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Eurock 2006

Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term

Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Edited by

Alain Van Cotthem

Tractebel, Brussels, Belgium

Robert Charlier

Universit de Lige, Belgium

Jean-Franois Thimus

Universit Catholique de Louvain, Belgium

Jean-Pierre Tshibangu

Facult Polytechnique de Mons, Belgium

London/Leiden/New York/Philadelphia/Singapore

BALKEMA Proceedings and Monographs

in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences

Copyright 2006 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced, stored

in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying,

recording or otherwise, without written prior permission from the publisher.

Although all care is taken to ensure the integrity and quality of this publication and the information herein, no

responsibility is assumed by the publishers nor the author for any damage to property or persons as a result of

operation or use of this publication and/or the information contained herein.

P.O. Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden, The Netherlands

e-mail: Pub.NL@tandf.co.uk

www.taylorandfrancis.co.uk/engineering, www.crcpress.com

ISBN 10 Set (Book + CD-ROM): 0 415 41001 0 ISBN 13: 978 0 415 41001 4

ISBN 10 Book: 0 415 40265 4 ISBN 13: 978 0 415 40265 1

ISBN 10 CD-ROM: 0 415 41000 2 ISBN 13: 978 0 415 41000 7

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Table of Contents

Preface XIII

Organising Committee XV

Scientific Committee XV

Keynote lectures

Tunnel stability and deformations in water-bearing ground 3

G. Anagnostou

An overview of long-term HM measurements around HADES URF 15

W. Bastiaens, F. Bernier & X.L. Li

A three-dimensional constitutive law for rock salt including transient, steady state and

accelerated creep, failure and post-failure behaviour and applications in rock engineering 27

C. Erichsen

Response of a saturated mudstone under excavation and thermal loading 35

A. Gens, J. Vaunat, B. Garitte & Y. Wileveau

Coupled processes involved in post-mining 45

M. Ghoreychi

1 Multiphysics coupling

Similarity solutions for a shallow hydraulic fracture 57

E. Detournay & A.P. Bunger

Experimental and theoretical investigations of the behaviour of a partially frozen cement paste 63

A. Fabbri, T. Fen-Chong, O. Coussy & A. Azouni

Sorptive storage of CO2 on coal dust and flotation waste from coal processing in

abandoned coal mines 69

T. Kempka, M. Waschbsch, T. Fernndez-Steeger & R. Azzam

Analysis of wellbore stability in under-balanced drilling 75

S.A.I. Khan & D.H.S. Zou

Mechanical impacts of acid gas leakage in caprock 81

M. Mainguy & A. Onaisi

Incorporating chemoporoelasticity in wellbore stability Part I: Parameter estimation 87

N.P.R. Rubio, S.A.B. Fontoura, E.M.P. Arajo, E.S. Muniz & R.F.T. Lomba

Incorporating chemoporoelasticity in wellbore stability Part II: Computational analysis 93

E.M.P. Arajo, S.A.B. Fontoura, N.P.R. Rubio, E.S. Muniz & C.J. Gonalves

A probabilistic model for the formation of crack networks in rocks under CO2 injection 99

M. Seyedi, A. Mushtaq & F. Hild

Effect of pore pressure on failure mode, axial, lateral and volumetric deformations of rock

specimen in plane strain compression 105

X.B. Wang

Laboratory measurement of hydraulic conductivity of rocks from Lakeview borehole 115

L.C. Areias & K.Y. Lo

Poromechanical behaviour of Meuse-Haute Marne argillite: laboratory evidences and modeling 121

D. Hoxha, F. Homand, A. Giraud, C. Auvray & K. Su

Preliminary results of air permeability test under tensile stress condition using a hollow

cylindrical rock specimen 127

T. Ishida, S. Miyazaki, T. Ishii, K. Amemiya & Y. Mizuta

Impact of brine composition on the mechanical strength of chalk at high temperature 133

R.I. Korsnes, M.V. Madland & T. Austad

Void space against fracture hydro mechanical behavior at sample scale 141

P. Lopez, I. Rahmani, O. Buzzi, M. Boulon, A. Thoraval & M. Escuredo-Rodriguez

Prediction of impact strength index, slake durability index and schmidt hammer rebound

number from P-wave velocity 149

P.K. Sharma & T.N. Singh

Hydro-mechanical behavior in sandstone during from brittle to ductile deformation and

its relation to inner structural change 155

M. Takahashi, K. Tanaka, X. Li & M. Kwasniewski

Mechanical and chemical properties changes in sedimentary rock during immersion in hot water 163

T. Takemura, M. Takahashi, M. Manaka & K. Tanaka

Analyzing the influence of the water saturation on the strength of sandstones 169

B. Vsrhelyi & P. Vn

Study on the variation on microstructure and mechanical properties of water-weakening slates 173

C. Yang, H. Mao, X. Huang & X. Wang

Acoustic emission analysis of biaxially loaded rock 185

M.C. Btournay, M. Cot & H.S. Mitri

In situ ultrasonic wave measurements in clay: comparison between velocity, frequential

attenuation and energy 193

P. Ganne, A. Vervoort & W. Bastiaens

Impact of THM constitutive behavior on the rock-mass response: case of HE-D experiment

in Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory 199

D. Hoxha, Z. Jiang, F. Homand, A. Giraud, K. Su & Y. Wileveau

Interpretation of fracture geometry from excavation induced microseismic events 205

J.M. Reyes-Montes & R.P. Young

Design, construction, supervision and long-term behaviour of tunnels in swelling rock 211

M. Wittke

A fully coupled poroviscoelastic model for in-situ stress determination in the oil industry 219

M. Bloch, S.M.S. Freitas & F.R. Custodio

VI

Modeling of water uptake and swelling in highly compacted bentonite for environmental

sealing barriers laboratory and large-scale experiments and numerical simulation 227

J. Gattermann

Numerical modelling of the effect of weathering on the progressive failure of underground

limestone mines 233

S. Ghabezloo & A. Pouya

Investigation of sand production mechanisms using DEM with fluid flow 241

L. Li, E. Papamichos & P. Cerasi

A coupled approach for the simulation of hydro-mechanical fracturing in porous rocks 249

J.M. Segura & I. Carol

Hydromechanical behaviour during CO2 injection 255

S. Vidal-Gilbert, E. Bemer, C. Barroux & E. Brosse

Bonded-particle model of thermally fractured granitic rock 261

T.S. Wanne & R.P. Young

Experimental study on strength weakening characteristics of soft rock subject to wetting 269

