Anda di halaman 1dari 8

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Proceedings
of the
Combustion
Institute
Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx
www.elsevier.com/locate/proci

A transition on minimum ignition energy for


lean turbulent methane combustion in amelet
and distributed regimes
1
C.C. Huang, S.S. Shy *, C.C. Liu, Y.Y. Yan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Energy Research, College of Engineering,
National Central University, Jhongli 32054, Taiwan

Abstract

Minimum ignition energy (MIE) of lean methaneair mixtures is quantitatively measured using a
high-power pulse generator which can vary ignition energies of a spark-electrode in the central position
of a large fan-stirred cruciform burner. The burner equipped with a pair of counter-rotating fans and
perforated plates can be used to generate isotropic turbulence having a very wide range of turbulent
intensities (u 0 ) up to 8 m/s with negligible mean velocities. Observations of ignition, ame kernel devel-
opment, and subsequent ame propagation in the central uniform region of the burner are recorded by a
CMOS high-speed camera (5000 frames/s), showing distributed-like ames of very dispersive and frag-
mental structures with liform edges for the rst time. A complete MIE data set of lean methaneair
mixtures at the equivalence ratio / = 0.6 as a function of u 0 /SL is obtained, where SL is the laminar
burning velocity. It is found that there is a transition on values of MIE due to dierent modes of com-
bustion. Before the transition, MIE only increases gradually with u 0 /SL. Across the transition when u 0 /
SL > 24 corresponding to the commonly dened turbulent Karlovitz number Ka = (u 0 /SL)2(ReT)0.5 > 8,
MIE increases abruptly, where ReT is the turbulent Reynolds number based on the integral length scale
of turbulence. This transitional value of Ka is much greater than the KlimovWilliams criterion
(Ka = 1). Since values of MIE under dierent levels of turbulence should be relevant to the size of
the reaction zone at least in the beginning of turbulent combustion, MIE  d3 based on an order-of-mag-
nitude criterion where d is the reaction zone thickness. It is thus concluded that this new experimental
nding proves the existence of both thin and broken reaction zones regimes proposed by Peters for a
new regime diagram of premixed turbulent combustion.
 2006 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Minimum ignition energy; Lean premixed turbulent methane combustion; Transition; Flamelet and distri-
buted regimes; Thin and broken reaction zones

1. Introduction

*
Corresponding author. Fax: +886 3 427 6157. Turbulent combustion is of fundamental and
E-mail address: sshy@ncu.edu.tw (S.S. Shy). practical importance. For example, lean premixed
1
Permanent address: Industrial Technology Research turbulent combustion in conjunction with
Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chunghsing Rd., Chutung, Hsin- increased compression ratios has great potential
chu, Taiwan. for increased fuel economy and reduced NOx

1540-7489/$ - see front matter  2006 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
2 C.C. Huang et al. / Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx

