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IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY

Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Social Science 1st CSE


Geography
1

Jorge Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca


Teacher at the Bilingual Section
Department of Geography and History
IES Complutense. Alcal de Henares
1st CSE YEAR UNIT 1. PREHISTORY
IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 6. THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Social Science 1st CSE

UNIT 6:
The Universe and the Earth

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 6. THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

UNIT 6: THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


1. THE EARTH IN THE UNIVERSE

The Earth is the only known inhabited planet. It is located in the Solar System,
which belongs to the Milky Way galaxy.
o In the Universe there are many galaxies (circa 100 billions), nebulae and
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black holes.
It is thought that the Universe was created after the Big Bang, circa
13,700,000,000 years ago.
Our closest galaxy is called Andromeda, which is around 2.2 million
light years.
o Within the Milky Way there are more than 250 Solar Systems.

o Our Solar System was created when the big cloud of gas and dust reached
11,000,000C, which permitted the formation of a star, the Sun.
o The Earth was formed around 4.5 billion years ago out of a group of rocks
that revolved around the sun after the Big Bang.
In our Solar System there are eight planets and five dwarf planets.
o They have different sizes and satellites revolving around.
o Moreover there are comets, asteroids, satellites, and meteorites.

Distance to the
Diameter Orbits period Rotations period
Planet sun Satellites
(thousand km) (years) (days)
(million km)

Mercury 58 4.8 - 0.24 58.6


Inner Venus 108 12.3 - 0.72 -243
planets Earth 149 12.8 1 1 1
Mars 228 6.9 2 1.88 1.03
Asteroids belt
Jupiter 778 142 65 11.86 0.414
Outer Saturn 1,428 120 62 29.46 0.426
planets Uranus 2,873 50.7 27 84.01 0.718
Neptune 4,498 48.6 13 164.79 0.675

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

o All the planets of the Solar System revolve around an only star, the Sun,
whose diameter is around 1,391,000 kilometres.
o The orbits on which they revolve are elliptical.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

o The inner planets are mostly rocky and small, whereas the outer planets
are gaseous, big and they have many satellites revolving around them.

Orbits Rotations
Dwarf Distance to the sun Diameter
Satellites period period
planet (million km) (km)
(years) (days)

Ceres 415.5 952.4 - 4.59 0.38


Pluto 5850 2,302 4 247.92 -6.39
Haumea 6501 ? 2 285.4 0.16
Makemake 6868 ? - 309.9 ?
Eris 10,200 2,398 1 557 ?

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

The Earths only satellite is called the Moon:


o It is around 384,000 kilometres away from the Earth.
o It revolves around the Earth and takes 28 days to do it.
o The moon has four different phases that can be appreciated from the Earth:
New moon. The moon faces to the Earth its invisible side (not lit by
the sun).
Waxing crescent (First quarter).
Full moon. Its visible side is completely lit by the sun and can be
seen from the Earth.
Waning crescent (Third quarter).

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


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The Earth has a spherical shape, but its poles are slightly flattened and the equator is
a little widened. That is the reason why it is said that its shape is a geoid.
o The Earth has an axial tilt of 23 27 from the vertex, whose result is the
seasonal change in climate.
o Its surface is around 510 million square kilometres (the sun is circa
1,300,000 bigger than the Earth).
The 70% consists of water (oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes.
The 30% consists of land (continents and islands). 5

Life can exist on the Earth thanks to several factors:


o Mild temperature (around 15C average).
o There is liquid water on the surface.
o Our atmosphere contains the vital gases we need (21% oxygen, 78%
nitrogen and 1% of other gases).
It avoids excessive cooling and heating of the Earth.
It filters the harmful solar radiations (UVA Rays and X Rays).

2. THE REVOLUTION OF THE EARTH

The Earth has two kinds of movements:


o Earths orbit around the sun. Our planet moves at 30 km/sec following its
elliptical orbit around the sun, which takes 365 days (that explains the leap
years every four years, which have 366 days).
It fixes the duration of the day and the night according to the season.
It provokes the seasonal change due to the axial tilt.
Spring. In the southern hemisphere it is autumn.
Summer. In the southern hemisphere it is winter.
Autumn. In the southern hemisphere it is spring.
Winter. In the southern hemisphere it is summer.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

Climates are caused by this movement. There are three different kind
of climate zones in the world:
One warm zone (Torrid Zone). It is located around the
equator up to the tropics.
Two temperate zones. They are located between the tropics
and the polar circles.
Two cold zones (Frigid Zones). They are above the polar
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circles.
o Rotation. The Earth spins on its own axis, which takes 24 hours:
It moves from west to east.
Day and night are caused by the rotation since the sun just lights half
of the Earth.
The revolution of the Earth causes:
o Equinoxes. It is the moment in which the sun is vertical to the equator.
Day and night have the same duration across the world.
There are two during the year:
21 March. It is the vernal equinox (northern hemisphere).
21 September. It is the autumnal equinox (northern
hemisphere).
o Solstices. It is the moment in which the sun falls vertically on one of the two
tropics (located at 23 27 N and 23 27S):
When there is a solstice the day or the night have their maximal
duration (it depends on which solstice it is).
21 June. The sun strikes over the Tropic of Cancer (23
27N) and it makes that the maximal day time is in the
northern hemisphere. It is the summer solstice (northern
hemisphere).
21 December. The sun falls on the Tropic of Capricorn (23
27 S) and it makes that the maximal day time is in the
southern hemisphere. It is the winter solstice (northern
hemisphere).
o Seasons. There are four different seasons in the temperate zones. Their
beginning is marked by the equinoxes and solstices that take place due to the
Earths orbit. They change according on the hemisphere:
o Eclipses. They are caused by the movement of the Earth around the sun and
of the moon around the Earth.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

3. PARTS OF THE EARTH

The Earth has an external composition:


o Atmosphere:
It has several layers:
Troposphere (<15 km).
Stratosphere (15-50 km). It contains the ozone layer (25-40
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km), which protects us from any radiations.
Mesosphere (50-85 km).
Thermosphere (50-600 km).
Exosphere (600-10,000 km).

o Hydrosphere. It is composed of seas, rivers, lakes, ice, and subterranean


waters. It is more than 70% of the world. There are five oceans in the world:
Atlantic Ocean.
Pacific Ocean.
Indian Ocean.
Arctic Ocean.
Antarctic Ocean.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

o Lithosphere. It is composed of continents and the seabed. There are six


continents in the world:
Asia.
America.
Africa.
Europe.
Oceania.
Antarctica. 8

The Earth also has an internal composition:


o Crust. It is the most external and thinnest layer of the Earth.
Continental crust. It is composed by the emerged lands. It can reach
up to 20 or 70 km. Its main composition is based on rocks and sands.
Oceanic crust. It is composed by the land that iS submerged under
the sea. It only reaches 10 km under the oceans.
o Mantle. It is mostly composed of magma (molten rock) and constitutes the
70% of the Earths thickness. It is not a rigid layer. The crust lies above this
layer.
Upper mantle. It is just below the crust and has a depth of 70 to 700
km.
Lower mantle. This layer has a depth of 700 to 3,000 km.
o Core. It is the central part of the Earth and is composed of heavy metals,
iron, and nickel.

4. REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH: MAPS

The way to represent the Earth has changed in the history.


o Until the 15th century it was thought that it was flat. Christopher Columbus
and other explorers proved that it was not such.
o Scientists helped measure the Earth and represent it. That was the origin of
the cartography, the science in charge of representing the Earth.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

There are several ways to represent the Earth:


o It can be done through a terrestrial globe. It is a three-dimensional scale
model of the Earth. It is quite accurate but it cannot have many details.

o The most common way to represent the Earth is through maps:


They are two-dimensional scale models of the Earth.
They are done basing on mathematical formulas called projections,
which adapt the geoidal shape of the Earth into a plan. There are
several kinds of projections that depend on what we want to represent
better, the most common ones are:
Cylindrical projection. It represents the whole planet, taking
the equator as its centre, so the farther the regions are from
the equator the more distorted they are. The most known
cylindrical projection is called Mercator, after its
cartographer.
Conical projection. It represents high latitudes and the poles.
The result is a map with semi-circular parallels and radial
meridians.
Azimuthal or planar projection. It just represents one
hemisphere. The pole is the centre of the projection. That fact
explains that the farther the region is from the pole the more
distorted it is.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

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There are several kinds of maps:


Topographic maps. They show the relief or physical
characteristics of the planet. It also shows the altitude of the
region through the contour lines.

Thematic maps. They can have different subjects:


o Physical maps.
o Political maps.
o Population maps.
o Vegetation maps.
o Climate maps...

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

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Maps are now done through photographs, normally taken from


satellites. There are also modern techniques such as GIS (Geographic
Information System) or remote sensing.
https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54DkeZ1QtaFFROHdXS2c
https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54Dkec3ZUbVg3UGVTZ0k

There are several major elements on a map or on a terrestrial globe:


o Cardinal Points. They help the orientation and can be known thanks to
nature or to other artificial means, such as the compass:
North.
South.
East.
West.

o Coordinates. They help find an exact point on a map through imaginary


lines. The units taken for that measure are degrees (), minutes (), and
seconds ().

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

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Meridians. They are the imaginary lines that link the poles (they go
from the north to the south or vice versa). They fix the longitude,
which can be either east or west. All the meridians measure the same
and there are 360 (up to 180E and 180W).
In 1884 it was agreed to fix the location of the Prime
Meridian (0) in Greenwich, hence its name. It has its
antipodes at 180.
Meridians fix the time zones, which are 24 in total basing on
the location of each region and the sun (each time zone
stretches 15). The time we use as a reference is called
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). As we move eastwards,
clocks move forward the same number of hours as time zones
travelled. On the contrary, if we move westwards, clocks go
back the same number of hours as time zones travelled.

Parallels. They are imaginary lines that are parallel to the equator
(parallel 0). There are 180 in total (90N and 90S). They fix the
latitude (north or south) and divide the world into two parts, the
northern and the southern hemispheres. There are several major
parallels.
Equator. It is located at 0 and it separates the northern and
the southern hemispheres.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

Tropics. They are the imaginary lines that are the maximal
point of perpendicular fall of the sun onto the Earth. They are
caused due to the axial tilt.
o Tropic of Cancer. It is located at 2327N.
o Tropic of Capricorn. It is located at 2327S.
Polar Circles. They are the imaginary lines above which
there is at least 24 hours of day-time or night-time in a row.
They are also caused by the axial tilt. 13

o Arctic Circle. It is located at 6633N


o Antarctic Circle. It is located at 6633S.
o Scale. It is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance
on the ground.
It helps get the real distances.
It can be represented in two ways:
Numerical scale. It is a ratio or a fraction from which we can
get the distance (1:x, 1/x, 1 to x). It means that one centimetre
on the map is actually x.

Bar, linear or graphic scale. It is a line marked at intervals


to show the distance on the earth or object which the distance
on the scale represents.
Maps change their scale according to what it has been represented,
the larger the scale is the more detail there is on the map (so the
represented region is smaller):
Small scale. It has very few details and represents large areas,
it is above 1:100,000.
Medium scale. It represents smaller areas and its scale
stretches from 1:50,000 to 1:100,000.
Large scale. It is the most detailed map that shows smaller
regions. The scale is smaller than 1:50,000.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

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o Key (or Legend). Every map has always a key to explain the symbols that
appear on it. It is usually located at a corner of the map.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

Unit 6. The Universe and the Earth


Exercises
1. What is the Milky Way? 15
2. How many planets are there in our Solar System? How many dwarf planets are
there?
3. Match the words to the correct groups:
Pluto
Milky Way
Sun stars
Saturn galaxies
Earth planets
Jupiter dwarf planets
Ceres
Mars
4. Answer true or false and correct the wrong sentences:
a. There are three dwarf planets.
b. The eight planets are divided into three groups.
c. The smallest planet is Venus.
5. Which planet is nearest to the Sun? Which is the furthest from the Sun? What is
the Earths position?
6. Which planet is nearest to the Earth? Which is the farthest planet from the
Earth?
7. Which is the largest planet of the Solar System? And the smallest one?
8. Complete the sentences and choose the correct words:
a. The Earth is a(n) perfect/imperfect___________ sphere.
b. The Equator divides the Earth into two equal poles/
hemispheres_____________.
c. One reason there is life on Earth is because there is liquid
water/gas___________.
d. The temperature/atmosphere_______________ protects us from harmful
radiation.
9. Complete the sentences with the next figures:
40,009 510,000,000 1,000 2 40,077
a. The equator is _____________ km long.
b. The Earth is made up of ____________ hemispheres.
c. At ______________ km2, the total surface of the Earth is ________
times bigger than Spain.
d. A meridian is _______________ km long.
10. Why does the Earth look blue when seen from space?
11. In which hemisphere are most of the Earths continents?

