based on the data from
Hopefully, by implementing graphic writing tests, observation checklist,
organizer technique in teaching field notes, and interview of the
writing, it will bring better progress students activities during the
for the students writing. teaching learning process in order to
METHOD get information of the students
This study was a classroom opinion in teaching and learning
action research which consisted of activities by using graphic organizer
four steps namely plan, action, strategy at the second year students
observation, and reflection. It was of English Education Department
conducted at the second year Faculty of Education and Teachers
students of English Education Training of Lancang Kuning
Department of Faculty of Education University.
and Teachers Training of Lancang Before carrying the research,
Kuning University Pekanbaru. There the teacher taught the students as
were twenty-five students. There usual, such as explaining, outlining,
were two types instruments used in error correction feedback that related
this research: quantitative to the topic and then he asked the
instruments and qualitative students to write the topic into
instruments. Quantitative instruments paragraph or essay. The students did
were the instruments used to take the not have spirit to study especially in
students scores. The instruments writing. The teacher was hard to take
were tasks and tests. Qualitative the students attention. So, the
instruments used in this research learning activities did not run well as
were observation and interview. hoped. Furthermore, the classroom
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION atmosphere was also not exciting for
A. Findings the students and for the teacher
This classroom action because many students did not show
research was conducted at the second participation in learning activities. In
year students of class A of English this case, the researcher gave
Education Department of Faculty of preliminary test to the students in
Education and Teachers Training order to identify their prior ability in
Lancang Kuning University in

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

writing before the researcher applied


graphic organizer strategy. 3,3
3,2
Table 4.2: The Students Average 3,1
Score of Writing Skill 3
2,9
2,8
Avera 2,7
N Indicator Percenta 2,6
ge
o s ge
Score
1. Content 3.28 65.6%
Organizat
2. 3.08 61.6 %
ion
Vocabular Based on the data of the base
3. 3.28 65.6 % score above, it could be concluded
y
4. Grammar 2.96 59.2 % that most of the students at the
5. Mechanic 2.84 58.8 % second year students of English
Education Department Faculty
Total 15.44 61.76 %
Education and Teachers Training
Lancang Kuning University got
In relation to the data above,
difficulties in writing, especially in
the researcher found that the average
terms of content, organization,
score of the students writing skill on
vocabulary, grammar, and mechanic.
the preliminary test for each
1. The Extent to which Graphic
indicator; the average score of the
Organizer Strategy Improve the
students content was 3.28 or 65.6 %
Students Writing Skill
of the students who were able in term
a. Cycle 1
of content in writing, the average
After completing all of the
score of the students organization
meetings in this cycle, the researcher
was 3.08 or 61.6 % of the students
gave writing test to the students in
who were able in term of
order to identify how far the
organization in writing, the average
students writing achievement by
score of the students vocabulary was
using graphic organizer strategy. The
3.28 or 65.6 % of the students who
researcher instructed to write an
were able in term of vocabulary in
essay about 500 words by using
writing, the average score of the
graphic organizer strategy with the
students grammar was 2.96 or 59.2
topic punishment for corruptor.
% of the students who were able in
The test was started on Monday,
term of grammar in writing, and the
October 14th 2013. It was conducted
average score of the students
for 100 minutes. The researcher gave
mechanic was 2.84 or 58.8 % of the
the final test for the students in the
students who were able in term of
fifth meeting. The students writing
mechanic in writing. This result was
was scored considering five
supported by the diagram of the
indicators of writing namely:
average score of each items of
content, organization, vocabulary,
writing components as follow:
grammar, and mechanics.
The Average Score of the Students
In relation to writing test that
Preliminary Test
was given by the teacher at the end
of meeting of the first cycle, the
result of the students writing skill by

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

using graphic organizer strategy at students mean score above, it found


cycle 1 was described as in the that there was improvement in term
following table: of content, organization, vocabulary,
The Students Average Score of grammar, and mechanics. It was
Writing after Cycle 1 clear that there was improvement of
the students writing skill by using
N Indicator Avera Percenta graphic organizer from preliminary
o s ge ge test to cycle 1. For further more
1. Content 4 80 % description, the researcher also
2. Organizat 3.67 75.2 % included the average score of writing
ion skill at cycle 1 as in the following
3. Vocabular 3.84 76.8 % diagram:
y
4. Grammar 3.56 71.2 %
5. Mechanic 3.24 64.8 % The Average Score of the Students
Total 18.40 73.6% after Cycle 1