S. Cai & S. Ming

Intelligent analysis of rheological characteristic of rock materials 275

X.-T. Feng, B.-R. Chen, C. Yang & H. Zhou

Short- and long-term constitutive model for porous rocks 281

D. Grgic, F. Homand & D. Hoxha

From a natural stress profile to rheological properties at geological scale 287

Y. Gunzburger, F.H. Cornet & Y. Wileveau

Poromechanical modeling of a deep shaft excavation and comparison with experimental results 293

X.C. Song, Y. Jia, G. Duveau, J.F. Shao & K. Su

Collapse/subsidence: evolution of the overburden massivity according to the geomorphology

in the Lorraine iron mines case 301

J. Fougeron, F. Homand, M. Souley, M. Bennani & J.P. Josien

A case study of failure mechanism and support measures of slopes against sliding and

toppling failure 309

A.H. Ghazvinian & Z.A. Moradian

Ground heave induced by mine water recovery 315

M. Heitfeld, M. Mainz, M. Mhlenkamp, K. Schetelig & H. Sahl

200 years coal mining in New South Wales (Australia), the elasto-static behavior of the

continental crust, and the 1989 M5.6 Newcastle earthquake 321

C.D. Klose

Prediction of long-term behavior for a large underground cavern 325

T. Koyama, K. Ishibashi, Y. Suzuki, M. Minami, S. Okubo & K. Fukui

Long-term deformation processes in the wider area of the closed Idrija Mercury Mine 331

J. Likar, M. Cigale & B. Reun

VII

Swelling a geotechnical problem at the Adler Tunnel, Switzerland monitoring results and

their interpretation 337

H.-P. Noher, B. Vgtli & B. Kister

Creep analysis by the velocity method 343

A.K. Parkin

Analysis of delayed convergences in a carbon zone of the Ltschberg Tunnel 351

F. Sandrone, J.-P. Dudt, V. Labiouse & F. Descoeudres

Rock rheology time dependence of dilation and stress around a tunnel 357

P. Vn & Z. Szarka

The feasibility analysis of abandoned salt caverns for underground gas storage facility 367

W.Z. Chen, G.J. Wu, J.P. Yang & C.H. Yang

Semi-analytical models for predicting the amount and rate of sand production 373

C. Detournay & B. Wu

Salt pillar creep analysis 381

F. Laouafa & M. Ghoreychi

Using scaled seismic studies to validate 3D numerical models of the rock barrier

around a deep repository 389

W.S. Pettitt, J.R. Haycox & R.P. Young

Weathering and strength of partially saturated soft rock 397

C. Bnsch

Multiscale analysis and analytical modeling of creep and damage in argillaceous rocks 403

G. Fabre & F. Pellet

Instability and possible liquefaction of high porosity chalk 411

R.E. Flateb & R. Risnes

Wellbore strengthening in low-permeability formations 417

I.R. Gil & J.-C. Roegiers

Development of an experimental device to carry out tests on thick-walled hollow cylinders 421

M. Hosseini, C. Rousseau, J. Desrues, P. Bsuelle & G. Viggiani

Does the chemical interaction between seawater and chalk affect the mechanical properties of chalk? 427

R.I. Korsnes, S. Strand, . Hoff, T. Pedersen, M.V. Madland & T. Austad

The change of P-wave velocity with temperature and humidity in granite 435

Y. Nara & K. Kaneko

Hydro-thermo-mechanical over-closure of joints and rock masses and potential effects on the

long term performance of nuclear waste repositories 445

N. Barton & A. Makurat

Swelling mechanisms in sulphate-bearing rocks 451

I.R. Berdugo, E.E. Alonso & E.E. Romero

VIII

A salt-cavern abandonment test in an LPG storage facility 455

P. Brest, B. Brouard, P. de Lagurie, T. You, D. Fourmaintraux & J.Y. Has

C.A. Garzonio & E. Cantisani

The hydromechanical behaviour of the Boom Clay observed during excavation of the connecting

gallery at Mol site 467

X.L. Li, W. Bastiaens & F. Bernier

V. Merrien-Soukatchoff, J. Sausse & C. Dnner

Failure mechanisms of the Opalinus Clay around underground excavations 479

T. Vietor, P. Blmling & G. Armand

Physical modelling and numerical simulation of long-term deformation behaviour of indurated

clay with special consideration of anisotropic effects and in situ measurements 487

O. Czaikowski & K.-H. Lux

Poro-hypoplastic analysis of the progressive excavation of the Mol URL connecting Gallery 493

J. Desrues, P. Bsuelle, C. Coll, F. Collin & X.L. Li

R.M. Holt, L. Li, I. Larsen, S. Gorodkov & H.T.I. Alassi

Thermo-hydromechanical modeling in unsaturated hard clay and application to nuclear waste storage 505

Y. Jia, G. Duveau, J.F. Shao, K. Su & Y. Wileveau

Modeling by homogenization of water drainage in double-porosity soils 513

J. Lewandowska, T.D. Tran Ngoc, M. Vauclin & H. Bertin

Suction and time effects on the behaviour of a reservoir chalk 519

G. Priol, V. De Gennaro, P. Delage, F. Collin & R. Charlier

Modelling of the hydro-mechanical processes around excavations in rock salt 527

A. Pudewills

4 Related topics

Dimensionless charts for the GRC for rock masses exhibiting strain-softening behaviour 533

E. Alonso, L.R. Alejano, F. Varas & G. Fdez-Manin

S. Crampin

An automated procedure to build failure envelopes and model the Mohr-Coulomb criterion in the

three-dimensional principal stresses space from polyaxial test data 545

F. Descamps, E. Rodriguez & J.-P. Tshibangu

Geomechanical properties of fractured carbonate rock mass determined by geophysical methods 551

A.F. Idziak & I. Stan-Keczek

Predicting the physico-mechanical properties of igneous rocks from electrical resistivity measurements 557

S. Kahraman, E. Ogretici, M. Fener & T. Yeken

IX

4.2 Laboratory experiments

Development of a new experimental protocol to estimate the shear strength of concrete-rock joints 563

G. Ballivy, C. Gravel & T. El Malki

Field applications for the scratching test 571

F. Dagrain & C. Germay

On the influence of PDC wear and rock type on friction coefficient and cutting efficiency 577