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

12. Complete the chart with the main characteristics of the two movements made by
the Earth.
Rotation Revolution

Duration
Direction of movement
16
What it consists of
Consequences
13. Look at the picture and answer the following questions:
a. How many cardinal points are there?
b. How can we explain the apparent movement of the Sun?
c. At what cardinal point does the sun rise?

14. Match each date with the correct information:


23 September Autumn equinox in the northern
hemisphere and spring equinox in
the southern hemisphere
21-22 December Spring equinox in the northern
hemisphere and autumn equinox in
the southern hemisphere
20-21 June Winter solstice in the northern
hemisphere and summer solstice in
the southern hemisphere
21 March Summer solstice in the northern
hemisphere and winter solstice in
the southern hemisphere
15. What season is it when both hemispheres receive the same amount of light?
16. What season is it in the north when the North Pole is tilted towards the Sun?
17. Complete the sentences:
a. The Earth consists of ________ large sections: the core, the _________,
and the crust.
b. The mantle is ____________% of the Earths total volume.
c. The Earths ___________ is between 10 and ______ kilometres thick.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

d. _____________ is the highest point in the world at _______ metres.


18. Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the wrong ones.
a. The core is the Earths outer layer.
b. The mantle consists only of solid rock.
c. The continents are on the crust of the Earth.
d. The Earth rotates towards the west.
19. Make a drawing of the layers of the atmosphere.
20. Which atmospheric layer is being described? 17
a. Meteorological phenomena happen here.
b. It is where the ozone layer is located.
c. Temperatures are very high in this layer.
d. Most of the air we breathe is located in this layer.
21. How can the atmosphere protect the Earth?
22. Draw a map of the Earth and add the main parallels (Equator, Tropic of Cancer,
Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle, Antarctic Circle), the prime meridian, South
Pole and North Pole.
23. In an atlas locate your town or city and write down what parallel and meridian it
is on.
24. Match each word to one of the two concepts below:
North
Greenwich
Tropic of Cancer
Longitude parallels
Latitude meridians
West
Arctic Circle
Time zones
25. What do the lines represent in this diagram of the world?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

26. In an atlas, find the geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) of the
following cities.
a. Tokyo.
b. New York.
c. Moscow.
d. Johannesburg.
e. Madrid.
f. Montevideo. 18
g. Sydney.
27. In an atlas find five countries that the Equator runs through and five that the
Greenwich meridian goes through.
28. Is there any place in the world at latitude 110N or 110S. If yes, say where it is.
If not, explain why.
29. Only one of these names of parallels and meridians is correct. Write the others
correctly.
a. Tropic of Equator.
b. Circle of Cancer.
c. Arctic Circle.
d. Meridian of Capricorn.
e. Tropic of Greenwich.
30. With the help of an atlas, answer this question. What time is it in the following
cities if in Greenwich it is 4 p.m.?
a. Warsaw.
b. Baghdad.
c. Wellington.
d. Lima.
e. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
31. How many time zones are there in the world? How wide is each time zone?
32. Do all places in Spain share the same time?
33. Why is it necessary to use cartographic projections to depict the Earth?
34. What type of projection is depicted on the map?

35. What part of the world will be more distorted if we use a cylindrical projection?
And if we use a conical projection?
36. Order the letters to make words from the unit:
a. Mdianeri f. Tpirocs
b. Lallraep g. Cphyrtogra
c. Ltdeitua h. Tatiroon
d. Itngudelo
e. Uareqto

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

37. Match four of the words from the previous activity to the definitions below:
a. An imaginary circle that divides the Earth into two equal halves.
b. The practice of drawing maps.
c. The distance between any point of the Earths surface and the 0
meridian.
d. The 24-hour movement of the Earth.
38. Draw the position of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon during a solar eclipse.
39. Answer the following questions: 19
a. What is a map?
b. What are maps used for?
c. How did maps emerge in the past?
40. Which is the best projection to represent...?
a. The poles.
b. The areas in middle latitudes.
c. The world.
41. Find the following cities on the map:
a. Porto Novo (32S, 52W).
b. Cracow (50N, 20E).
c. Castelln de la Plana (40N, 0E).
d. Singapore (0N, 104E).
e. Miami (30N, 80W).

42. To represent the continent of Africa, would you use a small- or large-scale map?
Explain your answer.
43. What are the two forms of representing scale on maps.
44. Correct the following sentence: A large-scale map represents a large geographic
area while a small-scale map represents a small geographic area.
45. Look at the map of Spain below and basing on the scale find out the real
distance between Seville and Barcelona. Which is the numerical scale used in
the map?

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

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46. On a map with a scale 1:400,000, two points are 5 cm apart. How many km
separate them in reality? How many km would be equivalent to 7 cm on that
same map?
47. True or false. Correct the false ones:
a. There are 15 time zones of 24 each.
b. In a cylindrical projection, the Earth is inscribed on a cylinder.
c. It is the same time in all countries of the world.
d. Aerial photography obtains images from artificial satellites.
e. Numerical scale is expressed by fraction in which the numerator
represents the unit on the map and the denominator expresses the real
size.
f. On large-scale maps, very large areas of the Earth are represented with
very little detail.
48. Match each term with its definition:
Rotation Longitude Meridian Latitude
a. The distance, measured in degrees, from any point on Earth to the
Greenwich meridian.
b. The movement of the Earth around its axis.
c. The distance, measured in degrees, from any point on Earth to the
equator.
d. The imaginary line that goes from the North Pole to the South Pole.
49. Complete the chart with the missing noun or verb.
Verb Noun

Rotate
Projection
Revolve
Representation
Locate
Reduction

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE 1ST YEAR CSE

50. Complete the sentences with a noun or verb from the previous exercise:
a. The Earth ___________ on its axis.
b. A map is the _____________ on a plane of part of the Earths surface.
c. To represent the Earth on a map, we use _______________.
d. The cardinal points help us to ______________ specific places on the
Earth.

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DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY THE UNIVERSE AND THE EARTH


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Social Science 1st CSE 1

UNIT 7:
Relief and water

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

UNIT 7: RELIEF AND WATER

1. EARTHS RELIEF

Despite the name, the Earth is mostly covered by water:


o Hydrosphere is around 71% of the surface.
1
o Only 29% are emerged lands.

The continental relief has several formations:


o Mountains. They are elevations of the land with different origin.
They were created during the orogenies some millions years ago.
The highest mountains emerged in more recent periods. Their
profiles are steeper. They usually form mountain ranges:
The highest mountain range are the Himalayas (Everest is the
highest mountain in the world, 8,848 m).
The longest mountain range is the Andes (together with
Sierra Madre and the Rocky Mountains).
The oldest mountains are lower and rounder. They are called
massifs. They used to be high but they were eroded.
o Plateaux. They are large flat high areas higher than 400 metres. The highest
ones in the world are the Tibetan Plateau and the Altiplano (Bolivia), they
exceed 3,000 metres high. Most of Spain is composed by the Iberian
Plateau.
o Plains. They are flat and low-lying lands that do not exceed 200 metres high.
They are usually along the coast (coastal plains) or by the rivers (river
plains).
o Valleys. They have been created by the rivers in their flow towards their
mouth. They are usually low lands between mountains.
o Depressions. They are large areas located below sea level, such as the Dead
Sea (-395 m), Death Valley (-86 m) or the Caspian Sea (-28 m).
The coastal relief is composed of several types:
o Beaches. They are geological landforms along the shoreline of an ocean, sea,
lake or river. It usually consists of loose particles which are often composed
of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles or cobblestones.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

o Rias. Coastal inlets formed by the partial submergence of a non-glaciated


river valley.
o Fiords. Coastal inlets formed by the partial submergence of a glaciated
valley.
o Cliffs. They are a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure.
o Coastal lagoons. Saltwater lagoons separated from the sea by narrow sand
strips.
o Marshlands. They are a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or 2
continuous flood.
o Bays and gulfs. They are areas of water mostly surrounded by land.
o Capes. They are points or bodies of land extending into a body of water,
usually the sea.
o Peninsulas. Piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but
connected to mainland through an isthmus.
o Isthmus. They connect peninsulas to a continent.
o Islands. Area of land completely surrounded by water. If there is a group of
islands it is called archipelago.
The submarine relief has also several kinds of formations:
o Continental shelf. They are vast coastal plateaux that are not deeper than
200 metres. Their width is around 100-500 km. Most of the fishing grounds
are in this part of the ocean.
o Continental slope. It is a steep step that descends from the continental shelf
to the ocean basin.
o Ocean basin or abyssal plain. It is a major deep plain that is around 3,000-
5,000 metres deep. There can be two other formations within the ocean
basin:
Oceanic trenches, which are narrow but deep depressions of sea
floor (the deepest one is the Mariana Trench, 11,022 m).
Submarine ridge. They are submerged mountain ranges that are
around 3,000 metres higher than the abyssal plain. They are usually
the boundary of the tectonic plates. Therefore magma comes out
from the summit of these ranges. There can be volcanic islands on
their highest points (Iceland, Azores).

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

2. RELIEF FORMATION

The Earth is constantly changing. The formations of the Earth are not permanent.
The German scientist Alfred Wegener proposed in 1912 the Theory of the
continental drift which hypothesised that the continents were slowly drifting
around the Earth. Basing on his theory the evolution of the continents was as
follows:
o 300,000,000 years ago only Pangaea existed. It was an only continent 3

completely surrounded by the Thetys Sea.


o 180,000,000 years ago that only continent split into two supercontinents:
Laurasia. It was composed of North America and Eurasia.
Gondwana. It was composed of South America, Africa, Antarctica,
Australia, and India.

o 150,000,000 years ago Gondwana split into several continents:


A block was composed of Antarctica, India, and Australia.
The other block was composed of South America and Africa.
o 135,000,000 years ago there were several modifications in the continents:
Laurasia split into two other continents and the North Atlantic Ocean
was created:
North America.
Eurasia.
Australia and India split up from Antarctica and moved northwards.
o 30,000,000 years ago there was a major change that made the world similar
to ours:

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Both two Americas joined and the Isthmus of Panama was created.
India crashed on Asia, which created the Himalayas.
Africa moved northwards and the Mediterranean Sea was created.
Australia moved northwards.
o Nowadays the Earth is still changing and there are some movements:
America is moving away from Europe. The North Atlantic Ocean is
thus wider.
Africa is getting closer to Eurasia which involves the reduction of the 4
Mediterranean Sea.
India is setting into Asia, which makes the Himalayas much higher.
https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54DkeR01GcXFvY3RsU0k

The reason why these changes take place is due to the Plate tectonics that explains
that the lithosphere is broken up into several tectonic plates (like a jigsaw puzzle)
that ride on the astenosphere, a viscous and weak region of the upper mantle of the
Earth:

https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54DkeNkJOR0RwN25FRWc
o These plates crash on each other and there are either vertical or horizontal
forces that cause different geological formations:
Folds. They are caused when the geological materials are plastic and
the Earths surface undulates when plates collide.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Faults. They are caused when the geological materials are rigid and
they crack when plates collide.

o Mountains are created by this process called orogeny or orogenesis.