In addition, the data showed


the improvement of four indicators 4
3
of students writing skill by using
2
graphic organizer strategy. In detail,
1
the improvement of the components 0
of writing could be seen by
comparing the students score in the
preliminary test and the cycle 1. The
table above showed that the mean
score of the students writing skill
for content was 4 or 80 %, it Based on the data above, it
increased 0.72 point or 14.4% could be concluded some students
comparing with the students scorer still had difficulties in writing by
in the preliminary test (3.28 or using graphic organizer strategy
65.6%). From the data above, it was especially in term of grammar and
clear that there was an improvement mechanic, but there was an
for the students writing in content. improvement of the students score
The mean score of the students comparing with the preliminary test.
writing skill for the organization was To see the improvement of the
3.76 or 75.2%. It meant that it students in cycle 1, it could be seen
increased 0.68 point or 13.6% on the diagram below:
comparing with the students score in The Comparison of the Students'
term of organization in preliminary Average Score on Preliminary
test. Then, for vocabulary, the Test and after Cycle 1
students score was 3.84 or 76.8%. It
increased 0.56 point or 11.2%. Also,
for grammar, the students score was
3.56 or 71.2%. It increased 0.6 point
or 12%. The last, for mechanic, the
students score was 3.24 or 64.8%. It
increased 0.4 point or 8%. From the

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

learning process. The material was


75 difficult for the students, the difficult
70
65 material made the students got
60 problem in writing, such as the
55 students had difficulties to elaborate
and organize the idea in their writing.
Then, the teaching strategy, the
students were interesting for the
students because this strategy could
help them in generating and
After analyzing the data organizing their idea in writing.
which was taken from the task and Although, there were some students
the test on the first cycle, it could be confuse in understanding the steps of
concluded that the students writing graphic organizer strategy such as
skill by using graphic organizer brainstorming. It caused that the
strategy got improvement if it students did not have background
compared to the base score, even knowledge about the topic so that
though the students writing skill they had difficulties to develop their
could be improved, the result of the writing. For instance, graphic
test was not satisfied because it did organizer strategy could help the
not achieve the target of this students to improve their writing
research. A great number of the skill.
students still had problems in b. Cycle 2
generating content, organization, After completing all of the
vocabulary, grammar, and mechanic. meetings of the second cycle, the
In this case, the most problems that researcher gave writing test to the
faced by the students in writing skill students in order to identify how far
of the first cycle was organization, the students writing skill by using
grammar, and mechanic. For the graphic organizer strategy. The
organization, the student ability in researcher instructed to write an
organizing the idea in their writing essay about 500 words by using
was still low. Also, the students got graphic organizer strategy with the
difficulty in grammatical of their topic Wire Tapping. The test was
writing where the students did not started on Monday, November 18th
able to differentiate the linguistic 2013. It was conducted for 100
features such as identifying tenses, minutes. The researcher gave the
verb, noun and the linking verb of final test for the students in the fifth
the text. Furthermore, the students meeting. The students writing had
got difficulty in mechanic where the been scored considering five
students forgot in using capital letter, indicators of writing skill namely:
punctuation, and spelling. content, organization, vocabulary,
It was proved by the grammar, and mechanics.
observation and field notes written In conjunction with the
by the collaborator in each meeting, writing test that was given by the
the problems were caused by several teacher at the end of meeting of the
factors such as the material and the second cycle, the result of the
teaching strategy that was applied by students writing skill by using
the researcher in the teaching graphic organizer strategy at cycle 2