F. Dagrain & T. Richard

Petrophysical deformation in faulted white chalk in Belgium 585

A. Darquennes, C. Schroeder & S. Vandycke

Roughness characterization of rock fractures surfaces 591

H. Legrain & J.-P. Tshibangu

Dynamic frictional behavior of rough rock joints by shaking table test 597

B.-K. Park, S. Jeon, J.-J. Song & C.-I. Lee

Point load strength determination of anisotropic rocks 603

H. Saroglou & G. Tsiambaos

A new procedure to analyse the wear of cutting elements 609

F. Van Quickelberghe, F. Dagrain, J.-P. Tshibangu & T. Richard

Different approaches to fracturation of marble rock the case study of the St Beat tunnel

(French Pyrenees) 619

M. Gasc-Barbier, D. Virely, J. Guittard & V. Merrien-Soukatchoff

A case study of determining orientations of in-situ horizontal principal stresses based on

electrical images of borehole failures at a deep drilling project 625

W. Lin, E.-C. Yeh, W. Soh, M. Kinoshita, H. Ito & J.-H. Hung

The role of rock mechanics in analysing overbreak: application to the Soumagne tunnel 631

R.M. Schmitz, S. Viroux, R. Charlier & S. Hick

Parametric study on the friction angle and dilation angle of intact rock and discontinuities

presented in the Siah Bisheh pumping storage hydro-electric power project (HEPP) 637

N. Shafiezadeh & M. Bagheri

TBM Tunneling in adverse rock mass with emphasis on TBM Jamming accident in

Ghomrud water transfer tunnel 643

M. Sharifzadeh & A. Hemmati Shaabani

Foundation of a highway in a post-mining area by dynamic intensified compaction,

geotextile-reinforcement and piles 649

M. Wittke

Long term behaviour and upgrading the stability of old dams 655

M. Wittke

TBM performance prediction based on rock properties 663

S. Yagiz

Stress-released slope movement induced by excavation in fault zone 671

Z. Y. Yang, J.Q. Hsiao & H.H. Chen

Hydrogeological modelling of rock mass by MDS-IDW technique 677

K. Aoki & Y. Mito

Numerical borehole breakout analysis using FRACOD2D 683

T. Backers, O. Stephansson, I. Moeck, H.-G. Holl & E. Huenges

Discontinuum and continuum modeling of Masjed E Soleyman Power House Cavern 689

M. Bagheri, N. Shafiezadeh & H.R. Hajihassani

Mechanical modeling of rock using a non-local elastoplastic damage model 695

A. Mohamad-Hussein & J.F. Shao

Numerical analysis of structural breakdown of compressed rock samples 701

M. Rinne, B. Shen & O. Stephansson

XI

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Preface

Rock mechanics typically involve complex, often time dependant multi parameter phenomena at all scale, from

classical discontinuum at the engineering structure size to more intricate chemical and physical changes at

microscopic levels. Each and everyone contribute to transitional and final state knowledge of rock behaviour.

The development of new software and faster hardware as well as new investigations tools, both on site and

in laboratory paves the way to unlimited new potentialities for characterization and prediction of rock mass

response to human interference.

It offers new possibilities as calculation can now be used to convince and to provide robustness to otherwise

too complex technical solutions for the non-scientific communities and deciders. A typical example is the need

to understand and explain long term behaviour for deep radioactive waste disposal structures, which involve

delayed effects spanning several generations.

These new tools, although not yet available in one batch, incorporate all phases (liquid, solid and gaseous) as

well as phase changes, time dependant, chemical, partial saturation and temperature effects. Coupling possibilities

between these aspects increase with time.

Fractal theory, stochastic approach and particle flow codes help to apprehend fracture and microfissuration

patterns and clarify previously unapproachable behaviour.

But humility must still prevail and sensivity calculation remains the essential tool to manage the still unavoid-

able ranges of parameters, often difficult to obtain. The representativeness of laboratory tests results, extrapolated

at the project scale, will still be debated for many years.

The objective of EUROCK 06 is dedicated to span todays achievement in these fields. The topics include

oil engineering, underground waste storage, post mine behaviour and long term performance of road and rail

infrastructures.

The organising committee would like to address its warm and sincere gratitude to every contributor for

their support, and in particular to members of the scientific committee and of the French ISRM group. Special

appreciation goes for the administrative work performed by the Lige University staff.

Chairman, EUROCK 2006

XIII

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

ORGANISING COMMITTEE

Jean-Pierre Tshibangu Treasurer Facult Polytechnique de Mons

Robert Charlier Secretary Universit de Lige

Medhi Goreychi INERIS

Vronique Merrien-Soukatchoff INPL, Nancy

Frdric Pellet Universit J. Fourrier de Grenoble

Jean-Pol Radu Universit de Lige

Jian-Fu Shao Universit des Sciences et Techniques de Lille

Christian Schroeder Universits de Lige, Bruxelles et Louvain

Jean-Francois Thimus Universit Catholique de Louvain

Christian Trve CFE, Brussels

Andr Vervoort Katholiek Universiteit Leuven

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Frdric Bernier Belgium

Peter Blueming Switzerland

Emmanuel Detournay USA

Claus Erichsen Germany

Sergio Fontura Brazil

Dominique Fourmaintraux France

Antonio Gens Spain

Robert Hack The Netherlands

Rune Holt Norway

Vincent Labiouse Switzerland

Roberto Nova Italy

Marc Panet France

Euripide Papamichos Greece

Jack-Pierre Piguet France

Jean-Claude Roegiers USA

Ove Stephansson Sweden

Nielen van der Merwe South Africa

Feng Xia-Ting China

XV

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

EIG EURIDICE, Mol, Belgium

ABSTRACT: The underground research facility HADES was constructed to enable various in-situ experiments

on Boom Clay to study the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal. Since the operational start

of HADES about 25 years ago numerous instruments were placed in the gallery lining and the surrounding

host rock. The paper discusses representative set-ups allowing studying the HM behaviour of Boom Clay.

Some set-ups are operational for over 20 years measuring pore water pressure, total pressure or displacements.

These HM measurements are important to assess the long-term response of the Boom Clay in HLW disposal.