There are some internal agents that modify relief:
o Volcanoes. They are openings that expel magma through the vent and
crater. They are usually located at the plate boundaries. They usually expel
lava, ashes, and gases. There are three categories of volcanoes:
Active volcanoes. They have frequent eruptions.
Dormant volcanoes. They are volcanoes which are recharging their
lava supply. Meanwhile they repose.
Extinct volcanoes. They are unlikely to erupt again because they
have no lava supply.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

o Earthquakes. They are sudden movements of the tectonic plates that


fracture. They can also occur owing to volcanic eruptions.
They have destructive seismic waves that expand the movement and
their origin are really located at two points:
Hypocentre (focus). It is the position where the strain energy
stored in the rock is first released, marking the point where
the fault begins to rupture. This occurs at the focal depth
below the epicentre.
Epicentre. It is the point on the Earth's surface that is directly
above the hypocentre, the point where an earthquake or
underground explosion originates.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

The intensity of the earthquakes is known thanks to the


seismographs, which base on the Richter magnitude scale.
Submarine quakes are called seaquakes and usually provoke tidal
waves (tsunami), which travel faster than 800 km/h. These waves can
be higher than 15 metres.
Frequency of
Magnitude Description Earthquake effects
occurrence
Micro earthquakes, not
Less than 2.0 Micro Continual
felt.
Generally not felt, but 1,300,000 per year
2.02.9 Minor
recorded (est.)
Often felt, but rarely
3.03.9 Minor 130,000 per year (est.)
causes damage.
Noticeable shaking of
indoor items, rattling
4.04.9 Light 13,000 per year (est.)
noises. Significant
damage unlikely.
Can cause major
damage to poorly
constructed buildings
5.05.9 Moderate 1,319 per year
over small regions. At
most slight damage to
well-designed buildings
Can be destructive in
areas up to about 160
6.06.9 Strong 134 per year
kilometres across in
populated areas.
Can cause serious
7.07.9 Major damage over larger 15 per year
areas.
Can cause serious
damage in areas several
8.08.9 Great 1 per year
hundred kilometres
across
Devastating in areas
9.09.9 Great several thousand 1 per 10 years (est.)
kilometres across.
Never recorded, Extremely rare
10.0+ Massive widespread devastation (Unknown/May not be
across very large areas. possible)

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

3. RELIEF EXTERNAL AGENTS

There are three different external agents that modify relief:


o Erosion. Rocks wear away and they dissolve.
o Carriage. It carries all the eroded materials from the rocks.
o Sedimentation. It deposits all the eroded and carried materials.
Erosion is caused due to several factors:
o Temperatures. Abrupt temperature changes cause the erosion of the rocks 8

such as the solifluction together with water since it infiltrates through rocks
and when it freezes, it expands and the rocks break.
o Water. It is a constant action over the rocks. It can be stronger depending on
the kind of stone (limestone can be eroded more easily).
Rain. It can create valleys and ravines.
Rivers. They have different parts where the erosion changes. It is
harder in the upper course due to the slope and the speed of waters.
Instead it is very scarce is the lower course, since the speed of the
flow is much smaller.
Sea. Waves and currents cause different coastal geological
formations such as cliffs or beaches.
Groundwater. It can cause caves and underground rivers.
o Wind. It wears away the rocks and detaches some particles that attack other
rocks, polish and model them. It is called aeolian or wind erosion. Dunes
are the most typical formations created by aeolian erosion.
o Vegetation. Most of the times, plants help fix soil but their roots can also
split rocks.
o Human beings. We transform environment for agriculture, stockbreeding,
cities, felling, reservoirs, fires, mining...

4. WORLDS RELIEF

The Earth has six continents:


o Asia. It is the largest continent in the world with 44,000,000 sq km.
It is separated from Europe by the Ural Mountains and the Caspian
Sea.
It is bathed by the Pacific, Indian, and Arctic Oceans.
It is mostly located in the northern hemisphere.
o America. It is the second largest continent with 42,000,000 sq km.
It is divided into two major sections united by the Isthmus of
Panama:
North America. It is composed by the largest part of the
continent and stretches from the Arctic Ocean to the Isthmus
of Panama.
South America. It is smaller than North America and
stretches from the Isthmus of Panama to the Antarctic Ocean.
It is a very long continent that is bathed by the Arctic, Atlantic,
Antarctic, and Pacific Oceans.
o Africa. It has 30,000,000 sq km. It is quite symmetrical in both two
hemispheres.
It is separated from Europe by the Strait of Gibraltar and from Asia
by the Red Sea.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

It is bathed by the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean.


o Europe. It is actually a peninsula of Asia and has just 10,500,000 sq km.
The Ural Mountains separate Europe from Asia.
It is just bathed by the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans.
Its coastal relief is quite broken with many seas and peninsulas.
o Oceania. It is the smallest continent of the world, only 9,000,000 sq km.
It is composed of many islands, out of which Australia is the largest
one (7,500,000 sq km). 9
Some other major islands are New Zealand and New Guinea.
It is mostly located in the Pacific Ocean, although it has some coasts
by the Indian Ocean.
o Antarctica. It has 13,800,000 sq km and is located around the South Pole.
It is quite unknown since it has never been inhabited (but scientists in
modern times).
Its average altitude is the highest in the world (2,000 metres).
It is completely bathed by the Antarctic Ocean.

5. WATERS

Most of the Earth is covered by water (71%), which is essential for life.
Water is continuously moving on or below the surface of the Earth. That is the
water cycle:
o Water in the seas evaporates and the liquid turns into vapour.
o Water vapour rises, cools and condensates creating clouds
o Wind moves the clouds.
o Condensed vapour falls as precipitation (rain, snow or hail).
o Some water infiltrates into the ground.
o Groundwater goes into the sea.
o River water goes into the sea and other rivers.

Only 3% is fresh water:


o Only 0.014% can be consumed, since the rest is glacial ice (Arctic and
Antarctic).

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

o Most of the water has been regulated by engineering, such as canals,


reservoirs, dikes, dams for hydroelectric power stations...
o Fresh water has been polluted due to population growth.
A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, a
lake, a sea, or another river.
o They get its water through rain or thaw.
o The river that flows into another river is called tributary.
o There can be permanent rivers or seasonal rivers (called wadis). 10

o When a river is analysed it is important to know:


Source. Many rivers start from groundwater which rises and form
springs, whereas some others originate from glaciers or lakes. It will
explain the flow and some other characteristics of the river.
Basin. It is an extent or an area of land where surface water
converges to a single point, where the waters join another river or
sea. The larger it is the more flow the river will have.
Length. It measures the kilometres of the river. The longest ones in
the world are the rivers Amazon (6,800 km) and Nile (6,756 km).
Flow or volume. It measures how much water flows in the river. The
more it rains the larger the flow will be. The river with a largest flow
is the Amazon (average flow: 225,000 m3/sec).
River regime. It depends on what kind of water is supplied to the
river:
Melting regime. The flow of the river just comes out of
snow. The flow will be larger in spring due to the thaw.
Rainfall regime. The flow of the river just comes out of rain,
so the flow will be larger in the rainy season.
o They have different areas where the erosion and sedimentation varies:
Upper course. Erosion is hard due to the fast water flow and to the
slope.
Middle course. The river flows slower and there is less erosion. It is
the part where the eroded materials are carried. It is common that the
river makes meanders owing to the slow speed of the flow.
Lower course. Most of the materials are deposited and the soil is
filled with this alluvial materials.
o Rivers can have three different kinds of mouths:
Estuary. The mouth opens to the sea and is caused by strong tides.
Fresh water mixes with saltwater from the sea. Major examples are
the estuaries of River Plate, Tagus or Thames.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

11

Delta. They are accumulation of materials deposited by the river in a


shallow part of the coast where it meets the sea. It is usually
triangular-shaped. Major examples are the deltas of the Nile,
Amazon, Ganges or Ebro.

Ria. Coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of a non-


glaciated river valley. Major examples can be found on the coast of
Galicia.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

A lake is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localised
in a basin, which is surrounded by land.
o Their surface may vary. The largest one is the Caspian Sea (371,000 sq km)
and the deepest one is Lake Baikal (1,638 m).
o Water can be supplied by rivers, glaciers, and aquifers.
Groundwater runs and is stored under the ground. It is 25% of the water on the
continents.
o Most of groundwater comes from precipitation and infiltration. 12

o It is stored in aquifers and underground rivers and lakes.


o It can find a way to the surface as a spring.

Glaciers make up most of the Earths fresh water. They are masses of ice created by
the accumulation of snow.
o They are found in the polar regions and top of mountains.
o They cover 10% of the Earths surface.
o Glaciers have several parts:
Cirque. It is a bow-shaped depression formed at the head of the
glacial valley.
Moraine. It is the accumulation of debris caused by the glacial
erosion.
Glacial valleys or toes. They are the region through which the
glacier flows. They are usually long and narrow and are highly
erosive.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Sea water is 97% of the Earths waters.


o It is salty due to the salt dissolution.
o It is saltier in hotter and seas surrounded by land (i.e. Dead Sea) where there
is more evaporation.
o Seas move constantly:
Waves. They are caused by the wind and are undulations of the
surface of the water. Their shape changes when they come into
contact with the sea floor. 13

Tides. They are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined
effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the moon and the sun
and the rotation of the Earth:
High tide. It is the maximal level of the tide.
Low tide. It is the minimal level of the tide.

Ocean currents. It is a continuous, directed movement of ocean


water generated by the forces acting upon the water. There can be
two kinds:
Surface currents. They are caused by the wind and they
influence over the coastal climates. There can be two kinds:
o Warm currents. Their source is in the equator and
the tropics and move towards the poles. They usually
temper the temperatures in high latitudes.
o Cold currents. Their source is in polar areas and
move towards the equator. They make rains difficult
and are associated to the best fishing grounds.
Deep currents. They flow around 4 or 5 km deep. They are
caused by the salinity or temperature difference.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

14

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Unit 7. Relief and waters


Exercises
1. Correct the sentence: Most of the Earths oceans are in the northern hemisphere,
while most of the land masses are in the southern hemisphere. 15
2. Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the wrong ones.
a. Europe and Asia are part of the same continent land mass.
b. The Atlantic Ocean is the biggest and deepest ocean.
c. Capes are coastal areas that stick out into the sea.
3. Which oceans do these seas belong to?
a. Ross.
b. Baltic.
c. Red.
d. Barents.
e. Mediterranean.
f. Caribbean.
g. Arabian.
h. Philippines.
4. Which of these terms do not relate to the ocean floor?
a. Cliff.
b. Abyssal plain.
c. Ocean ridge.
d. Continental slope.
e. Focus.
f. Gulf.
5. What kinds of relief can you find on continents?
6. What kinds of relief can you find under seas and oceans?
7. Correct the mistakes in the sentences:
a. Oceanic ridges are narrow depressions.
b. The continental slope has a mild decline.
c. The abyssal plains are vast territories in shallow waters.
d. Submarine trenches are narrow depressions.
e. The continents extend underneath the oceans forming the continental
shelf.
8. Look at the map of tectonic plates and answer:
a. Where are the most unstable places in the world? Where are the most
stable places?
b. Which areas of Spain are the most unstable?
c. Explain why the Mediterranean Sea is an area of volcanoes and
earthquakes.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

16

9. If there is an earthquake...
a. Where are the tremors most intense on the surface?
b. Where does the earthquake start?
c. Can the seismic waves pass though rock?
10. Complete the chart and put the things below into the correct columns.
What should you do if there is What should you not do if
an earthquake? there is an earthquake?

a. Stay in the building.


b. Turn off the lights.
c. Panic.
d. Turn off the gas and the water.
e. Move objects that might fall on you.
f. Leave the house if the floor starts to tilt.
g. Stay in the car if you are already in it.
h. Use things that need lighting with matches or gas.
11. Describe the parts of a volcano.
12. What happens in a volcanic eruption?
13. List all the external relief agents.
14. Complete the following chart:

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Continent Africa America Antarctica Asia Europe Oceania

Oceans

17
15. Correct the sentences:
a. Fast rivers deposit sediment and create valleys.
b. When ice in rocks melts, it can break them apart.
c. Cliffs are made when waves and currents deposit sediment on the coast.
d. Wind erosion is greater in places with lots of vegetation.
e. Building roads and cities does not change the landscape.
16. Explain the difference between a delta and an estuary.
17. Explain the difference between the upper course and the lower course of a river.
18. Match the course of the river (upper, middle, or lower) to the characteristics.
a. It can cause erosion.
b. It has a lot of curves.
c. It is the highest part of the river.
d. It may form a delta.
19. Where does the water in a rainfall regime river come from?
20. Where does the water in a melting regime river come from?
21. Put the words in the order they occur in the course of a river:
a. Delta
b. Erosion
c. Waterfall
d. Meander
e. Sea
f. Mouth
g. Glacier
h. Sedimentation
22. Find the words to match these definitions:
a. The place where a river flows into the sea.
b. A frozen mass of water at the head of a river.
c. A part of the river where the water falls vertically.
23. What is an aquifer?
24. Find out what happens of you ever bathe in the Dead Sea.
25. What are the sentences describing?
a. They are produced by the action of the wind on the surface of the water.
b. The Moons gravitational pull produces them.
c. The time in a day when the level of the sea on the coast is at its lowest.
d. They can be warm or cold and move like big rivers across oceans.
26. Which picture shows high tide? Which one shows low tide?

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

18

27. Look at an atlas and find at least two rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean,
two into the Indian Ocean and two into the Arctic Ocean.
28. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence:
a. An ocean is bigger/smaller ___________ than a sea.
b. An ocean ridge is lower/higher __________ than a trench.
c. The upper course of a river flows slower/faster __________ than the
middle course.
d. The Antarctic Ocean is warmer/colder __________ than the Pacific
Ocean.
29. Match each description to the correct term:
Mountain large mass of ice
Glacier deep inlet of the sea
Gulf high elevation on the Earths surface
Plateau large areas of flat or slightly hilly land
Stream flow of water with less volume than a river
30. Look at the picture and answer:

a. Which oceans contain large blocks of ice?


b. What are these blocks called?
c. Do you think they could be dangerous? Why/why not?
31. Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the wrong ones:
a. The hydrosphere is the mass of all fresh water on Earth.
b. Fresh water is mainly found on Earth as ice.
c. The cold areas on Earth are bathed by warm currents.
d. The wind moves the deep areas in the sea to cause the waves.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

19

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 7. RELIEF AND WATER


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Social Science 1st CSE 1

UNIT 8:
Climate

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

UNIT 8: CLIMATE
1. CLIMATES ELEMENTS

Climate and weather are different concepts that are usually confused:
o Weather is the present condition of these elements and their variations over
shorter periods. It is studied by the meteorology.
1
o Instead, climate is the term for the average atmospheric conditions over
longer periods of time (usually over 30 years). It is studied by the
climatology.
To identify a climate some elements are measured:
o Temperature. It measures how hot the air is.
It can be expressed in several kinds of degrees:
Celsius (C). They base on the different states of water (solid,
liquid, gaseous). Below 0C water freezes, over 100C water
boils and turns into vapour.
Fahrenheit (F). It is widely used in North America and has
no relationship to states of water.
Kelvin (K). It bases on the absolute zero (-273C).
The thermometer measures the temperatures.
They are usually represented on the maps through isotherms.