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

was described as in the following term of grammar in cycle 1. The last,


table: the students score in term of
The Students Average of Writing mechanic was 3.8 or 76 %. It
after Cycle 2 increased 0.56 point or 11.2 %
comparing with the students score in
N Indicator Avera Percenta term of mechanics in cycle 1.
o s ge ge From the students mean
Score score above, it found that there was
1. Content 4.2 84 % improvement in term of content,
2. Organizat 4 80 % organization, vocabulary, grammar,
ion and mechanics. It was clear that there
3. Vocabular 4.04 80.8 % was improvement of the students
y writing skill by using graphic
4. Grammar 3.72 74.4 % organizer from preliminary test to
5. Mechanic 3.8 76 % cycle 1. For further more description,
s the researcher also included the
Total 19.76 79.04% average score of writing skill at cycle
2could be illustrated as in the
In conjunction with the data following diagram:
above, there was improvement of the The Average Score of the Students
students writing skill by using after Cycle 2
graphic organizer strategy. In detail,
the improvement of writing
indicators could be seen by 4,2
comparing the students score in the 4
cycle 1 and the cycle 2. The table 3,8
above showed that the mean score of 3,6
the students writing skill in term of
content was 4.2 or 84 %, it increased 3,4
0.2 point or 4% comparing with the
students score in the cycle 1. It
indicated that there was an
improvement of the students writing
in term of content. The mean score Based on the data above, it
of the students writing skill in term could be concluded that there was
of organization was 4 or 80 %. It significance improvement of the
meant that it increased 0.24 point or students average score in writing by
4.8 % comparing with the students using graphic organizer strategy in
score in term of organization in cycle cycle 2 comparing with the
1. Then, the students score in term preliminary test, and cycle 1. To see
of vocabulary was 4.04 or the improvement of the students in
80.8%.Itincreased 0.2 point or 4 % cycle 1, it could be seen as in the
comparing with the students score in following diagram:
term of vocabulary in cycle 1. Also,
the students score in term of
grammar was 3.72 or 74.4 %. It
increased 0.16 point or 3.2 % The Comparison of the Students'
comparing with the students score in Average Score on Preliminary

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

Test, after Cycle 1, and after Cycle by using graphic organizer strategy
2 was effective to improve the
students writing skill. It was proven
by the result of the students score in
80 the preliminary test, cycle 1, and
70 cycle 2 had improved significantly.
60
50
40
30
20 2. The Factors that Influences the
10 Improvement of the Students
0
Writing Skill by Using Graphic
Organizer
After implementing graphic
organizer strategy to improve the
students writing skill in the
classroom during the cycles, the
After comparing the data researcher found some factors that
which was taken from the task and influenced the students writing skill.
test in each cycle, the researcher In this case, those factors contributed
concluded that the students writing the students writing skill
skill by using graphic organizer significantly. They were material,
strategy at the second year students media, classroom activities,
of English Education Department classroom management, teachers
Faculty of Education and Teachers strategy and teachers approach.
Training Lancang Kuning University The first factor was material.
got significant improvement if From the result of observation, field
compared the result of the students notes and interview some students, it
score on the preliminary test, cycle 1, was found that the material
and cycle 2. The result of the test had influenced the changes of students
passed the target of the research. It writing skill. The students were
was proved by the observation, field interesting with the material given
notes, and interview that were taken because the material was current
by the collaborator and the issues in Indonesia. The material was
researcher in every meeting. It near with the students background
showed that there were several knowledge. So, it made the students
factors that influence the students was easier in elaborating, generating,
writing skill such as material, media, and organizing the ideas in their
classroom activities, classroom writing project.
management, teachers strategy and The second factor that
teacher approach. Those factors influenced the students writing skill
above had contributed toward the was the media used by the teacher in
students writing skill significantly. teaching writing. Based on the
In relation to the data above, observation checklist, field notes and
it could be concluded that the writing interview, it was found that the
skill of the second year students of media was valuable of both students
English Education Department and teacher. For the students, they
Faculty of Education and Teachers were interesting with the media. The
Training Lancang Kuning University media could support teaching and

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

learning process. The media also improve the students writing skill.
helped the students to comprehend The researcher encouraged and
the material easier because the motivated the students in writing
students did not only listen what the activities without spending much
teacher said but also they had some time and giving them an effective
activities that have to be done such strategy. So, the students enjoyed
as seeing, doing, and demonstration. and interested in writing activities by
Meanwhile, the media also helped using graphic organizer strategy.
the teacher when he taught in the The fifth factor that
classroom. The media also guided influenced the students writing skill
the teacher achieved the goal of was the strategy used by the teacher
teaching and learning process in the in teaching learning process. Based
classroom. In short, by using a good on the observation, field notes and
media, the teacher could handle the interview, it could be identified that
material well and the media helped the researcher applied graphic
the teacher in explaining the material organizer strategy in the teaching
while teaching and learning process. writing. The strategy was used by the
The third factor was the researcher was effective for the
classroom activities. Pertaining to the students, because the students could
result of observation checklist, field comprehend the material quickly so
notes, and interview, it found that the that they could generate and organize
classroom activities handled by the the ideas in their writing. Also, the
researcher were running well. In this students could determine the
case, most of the students procedures of graphic organizer
participated in writing activities by strategy. The students could
using graphic organizer strategy. The brainstorm the material before
students could apply the procedures writing, they could structure the first
of graphic organizer strategy such as draft of their writing, and then they
brainstorming, structuring, and could restructure their first draft into
restructuring. The students were easy writing. All these activities could
to elaborate, organize, and generate make the students to be active and
ideas in writing. It caused that the independent in writing task.
students were guided by the The last factor was the
procedures of graphic organizer teacher approach that used by the
strategy in every meeting so that the researcher while teaching and
students could write well. learning process in the classroom.
The fourth factor that Based on the observation, field notes,
influenced the students writing skill and interview, it could be concluded
in the teaching and learning process that the teachers approach was good
was classroom management. Based in order to improve the students
on the observation both of teacher writing skill. The researcher helped
and students, field notes, and and guided the students in writing
interview some students, it could be activities. The researcher created
clarified that the researcher played a good classroom atmosphere, so that
major role in managing the the students enjoyed and interested in
classroom while teaching and following writing activities. Also, the
learning process. The researcher students did not bored and afraid in
created good atmosphere in order to making mistake because they