Displacement measurements around HADES give quantitative information and enable to assess the displacement

during and after excavation works; construction and lining techniques have an important influence on the amount

of displacement. The short-term response of the host rock during gallery excavation and the subsequent evolution

put into evidence a strong HM coupling. An anisotropic response and evolution of pore water pressure was

observed; this phenomenon was attributed to anisotropy of in-situ stress conditions and hydraulic conductivity

although other contributing parameters are not excluded. The ground pressure on the gallery lining was recorded

during several years; it increases fast during the first months after construction and a more gradual increase

occurs afterwards. The measured values depend on the excavation technique and the lining type. Measurements

of hydraulic conductivity (k) were carried out using several methods at different locations, times and scales. The

results of in-situ and laboratory tests are consistent; k is of the order of 1012 m/s and kH is about two times

kV . Around the connecting gallery, observations two year after its construction indicate a maximal increase of

hydraulic conductivity of one order of magnitude. A hydraulic conductivity increase is observed up to some

6 m into the host rock and is attributed to lower effective stress-levels experienced in this zone due to stress-

redistribution following the excavation.

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Context

The production of nuclear electricity implies the man-

agement of the generated radioactive waste. In Bel-

gium, the R&D programme on this topic was initiated

at SCKCEN (the Belgian nuclear research centre) in

1974. A tertiary clay formation, the Boom Clay,

present under the Mol-Dessel nuclear site between at a

depth of 190 m and 290 m, was selected as a potential Figure 1. Construction history of the HADES URF.

host for the disposal of High Level and Long Lived

Radioactive Waste. Preliminary laboratory research NIRAS (Belgian national agency for radioactive waste

yielded promising results, consequently it was decided and enriched fissile materials).

to construct the underground research facility HADES

(High-Activity Disposal Experimental Site) at a depth

of 223 m. 1.2 Hades URF

The primary purpose of HADES is to enable in-situ The first construction phase of the underground

experiments on geomechanics, corrosion, migration, research facility started in 1980 and since then HADES

etc to study the feasibility of HLW disposal in has been expanded several times (Figure 1).

Boom Clay. It is currently managed by EURIDICE During the first construction phase, which ended

(European Underground Research Infrastructure for with the construction of the Test Drift in 1987, the

Disposal of nuclear waste In Clay Environment), an excavation process was semi-manual. Progress rates

economic interest grouping between SCKCEN and were rather low (at most 2 m per week) and only

15

Table 1. Undrained characteristics of Boom Clay.

Poisson coefficient () / 0.40.45

Friction angle () 4

Cohesion (c) MPa 0.51

Hydraulic conductivity (k) m/s 1012

Porosity / 0.39

Water content % vol 3040

Tangential, at the origin.

TOP: Schematic view. 1: clay face; 2: cutting head; 3: tun-

nelling shield; 4: roadheader; 5: hydraulic jack; 6: bird-wing

erector; 7: wagon; 8: wedge-block lining. BOTTOM: Test

assembly on surface.

limited effort was made to limit the disturbance of the Figure 3. Distofor extensometer above the experimental

host rock: large overexcavations and non-continuous drift.

working regimes were applied.

The second construction phase comprises the sec- HADES (223 m). Some other important parame-

ond shaft and the connecting gallery. Industrial excava- ters such as hydraulic conductivity, porosity and water

tion techniques were used in order to demonstrate the content are shown as well (NIRAS 2001).

feasibility of such techniques for the future construc-

tion of a repository. During the construction of the 1.4 Structure of the paper

connecting gallery an average rate of 3 m per day was Since the operational start of HADES, numerous

achieved. By using appropriate techniques, the distur- instruments were placed in the gallery lining and the

bance of the host rock was reduced and controlled; surrounding host rock. This paper focuses on some

resulting in good knowledge of boundary conditions representative set-ups allowing studying the (long-

for modelling. The tunnelling equipment is shown in term) evolution of HM behaviour of Boom Clay.

Figure 2. The construction of HADES and the tech- Measurements of displacement, pore water pressure,

niques used are detailed in Bastiaens et al. (2003) and total stress (in the host rock and the lining) and

Bastiaens & Bernier (2006). hydraulic conductivity will be dealt with. Other related

topics such as direct fracture observations and seismic

1.3 Boom Clay

measurements are not covered in this paper; they are

The Boom Clay layer is almost horizontal (it dips dealt with in Bastiaens et al. (in prep.).

12% towards the NE) and water bearing sand layers The paper comprises three sections. Firstly, the con-

are situated above and below it. Total and pore water sidered measurement set-ups are detailed (Figures 3,

pressures are respectively some 4.5 and 2.2 MPa at 4, 5 and 6). The next section describes the measure-

the level of HADES. Vertical stress is estimated to be ment results and finally these are discussed in the third

slightly higher than horizontal stresses: K0 0.9. The section. Reference will often be made to specific parts

overconsolidation ratio (OCR) is about 2.4 (Horseman of HADES URF; their names and locations can be

et al. 1987, Coll 2005) and the compressive strength found in Figure 1.

is some 2 MPa. This paper mainly focuses on long-term measure-

Table 1 shows the undrained geomechanical char- ments. However, when studying long-term behaviour,

acteristics of undisturbed Boom Clay at the level of knowledge of the short-term response is important.

16

HYDRAULIC SENSOR

INCLINOMETER FOR ANGLE MEASUREMENT

deformations. One of these instruments was a five-

HORIZONTAL INCLINOMETER

SECTION FOR CONVERGENCE MEASUREMENT point extensometer, a so-called Distofor, installed

PIEZOMETRIC SENSOR 5,60

-214,70

from the existing URL (see Figure 3). This device

-215,25

-216,25

4,00

provided data about the total vertical movements that

-217,50

5,80

occurred above the horizontal experimental drift dur-

60 50 40 30 20 10

ing and after its construction. Reliable measurements

-222,90

are available from mid 1984 up to 1994.

-226,50

-227,00

-227,50

Displacement data was also obtained by sensors

GLOETZL PIEZOMETERS

-229,30 installed above the Test Drift prior to its excavation.

DISTOFOR They were placed in the framework of the so-called

IN-HOUSE DESIGNED PIEZOMETER Mine-by Test (Bonne et al. 1992) and are shown on

Figure 4. A hydraulic tassometer and two inclinome-

Figure 4. Schematical overview of the Mine-by Test around

ters were placed, respectively some 8.7, 6.7 and 5.4 m

the Test Drift. Before the excavation of the Test Drift, dis- above the axis of the future Test Drift, having an exter-

placement and pore water pressures sensors were installed nal diameter of 4.7 m. Immediately after completion

respectively above and below the future gallery. A vertical of the first phase of the Test Drift (July 1987), a seven-

Distofor device was installed shortly after the completion of point Distofor extensometer was anchored in a 20 m

the first phase of the Test Drift. deep downward borehole (Figure 4). Sensors were

installed between 0.3 and 5.8 m and displacements

were measured with respect to a fixed point at the

bottom of the 20 m long casing.

