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## Notes: Chapter 1 Section 5 - Differentiability and Continuity

In sections 1.3 and 1.4, we defined differentiability (i.e. the ability to take a first derivative)
of f ( x) at x = a in terms of a limit.

## Geometrically, the nondifferentiability of a function can manifest itself by the graph of f ( x) :

a. Having no tangent line at x = a (this happens when a sharp point or corner is present)
b. Having a vertical tangent line at x = a

The graphs shown above are continuous (i.e. no gaps thus the graphs can be drawn without
lifting your pencil) but are nondifferentiable at .
A function is continuous at x = a provided that its graph has no breaks or gaps at it passes
through the point (a, f (a)) . Can you identify the reason why the following graphs are
discontinuous, where does this occur?

The graphs shown above are not continuous (i.e. have gaps or jumps and thus cannot be drawn without
lifting your pencil). These functions are non-differentiable at the x values where the gaps occur.

## Limit definition of Continuity: A function f ( x) is continuous at x = a provided that

following limit relation holds: lim f ( x) = f (a) .
x a

## NOTE: In order to take a derivative of a function at a point, the function must be

differentiable (and thus continuous and without points or vertical lines) at that x
value.

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## Notes: Chapter 1 Section 6 - Some Rules for Differentiation

Rules for differentiation:

## Read as: The derivative

with respect to x

d d
2. Constant-multiple Rule: (k f ( x)) = k ( f ( x)) where k is a constant
dx dx

d d d
3. Sum Rule: [ f ( x) + g ( x)] = f ( x) + g ( x)
dx dx dx

d d
4. General Power Rule (aka The Chain Rule): ([ g ( x)]r = r[( g ( x)]r 1 [ g ( x)]
dx dx

## Remember two important properties of a tangent line to a graph at some point, a :

1. The tangent line at the point has a slope of f '( a ) . (You evaluate f '(x ) at a )
2. The slope of the tangent line at the point is the slope that best approximates the
slope of the original function at the point.

If the function in question is a line, then the slope represents the rate of change of the
linear function. If the function is not linear, the first derivative can still be interpreted
as the rate of change of the function: f '(a) = rate of change of f ( x) at x = a

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## 1. Variables do not have to always be x and y. If our function is f (t ) = t 2 , we would

indicate taking the first derivative as:

Read as: The See figure below to see how changing
d dy
derivative with

f '(t ) = 2t or (t 2 ) = 2t or = 2t the variable from x to t affects the
respect to t. dt dt information on the graph.

2. We can use the same rules of derivatives to take the 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc. derivative:

f (x) = x 5 Note:
f '(x) = 5x 4 1. When using the notation the first derivative can be denoted as ,
f "(x) = 20x 3
the second derivative as , the third derivative as etc.
f "'(x) = 60x 2
2. When using the notation: , the second derivative is denoted as , the
f ""(x) = 120x
f ""'(x) = 120
third derivative is denoted as etc.
f """(x) = 0

## 3. When using the notation: the second derivative is denoted as etc.

3. When evaluating a derivative at a specific value of x, say at x = a , we get a number
f '( a ) that gives the slope of the curve y = f ( x) at the point (a, f (a )). Another way of
writing f '( a ) is:

dy
This instructs the evaluation of the derivative at x = a .
dx x=a

Example:

4. The Marginal Concept in Economics (Remember the 0.6 project when this was presented)

Marginal Cost
If C ( x) is a cost function, then the marginal cost function is C '( x ) . The marginal cost of
producing a units, C '(a ), is approximately equal to C (a + 1) C (a) which is the
additional cost that is incurred when the production level is increased by one unit from
a to a + 1.

Marginal Revenue and Marginal Profit
If R( x) is the revenue generated from the production of x units of a certain commodity
and P( x) is the corresponding profit, then the marginal revenue function is R(x) and
the marginal profit function is P(x).

5. The Technology component
Although functions can be specified (and differentiated) in graphing calculators with
letters other than X, only functions in X can be graphed. Therefore X will always be
used as the variable. There are two ways to graph derivatives on your TI 83 or TI 84:

Just the start!