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

believed that the teacher would guide writing were the most influencing the
and help them if they had problems students writing skill. Firstly, the
in writing activities by using graphic material that was given by the
organizer strategy. researcher influenced the students
3. The Relationship of writing skill. It was supported by the
Quantitative Data and qualitative data taken from the
Qualitative Data observation, field notes, and
In conjunction with the interview. Based on the qualitative
findings previously, it could be data, it could be clarified that one of
clarified that graphic organizer the factors the students success in
strategy could give significant writing skill was using an
improvement to the students writing appropriate material. It meant that
skill. It could be seen from the when the researcher gave the
students average score in writing students an interesting topic related
test by using graphic organizer to the student real life and their
strategy in preliminary test, cycle 1, background knowledge such as
and cycle 2. In preliminary test, the current issues, it could make the
researcher found that the average students were easier in elaborating,
score of the students writing skill organizing, and generating the idea
was 61.76. In cycle 1, the researcher in writing.
found that the average score of the Secondly, for the teachers
students writing skill was 73.6. strategy, the teacher should give an
Meanwhile, in cycle 2, the average effective strategy to the students in
score of the students writing skill order to improve their writing skill.
was 79.04. Pertaining to the data Through the effective strategy, the
above, it indicated that graphic teacher could lead and guide the
organizer strategy could improve the students to comprehend the material
students writing skill. so that they could catch the
Even though, there was an important information of the
improvement of the students writing material. In this research, graphic
skill, the researcher assumed that the organizer strategy was applied in
students still had problems in writing order to improve the students
skill especially in terms of grammar writing skill. In fact, after applying
and mechanics. There were several this strategy, there was significant
students got low score in terms of improvement on the students
grammar and mechanics. However, writing skill. It was proved by the
if it compared with the result of the students average score as explained
preliminary test and the cycle 1, the in the previous paragraph.
students got significant improvement After having completed
in the last cycle. analyzing the data obtained from the
The data above were affected test, observation, field notes, and
by several factors; they are material, interview, the findings of this
media, classroom activities, classroom action research could be
classroom management, teachers seen as follows:
strategy, and teachers approach. 1. Teaching writing through graphic
From all of those factors, the organizer strategy could improve
material and the teachers strategy the students writing skill at the
used by the researcher in teaching second year students of English

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

Education Department Faculty of strategy could influence in


Education and Teachers Training writing skill because these
Lancang Kuning University. It procedures attracted the
could be identified that there was students to be active and
significant improvement of the creative in writing activities.
students writing skill from d. The classroom management
preliminary test, cycle 1, and during teaching writing of
cycle 2. Graphic organizer using graphic organizer
strategy gave positives strategy could influence the
contribution and better outcomes students writing skill. The
to improve the students writing classroom management was
skill. good and the teacher could help
2. Teaching writing through graphic and guide the students while
organizer strategy was influenced teaching learning process.
by several factors as in the e. The teachers strategy in
following: teaching learning process also
a. The material given could make could influence the students
the students interesting and writing skill. The teachers
challenging them in writing strategy helped the students
activities. The material was comprehend about the material
suitable with the students prior more active and independently.
knowledge and relevant and f. The last factor that could
match to the students real life. influence the change of
b. The media that were used by students writing skill was the
the teacher to support teaching teacher approach in classroom
and learning process could activities. The teachers
make the students interesting approach could motivate,
and enjoying while teaching stimulate, and guide the
and learning process. Also, the students during teaching and
media could guide the teacher learning process.
to achieve the purpose of B. Discussion
classroom and the media could With reference to the findings
help the teacher to handle the of this research, which was taken
material during teaching and from the activities of two cycles of
learning process. this action research, it could be
c. The variation of the classroom concluded that graphic organizer
activities could improve the strategy had brought a lot of
students writing skill in order improvement toward the students
to get more practice in the writing skill at second year students
classroom. The classroom of English Education Department
activities could influence Faculty of Education and Teachers
toward the students writing Training Lancang Kuning
skill. The researcher applied all University. The improvement was in
of procedure of graphic terms of content, organization,
organizer strategy like vocabulary, grammar, and
brainstorming, structuring, and mechanics. The improvement of the
restructuring. All the students writing skill was supported
procedures of graphic organizer by the ways of using graphic