emissions in sparkignition engines [1,2] and gas spark discharge depends upon gas density and
turbines [3]. Though much has been learned species, electrode material, size and geometry, cur-
through experimentation, modeling, and compu- rent, gap width, and type of discharge. For sim-
tation [4], this important and extensively studied plicity, the present work uses a commercial high-
subject still has many unresolved fundamental power pulse generator (Velonex Model 360) along
issues, such as the existence and properties of tur- with a V-1918 plug-output and a V-2428 pulse
bulent premixed combustion in the so-called dis- transformer which can control and vary discharge
tributed regime. energies of a stainless-steel spark-electrode with
It has long been anticipated that there are dif- very sharp needle ends on anode and cathode sep-
ferent modes of turbulent combustion which inu- arated by a xed gap width of 2.6 mm (close to the
ence all key features of premixed turbulent ames methane quenching distance). This spark-elec-
[46]. Focus is on amelet (Ka < 1) and dis- trode is placed in the central position of a large
tributed (Ka > 1) regimes, traditionally separat- fan-stirred cruciform burner which can produce
ed by a Ka = 1 line, of which Ka is the intense isotropic turbulence without mean veloci-
turbulent Karlovitz number dened as Ka = (u 0 / ties. Hence, quantitative measurements of MIE
SL)2(ReT)0.5 and ReT = u 0 LI/m, where u 0 and LI, for lean premixed methaneair combustion over
m, and SL are characteristic turbulent intensity a very wide range of u 0 /SL and/or Ka covering dif-
and integral length scale, the kinematic viscosity, ferent turbulent combustion modes can be
and the laminar burning velocity, respectively. achieved.
Based on a scaling description of the size of the Using the cruciform burner (Fig. 1), the eect
reaction zone, Peters [4] argued that ame broad- of turbulent straining on MIE is investigated for
ening by turbulence in the thin reaction zone the rst time in intense isotropic turbulence with
regime occurs only in the preheated zone without negligible mean velocities. This novel experimen-
inuencing the reaction rate and this thin reaction tal apparatus has been used to obtain qualitative
zone regime before changing to the broken reac- understanding and quantitative analysis of vari-
tion zone regime could sustain for Ka  1. How- ous aspects of turbulent ame propagation,
ever, how to prove experimentally the existence of stretching, and global quenching with and/or
the distributed-combustion regime or the thin/ without consideration of radiation heat losses
broken reaction zones is still an open issue. This [1519]. The following section reviews experimen-
motivates the present work that aims to investi- tal methods used in this work, including new mod-
gate experimentally dierent combustion modes ications of the burner, the ignition system, the
based on measurements of minimum ignition determination of MIE using high voltage and cur-
energy (MIE) in a large fan-stirred cruciform rent probes, the imaging acquisition system, and
burner. the experimental procedure. A description on
MIE is an extremely important property for dynamics of turbulent ames from ame kernel
safety standards as well as for the fundamental formation to ame propagation is included and
understanding of the ignition process of combus- is followed by a complete set of measured MIE
tible mixtures [79]. Furthermore, accurate MIE data. Both are then applied to investigate funda-
data are crucial for optimization of ignition sys- mental characteristics of lean methaneair mix-
tems especially when ignition of lean premixed tures in dierent regimes of turbulent
mixtures under turbulent combustion is consid- combustion. Finally, a transition on MIE due to
ered [10,11]. It will be showed that measurements dierent modes of combustion is presented, the
of MIE and observations of the ame kernel for- conclusion is oered, and the area for future stud-
mation and its subsequent ame propagation in ies is identied.
intense isotropic turbulence without mean veloci-
ties can provide an excellent opportunity to scru-
tinize dierent combustion modes and thus 2. Experimental
evaluate the new regime diagram of premixed tur-
bulent combustion proposed by Peters [4]. This is Figure 1 shows schematic diagrams of the set-
the goal of this paper. up, including a symmetric cruciform burner, a
Concerning the ignition process, considerable high-power sparkignition system, and a high-
information is available on MIE of quiescent speed imaging acquisition system. The burner is
and ow mixtures. For instances, Kono and his equipped with a pair of counter-rotating fans driv-
co-workers [1113] investigated the eects of en by two 10-HP electric motors and synchronized
spark duration, spark path behavior, electrode to the same speed. The maximum fan frequency is
size and material, discharge type and more on 172 Hz when frequency converters and a water
the minimum ignition energy. Ziegler et al. [14] cooling system to both motor shafts are applied,
have carried out experimental studies on spark at which the corresponding u 0 up to 8 m/s with
ignition of lean methaneair mixtures using high negligible mean velocities can be achieved. A large
pressure glow and arc discharges. These results volume up to 15 15 15 cm3 of intense near-iso-
have demonstrated that the ignition energy of tropic turbulence, having energy spectra with

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
C.C. Huang et al. / Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx 3

Fig. 1. Schematic diagrams of the setup: (1) the fan-stirred cruciform burner with perforated plates for generating
intense isotropic turbulence, (2) an energy-adjustable sparkignition system including a Velonex high-power pulse
generator/transformer, the spark-electrode, high voltage and current probes, various resistances up to 50 kX, and a
Tektronix oscilloscope, (3) a high-speed data acquisition system using a CMOS camera (5000 frames/s with 512 512
pixels) and a 10 W infrared laser synchronized by IDT Pro-Vision-XS PIV system. Also shown are typical ignition and
ame development images for both laminar (f = 0 Hz) and turbulent (f = 7 Hz) cases using methaneair mixtures at
/ = 0.7.