The EC CLIPEX project (Bernier et al. 2002) aimed

at measuring the HM response of the host rock dur-

ing excavation of the connecting gallery. Amongst

others, an inclinometer was installed from the second

shaft as shown in Figure 5. It was placed some 5.5 m

above the axis of the future gallery; the gallery has an

Figure 5. Schematical overview of the CLIPEX instruments external diameter of 4.8 m.

around the connecting gallery. Further, the evolution of the internal lining diameter

is measured in the different sections of HADES, giving

an indication about the movement of the clay at the

gallery extrados.

Convergence in Boom Clay comprises immediate

convergence and time-dependent convergence. During

the excavation of the connecting gallery, the imme-

diate convergence was measured for the first time.

The radius at the front of the tunnelling shield was

35 mm larger than at its rear. After each excavation

step, the radial distance between the tunnelling shield

and the excavated clay wall was measured, providing

the immediate convergence.

Figure 6. Lay-out of the reference piezometric network

around the connecting gallery; two sections (labelled R55 2.2 Pore water pressure

and R13) were instrumented with 5 piezometers in total.

When studying the behaviour of an argillaceous host

The CLIPEX project (Bernier et al. 2002) aimed at rock, good knowledge of pore water pressures is of

studying the short-term response of the Boom Clay key importance. Indeed, a strong HM coupling exists

upon gallery excavation; the results from this and in this type of material due to the low hydraulic

related projects are discussed in Li et al. (in prep.). diffusivity; changes in stress conditions and the result-

ing displacements will change pore water pressures.

For most short-term phenomena, the host rock will

behave as if under undrained conditions. When looking

2 MEASUREMENT SET-UPS at long-term behaviour however (from several months

up to several decades), galleries will act as a drain

2.1 Displacement for the surrounding host rock and phenomena such as

Before the excavation of the experimental works creep will become important.

started, instruments were placed in and around the Pore water pressure around HADES is mainly mon-

zone that would be excavated, mainly measuring itored by in-house designed piezometers. The main

17

advantage of this technique is that the sensors (usu- out shortly after its completion. The equipment, per-

ally DRUCK pressure transducers) are located in sonnel, drilling orientation and methods were the same

the gallery and remain accessible for calibration or for both series hence the only major difference between

replacement. Small diameter tubes connect each sen- them is the elapsed time since the construction of the

sor to a porous filter in the host rock. This technique is gallery.

used for over 20 years and provides robust and reliable Measurement of stress and strain evolution in the

data. The first piezometers were installed over 20 years lining proves to be easier and can be used to evaluate

ago and some of them are still providing reliable data. the pressure exerted by the host rock on the lining. Six

This paper will discuss the results of the piezometers sections of the Test Drift were equipped with load cells

from four projects: between lining segments; at each location one cell is

placed close to the gallery intrados and a second one

Mine-by Test: three inclined piezometers were

is placed close to the gallery extrados. Vibrating wire

installed under the Test Drift prior to its construc-

strain gauges were embedded in the lining segments of

tion (see Figure 4), the two piezometers closest to

three sections of the connecting gallery; again, some

the gallery used GLTZL cells, the third one was

gauges were placed close to the intrados and others

made following the in-house design.

close to the extrados.

Rings 41 & 48: two sections of the Test Drift were

equipped with horizontal and downward piezome-

ters some 1.5 years after the construction of the Test 2.4 Hydraulic conductivity

Drift. The sensors were installed between 0.3 and Throughout the years, the hydraulic conductivity (k)

19 m into the host rock. of Boom Clay has been determined in several ways

CLIPEX: five piezometers were installed in and and at several scales:

around the zone of the future connecting gallery.

Laboratory tests on core samples. In one of the

As shown in Figure 5, four of them were installed

campaigns, hydraulic conductivity was determined

from the Test Drift (A, B, C and D); one from the

on cores from the so-called Mol-1 borehole, a sur-

second shaft (E).

face borehole covering amongst others the entire

Reference piezometers: two sections of the connect-

thickness of the Boom Clay layer (Wemaere et al.

ing gallery (labelled R13 and R55) were equipped

2002).

with piezometers; their orientations and depths are

Small scale in-situ tests. The piezometers described

shown in Figure 6. Their purpose is providing a ref-

under section 2.2 can also be used to determine

erence of the pore pressure distribution around

hydraulic conductivity, either in single point tests

HADES for the design and interpretation of in-situ

or in interference tests. Numerous tests were con-

experiments.

ducted around the URL and the Test Drift during the

80s and 90s. More recently, tests in the framework

2.3 Total stress of the EC SELFRAC project studied the evolution

of hydraulic conductivity with time. Two campaigns

Direct measurement of total stress in argillaceous for-

were performed around the connecting gallery with

mations and at the interface between host rock and

a one-year interval, each using one horizontal

lining is a difficult task. The results seem to be heav-

(R55E) and one downward (R55D) piezometer.

ily influenced by installation related issues. Several

Large scale in-situ test. During about three years,

techniques were used, amongst others Gltzl cells,

the exploratory works were used as a macroper-

miniature Kulite cells and bi-axial stress meters. The

meameter: they were sealed off from ventilation

absolute values of the measurements are not always

and the inflow of water was monitored, allowing

guaranteed but their relative evolution is equally inter-

calculation of hydraulic conductivity and storage

esting. As an example, the results of total pressure cells

coefficient (Ortiz et al. 1996).

installed at the lining extrados of the northern start-

ing chamber at the bottom of the second shaft will

be discussed. Cells were placed in direct contact with

3 MEASUREMENT RESULTS

the excavated clay and were installed at four different

locations; they consist of a flat jack, connected to a

3.1 Displacement

vibrating wire transducer.