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

organizer strategy like learn the material and also graphic


brainstorming, structuring, and organizer strategy could improve the
restructuring activities. Perles (2012) students comprehension,
identifies that the ways in using performance, and motivation.
graphic organizer technique namely In conjunction with the
brainstorming, structuring, and observation, field notes and
restructuring. First, brainstorming interview, the researcher found that
helped the students in exploring their there were several factors that
minds, sitting, and thinking of the influenced the improvement of
topic given. Second, structuring students writing skill by using
helped the students in to gathers graphic organizer strategy. The
ideas or information about the topic factors were the material, media,
so that the students were easy in classroom activities, classroom
choosing a different graphic management, teachers approach and
organizer strategy. The last, teacher strategy.
restructuring helped the students in The first factor that
organizing and elaborating the ideas influenced the changes of students
after they finished their first draft in writing skill was material during this
their writing. Also, the improvement research. The material given by the
was influenced by several factors teacher could influence the students
such as material, media, classroom interest and challenge them in
activities, classroom management, writing activities. Also, the material
and teachers strategy and teacher had to suitable with the students
approach. In addition, graphic prior knowledge and relevant and
organizer strategy could build up the match to the students real life such
students confidence and improve the as current issues in their
students participation in teaching environment. By using those
and learning activities. materials, the students were easy in
The process of teaching and elaborating and organizing the ideas
learning by using graphic organizer in their writing because they have
strategy in improving the students known the topic given from
writing skill was successful. It was television, newspaper, and magazine.
shown by improving of the students It was supported by Clarke in Kitao
average score in every cycle. The (1997) states that the material
finding above was supported by Ellis considered many aspects in order to
(2001) found that graphic organizers fulfill its role in learning process.
made content easier to understand The material should be authenticity,
and learn, and decreased the realism, context, and focus on the
necessary semantic information learner. Hence, material could
processing skills required to learn the influence the students writing skill.
material. Also, Zaini at al. (2010) The second factor was the
found that graphic organizers had media used during teaching and
effect on the improvement of learning process in the classroom. It
students comprehension, indicated that the teacher did not
performance, and motivation in only use the books, maker, and
learning. In conclusion, graphic whiteboard as the media, but also the
organizer strategy could make teacher used LDC projector, laptop,
content easier to understand and and handout to support teaching and

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

learning process especially in because the procedures of this


teaching writing. It was supported by strategy attracted the students to be
Sanaky (2005) states that media is a active and creative in writing
tool of communication in teaching activities.
and learning process which can be The fourth factor was
used by the teacher in transferring classroom management. The
information to the. It meant that the classroom management was done by
media was changing or the teacher to create a good situation
communicating which refers to where the students learned and
anything that carries information studied comfortably. It was
between sources and receivers. supported by Jones (1997), an
Based on the data gotten from effective classroom management
observation checklist, field notes, includes several areas in teaching
and interview showed that by using and learning process such as it
the LCD projector, laptop, and should be based on good
handout made the students enjoyed understanding of the current research
and interested in learning writing. It and theory, it had to build strong
also helped the teacher in teaching relationship among the teacher and
and learning process because media students, it has to involve
guided the teacher to achieve the instructional methods that facilitate
purpose of the classroom. In short, the optimal learning, it involves the
media could help the teacher to students in developing and
handle the material and help the committing behavior standard to
students to increase their motivation create safe in the classroom, should
while teaching and learning process. involve the ability to use a wide
The third factor was range of counseling and behavioral
classroom activities. The variation of method. Referring to the classroom
the classroom activities could management that was created by the
improve the students writing skill in teacher, it could be clarified that
order to get more practice in the classroom management was good
classroom. It meant that the and the teacher could help and guide
classroom activities could influence the students while teaching learning
toward the students writing skill. process. For instance, classroom
Richard (2001) explains that the management could influence the
classroom activities should be students writing skill.
parallel to the real world as closely The fifth factor was the
as possible. Since language as a tool teachers strategy in teaching
of communication, methods, and learning process. Based on the
materials should concentrate on the observation checklist, field notes,
message that would be delivered to and interview, it found that the
the others. In these activities, the teachers strategy was good to
researcher applied all of the improve the students writing skill. It
procedures of graphic organizer was supported by Richard (2002),
strategy such as brainstorming, the teachers strategy is a way of
structuring, and restructuring. In engaging all of activities and
conclusion, all of the procedures of materials into a classroom. In this
graphic organizer strategy could case, the teacher used graphic
influence the students writing skill, organizer strategy to solve the