5/3 slopes, can be generated in the central uni- tion frequency, external drive, and external trig-
form region of the burner [15,20] where the ger. In this study, only one shot mode with xed
spark-electrode is located. Due to the symmetry spark duration of 100 ls is applied, and various
of pairs of counter-rotating fans and perforated resistances from 0 to 50 kX are used to alter the
plates, the presence of the thin electrodes has little currents and thus discharge energies of the
inuence on turbulent properties within experi- spark-electrode. It is very dicult to measure the
mental uncertainties, as conrmed by velocity ignition energy quantitatively and accurately.
measurements using high-speed particle image After many tests, we found that direct measure-
velocimetry. ments of voltage and current on the anode and
The ignition system consists of a Velonex high- the cathode of the spark-electrode using a Tek-
power pulse generator/transformer, the spark- tronix high-voltage probe and a Pearson current
electrode, high voltage and current probes, vari- monitor, respectively, can give us repeated and
ous resistances, and a Tektronix oscilloscope, accurate data of ignition energies.
which can control and vary discharge energies of Figure 2 presents typical recording traces of
the spark-electrode (Fig. 1). The present elec- voltage and current generated by one shot of the
trodes made of stainless steel have sharp ends spark-electrode. As can be seen in Fig. 2, the ini-
(0.1 mm) with a xed spark gap of 2.6 mm rough- tial growth of the voltage trace is due to the onset
ly equal to the methane quenching distance. This of high voltage output to the circuit. Then, the
ignition system is capable of discharging high discharge occurs abruptly producing the concur-
voltages up to 20 kV with selectable spark dura- rent voltage (Vd) and current (Id) waveforms, at
tions varying from 0.05 ls to 3 ms. The high- which the ignition energy of such a spark dis-
power pulse generator oers four discharge charge is calculated from the time t1 to t2, as indi-
modes, including one shot, internal pulse repeti- cated on Fig. 2. The voltage after t2 is just the

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
4 C.C. Huang et al. / Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx

determined, and thus these experiments are rst


Vd 2 kV/div carried out in order to identify a smaller range
10 s/div for the same mixtures of 50% ignitability. Within
Vo lt a g e

t1 this range, the spark discharges are repeated at


least 30 times to determine the point of 50% ignit-
ability, and this point is the MIE using the same
denition as previous studies [1014].
0

C u r rent

t2
3. Results and discussion
250 mA/div
Id 10 s/div 3.1. Flame initiation, development, and propagation
Eig= V d(t)I d(t)dt = 21.8 mJ
t2 in dierent regimes
t1