There are several factors that make temperatures vary:


Latitude. The sun falls on the earth in a different way
according to the latitude, hence the difference of temperatures
of the regions.
Altitude. It descends as we are higher in a proportion of
0.6C every 100 metres (c. 1C every 160 m).
Coastal locations. Sea currents influence over the
temperatures and make them milder. The farther a place is
from the coast the more extreme its temperatures are.
o Precipitations. It is the water fallen from the sky in a solid (snow or hail) or
liquid state (rain).

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
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They are expressed either in millimetres (mm) or litres/square


metre (l/m2).
They are measured with a pluviometer or rain gauge.


They are represented on the maps through isohyets.

There are also several factors that make precipitations vary:
Latitude. There are many more precipitations in the equator
due to the warm and humid air that eases evaporation.
Altitude. It rains more in high areas.
Coastal location. Warm sea currents also favour rains, but
cold sea currents make them difficult. Anyway coastal
regions are usually rainier than inland regions.
o Atmospheric pressure. It is the weight of air above the surface.
In meteorology it is expressed in millibars (mb) or hectopascals
(hPa).
It is measured with the barometer.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca


It is represented on the maps through isobars.

Pressure is lower as the altitude increases because there is less air
above those regions.
o Air moisture. It is the amount of water vapour in the air.
When it is the relative air moisture it is expressed in percentages
(%).
It is measured with the hygrometer.
3

Cold air cannot withstand much air moisture. Instead warm air can
do.
o Wind. It is the movement of air due to the pressure differences. It re-
establishes pressure balance.
It is expressed in kilometres/hour (km/h).
It is measured with an anemometer.
Its direction is known thanks to the weathercock or weather vane.

2. CLIMATES FACTORS

All the climatic phenomena take place in the troposphere (the lowest atmospheric
layer).
The atmospheric circulation explains why climates are different and why weather
changes:

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

o Air masses. It is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapour
content.
Their characteristics depend on the source region they are originated.
They can either be dry or humid; either warm or cold.
They move due to the difference of temperatures, air moisture, and
pressure.

o Pressure centres. The average pressure is 1013.5 mb or hPa but the


atmosphere is never stable:
Above 1013.5 mb or hPa it is high pressure or anticyclone. It
circulates clockwise in the northern hemisphere, whereas in the
southern hemisphere it does counterclockwise.
High pressures usually involve dry and sunny weather. It can
be either cold or warm.
The usual high pressure areas are the poles and the tropics.

Below 1013.5 mb or hPa it is low pressure or low or depression. It


circulates counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere, whereas in
the southern hemisphere it does clockwise.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Low pressures involve rainy and unstable weather.


The usual low pressure areas is the equator and at mid-
latitudes.

High pressure areas move towards the low pressure areas.


Weather fronts are created in the boundary areas, which
usually bring rain.
Their circulation causes wind.

o Jet Stream. It is an air stream that circulates at 7-12 kilometres above sea
level.
It moves west-eastwards at 150 km/h average.
Its speed may vary and that causes several major weather
phenomena, such as the cold drop in the Mediterranean Sea.
High pressures circulate at the right of the Jet Stream, whereas low
pressures do at the left.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

3. CLIMATES OF THE EARTH

There are several climate zones in the world:


o One hot zone between both two tropics. It is due to the sun, which falls on
the surface vertically.
o Two temperate zones between the tropics and the polar circles in each
hemisphere. The sun falls on the surface in an oblique way.
o Two cold zones above each polar circle. Insolation is minimal since the sun
falls on the surface extremely obliquely.
Climates are represented on climographs or climate charts, where temperatures
and precipitations are shown in a graphic.
Hot climates. They are located between the tropics and their average temperatures
exceed 18C. They have high insolation:
o Tropical rainforest or equatorial climate. It is located around the equator,
so it is only found in Africa, America, Indonesia and some Oceanias
islands.
Its temperatures are quite stable throughout the year and are usually
25C average.
It is a really humid climate since its precipitations exceed 2,000
mm/year.
There is not any seasonal change.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
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o Tropical or savannah climate. It is located between the equator and the


tropics, so it is just found in Africa, America and some parts of Australia. It
is a hot climate that has a dry and a humid season, so there are two kinds of
tropical climates:
Wet tropical climate:
Its temperatures are quite high, although it is warmer during
the humid season. They are never below 18C.
It has a humid season with high precipitations. Total amount
is between 500 and 2,000 mm/year.
It has a short dry season when precipitations are almost
nonexistent.

Dry tropical climate. This climate gets drier as it gets closer to the
tropic.
Its temperatures are really high.
It has irregular rain during the summer.
This climate is a transition to the desert climate.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

o Hot desert climate. It is usually located close to the tropics.


It is a really hot climate during the day (c. 50C), but it cools during
the night (c. 0C). However its average temperature is above 18C.
It is extremely dry, since it rains less than 250 mm/year. When it
rains it falls as heavy downpours.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Temperate climates. They are located between the tropics and the polar circles. All
of them have four different seasons with changes in temperatures and precipitations.
o Oceanic climate. It is usually a climate located on the west coasts of the
continents at mid-latitude:
Its temperatures are quite mild, since its average is between 10 and
15C.
It has regular and abundant rain, more usual in winter. It exceeds
1,000 mm/year.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

10

o Mediterranean climate. It is mostly located around the Mediterranean Sea,


although it has some other locations in South Africa, California, Chile, and
Australia:
Its winter is quite mild, but its summer is hot and dry. Its average
temperature is around 15C.
Precipitations are quite irregular and non-abundant (never over 800
mm/year). They are more common in spring and autumn.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

11

o Continental climate. It is a climate with very little maritime influence since


it is usually inland. It can only be found in the northern hemisphere (Europe,
Asia, North America):
Temperatures vary a lot between summers (hot) and winters (really
cold). Its average temperature is around 9C.
Precipitations are irregular and they fall mostly in summer (circa 700
mm/year).

o Humid sub-tropical or Chinese climate. It can be mostly found in China,


southeast of the USA, River Plate, and east of Australia:
Its winter is mild and dry.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Summer is really hot (almost tropical) and rainy.


Precipitations are above 1,000 mm/year, whereas the average
temperature is between 15 and 20C.

12

Cold climates. They are located in high latitudes and altitudes.


o Polar climate. It is located above the polar circles:
There is not any warm summer.
Average temperatures are around 0C and they can reach up to -50C.
There are very few precipitations (less than 300 mm/year), although
they remain frozen due to the extremely low temperatures.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

13

o Alpine climate. It is located in the highest mountains of the world:


Its temperatures are quite low, since their average does not exceed
5C.
It is a rainy climate with more than 1,500 mm/year.

4. CLIMATIC HAZARDS

There are some climatic risks that can affect many regions of the world:
o Drought. It happens when it does not rain over a long period of time. It is
quite typical in some areas such as the Horn of Africa.
o Flooding. It happens when it rains a lot over a short period of time and the
land cannot absorb all the water. It is quite common in areas like southeast
China.
o Cyclones (hurricane in the Caribbean area, typhoon in Southeast Asia,
willy willies in Australia). They are very strong winds that bring heavy rain.
There are 5 categories following the Saffir-Simpson scale, which
measures the wind speed.
Sustained winds can reach more than 250 km/h.
They are really destructive.
They form swirling clouds around an eye, which is the centre of the
cyclone.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

They take place when the temperature of the ocean exceeds 27C and
between 5-15 N/S.

14

o Tornadoes. They are violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in


contact with both the surface of the earth and a cloud.
There are also 5 categories based on the Fujita scale (F0-F5).
They are common in the centre of the USA at 20-50N.
They can reach more than 480 km/h.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Unit 8. Climate
Exercises
1. Who speaks about the weather and who does it about climate?
a. It rains a lot in spring in my town. 15
b. It is very hot and sunny today. Let us go to the beach.
2. Which sentences speak about weather and which ones about climate?
a. It does not usually rain in Seville in summer.
b. Yesterday, there was a very heavy storm in Zaragoza.
c. It is very cold in Siberia in winter.
d. I heard on the radio that is it going to be very cold in Valladolid
tomorrow.
3. Where do atmospheric phenomena exist?
4. Order the letters to make words. Then write the definition for each word:
a. Sephmoreat
b. Roetaptinpic
c. Aimtcle
d. Inwd
5. Match each term to the correct measuring instrument.
Temperature weather vane
Atmospheric pressure thermometer
Wind speed barometer
Precipitation wind gauge/anemometer
Wind direction rain gauge/pluviometer
6. How does altitude modify temperature?
7. What is the temperature oscillation?
8. How does the sea affect temperatures in summer?
9. Say the words that define the following items:
a. The study of climate.
b. The study of atmospheric phenomena.
c. The layer of gases around the Earth.
d. Area of high pressure.
e. Water falling from the atmosphere.
f. Area or low pressure.
10. Answer whether it is true or false. Correct the wrong ones.
a. The higher the altitude, the greater the atmospheric pressure.
b. Warm air rises because it weighs less.
c. Depressions are caused by cold air.
d. When air moves from low pressure areas to high pressure areas, winds
are produced.
11. What is the instrument that measures the amount of water fallen? How is it
expressed?
12. Many expressions in English refer to the weather. Use a dictionary to match
each expression to the correct meaning:
Shes a bit under the weather. Shes got a lot of work to do.
Shes snowed under. Shes not in touch with the
real world.
Shes got her head in the clouds. Shes not feeling very well.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Shes got a face like thunder. She looks very angry.


13. Look at the isobars map below and answer the questions:
a. Where do winds come from in Britain?
b. How fast do winds blow in Britain?
c. Are those winds humid or dry? Why?

16

14. Using an atlas, name five cities in each climatic zone, from the northern and
southern hemispheres.
15. Say in which climatic zones the following countries are located:
a. Angola.
b. Norway.
c. The Sudan.
d. Australia.
e. Cuba.
f. Colombia.
g. Argentina.
h. Iceland.
i. South Africa.
j. Spain.
16. Write down the names of the different climate zones of the picture:

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

17. Match each climate to its climate zone:


Mediterranean
Tropical
Alpine Hot
Polar Temperate
Equatorial Cold
Continental
Oceanic 17
Desert
18. Answer the following questions:
a. Which climates have the most precipitation?
b. And which the least?
19. In what way is the equatorial climate different from the wet tropical climate?
20. Answer the following questions:
a. What are temperatures like in a polar climate?
b. Is there much precipitation? Is it in form of rain or snow?
c. What is the main difference between the Mediterranean climate and the
humid sub-tropical climate?
21. Which climate type has the lowest temperatures?
22. Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the wrong ones.
a. An equatorial climate is always humid and hot.
b. The polar and alpine climates have the lowest temperatures.
c. The tropical climate is a kind of temperate climate.
d. The oceanic climate is hot in summer and cold in winter.
23. Match each natural hazard to the correct definition:
Hail very strong wind and heavy rain
Storm small, hard balls of ice
Drought period of very hot weather
Cyclone long period without rain
High temperatures heavy rain, thunder and lightning
24. Are the following statements true or false? Correct the wrong ones.
a. The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth.
b. Meteorological phenomena occur in the atmosphere.
c. Climate is the same all over the planet.
d. The temperate zone is located between 30 and 60 latitude north and
south.
e. The equatorial climate has very little precipitation and strong contrasts in
temperature.
f. Cyclones can cause great disasters.
25. Complete the chart with the actions below in the correct columns.

What to do in a What to do in a What to do in a


drought flood storm

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

a. Put bottles of water in the toilet cistern to reduce its capacity and save
water.
b. In the countryside, do not go near rivers, torrents or flooded areas.
c. At home, shut doors and windows to stop air currents because they attract
lightning.
d. Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth.
e. In the countryside, do not climb to the top of hills or shelter under trees.
f. If the house is flooded, do not shelter in the cellar or on the ground floor. 18
g. Do not park or camp near a river in case the water level rises.
h. Only use the washing machine and the dishwasher when they are full.
i. Switch off your mobile phone.
j. Do not touch metal objects.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

19

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 8. CLIMATE


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Social Science 1st CSE 1

UNIT 9:
The Earths landscapes

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

UNIT 9: THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


1. HOT CLIMATE LANDSCAPES

1.1. Equatorial landscapes

This landscape is affected by the equatorial climate.