## Calculus and Trig Functions:

d d d
sin x = cos x = tan x =
dx dx dx

Chain rule also applies to trig when the angle is not just x

d
sin3x =
dx

d
cos 2x 2 =
dx

d
tan(3x 2 + x) =
dx

## f (x) = cos 2 x should first rewrite as: f (x) = (cos x)2

Now think about the chain rule as you take the first derivative!

f '(x) =

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## Notes/Practice - Continuation on the Differentiation of Trigonometric Functions.

There are three trigonometric derivatives that you must memorize at this point:

d
(sin x) = cos x
dx

d
(cos x) = sin x
dx

d
(tan x) = sec 2 x
dx

The first two derivatives were discussed early on when we connected slope with
derivative. Taking the slope of sin x results in the cosine function. Taking the slope of
cosine results in the reflection of the sine function over the x axis. The derivative of tangent
will be proved once you know the product rule for differentiation.

## 3. f ( x) = 10 x 2 + 3tan x 6. f ( x) = sin x cos x

The power rule and the generalized power rule (chain rule) can be applied to trigonometric
differentiation.

(
7. f (x) = cos 3x 2 ) 8. f (x) = cos

( x )

2 2 2

## Now evaluate the following derivatives.

1. f (x) = sin x

f ' =
4. f (x) = 2cos x ( )
f ' 5 =
2

2. f (x) = tan x

f ' = 5. f (x) = sin 6x ( ) f ' =
3
4

3
3. f (x) = cos x f ' =
4
6. f (x) = 2tan 3x

( ) ()
f' 0 =

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## Notes: Chapter 1 Section 8 - The Derivative as a Rate of Change

Example 1: Suppose that f ( x) = x 2 and you are asked to calculate the average rate of change of f (x) over intervals
a, b, and c. The Average rate of change of a function f(x) over the interval a x b is calculated :
f (b) f (a)
Average rateof change =
ba

4
Secant Line Interval a:
3

2

1

x

1 2 3

1

y
Still a Secant Line Interval b:

4

3

2

1

x

1 2

y

And still a secant line. Interval c:
4

3

2

x

1 2

1

Notice that the interval in example c is _____________________ than the interval in either a or b. The
sequence of answers from above suggests that as the interval gets smaller and smaller, the average rate
of change tends towards _________. This concept, of shrinking the interval, leads us to a conclusion that
the instantaneous rate of change at x = a equals f '( a ) .

Meaning, the instantaneous rate of change of a function equals the value of the derivative of the function
at that particular point.
Important Point to Understand:
We are moving from the slope of a secant line (average rate of change) to the slope of a tangent line
(instantaneous rate of change).
Note: the word average is missing.

## f '( x) = 2 x Note: Only one x value is

Solution: given! They are looking
f '(1) = 2(1) = 2 for instantaneous rate of
change!
Therefore, the function is changing at a rate of 2 units for every unit change in x.
Take the first derivative!

Sample Problem:

## The average rate of change of the function for 1 x 3 . Hint:

The instantaneous rate of change at x = 2. Hint:

## Position Function, Velocity, and Acceleration

Another way to think of a derivative is as a rate of change. So the derivative of a position function
describes the rate at which position changes. Can you think of a word (from physics) that describes the
rate at which the position of an object changes? ______________________________
Carry this logic one step further, the rate at which the ______________________________ of an object changes
refers to ___________________________________!

Therefore,

## y ' = s '(t ) = velocity = v(t ) and y " = v '(t ) = acceleration = a(t ) !

Meaning, the first derivative of position is velocity and the derivative of velocity is acceleration.

## *You must memorize this!

Example 3: Suppose a baseball is thrown upwards so that its height Note: Position Function!!!
(in feet) is given by h(t ) = 16t +128t +5 , where t is time in seconds.
2

## Path of the baseball

Height (feet)

Time (seconds)

Find the velocity of the baseball 2 seconds after it is thrown. (What is this asking you?)

Solution: Since velocity is the derivative of position, and h'(t ) = 32t +128 then
v(2) = h'(2) = 32(2)+128 = 64 ft/sec

Your turn: Find the velocity of the baseball 3 seconds after it is thrown. (What is this asking you?)

Find the time when the velocity is -32 ft/sec

Solution: Set the velocity function equal to -32 and solve for t.

32t +128 = 32
Note: A negative velocity implies that the
32t = 160
baseball is falling (rather than rising)
t = 5sec.