Several indirect measurements such as pressureme- The displacements of the Distofor extensometer above

ter, dilatometer, hydrofracturing and self-boring pres- the experimental drift are shown in Figure 7. The first

suremeter tests were carried out (Bernier et al. 2002). graph shows the measurements during the excavation

This paper will discuss the results of two series of self- of the experimental drift, the alternate sequence of

boring pressuremeter tests carried out in April 2002 excavation and lining phases are reflected in the mea-

and August 2004. The connecting gallery was com- surements. The second graph shows the displacement

pleted in March 2002, so the first series was carried profile at the end of the construction, displacements

18

Figure 8. Displacement profiles at several moments in time:

1, 2, 4 and 7.5 years after construction of the gallery mid

1987. The graph combines data from the vertical Disto-

for extensometer beneath the Test Drift and from diameter

measurements of the lining.

the central part of the Test Drift. Up to 1999 measure-

ments were performed with an INVAR-wire system, optical

measurements were used afterwards.

and as deep as 5.8 m into the clay. Two differences exist

Figure 7. Results of the extensometer above the experimen- between these measurements and those in Figure 7:

tal drift. TOP: measurements during the excavation phase. The Distofor device is located above the experi-

MIDDLE: displacement profile at the end of the construc- mental drift whereas it is placed beneath the Test

tion. BOTTOM: long-term behaviour; after about 9.5 years a

Drift. Due to the applied construction technique an

problem arose with the experimental set-up.

important overexcavation (filled with grout) was

present above the gallery and this influenced the

increase with decreasing distance to the drift. The

displacements.

third graph shows the long term evolution, the sensors

The main difference is the fact that the instrument

closest to the drift measured continued displacements

above the experimental drift was installed before

during several years. At the end of 1994, some prob-

gallery construction and by consequence measures

lems arose with the experimental set-up (cf. drop in

total displacements, before during and after the

graphs) so the measurements are not reliable from that

excavation face passes the sensor. The instrument

point on.

beneath the Test Drift was placed after construc-

Figure 8 shows the evolution of displacements of

tion of the gallery so displacements could only be

the host rock beneath the Test Drift. The graph shows

measured from that moment on.

combined data from the vertical Distofor extensometer

beneath the Test Drift and diameter measurements of Figure 9 shows diameter reductions of 4 sections

the lining. The results show that displacements are still from the central part of the Test Drift. Up to 1999 these

19

Distance from excavation face [cm]

0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250

0

2002-03-03

model

5

Radial convergence [mm]

10

15

20

25

30

Figure 11. Pore pressures measured during the Mine-by Test

35 (most inclined piezometer). The depths of the filters in the

borehole are given; the radial distances between the filters

Figure 10. Immediate radial convergence of the sidewalls and the Test Drift extrados are respectively 9.5, 8.4, 7.3, 6.1

during excavation of the connecting gallery. and 5.0 m.

100

were measured by means of an INVAR-wire, since

2000 optical measurements are used. The decrease of 90

the lining diameter is fastest during the first year after 80

pp [% of undisturbed value]

70

on; currently (some 18 years after construction) at a

rate of about 0.5 mm/year. Since the measurements 60

started, the diameter was reduced by some 60 mm. 50

The same type of measurements was performed during

40

13 years on the lining of the experimental drift, during

this period a diameter reduction of about 15 mm was 30

HOR_1990

measured. The evolution of the convergence was sim- 20 DOWN_1990

ilar. In the connecting gallery, no diameter variation HOR_2004

10

was measured since its construction. DOWN_2004

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

diameter of 4.7 m) displacements of 3.5 and 5.5 cm Depth from extrados [m]

were measured at respectively 8.7 and 6.7 m above the

gallery axis. During the construction of the connecting Figure 12. Results of the piezometers installed at sections

gallery (external diameter of 4.8 m), a displacement of 41 and 48 of the Test Drift. The filters are located in horizontal

some 5 cm was measured at 5.5 m above the gallery and downward boreholes, for each direction the pore water

axis; this value remained almost unchanged since. pressure profile at two moments is shown. The values are

Figure 10 shows the comparison of modelled and expressed as a percentage of the undisturbed in-situ value of

measured immediate convergence during the excava- pore water pressure at each location.

tion of the connecting gallery. Although these mea-

surements concern the very short-term behaviour, water pressure drop. For each sensor, pore pressure

knowledge and control of the immediate convergence starts to increase again once the gallery under con-

is important to improve long-term modelling and struction has passed above the sensor. Several months

optimise the excavation process. later, the increase slows down but gradually contin-

ues for several years. The other two piezometers of the

Mine-by Test gave similar results.

3.2 Pore water pressure

Figure 12 shows the results of the piezometers

Figure 11 shows the measurements of the most inclined installed at sections 41 and 48 of the Test Drift. To

piezometer of the Mine-by Test. After installation an be able to compare the values obtained from hori-

increase of pore water pressure is measured due to zontal and vertical boreholes, the measurements are

re-equilibrium of the instrument with the surrounding expressed as a percentage of the undisturbed in-situ

host rock. The influence of the first shaft is visible: pore pressure at each filter position. Some 2.5 years

higher values are measured with increasing distance to after excavation, pressures measured in horizontal

the shaft. The excavation of theTest Drift started before boreholes are relatively higher than those in vertical

full equilibrium was reached, certainly for the filters boreholes but this relation is inversed with time. Over

closest to the shaft. The excavation induced a pore time, pore pressures below the gallery have increased

20

Figure 13. Pore pressures (CLIPEX). TOP: results of

piezometer C located above the connecting gallery. BOT-

TOM: results of piezometer D located next to the connecting

gallery.

ure 11. The results from horizontal boreholes show

the opposite evolution: a decrease with time.

The results of two CLIPEX piezometers are shown

in Figure 13; radial distances between the sensors and Figure 14. Pore pressure distribution around the connecting

the connecting gallery extrados are indicated. The first gallery, expressed as percentages of the undisturbed in-situ

graph shows the results of piezometer C, located above values. The graphs show the situation of December 2004.

the connecting gallery. The second graph shows the TOP: profiles measured by the reference piezometers and the

results of piezometer D, located next to the gallery. CLIPEX piezometers C and D. BOTTOM: contour plot based

Both instruments were installed from the Test Drift on the measurements of the reference piezometers.

well before the excavation of the connecting gallery

so they were at equilibrium at that moment. The pres- increase gradually and they are doing so up to this

ence of the Test Drift influences the measurements as moment. After the excavation face passed next to

can be observed from the equilibrium values before piezometer D, a sharp increase was observed during

the excavation which took place in FebruaryMarch several days, followed by a gradual decrease which is

2002. The short-term response on the excavation is dis- still ongoing.

cussed by Bernier et al. (2002) and Li et al. (in prep.). Figure 14 shows the results of the reference

Summarising, a progressive increase was observed as piezometers some 2.75 years after excavation of the

the excavation face came closer, followed by a sharper connecting gallery; they are different for each orienta-

drop as the excavation face approached very closely. tion. This is in agreement with the observations around

Up to this point all piezometers responded in a the Test Drift in 1990 (Figure 12): relatively higher

similar way. The sensors inside the excavation profile pore pressures are observed in horizontal boreholes

(piezometers A and B) were lost once the excavation than in vertical ones. The results of the inclined bore-

face reached the piezometric filters but piezometers C hole are intermediate.The piezometers installed before

and D could be reconnected once the gallery was com- the construction of the connecting gallery (CLIPEX

pleted. A tendency towards re-equilibrium was regis- piezometers C and D) are shown as well. The dis-

tered at those filters. Once the excavation face passed tance between the two instrumented sections (R13 and

underneath piezometer C, pore pressures started to R55) is about 42 m but the measurements of the two

21

downward piezometers are almost identical, indicating

a good repeatability of the measurement.