A key facet of turbulent premixed combustion


Fig. 2. Typical voltage and current waveforms in a is the mode of combustion, also known as Borghi
spark gap of 2.6 mm.
diagram or regime diagram, which may aect all
important properties of premixed ames [4]. Igni-
tion is the beginning of combustion. By compar-
residual voltage. It should be noted that these cur- ing time sequent images of ignition, ame kernel
rent and voltage traces obtained in air are essen- development, and its subsequent ame propaga-
tially the same as those obtained in lean tion in dierent regimes of premixed turbulent
methaneair mixtures. In this study, the discharge combustion, a basic understanding on dierences
energies across the electrodes are varied from 0 to or similarities of combustion characteristics in dif-
about 71 mJ. The advantages of using such a com- ferent regimes may be obtained, as shown on
mercial ignition system are to avoid possible Fig. 3. These instantaneous time sequent photo-
uncertainties that may occur in dierent home- graphs of CH4air mixtures at / = 0.6 reveal
made ignition devices, and most importantly, the three dierent regimes: (a) laminar (Ka = 0), (b)
experiment can be conrmed and repeated by turbulent-amelet (Ka  1), and (c) distributed-
the same Velonex high-power pulse generator. like (Ka  9), respectively.
Moreover, our goal is to nd experimental evi- In a quiescent condition (Fig. 3a), the initiation
dences for the existence of distributed or broken and subsequent propagation of ame fronts are
reaction zones regime, so that the ignition condi- symmetric with respect to the electrodes having
tions are kept as simple as possible and thus only more or less spherical geometries. It is found that
one shot discharge mode is considered. for the turbulent-amelet case (Fig. 3b), the initial
Using a CMOS high-speed camera capable of stages of ame kernel development up to 10 ms
operating at 5000 frames/s with 512 512 pixels, are essentially the same as those in quiescent con-
instantaneous images of ame kernel development ditions. Similar results are also reported by Ishii
and its subsequent ame propagation can be et al. [11]. The time required for a laminar ame
obtained. Figure 1 also presents typical sequent kernel transforming to a turbulent ame kernel
images of ignition and ame propagation for is shortened as values of u 0 /SL and/or Ka increase.
methaneair mixtures at the equivalence ratio / Non-spherical geometries of these turbulent-am-
= 0.7 in both laminar (f = 0 Hz; u 0 /SL = 0) and elet fronts are observed in Fig. 3b due to turbu-
turbulent (f = 7 Hz; u 0 /SL  2) cases. As can be lence and buoyancy eects. These amelet fronts
seen, turbulent ames propagate much faster than upon propagation are wrinkled by isotropic tur-
laminar ames, more than 1.5 times higher on the bulence (u 0 /SL  5; Fig. 3b), where cellular struc-
average ame outward propagation speed (Fig. 1). tures can be observed because of lean methane
Before a run, methaneair mixtures at / = 0.6 air ames having a Lewis number less than unity.
are well mixed in a new separate mixing chamber It is worthy noting that this turbulent-amelet
and then injected into the evacuated cruciform regime can sustain at much higher level of turbu-
burner to 1 atm. A run begins by igniting these lence (Ka  8) than the KlimovWilliams criteri-
mixtures either in a quiescent condition without on (Ka = 1) which is commonly used to separate
fan-stirring or under various turbulent conditions amelet and distributed regimes in the regime dia-
with dierent fan-stirred intensities. More than gram. By comparing these sequent images on
four hundreds ignition experiments are carried Figs. 3b and a, turbulent-amelet fronts propa-
out to obtain the ignition probability at given val- gate radially at an average speed much faster than
ues of u 0 /SL. Specically, there are three dierent laminar ames can achieve. Due to the space limit,
ignition probabilities, respectively, 100%, 50%, we will present the eect of turbulent straining on
and 0% of which we are interested, at a given val- ame propagation speeds elsewhere.
ue of u 0 /SL. For a point of interest at a xed u 0 /SL, Under very intense turbulence conditions
data of 100% and 0% ignitability can be clearly where u 0 /SL  26 and Ka  9 (Fig. 3c), much

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
C.C. Huang et al. / Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx 5

0.1 ms 10 ms 20 ms 30 ms 40 ms 50 ms

0.1 ms 10 ms 20 ms 30 ms 40 ms 50 ms

0.1 ms 2 ms 4 ms 8 ms 12 ms 16 ms

20 ms 24 ms 30 ms 34 ms 40 ms 50 ms
Fig. 3. Instantaneous time sequent photographs, showing sparkignition, ame kernel development, and ame
propagation of lean CH4air mixtures (/ = 0.6) at three dierent conditions: (a) quiescent, (b) amelet, and (c)
distributed, respectively.