1
The typical vegetal formation is the rainforest.
o It is really thick and evergreen.
o Trees are quite high and do not let sunlight go down.
o There are some shrubs, ferns, creepers, and lianas.
o The typical trees are mahogany, ebony and rubber trees.

Rivers are regular and have a large flow. The main examples are the Amazon, and
the Congo.
Its fauna is really varied of species, such as jaguar, monkey (chimpanzee, gorilla,
and orangutan), snake (anaconda), spider, hummingbird, parrots, some
insects...
Soils are quite poor and make agriculture difficult. They are mostly leached and
have very few nutrients.
o The inhabitants of this region practise traditional and semi-nomadic
agriculture by felling the forest.
They mostly grow tubers such as yam and cassava (or manioc).
o On the coast of the Gulf of Guinea, Antilles and Guiana it is quite typical
the agriculture of plantation:
It is mostly developed by international companies.
It is based on monoculture crops, such as sugar, coffee, rubber,
tobacco...
It is usually sold abroad.

1.2. Tropical landscapes

This landscape varies according to the kind of tropical climate.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

The wet tropical climate has a very similar landscape to the equatorial climate.
The dry tropical climate can have several kinds of landscapes:
o The most important formation is the savannah:
It is a grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being
sufficiently small or widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
They typical species are acacia and baobab.
The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to
2
support an unbroken herbaceous layer.
They can grow up to 4 metres in the humid season.
o Around the rivers grows the gallery forest composed of species than need a
lot of water and that make a quite thick forest.
o Next to the desert areas the steppe is usual, since there is very little water
and that does not let trees grow.

Rivers are slightly irregular with high rises in flow during the humid season and
low water during the dry season. Major tropical rivers are the Orinoco, the
Zambezi, and the upper course of the Nile.
Its fauna is really important since the great mammals live in this kind of landscape,
such as the lion, cheetah, elephant, giraffe, zebra, hyena, rhinoceros,
hippopotamus, antelope...
Soils are not really rich either and that makes agriculture difficult. It is mostly
unirrigated agriculture with several kinds of crops.

1.3. Monsoon Asian landscapes

It is located in Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma, Indochina and southeast


China).
This landscape is affected by the monsoon, a kind of wind with two major
characteristics basing on the season:
o Winter monsoon. It is cold and dry wind that blows from Central Asia
towards the Indian Ocean.
o Summer monsoon. It is a warm and humid wind that blows from the Indian
Ocean towards Central Asia.
The vegetation is exposed to massive summer rainfalls:

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

o Deciduous forest: Teak, shorea.


o Monsoon forest: Bamboo.

Rivers have a large flow and their level rises during the humid season: Ganges,
Brahmaputra, Yangtze (Blue), Indus, Mekong.
It is common to find a varied fauna, such as elephant, tiger, panda, snakes, or
spiders.
Soils are quite rich due to the rainfalls. Rice is its most common crop. Tea is also
appreciated.
This landscape is overpopulated between the Ganges and the Yangtze.

1.4. Desert landscapes

It is an extremely arid landscape due to the scarce and irregular rainfalls.


Vegetation is quite poor:
o Plants have thick prickles and deep roots to get some water, such as cactus,
esparto grass, or palmetto.
o Around the oasis there is a wider range with palm trees, fig trees, apricot
trees or pomegranate trees.
Rivers are inexistent due to the lack of water. There are just irregular streams when
it rains, which are called wadis. The only permanent waters are the oases.
There is little fauna which is adapted to the heat such as camels, dromedaries,
coyotes, foxes, lizards, beetles, snakes or scorpions.
There are three kinds of desert landscape:
o Sand desert (erg): It is composed of dunes (hills of sand built by the wind).
o Stony desert (hamada): It is flat and composed of stones.
o Rocky desert (reg): It is a vast extension of land covered of rocks.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

2. TEMPERATE CLIMATE LANDSCAPES

2.1. Oceanic landscape

The mild temperatures and the abundant precipitation let have a lot of vegetation:
o Oceanic deciduous forest: It is mostly composed of high trees such as oak,
beech, chestnut tree, elm or ash.
o Scrubland or moors: In the areas where the oceanic forest disappears it is
common to have bushes such as retama or heather.
o Grasslands: It is common in the plains and it is the basis of the pastures.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Rivers are quite regular due to the rainfall. They do not have any rise or low levels.
Major rivers are the Rhine, Seine, Loire or Thames.
There is a wide variety of fauna composed of foxes, boars, deer or bears.
Soils are really fertile and help agriculture and stockbreeding.
o It is a very industrial production in these fields.
o The landscape has been strongly modified by the exploitation of the soil.

2.2. Mediterranean landscape

The Mediterranean landscape has its vegetation adapted to the irregular rainfall and
to the severe and dry summers:
o Mediterranean forest: It has evergreen trees with very deep roots to get
water. The mains species are the holm oak and the cork oak inland and pine
in coastal areas.

o Scrublands are typical in this landscape due to the reduction of the


extension of the Mediterranean forest. The main formations are:
Maquis. It has high bushes like strawberry tree, rock rose, salvia,
and mastic.
Garrigue. It is composed of minor bushes such as thyme, rosemary,
lavender, and retama.
Steppe. When there is little water and the other scrublands have
disappeared it is common to find palmetto, esparto grass and
asparagus.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Rivers are quite irregular and have major rises and low level periods.
o Most of them are quite short due to the fact that their source is close to the
sea.
o The main rivers are Ebro, Rhone, and Po.
It has a quite varied fauna composed of rabbits, foxes, deer, wolves, boars,
squirrels, eagles, vultures, and sparrows.
Soils are quite poor, but in the valleys. There are different kinds of agriculture:
o Unirrigated agriculture: It is the most common agriculture, based on three
typical crops: wheat, vines, and olive tree.
o Irrigated agriculture: It is common in the coastal plains and in other
regions with greenhouses. They usually grow vegetables, legumes or fruits.
Tourism has developed a lot in this landscape. It is mostly based on sun and
beaches.

2.3. Continental climate

The northernmost continental landscape is defined by the coniferous forest (taiga):


o It has evergreen trees such as the pine and fir.
o Some other trees are larch or birch.

The southern continental landscape is defined by two kinds of formations:


o The areas which are cooler and more humid have large prairies, composed
of high grass, such in the American Midwest.
o The areas which are warmer and drier have steppes, composed of low grass,
like in East Europe or Central Asia.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Rivers have a large flow with important rises in the level in spring because of the
thaw. They are frozen in winter. Major rivers are Volga, Danube or Missouri.
Its fauna is adapted to the extreme temperatures and it is mostly composed by
moose, reindeers, bears, lynxes, wolves, otters, marmots, ferrets, ravens and
owls.
Soils are really different according to the region:
o Prairies are quite fertile and make agriculture possible. It is quite common
to have large plantations of corn and wheat.
o Steppes and taiga are quite barren and are almost uninhabited.

3. COLD CLIMATE LANDSCAPES

3.1. Polar landscape

It is located above the Polar circles.


There is no vegetation owing to the perpetual ice.
There are not rivers either.
Its fauna is adapted to the extreme cold. There are animals like penguins, whales,
polar bears, seals, and walrus.
In the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans it is common to have floating ice blocks called
icebergs that are fragments which have detached from the icefield that covers the
whole ocean.

Antarctica is a continent completely covered of snow and really thick ice over the
land called ice sheet.
o It is a completely uninhabited continent. Only scientists have settled there to
study it.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Border lands have a milder climate:


o Their vegetation appears after the thaw and it is based on tundra, which is
composed of lichens and moss.
o Their soils are quite infertile and their surface is quite muddy after the thaw,
but it remains frozen in lower strata. They are called permafrost.

3.2. Alpine landscape

This landscape is adapted to the severe cold winters


Vegetation is in tiers and varies according to the altitude owing to the difference of
temperatures and humidity.
o In the lower levels the vegetation has the same features of the region where
the mountains are.
o In middle levels deciduous forest is common, alternating with some conifers.
o In the upper levels meadows and little flowers are the only species that can
grow due to the fact that part of the year this stratum is completely covered
of snow.
The fauna is composed of major birds such as the condor, vulture or eagle and
some mammals such as the mountain goat and chamois.
Soils are not fertile due to the erosion.
In developed countries it is common to build ski resorts in this area.
In hot areas (Africa, South America), these regions are overpopulated owing to the
milder weather conditions.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Unit 9. The Earths landscapes


Exercises
1. Complete the chart:
9
Type of climate Natural landscape

Equatorial

Continental

Polar

2. Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the wrong ones.
a. There are no hot climate landscapes in the southern hemisphere.
b. There are grasslands and steppes in both hemispheres.
c. Tundra is a typical landscape in temperate climate zones.
3. Research which trees grow in the savannah.
4. Which animals live in the savannah?
5. Find the odd one out and explain why.
a. Savannah, hot desert, palm, steppe.
b. Snake, lion, scorpion, camel.
c. Equatorial rainforest, tropical rainforest, hot desert, perpetual ice.
d. Oak, teak, grass, acacia.
6. Match the landscape in each photo to the right term: savannah, hot desert,
equatorial rainforest.

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

10

7. One of the following animals could not live in the hot desert. Which one? Why?
a. Jackal.
b. Dromedary.
c. Snake.
d. Seal.
8. Match each landscape to the animal that lives there:
Tropical rainforest ape
Equatorial rainforest giraffe
Hot desert puma
Savannah camel
9. Correct the sentences:
a. Deserts are usually very hot at night.
b. A tundra environment is made up of deciduous and coniferous forests.
c. There are many rivers in desert landscapes.
10. Research what thyme and rosemary are used for and what products are obtained
from holm oaks and cork oaks.
11. Find out how tree in the Mediterranean forest adapt to drought.
12. Complete the sentences with the words below:
Evergreen mild scrubland flooding
a. Mediterranean winters are __________ because of the proximity to the
sea.
b. Mediterranean forests are made up of ___________ trees.
c. Maquis and Garrigue are types of ____________.
d. Intense autumn storms can cause __________.
13. Match each type of vegetation to the landscape in which it is found:
beech
rosemary
Mediterranean scrubland thyme
Deciduous forest bamboo
Humid sub-tropical forest pine
oak
14. Match each adjective to its right definition:
Leafy with leaves all year round
Deciduous losing their leaves in autumn
Coniferous lasting forever
Evergreen with a lot of trees and plants
Perpetual producing cones and with needle-like
leaves
15. Why do you think the continental climate does not exist in the southern
hemisphere?

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

16. What kind of vegetation can be found the following landscapes:


a. Moor.
b. Steppe (continental).
c. Meadow.
d. Taiga.
17. Say which of these natural landscapes it is nearly impossible for a human being
to survive in and why:
a. Deciduous forest. 11
b. Coniferous forest.
c. Perpetual ice.
d. Hot desert.
18. Complete the chart with the kinds of climate:
Natural landscape Climate

Tundra
Savannah
Coniferous forest
Equatorial rainforest
Deciduous forest

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 9. THE EARTHS LANDSCAPES


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Social Science 1st CSE 1

UNIT 10:
The continents: Africa, Asia,
America, and Oceania
1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS
IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

UNIT 10: THE CONTINENTS:


AFRICA, ASIA, AMERICA, AND OCEANIA
1. AFRICA

SEAS OF AFRICA/MARES DE FRICA

Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean


Ocano Atlntico Ocano ndico
Mar Mediterrneo Red Sea
Mar Mediterrneo Mar Rojo

STRAITS AND CHANNELS OF AFRICA/ESTRECHOS Y CANALES DE FRICA

Strait of Gibraltar
Estrecho de Gibraltar

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

ISLANDS OF AFRICA/ISLAS DE FRICA

Canary Islands
Madagascar
Islas Canarias
Comoros
Madeira
Comoras
Cape Verde
Cabo Verde
Seychelles 2
So Tom e Prncipe
Santo Tom y Prncipe

GULFS AND BAYS OF FRICA/GOLFOS DE FRICA

Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Gabes


Golfo de Guinea Golfo de Gabs
Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Aden
Golfo de Sidra Golfo de Adn

CAPES OF AFRICA/CABOS DE FRICA

Verde Agulhas
Lpez
Good Hope Guardafui
Buena Esperanza

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

PENINSULAS OF AFRICA/PENNSULAS DE FRICA

Somalia

MOUNTAIN RANGES OF AFRICA/CORDILLERAS DE FRICA

Mountain Range Peaks


Sistema montaoso Picos 3

Atlas Toubkal (4,167 m.)


