Anda di halaman 1dari 1

MANUFACTURING OF AMMONIA MANUFACTURING OF UREA

TECHNOLOGY SELECTION TECHNOLOGY SELECTION


Haber process is the current worldwide process that gives a promising There are two types of process that might be suitable for the
production of ammonia and provides the base for nitrogen fertilizer, manufacturing plant of urea which are Stamicarbon and Saipem.
which is the ammonia that will be used in the manufacturing of urea. However, Stamicarbon process is selected due to several factors. The
pros and cons of these processes are summarized in Table 2.

FIGURE 1: THE OVERALL PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURING OF AMMONIA

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Haber process produces ammonia by converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2)


to ammonia (NH3) with hydrogen (H2) from the natural gas.
This process incorporates the use of a metal (iron based) catalyst under
high temperatures and pressures (400 - 450C, 200 atm).
This process uses catalyst to increase the rate of reaction and promotes
recycling of unreacted starting materials (N2 & H2) and automating equip-
ment for production.
The production rate is 500000 tonnes/year N2 + 3H2 2NH3 FIGURE 2: STAMICARBON CO2 STRIPPING PROCESS

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
PARAMETER STEAM REFORM- PARTIAL OXIDA-
ING TION >Production rate of urea is 900 000 tonnes/year
USE OF CATA- YES NO The general process are as below
LYST
TEMPERATURE 700 1000 1300 - 1500 Ammonia and Carbon Dioxide Compression
(C) The hydrogen present in the carbon dioxide mixture is reduced by cata-
PRESSURE (MPa) 0.3 - 2.5 3.0 8.0 lytic combustion to a concentration of less than 100 ppmv in which the
HYDROGEN HIGHER LOWER catalyst used consists of platinum as a carrier.
PRODUCED CH4+ H2O (+ heat) CH4 + O2 CO Synthesis and Recovery
CO + 3H2 + 2H2 (+ heat)
OPERATIONAL LOWER HIGHER 2NH3 + CO2 > NH2COONH4
COST Ammonia + Carbon dioxide > Ammonium Carbamate
TABLE 1: COMPARISON BETWEEN STEAM REFORMING AND PARTIAL OXIDATION PROCESS AND Recirculation
THE CHOSEN PROCESS IS STEAM REFORMING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
In this section essentially all of the non-converted ammonia and carbon
WHY STAMICARBON CO2 STRIPPING PROCESS ARE USED IN OUR PLANT ?? dioxide are recovered from the urea-carbamate solution.

1. No addition of extra water is needed to recycle the carbamate.


Granulation of Urea

2. No medium pressure recirculation section needed as stripper efficiency reached 80%. The process for the granulation of urea is as follows:
3. With the condensation of strip gasses in the high pressure carbamate condenser low
pressure steam is produced, which was used in the downstream sections leading to a
reduction of the overall steam consumption.

PARAMETER STAMICARBON PROCESS SAIPEM PROCESS


CO2 Consumption Lower Higher
Steam consumption Higher consumption but Lower consumption but
lower pressure and temper- higher pressure and temper-
ature (23 bar and 330 C) ature (110 bar and 510 C)
Power Consumption lower higher
Cooling water consumption lower higher
Hydrolyser design Counter-current column Horizontal vessel
Hydrolyser pressure 20 bar 30 bar
Types of condenser Pool condenser Kettle type condenser
FIGURE 3: THE GRANULATION PROCESS FOR UREA

TABLE 2: COMPARISON BETWEEN STAMICARBON AND SAIPEM PROCESS PARAMETER GRANULAR UREA PRILLED UREA
Moisture 0.5% max. 0.3% max
Biuret 1.4 % max. 1% max
We decided to produce granular urea because the end Granulation 2 - 4 mm 90-94 % min. 1-4 mm, 90-94% min
product will be solid, has uniform size, no breakage, less Colour Standard White Pure White
cracking, less prone to moisture and have longer shelf life
suitable for long distance transportatio. TABLE 3: COMPARISON BETWEEN GRANULAR AND PRILLED UREA