higher ignition energies must be required to ignite and even sustain longer than that of turbulent-
the same methaneair mixtures at / = 0.6, the for- amelet ames at higher values of u 0 /SL, indicat-
mation of turbulent ame kernel is fast within ing that the burning rate of fresh gases does not
1 ms after the spark discharge, and the kernel be faster in the distributed combustion regime
may occur at random positions slightly outside than in the turbulent-amelet combustion regime.
the electrodes. As can be seen from images at This is because collisions and annihilations of
4 ms up to 10 ms in Fig. 3c, the distributed-like these turbulent liform ame brushes inhibit
ame kernel looks irregular and dispersive. This ame burning rates, as can be seen from motion
diers drastically with ame kernels at 10 ms in pictures taken by the high-speed camera.
Figs. 3a and b that are regular and nearly spheri-
cal. Unlike turbulent-amelet fronts which have 3.2. Minimum ignition energy in quiescent condition
clear-cut boundaries from its initiation to subse-
quent propagation, distributed ame fronts have It is logical to rst measure MIE data in the
disrupted and fragmental structures with liform quiescent condition without fan-stirring, so that
edges. Pockets and islands of reactants are comparison with previous laminar MIE data can
observed in the later stage of distributed ame be made. Figure 4 shows MIE data, as indicated
propagation (after 24 ms), appearing as small by black circles (50% ignitability), as a function
dark regions randomly scattered inside the largely of / for lean methaneair mixtures in a quiescent
intertwined and dispersed ame body (Fig. 3c). It condition (u 0 /SL = 0), where white circles and
should be noted that burning of these turbulent- cross symbols represent 100% and 0% ignitability,
distributed ames can go on much beyond 50 ms respectively. These present MIE data are found to

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
6 C.C. Huang et al. / Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx

3 at / = 0.6. Again, the regions of white circles


Minimum Ignit io n Energ y (mJ)

Present MIE data (100% ignitability) and cross symbols (0% ignit-
Ziegler et al. [14] ability) are marked as ignitable and non-ignitable
Lewis & von Elbe [8]
regions on Fig. 5. Also plotted is the value of
2 MIE at quiescent condition (u 0 /SL = 0) marked
as an open triangular symbol on the ordinate. It
Non-ignitable is found that a transition on MIE of lean premixed
methaneair combustion exists due to dierent
1 modes of combustion. Below the transition, values
of MIE increase gradually only from 2.14 to
10.15 mJ when values of u 0 /SL increase from 0 to

as high as 23 for which MIE  (u 0 /SL)0.7. The tran-
Laminar Case sition occurs at Ka > 8 when relatively large values
0
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 of u 0 /SL above 24 are achieved. Across the transi-
Equivalence ratio ( ) tion, the slope of MIE as a function of u 0 /SL
changes abruptly from 0.7 to 7, corresponding to
Fig. 4. Minimum ignition energy as a function of the dierent regimes varying from turbulent-amelet
equivalence ratio for lean methaneair mixtures in a or possibly thin reaction zone regimes (small to
quiescent condition. large values of Ka < 8) to distributed or possibly
broken reaction zone regimes (very large values
be very close to previous data reported by Ziegler of Ka > 8). The maximum ignition energy used in
et al. [14] and Lewis and von Elbe [8] with no this study is 70.8 mJ that cannot ignite ultra-lean
more than 7% dierence using the same meth- methaneair mixtures at / = 0.6 when u 0 /SL > 29
aneair mixtures and spark discharges. As / corresponding to Ka > 10.3, as indicated by cross
decreases toward the lean ammability limit, val- symbols on the right end of Fig. 5.
ues of MIE increase. The transitional value of Ka (10) is found to
be much greater than the KlimovWilliams crite-
3.3. Minimum ignition energy in amelet and rion (Ka = 1) that separates both amelet and dis-
distributed regimes tributed regimes traditionally. Since values of
MIE under dierent levels of turbulence should
Figure 5 shows turbulent MIE (black circles) as be relevant to the size of the reaction zone at least
a function of u 0 /SL for lean methaneair mixtures in the beginning of turbulent combustion, the

Fig. 5. Turbulent minimum ignition energy as a function of normalized turbulent intensities for methaneair mixtures at
/ = 0.6, showing a transition of MIE.

