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Sep 14 , 2017

Power Factor and Power Factor Correction

Jameel Ahmad
Assistant Professor
Electrical Engineering Department
University of Management and technology

Renewable Electrical Energy Resources EE407


Contents

1. RMS valueofasinusoidal
2. Powerfactor
3. Powertriangle
4. Powerfactorcorrectionforsinglephase
5. Powerfactorcorrectionforthreephase
RMS value of a sinusoidal

Thesinusoidalvoltage

therms valueofvoltageis

therms valueofasinusoidalvoltage
Theaveragevalueofthesquareofa
sinusoidis1/2
Power factor

Forphaseangle =0

Currentresponse

Instantaneouspowersupplied Blackboxofidealresistors,capacitors,andinductors.

Averageiszero Sumoftheseareasiszero

200

100 +
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
-100
- Time (msec)
-200
S(t) V(t) * I(t)
Power factor contd...

Averagepowerdissipatedinthebox

Powerfactor

Goodpowerfactor

Example2.5
Autilitysupplies12,000V(12kV)toacustomerwhoneeds600kWofreal
power.Comparethelinelossesfortheutilitywhenthecustomersloadhasa
powerfactorof0.5versusapowerfactorof1.0.
Power triangle and power factor correction

ShowingapparentpowerS(voltamps)resolvedintoreactive
Powerfactorcorrectionforinductiveload
power(VAR)andrealpowerP(watts)
Example 2.6

A230Vinductionmotordraws25Aofcurrentwhiledelivering
3700Wofpowertoitsshaft.Drawitspowertriangle.
Solution:
Example 2.7

Afactorywithanearlyfullyloadedtransformerdelivers600kVAatapowerfactorof
0.75.Anticipatedgrowthinpowerdemandinthenearfutureis20%.HowmanykVAR
ofcapacitanceshouldbeaddedtoaccommodatethisgrowthsotheydonthaveto
purchasealargertransformer?

Tostillsupplyonly600kVA,thepowerfactorwillhavetobeimprovedtoatleast
Example 2.7

Thereactivepowerwillneedtobereducedto

Reactivepower
increasesline
losses

Beforecorrection With215kVAR capacitor


VARs to farads

Relationshipbetweencurrentthroughacapacitorandvoltageacrossit

powerthroughacapacitorisallreactive

MediumVoltage
conversionfromVARstofaradsforacapacitor CapacitorBanks

Example2.8
Whatsizecapacitorwouldbeneededtocorrectthepowerfactorofthe230V,
60Hz,5hp motorinExample2.6?
Power in a Three-Phase Circuit
Singlephase:instantaneouspowervaries
Theapparentpoweris sinusoidally leadingtoroughermotor
operation
Threephase:constantpowergivessmoother
performanceofmotorsandgenerators
Vphase istherms voltageineachphase

Iline istherms currentineachphase

thereactivepoweris

Therealpowerinathreephasecircuitis

Thesumofthethreephasesofpowerinbalanceddelta
andwyeloadsisaconstant,notafunctionoftime
Example 2.10

Supposethatashopisservedwithathreephase,208Vtransformer.Therealpower
demandof80kWismostlysinglephasemotors,whichcausethepowerfactortobea
ratherpoor0.5.Findthetotalapparentpower,theindividuallinecurrents,andreal
powerbeforeandafterthepowerfactoriscorrectedto0.9.IfpowerlossesbeforePF
correctionis5%(4kW),whatwilltheybeafterpowerfactorimprovement?
Solution:
theapparentpowerbeforePFcorrection

WyeandDeltaConnected
thetotalapparentpoweris
Example 2.10

thecurrentflowingineachlegofthethreephasesystem

Aftercorrectingthepowerfactorto0.9theresultingapparentpoweris

Thecurrentineachlineis

thelossesafterpowerfactorcorrectionwillbereducedto

adecreaseofalmost70%
Discussion

Thanks
?