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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

students problems in writing skill. implementing graphic organizer


The procedures of graphic organizer strategy in teaching writing, the
strategy like brainstorming, researcher presents conclusion views
structuring, and restructuring could from some dimensions; the students
guide the students in writing writing skill, teaching and learning
activities. As the result, graphic process, and students responses
organizer strategy that used by the toward the implementation of
teacher could influence and improve graphic organizer strategy. The brief
the students writing skill. conclusions are as follows.
The last factor that influenced the First, the graphic organizer
change of the students writing skill strategy can improve the students
was the teachers approach in the writing skill. The writing skill
classroom activities. It was stated by includes the mastery of developing
Brown (2001), the teachers and organizing ideas in written form,
approach is important roles in using correct grammatical sentences,
managing the class. There were selecting appropriate words and
several characteristics in teaching expressions, and mastering and
and learning process such as obeying conventions of spelling,
controller, director, manager, punctuation, and mechanics. Those
facilitator, and resources. Based on elements of writing can be achieved
the data gotten from observation through the practice of writing
checklist, field notes, and interview, especially by using graphic organizer
it found that the teachers approach strategy. From the research, it can be
was good. It indicated that the seen that graphic organizer strategy
teacher helped and guided the can improve the students writing
students in writing activities by skill from cycle to cycle.
using graphic organizer strategy. Second, graphic organizer
Also, the teacher gave clearly strategy can be implemented
explanation of using graphic effectively in teaching writing by
organizer strategy so that the using these procedures: (1)
students could write well. In brainstorming; (2) structuring; (3)
conclusion, the teachers approach restructuring. In addition, the teacher
could influence in writing skill. should bring the students to
conditions of what a writing class
should be like, monitor the students
CONCLUSIONS progress, and follow the stages on
This research has purpose to the writing process by using graphic
find out the extent of graphic organizer strategy. The writing
organizer strategy improves the process by using graphic organizer
students writing skill and to explain strategy includes brainstorming,
the factors that influences the structuring, and restructuring. The
improvement of students writing first activity is brainstorming.
skill by using graphic organizer Brainstorming includes everything
strategy at the second year students that the students do before writing. It
of English Education Department is the stage where the students
Faculty of Education and Teachers collect and mention all vocabularies
Training Lancang Kuning related to the topic given. The second
University. Based on the findings in activity is structuring. The teacher

56
Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

guides the students to organize their learning process. In the teaching and
ideas into sentences and further learning process, the teacher can
organize into paragraph or essay bring the situation of learning
related to the events of the topic. become alive. The students try to
During this stage, the students focus accomplish their writing as soon as
on the content and express their ideas possible. The students feel optimism
based on the topic. The next stage is that they can finish their writings.
restructuring. The students are asked They are very happy follow the
to revise the rough draft from the stages on the writing process. They
writing stage focusing on content and believed by following the stages on
organization. Also, the students the writing process they can make
guided by the teacher to check good writing.
grammar, sentence structure, Note: This article was written from
spelling, and punctuation. After the researchers thesis at Pasca
checking the draft, the students are Sarjana of Padang State
asked to write the final draft. University guided by Prof. Dr. H.
Third, there are positive Anas Yasin, M.A. and Prof. Dr.
responses from the students when Hermawati Syarif, M.Hum.
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Journal English Language Teaching (ELT) Volume 2 Nomor 2, Juli 2014

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