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
C.C. Huang et al. / Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx 7

present nding proves the existence of a thin reac- ally with u 0 /SL at which MIE  (u 0 /SL)0.7.
tion zone regime proposed by Peters [4]. He Across the transition when u 0 /SL > 24 and/or
argued on a scaling base that in the thin reaction Ka > 8, values of MIE increase abruptly at
zone regime, turbulence can only inuence the which MIE  (u 0 /SL)7.
preheated zone and the reaction zone remains thin 2. The transition occurs at Ka  10 which is much
even for Ka  1. However, the dierence is on the greater than the KlimovWilliams criterion
upper limit of the thin reaction zone regime: (Ka = 1). Moreover, values of MIE are relevant
Ka  10 (the present work at / = 0.6) vs. to the size of the reaction zone for which
Ka  100 (Peters [4]). We anticipate that the MIE  d3. This is why a drastic increase of
upper limit of Ka should be increased if heat losses MIE is found in distributed-like or broken
due to the eect of the cold boundary could be reaction zone regimes. Thus, this nding proves
eliminated or when values of / move toward for the rst time the existence of both thin and
/ = 1 (stoichiometry). broken reaction zones regimes proposed by
Damkohler [21] may be the rst to describe a dis- Peters for a new regime diagram of premixed
rupted ame structure by intense turbulence which turbulent combustion.
should be very similar to that shown on Fig. 3c. 3. Unlike turbulent-amelet fronts with clear-cut
Damkohler argued that strong turbulence inu- boundaries from the initiation to subsequent
enced turbulent burning rates mainly through the propagation, turbulent-distributed ame fronts
increase of diusive transport inside the distributed are very dispersive and fragmental with liform
(broadened) ame front without distinguishing the edges. Pockets and islands are observed.
dierence in thickness between the general ame 4. Burning of distributed-like ames in the broken
front and its reaction zone (see [22]). Furthermore, reaction zone regime can last longer than that
Sanchez, Linan and their co-workers [23] stated of turbulent-amelet ames for a given mixture
that MIE is proportional to d3 based on an order- in the burner due to collisions and annihilations
of-magnitude criterion, where d is the reaction zone of these turbulent disrupted ames with liform
thickness. Thus, for amelet and thin reaction zone edges that may inhibit ame burning rates.
regimes, dT is only slightly larger than dL, so that
values of MIE only increase slowly with increasing In the near future, we shall test whether the
values of u 0 /SL up to 24 (Ka  8), where the sub- transition of MIE which occurs at Ka  10 for
scripts represent turbulent and laminar cases. For / = 0.6 would remain the same or require even
distributed-like or broken reaction zone regimes, greater values of Ka when higher values of /
values of MIE increase drastically because dT is ranging from 0.7 to 1 are considered. Moreover,
much greater than dL. ame propagation speeds in dierent regimes,
The present experiment shows that not only from laminar to amelet and from thin reaction
small-scale turbulence can reside in the broadened zone to broken reaction zone, will be analyzed
ame front, but also when turbulence is sucient- and reported elsewhere.
ly intense small-scale nibbling can occur to disrupt
the ame structure (the reaction zone) through
turbulent stretching, collisions and annihilations Acknowledgments
of these distributed liform ame brushes. It is
believed that this small-scale nibbling mode of This work was supported by the National Sci-
turbulent combustion is one of the reasons for ence Council, Taiwan (94-ET-7-008-005; 94-2212-
causing the strong bending eect on turbulent E-008-021). Additional support from the National
burning rates (ST/SL) in premixed turbulent com- Central University (160NCU-ITRI94-0401) was
bustion for which further increasing u 0 /SL to a also acknowledged. The corresponding author
sucient high level of turbulence can actually (S.S. Shy) thanks Professor Paul Ronney at USC
result in a decrease of ST/SL as previously report- for stimulating discussions on the ignition problem.
ed [15].