Drakensberg
Tibesti Mountains
Macizo del Tibesti
Ahaggar Mountains
Macizo del Ahaggar
Ethiopian Highlands
Macizo Etope
Cameroon Mountains Cameroon (4,070 m.)
Montes Camern Camern
Kilimanjaro (5,895 m.)
Kenya (5,199 m.)
Ruwenzori (5,109 m.)

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

PLAINS AND PLATEAUS OF AFRICA/LLANURAS Y MESETAS DE FRICA

Congo Basin South African Plain


Gran Cubeta del Congo Meseta Sudafricana

RIVERS OF AFRICA/ROS DE FRICA


4
Drainage Basin River
Vertiente Ro
Mediterranean Sea Nile (6,650 km.)
Mar Mediterrneo Nilo
Senegal (1,790 km.)
Niger (4,180 km.)
Atlantic Ocean
Nger
Ocano Atlntico
Congo (4,700 km.)
Orange (2,200 km.)
Limpopo (1,750 km.)
Indian Ocean
Zambezi (3,540 km.)
Ocano ndico
Zambeze

LAKES OF AFRICA/LAGOS DE FRICA

Tanganyika
Victoria
Tanganica
Turkana Malawi
Albert
Chad
Alberto

DESERTS OF AFRICA/DESIERTOS DE FRICA

Sahara
Kalahari
Shara

https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54DkeVzBuNERKSWZla1U
https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54DkeM0JuYlBPS0RtRmM

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS OF AFRICA/PASES Y CAPITALES DE FRICA

ALGERIA Algiers
MADAGASCAR Antananarivo
ARGELIA Argel
ANGOLA Luanda MALAWI Lilongwe
BENIN MALI
Porto Novo Bamako
BENN MAL
Nouakchot
BOTSWANA Gaborone MAURITANIA
Nuakchot 5
Ouagadougou MAURITIUS
BURKINA FASO Port Louis
Uagadug MAURICIO
MOROCCO
BURUNDI Bujumbura Rabat
MARRUECOS
CAMEROON Yaound
MOZAMBIQUE Maputo
CAMERN Yaund
CAPE VERDE
Praia NAMIBIA Windhoek
CABO VERDE
CENTRAL AFRICAN
REPUBLIC NIGER
Bangui Niamey
REPBLICA NGER
CENTROAFRICANA
NDjamena
CHAD NIGERIA Abuja
NYamena
COMOROS RWANDA
Moroni Kigali
COMORAS RUANDA
SO TOM E PRNCIPE
So Tom
CONGO Brazzaville SANTO TOM Y
Santo Tom
PRNCIPE
D.R. OF THE CONGO
Kinshasa SENEGAL Dakar
R.D. DEL CONGO
DJIBOUTI Djibouti
SEYCHELLES Victoria
YIBUTI Yibuti
EGYPT Cairo
SIERRA LEONA Freetown
EGIPTO El Cairo
EQUATORIAL GUINEA Mogadishu
Malabo SOMALIA
GUINEA ECUATORIAL Mogadiscio
SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town, Pretoria
ERITREA Asmara REPBLICA and Bloemfontein
SUDAFRICANA Ciudad del Cabo,...
ETHIOPIA Addis Ababa SOUTH SUDAN
Juba
ETIOPA Adds Abeba SUDN DEL SUR
GABON SUDAN Khartoum
Libreville
GABN SUDN Jartum
THE GAMBIA SWAZILAND
Banjul Mbabane
GAMBIA SWAZILANDIA
GHANA Accra TANZANIA Dodoma
GUINEA Conakry TOGO Lom
TUNISIA Tunis
GUINEA BISSAU Bissau
TUNICIA/TNEZ Tnez
IVORY COAST Yamoussoukro
UGANDA Kampala
COSTA DE MARFIL Yamusukro
KENYA WESTERN SAHARA
Nairobi El Aain
KENIA SHARA OCCIDENTAL
LESOTHO Maseru ZAMBIA Lusaka
LIBERIA Monrovia
LIBYA Tripoli ZIMBABWE Harare
LIBIA Trpoli

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

2. ASIA

SEAS OF ASIA/MARES DE ASIA

Arctic Ocean South China Sea


Ocano Glacial rtico Mar de la China Meridional
Bering Sea Philippine Sea
Mar de Bering Mar de Filipinas
Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean
Ocano Pacfico Ocano ndico
Sea of Okhotsk Arabian Sea
Mar de Ojotsk Mar Arbigo
Yellow Sea Red Sea
Mar Amarillo Mar Rojo
East China Sea Mediterranean Sea
Mar de la China Oriental Mar Mediterrneo
Sea of Japan Black Sea
Mar del Japn Mar Negro

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

STRAITS AND CHANNELS OF ASIA/ESTRECHOS Y CANALES DE ASIA

Strait of Bosphorus Strait of Malacca


Estrecho del Bsforo Estrecho de Malaca
Strait of Dardanelles Formosa Strait
Estrecho de los Dardanelos Estrecho de Formosa
Strait of Ormuz Bering Strait
Estrecho de Ormuz Estrecho de Bering 8

ISLANDS OF ASIA/ISLAS DE ASIA

Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Indonesia: Java, Borneo, Celebes, Sumatra,


Islas Kuriles y Sajaln Timor
Japanese Archipelago: Hokkaido, Honshu,
Ceylon (Sri Lanka)
Shikoku, Kyushu
Ceiln
Archipilago del Japn:
Taiwan Maldives
Taiwn Maldivas
The Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao Cyprus
Filipinas: Luzn, Chipre

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

GULFS AND BAYS OF ASIA/GOLFOS DE ASIA

Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Oman


Golfo de Tailandia Golfo de Omn
Bay of Bengal
Golfo de Bengala Gulf of Aden
Persian Gulf Golfo de Adn
Golfo Prsico
9

CAPES OF ASIA/CABOS DE ASIA

Comorin
Comorn

PENINSULAS OF ASIA/PENNSULAS DE ASIA

Anatolian peninsula Malay peninsula


Pennsula de Anatolia Pennsula de Malaca
Arabian peninsula Korean peninsula
Pennsula arbiga Pennsula de Corea
Hindustan
Pennsula del Indostn
Kamchatka
Indochina
Pennsula de Indochina

MOUNTAIN RANGES OF ASIA/CORDILLERAS DE ASIA

Mountain Range Peaks


Sistema montaoso Picos
Himalayas Everest (8,848 m.)
Himalaya K2 (8,611 m.)
Hindu Kush Tirich Mir (7,690 m.)
Pamir Mountains Ismoil Somoni/Comunism (7,495 m.)
Meseta del Pamir /Comunismo
Altay Mountains
Montes Altai
Zagros Mountains
Montes Zagros
Caucasus
Cucaso
Yablonovy Mountains
Montes Yablonovi
Stanovoiy Range
Montes Stanovoi
Verkhoyansk Range
Verjoyansk
Ural Mountains
Urales
Japanese Alps Fuji (3,776 m.)
Alpes Japoneses Fujiyama

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

PLAINS AND PLATEAUS OF ASIA/LLANURAS Y MESETAS DE ASIA

Tibetan Plateau Iranian Plateau


Meseta del Tbet Meseta Iran
Deccan Plateau China Plain
Meseta del Decn Llanura de China
Indo-Gangetic Plain West Siberian Plain
Llanura Indo-Gangtica Llanura de Siberia occidental 10

RIVERS OF ASIA/ROS DE ASIA

Drainage Basin River


Vertiente Ro
Yenisey (4,090 km.)
Yenisi
Arctic Ocean Ob (2,962 km.)
Ocano Glacial rtico Obi
Lena (4,472 km.)
Kolyma (2,129 km.)
Kolima
Amur (2,824 km.)
Huang He/Yellow (5,464 km.)
Huang Ho/Amarillo
Pacific Ocean Yangtze Kiang/Blue (6,300 km.)
Ocano Pacfico Yangts Kiang/Azul
Sikiang/Black (1,930 km.)
Sikiang/Negro
Mekong (4,909 km.)
Brahmaputra (2,900 km.)
Ganges (2,510 km.)
Indus (3,100 km.)
Indian Ocean
Indo
Ocano ndico
Tigris (1,850 km.)
Euphrates (2,850 km.)
ufrates
Amu Darya (2,400 km.)
Aral Sea Amu Daria
Mar de Aral Syr Darya (2,212 km.)
Sir Daria

LAKES OF ASIA/LAGOS DE ASIA DESERTS OF ASIA/DESIERTOS DE


ASIA
Caspian Sea Lake Baikal
Mar Caspio Lago Baikal Gobi Desert Arabian Desert
Aral Sea Lake Balkhash Desierto del Gobi Desierto de Arabia
Mar de Aral Lago Baljash

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

11

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS OF ASIA/PASES Y CAPITALES DE ASIA

AFGHANISTAN MALAYSIA
Kabul Kuala Lumpur
AFGANISTN MALASIA
Yerevan
ARMENIA MONGOLIA Ulan Bator
Erevn
AZERBAIJAN Baku Kathmandu
NEPAL
AZERBAIYN Bak Katmand 12
BAHRAIN NORTH KOREA
Manama Pyongyang
BAHREIN COREA DEL NORTE
OMAN Muscat
BANGLADESH Dacca
OMN Mascate
BHUTAN Thimphu PAKISTAN
Islamabad
BHUTN Timbu PAKISTN
BURMA/MYANMAR THE PHILIPPINES
Naypyiadaw Manila
BIRMANIA/MYANMAR FILIPINAS
QATAR
BRUNEI Bandar Seri Begawan Doha
CATAR
CAMBODIA * RUSSIA Moscow
Phnom Penh
CAMBOYA RUSIA Mosc
Beijing SAUDI ARABIA Riyadh
CHINA
Pekn ARABIA SAUD Riyad
*CYPRUS SINGAPORE Singapore
Nicosia
CHIPRE SINGAPUR Singapur
Tbilisi SOUTH KOREA Seoul
GEORGIA
Tiflis COREA DEL SUR Sel
New Delhi SYRIA Damascus
INDIA
Nueva Delhi SIRIA Damasco
Jakarta
INDONESIA SRI LANKA Colombo
Yakarta
IRAN Tehran THAILAND
Bangkok
IRN Tehern TAILANDIA
IRAQ Baghdad TAIWAN
Taipei
IRAK Bagdad TAIWN
Jerusalem TAJIKISTAN
ISRAEL Dushanbe
Jerusaln TAYIKISTN
TIMOR-LESTE/EAST
JAPAN Tokyo
TIMOR Dili
JAPN Tokio
TIMOR ORIENTAL
JORDAN Amman TURKMENISTAN
Ashgabat
JORDANIA Ammn TURKMENISTN
KAZAKHSTAN *TURKEY
Astana Ankara
KAZAJSTN TURQUA
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
Kuwait City
KUWAIT EMIRATOS RABES Abu Dhabi
Ciudad de Kuwait
UNIDOS
KYRGYZSTAN UZBEKISTAN
Bishkek Tashkent
KIRGUIZISTN UZBEKISTN
LAOS Vientiane VIETNAM Hanoi
LEBANON
Beirut
LBANO
YEMEN Sana
MALDIVES Male
MALDIVAS Mal
* Also considered European countries
* Tambin son considerados pases europeos

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

3. AMERICA

13

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

14

SEAS OF AMERICA/MARES DE AMRICA


Arctic Ocean Antarctic Ocean
Ocano Glacial rtico Ocano Glacial Antrtico
Bering Sea Atlantic Ocean
Mar de Bering Ocano Atlntico
Pacific Ocean Caribbean Sea
Ocano Pacfico Mar Caribe

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

STRAITS AND CHANNELS OF AMERICA/ESTRECHOS Y CANALES DE AMRICA

Bering Strait Strait of Magellan


Estrecho de Bering Estrecho de Magallanes

ISLANDS OF AMERICA/ISLAS DE AMRICA


15
Greenland
Puerto Rico
Groenlandia
Lesser Antilles
Baffin
Pequeas Antillas
Newfoundland Falkland Islands
Terranova Islas Malvinas
Cuba Tierra del Fuego
Hispaniola Galapagos Islands
La Espaola Islas Galpagos
Aleutian Islands
Jamaica
Islas Aleutianas

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

16

GULFS AND BAYS OF AMERICA/GOLFOS DE AMRICA

Baffin Bay Gulf of California


Baha de Baffin Golfo de California
Hudson Bay
Baha de Hudson Gulf of Alaska
Gulf of Mexico Golfo de Alaska
Golfo de Mxico