The contour plot in Figure 14 clearly shows that

the pore pressure distribution around the connect-

ing gallery is anisotropic; furthermore the extent of

the hydraulic disturbed zone (HdZ) is larger verti-

cally (>40 m) than horizontally (20 m). In other

directions, the extent is intermediate.

Figure 15 shows the results of the total pressure cells

Figure 15. Total pressures measured at the extrados of the

at the extrados of the northern starting chamber of the northern starting chamber of the second shaft. Cells were

second shaft. A gradual increase is measured after their placed in direct contact with the excavated clay and were

installation. In September 2001, the starting chamber installed at four different locations; they consist of a flat jack,

was enlarged to enable the assembly of the tunnelling connected to a vibrating wire transducer.

shield and afterwards the excavation of the connect-

ing gallery started from there. The excavation works

took place in FebruaryMarch 2002 (cf. Figure 5). The

subsequent excavations of the mounting chamber and

the gallery itself both induced an increase of ground

pressure on the starting chamber lining.

Figure 16 shows the best estimate of total stress

measured by the self-boring pressuremeter; the val-

ues are likely to be more representative of the ver-

tical component of the in-situ stress. Total stress

seems to be influenced up to about 68 m into the

host rock. Between the two tests, total stress close to

the gallery wall has risen, indicating stress build-up

(re-equilibrium) around the excavation. The obtained

value in the far field (55.5 MPa) is somewhat higher

than the expected value.

Figure 17 shows the average strains measured by

embedded strain gauges in a segment of section 30 of

the connecting gallery. The strains increase rather fast Figure 16. Best estimate of total (vertical) stress based upon

after installation of the lining; the rate of increase slows two series of self-boring pressuremeter tests conducted from

the connecting gallery in 2002 and 2004.

down after 12 months. From the strain measurements,

stresses in the lining were calculated and these were in

turn valuated to determine the pressure exerted by the

host rock on the lining; actual placement tolerances,

thick tube effect and curvature variation were taken

into account. Moreover, it is important to take into

account creep phenomena in the concrete lining; tests

were carried out on samples taken from the lining to

evaluate the creep behaviour and in this case creep is

responsible for 2040% of the total experienced strain

and is thought to be the main cause of the continuous

strain increase currently observed. Taking into account

all these considerations, the ground pressure is com-

prised between 2.1 and 3.1 MPa (Ramaeckers & Van

Cotthem 2003).

The stresses in the Test Drift lining were directly

measured by load cells. Again, a rapid increase was

observed during the first months, followed by a more Figure 17. Results from embedded strain gauges near the

or less equilibrium state. The results were used to cal- intrados and extrados of a lining segment of the connecting

culate the pressure on the lining: it ranges between 1.6 gallery. Measurements were started during installation of the

and 2.4 MPa (De Bruyn et al. 1995). section.

22

important part of the displacement at a specific loca-

tion takes place before the excavation face passes this

location and another part takes place until the gallery

lining is installed. From that moment on, the evolution

of the displacements is dependant on the lining type.

Several lining types were used so different behaviour is

to be expected. The lining of some sections of HADES

are designed to allow deformation and this will influ-

ence the displacements of the surrounding host rock.

The lining of the experimental works and the Test Drift

consist of concrete segments separated by compres-

sive wooden plates. A gradual diameter reduction is

Figure 18. Hydraulic conductivity around the connecting observed in these sections since their construction.

gallery; measured on a horizontal (R55E) and a vertical Compared with the Test Drift, total diameter varia-

(R55D) piezometer in 2004 and 2005. tion for the experimental drift is roughly a factor 4

less although the external diameter is only 2.35 times

3.4 Hydraulic conductivity smaller. During the first few years after the construc-

The average vertical (kV ) and horizontal (kH ) tion of the experimental drift, displacements of the

hydraulic conductivity determined on cores of the host rock were observed at distances up to 23 times

Putte-Terhagen unit of the Boom Clay layer taken from the gallery radius. In the Test Drift, displacements were

the Mol-1 borehole were respectively 1.9 1012 m/s still increasing after 7.5 years at a distance of 2.5 times

and 4.6 1012 m/s. The considered unit is 66 m thick the gallery radius. The more important displacements

and hosts the URF HADES. around the Test Drift than around the experimental

Ortiz (1997) gives an overview of the results of drift could be explained by the different diameter, the

small scale in-situ tests around the URL and the Test geological setting (the experimental works are situ-

Drift. Hydraulic conductivities determined from sin- ated some 20 m deeper) or by issues related to the

gle point measurements are always a combination of measurement set-up (e.g. reference point).

kV and kH . The results around the URL range from During the construction of the connecting gallery,

2.0 to 6.3 1012 m/s and those around the Test Drift efforts were made to limit convergence. Compared to

from 1.6 to 4.5 1012 m/s. Two multi point interfer- the displacements above the Test Drift, the displace-

ence tests were carried out around the Test Drift and ments during the construction phase (up to the moment

gave values of 1.7 and 2.3 1012 m/s for kV and 4.1 the lining is installed) above the connecting gallery are

and 5.2 1012 m/s for kH . somewhat smaller but not that much. It is clear that dur-

The macropermeameter test ran for about three ing gallery construction the convergence ahead of the

years and based on the inflow of the last year, an face will be difficult to limit and furthermore, a certain

average hydraulic conductivity of 1.4 1012 m/s was amount of immediate convergence will always occur

obtained.The storage coefficient was found to be lower after excavation. An important reduction in total con-

than 8 106 m1 . vergence was however gained by changing the lining

Figure 18 shows the results of single point steady system. Indeed, due to the presence of wooden plates

state measurements around the connecting gallery between the concrete segments of the Test Drift a radial