4. Conclusions References

A complete data set of MIE for lean premixed [1] J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Funda-
turbulent methane combustion at / = 0.6 at high mentals, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.
Reynolds number covering dierent regimes of [2] F.V. Bracco, Some Challenges in Engine Combus-
turbulent combustion is presented, which reveals tion, Paper Presented at the Fall Technical Meeting,
The Combustion Institute, Eastern States Section,
the following.
December 35, Orlando, FL, 1990.
[3] S. Correa, Current Problems in Gas Turbine Com-
1. There is a transition on values of MIE due to bustion, Paper Presented at the Fall Technical
dierent modes of combustion. Before the Meeting, The Combustion Institute, Eastern States
transition, values of MIE only increase gradu- Section, December 35, Orlando, FL, 1990.

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.
ARTICLE IN PRESS
8 C.C. Huang et al. / Proceedings of the Combustion Institute xxx (2006) xxxxxx

[4] N. Peters, Turbulent Combustion, Cambridge Uni- [14] G.F.W. Ziegler, E.P. Wagner, R.R. Maly, Proc.
versity Press, Cambridge, 2000. Combust. Inst. 20 (1984) 18171824.
[5] F.A. Williams, Combustion Theory, 2nd ed., Addi- [15] S.S. Shy, W.J. Lin, J.C. Wei, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A
son-Wesley, Redwood City, 1985. 456 (2000) 19972019.
[6] D. Bradley, Proc. Combust. Inst. 24 (1992) 247262. [16] S.S. Shy, W.J. Lin, K.Z. Peng, Proc. Combust. Inst.
[7] L.B. Loeb, Fundamental Processes of Electrical 28 (2000) 561568.
Discharge in Gases, John Wiley and Sons, New [17] S.S. Shy, E.I. Lee, N.W. Chang, S.I. Yang, Proc.
York, 1939. Combust. Inst. 28 (2000) 383390.
[8] B. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flame and [18] S.I. Yang, S.S. Shy, Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2003)
Explosions of Gases, Academic Press, London, 18411847.
1987. [19] S.S. Shy, S.I. Yang, W.J. Lin, R.C. Su, Combust.
[9] F.A. Fisher, Some Notes on Sparks and Ignition of Flame 143 (No.1/2) (2005) 106118.
Fuels. Tech. Memo. NASA/TM-2000-210077, [20] T.S. Yang, S.S. Shy, J. Fluid Mech. 526 (2005) 171
Washington, 2000. 216.
[10] R. Maly, M. Vogel, Proc. Combust. Inst. 17 (1979) [21] G. Damkohler, Z. Elektrchem. 46 (1940) 601652.
821831. (English translation NASA Tech. Mem., vol. 1112,
[11] K. Ishii, O. Aoki, Y. Ujiie, M. Kono, Proc. 1947).
Combust. Inst. 24 (1992) 17931798. [22] P.D. Ronney, in: J.D. Buckmaster, T. Takeno,
[12] M. Kono, K. Hatori, K. Iinuma, Proc. Combust. (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 449, Springer-
Inst. 20 (1984) 133140. Verlag, Berlin, 1995, p. 3.
[13] M. Kono, K. Niu, T. Tsukamoto, Y. Ujiie, Proc. [23] V. Kurdyumov, J. Blasco, A.L. Sanchez, A. Linan,
Combust. Inst. 22 (1988) 16431649. Combust. Flame 136 (2004) 394397.

Please cite this article as: C.C. Huang et al., A transition on minimum ignition energy for ..., Proceed-
ings of the Combustion Institute (2006), doi:10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.024.