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

CAPES OF AMERICA/CABOS DE AMRICA

Horn So Roque
Hornos San Roque
So Tom
San Lucas
Santo Tom

PENINSULAS OF AMERICA/PENNSULAS DE AMRICA 17

Alaska Florida
California
Labrador
Yucatn

MOUNTAIN RANGES OF AMERICA/CORDILLERAS DE AMRICA

Mountain Range Peaks


Sistema montaoso Picos
Aconcagua (6,962 m.)
Ojos del Salado (6,891 m.)
Andes
Huascarn (6,768 m.)
Chimborazo (6,267 m.)
Guiana Highlands
Macizo de las Guayanas
Sierra Madre del Sur
Orizaba (5,747 m.)
Sierra Madre Oriental
Popocatepetl (5,500 m.)
Sierra Madre Occidental
Rocky Mountains
McKinley (6,194 m.)
Montaas Rocosas
Appalachian Mountains
Montes Apalaches
Sierra Nevada Whitney (4,418 m.)

https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54DkedUptS2RTODlUS28

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

18

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

PLAINS AND PLATEAUS OF AMERICA/LLANURAS Y MESETAS DE AMRICA

Altiplano (Bolivian Plateau)


Pampa
Altiplano de Bolivia
Mato Grosso Plateau
Meseta del Mato Grosso
Great North American Plains
Amazon Plains Grandes Llanuras Norteamericanas 19
Llanuras del Amazonas

RIVERS OF AMERICA/ROS DE AMRICA

Drainage Basin River


Vertiente Ro
Amazon (6,800 km.)
Amazonas
Orinoco (2,140 km.)
River Plate: Paraguay (2,621 km.), Paran (4,880
Atlantic Ocean km.), Uruguay (1,600 km.)
Ocano ndico Ro de la Plata:
Mississippi (3,764 km.)-Missouri (3,767 km.)
Misisispi-Misuri
Saint Lawrence (1,197 km.)
San Lorenzo
Colorado (2,334 km.)
Pacific Ocean
Ocano Pacfico Yukon (1,984 km.)
Yukn
Arctic Ocean
Mackenzie (1,738 km.)
Ocano Glacial rtico

LAKES OF AMERICA /LAGOS DE AMRICA

Great Lakes: Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie,


Great Bear Lake
Ontario
Gran Lago del Oso
Grandes Lagos: , Hurn,

Great Slave Lake


Gran Lago del Esclavo Lake Titicaca
Lago Titicaca
Lake Winnipeg
Lago Winnipeg

DESERTS OF AMERICA/DESIERTOS DE AMRICA


Atacama Desert
Desierto de Atacama Mojave Desert
Sonora Desert Desierto de Mojave
Desierto de Sonora

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

20

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS OF AMERICA/PASES Y CAPITALES DE AMRICA

ANTIGUA AND
BARBUDA Saint Johns GUYANA Georgetown
ANTIGUA Y BARBUDA
HAITI Port-au-Prince
ARGENTINA Buenos Aires
HAIT Puerto Prncipe
BAHAMAS Nassau HONDURAS Tegucigalpa
BARBADOS Bridgetown JAMAICA Kingston 21
BELIZE MEXICO Mexico City
Belmopan
BELICE MXICO Mxico D.F.
BOLIVIA La Paz and Sucre NICARAGUA Managua
BRAZIL PANAMA
Brasilia Panam
BRASIL PANAM
CANADA
Ottawa PARAGUAY Asuncin
CANAD
PERU
CHILE Santiago de Chile Lima
PER
COLOMBIA Bogot PUERTO RICO San Juan
ST. KITTS AND NEVIS
COSTA RICA San Jos SAN CRISTBAL Y Basseterre
NIEVES
Havana SAINT LUCIA
CUBA Castries
La Habana SANTA LUCA
ST. VINCENT AND THE
GRENADINES
DOMINICA Roseau Kingstown
SAN VICENTE Y LAS
GRANADINAS
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
SURINAME
REPBLICA Santo Domingo Paramaribo
SURINAM
DOMINICANA
TRINIDAD AND
Port of Spain
ECUADOR Quito TOBAGO
Puerto Espaa
TRINIDAD Y TOBAGO
UNITED STATES
EL SALVADOR San Salvador Washington D.C.
ESTADOS UNIDOS
FRENCH GUIANA Cayenne
URUGUAY Montevideo
GUAYANA FRANCESA Cayena
GRENADA
Saint Georges
GRANADA VENEZUELA Caracas
GUATEMALA Guatemala

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

4. OCEANIA

22

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

SEAS OF OCEANIA/MARES DE OCEANA

Pacific Ocean Timor Sea


Ocano Pacfico Mar de Timor
Indian Ocean
Ocano ndico Coral Sea
Tasman Sea Mar del Coral
Mar de Tasmania 23

STRAITS AND CHANNELS OF OCEANIA/ESTRECHOS Y CANALES DE OCEANA

Torres Strait Cook Strait


Estrecho de Torres Estrecho de Cook

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

ISLANDS AND ARCHIPELAGOS OF OCEANIA/ISLAS Y ARCHIPILAGOS DE OCEANA

Melanesia: Solomon Islands, Bismarck


Archipelago, New Caledonia, Fiji, Vanuatu
Australia
Melanesia: Islas Salomn, Archipilago de
Bismarck, Nueva Caledonia, Fiyi,
Micronesia: Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands,
Mariana Islands, Guam, Palau, Kiribati 24
Tasmania
Micronesia: Islas Marshall, Islas Carolinas, Islas
Marianas,
New Zealand: North Island, South Island Polinesia: Hawaiian Islands, Tuvalu, Samoa,
Nueva Zelanda: Isla del Norte, Isla del Sur Tonga, Cook Islands, French Polinesia, Easter
Island
New Guinea
Polinesia: Hawai,, Islas Cook, Polinesia
Nueva Guinea
Francesa, Isla de Pascua

GULFS AND BAYS OF OCEANIA/GOLFOS DE OCEANA

Island Gulf or Bay


Isla Golfo

Great Australian Bight


Gran Baha Australiana
Australia
Gulf of Carpentaria
Golfo de Carpentaria

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

CAPES OF OCEANIA /CABOS DE OCEANA

Island Cape
Isla Cabo
Australia York

PENINSULAS OF OCEANIA/PENNSULAS DE OCEANA


25

Island Peninsula
Isla Pennsula
Cape York Peninsula (Australia)
Australia
Pennsula del Cabo York (Australia)

MOUNTAIN RANGES OF OCEANIA/CORDILLERAS DE OCEANA

Island Mountain Range Peaks


Isla Sistema montaoso Picos
Great Dividing Range
Australia Kosciusko (2,228 m.)
Gran Cordillera Divisoria
Southern Alps
New Zealand Cook (3,764 m.)
Alpes Neozelandeses

RIVERS OF OCEANIA/ROS DE OCEANA

Island Drainage Basin River


Isla Vertiente Ro
Indian Ocean Murray (2,375 km.)-Darling (1,472
Australia
Ocano Pacfico km.)

DESERTS OF OCEANIA/DESIERTOS DE OCEANA

Island Desert
Isla Desierto
Great Sandy Desert
Gran Desierto de Arena
Great Victoria Desert
Gran Desierto Victoria
Australia
Simpson Desert
Desierto Simpson
Gibson Desert
Desierto Gibson

https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54Dkea1lOXzg5TWFRWDg

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

26

COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS OF OCEANIA/PASES Y CAPITALES DE OCEANA

AUSTRALIA Canberra PALAU Melekeok


FIJI PAPUA NEW GUINEA
Suva Port Moresby
FIYI PAPA NUEVA GUINEA
SOLOMON ISLANDS
KIRIBATI Tarawa Honiara
ISLAS SALOMN
MARSHALL ISLANDS
Majuro TONGA Nukualofa
ISLAS MARSHALL
MICRONESIA Palikir TUVALU Funafuti
NAURU Yaren VANUATU Port Vila
NEW ZEALAND WESTERN SAMOA
Wellington Apia
NUEVA ZELANDA SAMOA OCCIDENTAL

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

27

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 10. THE CONTINENTS


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Social Science 1st CSE 1

UNIT 11:
Europe and Spain

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

UNIT 11: EUROPE AND SPAIN


1. EUROPE

SEAS OF EUROPE/MARES DE EUROPA

Atlantic Ocean Black Sea


Ocano Atlntico Mar Negro
Arctic Ocean Sea of Marmara
Oceano Glacial rtico Mar de Mrmara
Mediterranean Sea Cantabrian Sea
Mar Mediterrneo Mar Cantbrico
Aegean Sea North Sea
Mar Egeo Mar del Norte
Adriatic Sea Norwegian Sea
Mar Adritico Mar de Noruega
Tyrrhenian Sea Baltic Sea
Mar Tirreno Mar Bltico
Ligurian Sea White Sea
Mar de Liguria Mar Blanco
Ionian Sea Barents Sea
Mar Jnico Mar de Barents

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

STRAITS AND CHANNELS OF EUROPE/ESTRECHOS Y CANALES DE EUROPA

Strait of Gibraltar Strait of Dover


Estrecho de Gibraltar Paso de Calais
Strait of Messina Skagerrak
Estrecho de Mesina Estrecho de Skagerrak
Strait of Bonifacio Kattegat
Estrecho de Bonifacio Estrecho de Kattegat
2
Strait of Bosphorus Denmark Strait
Estrecho del Bsforo Estrecho de Dinamarca
Strait of Dardanelles English Channel
Estrecho de los Dardanelos Canal de la Mancha

ISLANDS OF EUROPE/ISLAS DE EUROPA

Iceland Sardinia
Islandia Cerdea
British Isles: Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of
Man, Hebrides, Orkney Islands Sicily
Islas Britnicas: Gran Bretaa, Irlanda, Isla de Sicilia
Man, Islas Hbridas, Islas rcadas
Channel Islands
Malta
Islas Anglo-Normandas
Shetland Islands Ionian Islands: Corfu
Islas Shetland Islas Jnicas: Corf
Faroe Islands Crete
Islas Feroe Creta
Danish Islands: Zealand Cyclades: Andros, Naxos, Santorini
Islas Danesas: Selandia Ccladas : Andros, Naxos, Santorini
Balearic Islands: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza,
Formentera Northern Sporades
Islas Baleares: Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza, Espradas Septentrionales
Formentera
Corsica Dodecanese: Rhodes
Crcega Dodecadeno: Rodas

GULFS AND BAYS OF EUROPE/GOLFOS DE EUROPA

Bay of Biscay Gulf of Venice


Golfo de Vizcaya Golfo de Venecia
Bay of Cdiz Bay of Pomerania
Golfo de Cdiz Golfo de Pomerania
Gulf of Valencia Gulf of Finland
Golfo de Valencia Golfo de Finlandia
Gulf of Lion
Golfo del Len Gulf of Bothnia
Gulf of Genoa Golfo de Botnia
Golfo de Gnova

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

CAPES OF EUROPE/CABOS DE EUROPA

North Cape So Vicente


Cabo Norte San Vicente
Lands End Punta de Tarifa
Point du Raz
Nao
Punta de Raz
Finisterre Matapan/Tainaron
Matapn/Tnaro
Roca

PENINSULAS OF EUROPE/PENNSULAS DE EUROPA

Scandinavia Italian peninsula


Escandinavia Peninsula italica
Balkan peninsula
Kola
Pennsula Balcnica
Jutland Peloponnese/Peloponnesus
Jutlandia Peloponeso
Iberian peninsula Crimean peninsula
Pennsula Ibrica Pennsula de Crimea

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

MOUNTAIN RANGES OF EUROPE/CORDILLERAS DE EUROPA

Mountain Range Peaks


Sistema montaoso Picos
Caucasus
Elbrus (5,642 m.)
Cucaso
Alps Mont Blanc (4,810 m.)
Alpes Monte Rosa (4,634 m.) 4
Pyrenees Aneto (3,404 m.)
Pirineos Monte Perdido (3,355 m.)
Baetic Ranges Mulhacn (3,478 m.)
Sistemas Bticos Veleta (3,398 m.)
Ural Mountains
Narodnaya (1,895 m.)
Urales
Balkan Mountains
Olympus (Olimpo, 2,917 m)
Balcanes
Dinaric Alps
Alpes Dinricos
Carpathian Mountains
Crpatos
Apennines
Corno Grande (2,912 m.)
Apeninos
Central Massif
Puy de Sancy (1,886 m.)
Macizo Central
Scandinavian Mountains
Alpes Escandinavos
Scottish Highlands
Ben Nevis (1,344 m.)
Highlands escoceses

PLAINS AND PLATEAUS OF EUROPE/LLANURAS Y MESETAS DE EUROPA

Iberian Plateau
Meseta central ibrica
European Plain: North European Plain,
Pannonian Plain
East European Plain
Llanura de Panonia
Gran Llanura Europea: Llanura
septentrional europea, Llanura oriental
europea

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

RIVERS OF EUROPE/ROS DE EUROPA

Drainage Basin River


Vertiente Ro
Caspian Sea Volga (3,690 km)
Mar Caspio Ural (2,428 km.)
Danube (2,860 km.) 5
Danubio
Dnieper (2,290 km.)
Black Sea
Dniper
Mar Negro
Dniester (1,352 km.)
Dnister
Don (1,950 km.)
Ebro (960 km)
Mediterranean Sea Rhone (815 km.)
Mar Mediterrneo Rdano
Po (682 km.)
Elbe (1,091 km.)
Elba
Rhine (1,236 km.)
Rin
Seine (776 km.)
Sena
Loire (1,012 km.)
Loira
Atlantic Ocean
Garonne (575 km.)
Ocano Atlntico
Garona
Duero (897 km)
Tagus (1,038 km.)
Tajo
Guadiana (818 km.)
Guadalquivir (657 km.)
Thames (346 km.)
Tmesis
Oder (854 km.)
Baltic Sea
Mar Bltico Vistula (1,047 km.)
Vstula
Northern Dvina (744 km.)
Arctic Ocean
Dvina Septentrional
Ocano Glacial rtico
Pechora (1,809 km.)

LAKES OF EUROPE/LAGOS DE EUROPA

Caspian Sea Lake Onega


Mar Caspio Lago Onega
Lake Ladoga Lake Geneva/Lman
Lago Ladoga Lago de Ginebra/Lemn

https://docs.google.com/open?id=0Bwe1dU-54DkeNmw3NGhSRDVUUVk

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS OF EUROPE/PASES Y CAPITALES DE EUROPA

LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg
ALBANIA Tirana
LUXEMBURGO Luxemburgo
Andorra la Vella
F.Y.R. OF MACEDONIA
ANDORRA Andorra la Skopje
MACEDONIA
Vieja/Vella
Vienna Valletta
AUSTRIA MALTA
Viena La Valeta 8
BELGIUM Brussels MOLDOVA
Chisinau
BLGICA Bruselas MOLDAVIA
BELARUS MONACO Monaco
Minsk
BIELORRUSIA MNACO Mnaco
BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA Sarajevo MONTENEGRO Podgorica
THE NETHERLANDS/ The Hague and
Sofia
BULGARIA HOLLAND Amsterdam
Sofa
PASES BAJOS/HOLANDA La Haya y msterdam
CZECH REPUBLIC
Prague NORWAY
CHEQUIA/REPBLICA Oslo
Praga NORUEGA
CHECA
CROATIA POLAND Warsaw
Zagreb
CROACIA POLONIA Varsovia
CYPRUS Lisbon
Nicosia PORTUGAL
CHIPRE Lisboa
DENMARK Copenhagen ROMANIA Bucharest
DINAMARCA Copenhague RUMANA Bucarest
GERMANY Berlin RUSSIA Moscow
ALEMANIA Berln RUSIA Mosc
Tallinn
ESTONIA SAN MARINO San Marino
Talln
FINLAND Belgrade
Helsinki SERBIA
FINLANDIA Belgrado
FRANCE Paris SLOVAKIA
Bratislava
FRANCIA Pars ESLOVAQUIA
GREECE Athens SLOVENIA Ljubljana
GRECIA Atenas ESLOVENIA Liubliana
HUNGARY SPAIN
Budapest Madrid
HUNGRA ESPAA
ICELAND Reykjavik SWEDEN Stockholm
ISLANDIA Reikiavik SUECIA Estocolmo
IRELAND Dublin SWITZERLAND Bern
IRLANDA Dubln SUIZA Berna
ITALY Rome TURKEY
Ankara
ITALIA Roma TURQUA
LATVIA UNITED KINGDOM London
Riga
LETONIA REINO UNIDO Londres
UKRAINE Kiev/Kyiv
LIECHTENSTEIN Vaduz
UCRACIA Kiev
LITHUANIA Vilnius VATICAN CITY/HOLY SEE Vatican City
LITUANIA Vilnius/Vilna VATICANO/SANTA SEDE Ciudad del Vaticano

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

2. SPAIN

SEAS OF SPAIN/MARES DE ESPAA

Atlantic Ocean
Ocano Atlntico Cantabrian Sea
Mediterranean Sea Mar Cantbrico
Mar Mediterrneo

STRAITS OF SPAIN/ESTRECHOS DE ESPAA

Strait of Gibraltar
Estrecho de Gibraltar

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

ISLANDS OF SPAIN/ISLAS DE ESPAA

Balearic Islands: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza,


Formentera, Cabrera
Medas
Islas Baleares: Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza,
Formentera, Cabrera
Canary Islands: Tenerife, La Gomera, La
Palma, El Hierro, Gran Canaria,
Columbretes 10
Fuerteventura, Lanzarote
Islas Canarias:
North African Islands: Chafarinas Islands,
Pen de Alhucemas, Pen de Vlez de la
Gomera, Perejil Galician Atlantic Islands: Ces, Slvora, Ons
Islas norteafricanas: Islas Chafarinas, Islas atlnticas gallegas: Ces,
Alborn

GULFS AND BAYS OF SPAIN/GOLFOS DE SPAIN

Gulf of Rosas Gulf of Mazarrn


Golfo de Rosas Golfo de Mazarrn
Gulf of San Jorge Gulf of Almera
Golfo de San Jorge Golfo de Almera
Gulf of Valencia Bay of Cdiz
Golfo de Valencia Golfo de Cdiz
Gulf of Alicante Bay of Biscay
Golfo de Alicante Golfo de Vizcaya

CAPES OF SPAIN/CABOS DE ESPAA

Creus San Vicente


San Jorge Roca
San Antonio Finisterre

Nao Punta de Estaca de Bares


Palos Ortegal
Gata Peas
Sacratif Ajo
Punta de Tarifa
Machichaco
Trafalgar

PLAINS AND PLATEAUS OF SPAIN/LLANURAS Y MESETAS DE ESPAA

Iberian Plateau
Meseta Central: Submeseta norte o septentrional, Submeseta sur o meridional.

DEPRESSIONS OF SPAIN/DEPRESIONES DE ESPAA

Guadalquivir Ebro

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

MOUNTAIN RANGES OF SPAIN/CORDILLERAS DE ESPAA

Mountain Range Ranges Peaks


Sistema montaoso Sierras Picos
Sierra de Aylln Ocejn (2,049 m.)
Pico de las Tres Provincias
Somosierra
(2,130 m.) 11
Sistema Central Sierra de Guadarrama Pealara (2,428 m.)
Pico del Moro Almanzor
Sierra de Gredos
(2,592 m.)
Sierra de Gata Pea de Francia (1,723 m.)
Montes de Toledo
Montes de Len Teleno (2,188 m.)
Macizo Asturiano
Torre Cerredo (2,650 m.)
Pea Vieja (2,617 m.)
Cantabrian Mountains
Picos de Europa Pea Santa de Castilla (2,598
Cordillera Cantbrica
m.)
Naranjo de Bulnes (2,519 m.)
Montaa cntabra
Montes de Oca
Sierra de la Demanda
Picos de Urbin
Sierra del Moncayo Moncayo (2,313 m.)
Iberian System Sierra de Albarracn
Sistema Ibrico Serrana de Cuenca
Sierra de Javalambre
Sierra de Gdar
Sierra del Maestrazgo
Sierra Madrona
Sierra Morena Sierra de los Pedroches
Sierra de Aracena
Sierra del Faro
Sierra del Courel
Sierra del Eje
Macizo Galaico Sierra Segundera
Cabeza de Manzaneda (1,781
Sierra de Queixa
m.)
Sierra de los Ancares
Sierra de Aralar
Basque Mountains
Aizgorri Aizgorri (1,528 m.)
Montes Vascos
Gorbea Pea Gorbea (1,482 m.)
Western or Navarran Pyrenees Mesa de los Tres Reyes
Pirineos occidentales o navarros (2,424 m.)
Aneto (3,404 m.)
Pyrenees Central or Aragonese Pyrenees Monte Perdido (3,355 m.)
Pirineos Pirineo central o aragons Maldito (3,350 m.)
Maladeta (3,308 m.)
Eastern or Catalan Pyrenees Pica dEstats (3,140 m)
Pirineo oriental o cataln Puigmal (2,909 m.)
Sierra del Montseny Tur de lHome (1,712 m.)
Catalan Coastal Range
Sierra de Monstserrat
Cordillera Costero Catalana
Sierra de Montsant

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Serrana de Ronda
Baetic System: Cordillera
Mulhacn (3,482 m.)
Penibtica Sierra Nevada
Veleta (3,398 m.)
Sistemas Bticos: Cordillera
Sierra de Gdor
Penibtica
Sierra de los Filabres
Sierra de Grazalema
Baetic System: Cordillera Sierra Mgina
Subbtica Sierra de Cazorla
12
Sistemas Bticos: Cordillera Sierra de Segura
Subbtica Sierra de Espua
Sierra de Aitana
Sierra de Tramontana
(Majorca)
Puigmajor (1,445 m.)
Sierra de Tramontana
(Mallorca)
Teide (Tenerife, 3,718 m.)
Roque de los Muchachos (La
Canarian volcanoes
Palma, 2,426 m.)
Volcanes canarios
Pico de las Nieves (Gran
Canaria, 1,949 m.)

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

RIVERS OF SPAIN/ROS DE ESPAA

Drainage Basin River Tributary


Vertiente Ro Afluente
Bidasoa (67 km.)
Nervin (69 km.) 13
Pas (57 km.)
Cantabrian Sea
Besaya (58 km.)
Mar Cantbrico
Sella (56 km.)
Naln (129 km.) Narcea
Eo (79 km.)
Tambre (134 km.)
Ulla (126 km.)
Lrez (60 km.)
Mio (310 km.) Sil
Pisuerga (Arlanza, Carrin)
Valderaduey
Esla
Duero (897 km.)
Adaja-Eresma
Tormes
gueda
Jarama (Henares,
Manzanares, Tajua)
Guadarrama
Tagus (1,038 km.) Alberche
Tajo Titar
Atlantic Ocean
Alagn
Ocano Atlntico
Guadiela
Almonte
Cigela
Zncara
Jabaln
Guadiana (818 km.)
Zjar
Matachel
Ardila
Odiel (121 km.)
Tinto (93 km.)
Guadiana Menor
Genil
Guadalquivir (657 km.)
Guadara
Guadalimar
Guadalete (173 km.)
Guadalhorce (154 km.)
Almanzora (105 km.)
Mundo
Mediterranean Sea Segura (325 km.)
Sangonera o Guadalentn
Mar Mediterrneo
Jcar (498 km.) Cabriel
Turia (280 km.)
Mijares (156 km.)

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

Aragn (Ega, Arga)


Gllego
Ebro (960 km) Segre (Cinca, Noguera
Pallaresa, Noguera
Ribagorzana)
Jaln (Jiloca)
Guadalope
14

Llobregat (157 km.)


Ter (209 km.)
Fluvi (98 km.)

LAKES OF SPAIN/LAGOS DE ESPAA

Lagunas de Ruidera
Baolas
Sanabria

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

REGIONS AND PROVINCES OF SPAIN

Autonomous Region Province/s


Capital
Comunidad autnoma Provincia/s
Almera
Cdiz
Crdoba
Andalusia Seville Granada 15
Andaluca Sevilla Huelva
Jan
Mlaga
Sevilla
Huesca
Aragon
Zaragoza Teruel
Aragn
Zaragoza
Principado de Asturias Oviedo Asturias
Balearic Islands
Palma de Mallorca Islas Baleares
Islas Baleares
Canary Islands Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Islas Canarias and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Cantabria Santander Cantabria
vila
Burgos
Len
Palencia
Castile and Leon
Valladolid Salamanca
Castilla y Len
Segovia
Soria
Valladolid
Zamora
Albacete
Ciudad Real
Castilla-La Mancha Toledo Cuenca
Guadalajara
Toledo
Barcelona
Catalonia Gerona
Barcelona
Catalua Lrida
Tarragona
Badajoz
Extremadura Mrida
Cceres
La Corua
Lugo
Galicia Santiago de Compostela
Orense
Pontevedra
Comunidad de Madrid Madrid Madrid
Regin de Murcia Murcia Murcia
Navarre
Pamplona Navarra
Comunidad Foral de Navarra
lava (Vitoria)
Basque Country
Vitoria Guipzcoa (San Sebastin)
Pas Vasco
Vizcaya (Bilbao)
La Rioja Logroo La Rioja
Alicante
Comunidad Valenciana Valencia Castelln
Valencia
Ceuta (Autonomous City/Ciudad autnoma)
Melilla (Autonomous City/Ciudad autnoma)

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN


IES COMPLUTENSE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
Jorge-Elas de la Pea y Montes de Oca

16

1st CSE YEAR UNIT 11. EUROPE AND SPAIN