(SELFRAC). An increase of hydraulic conductivity is convergence of up to 3 cm was observed whereas in

observed up to about 6 m. Values of 6 1012 m/s the connecting gallery, no additional convergence is

and 4 1012 m/s were obtained outside the influ- possible.

enced zone, respectively on the vertical and the The short-term evolution of pore pressures dur-

horizontal piezometer. About 1 year after the first mea- ing and after excavation can be explained by the

suring campaign on R55D the first 5 filters were tested undrained behaviour of the clay; a strong HM cou-

again. The results were systematically lower, although pling was evidenced. The increase of pore pressures

not much. The first five filters of R55E were tested ahead of the excavation face of the connecting gallery

again as well; the results were almost identical to those (cf. CLIPEX) corresponds to the undrained contractant

obtained one year before (slightly lower in the first two plastic behaviour of the material: due to the pressure

filters). peak ahead of the face, pore pressure rises because the

low hydraulic conductivity impedes the dissipation of

pore water overpressure. No peak was observed dur-

4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ing the mine by test however, possibly because the

excavation rate was about 10 times lower. The drop

Host rock displacements were measured during and phenomenon is linked to decompression and fracturing

after gallery construction. It was shown that an of the massif around the face.

23

When looking at longer term behaviour, drained (2003) describe the poromechanical formulation used

conditions should be considered but even at a time to express the strong HM coupling, including skeleton

scale of several years the effects of the short-term viscosity.They apply the following rate-form relations:

undrained response play an important role. For

instance, the pore pressure anisotropy observed around

the Test Drift and the connecting gallery can be

explained by stress redistribution due to gallery exca-

vation. At the level of the URF, K0 is about 0.9: the

vertical stress is slightly higher than the horizontal

ones. As a consequence of the undrained behaviour

during stress redistribution, pore pressures increase

left and right of the gallery, and decrease above and

below (Bastiaens et al. in prep.). This behaviour was

illustrated by the pore pressures measured once the where is the effective stress tensor, the total stress

excavation face passed the sensors and the lining was tensor, uw the pore pressure, I the unit tensor, the

installed. Re-equilibrium of the pore pressures (dis- strain tensor, Kw the water bulk modulus, m the fluid

sipation of over- and under-pressures) takes several mass content, n the porosity and the superscripts e, p

years and depends mainly on the hydraulic diffusiv- and vp respectively standing for the elastic, plastic and

ity. This is why pressures above and below the gallery viscoplastic part.

show an increasing trend during the years following the The measurement of total stresses in the host rock

excavation and a decreasing trend next to the gallery. remains a difficult task. However, measurements evi-

Equilibrium has not yet been reached at this moment denced the load transfer on existing structures due to

and some additional years are estimated necessary. stress redistribution after additional excavation. Other

This phenomenon could also explain why shortly after measurements lead to the conclusion that ground pres-

gallery excavation, pore pressure at a given distance sure on gallery lining builds up quite fast (12 months)

from the connecting gallery is higher in a horizontal and that total stresses in the vicinity of galleries tend

piezometer than in a vertical one. Other possible con- to increase during the first years after excavation.

tributing factors are the influence of fracturation and Stresses on the connecting gallery are higher than

fracture shape (Mertens et al., 2004) and the influence those on the Test Drift lining. This can be explained by

of the anisotropy of the properties of Boom Clay. the larger convergence allowed during the construction

As shown by the measurements around the Test of the Test Drift; during excavation (slow excava-

Drift, the HdZ does not become isotropic during the tion rate and a large overexcavation) but also after-

re-equilibrium phase, but the anisotropy is inversed. wards (diameter reduction due to compressive material

This effect is attributed to the anisotropy of the inserted between the lining segments). The measured

hydraulic conductivity in Boom Clay (kH 2.kV ) total stress profiles show a gradual increase and the

which causes a larger draining effect horizontally. We influenced zone is estimated to be 68 m. Measure-

can therefore conclude that the HdZ profiles are dom- ments were performed up to a depth of some 1012 m.

inated in the short-term by the anisotropy of the initial No clear total stress peak was observed; this is an argu-

stress state (undrained instantaneous response) and ment in favour of the not-perfect elasto-plastic laws

in the long-term by the anisotropy of the hydraulic mentioned above. Moreover, models using this type of

conductivity. law do indicate the presence of a peak, although a much

Regardless of anisotropy discussed above, the lower and broader one and at a larger distance from

extent of the HdZ is larger than expected. The impor- the gallery than predicted by elasto-perfectly-plastic

tant extent of hydraulic perturbations around an exca- models; this implies the possibility that this broad and

vation was also evidenced during the excavation of relatively low peak -if present- was not observed due

the second shaft. The diameter of the shaft at the level to the limited depth of the measurements.

of HADES is 8 m; an influence on pore pressure was A large variety of in-situ tests to determine the

observed at a distance of 70 m. Elasto-plastic models hydraulic conductivity were carried out. Although

underestimate the observed extent of the zone where they were carried out at different locations and times

pore pressure is influenced by gallery or shaft exca- and although they were conducted using different

vation, even after introducing the phenomena linked methods and at different scales, the in-situ and labo-

with stress anisotropy discussed above. Other factors ratory results are consistent. The recent measurements

that are being investigated are anisotropy of mate- (cf. SELFRAC) show the influence of gallery exca-

rial parameters of Boom Clay, influence of excavation vation on hydraulic conductivities. The values outside

induced fractures (Mertens et al., 2004), skeleton the influenced zone are consistent with in-situ data

viscosity and the effect of using not-perfect elasto- obtained in previous experiments, although slightly

plastic constitutive laws. Barnichon & Volckaert higher. When measuring on a vertical piezometer, kH

24

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT during excavation of the connecting gallery at Mol site.

Multiphysics coupling and long term behaviour in rock

Many of the results presented in this paper mechanics; Proc. intern. symp., Lige, 912 May 2006.

Mertens, J., Bastiaens, W. & Dehandschutter, B. 2004.

were obtained in cooperation with other institutes

Characterisation of induced discontinuities in the Boom

and organisations. This collaboration is gratefully Clay around the underground excavations (URF, Mol,

acknowledged as is the support of the European Com- Belgium). Applied Clay Science 26, 413428. Amster-

mission for the CLIPEX and SELFRAC projects, dam: Elsevier.

respectively in the fourth and fifth framework NIRAS, 2001. SAFIR-2, Safety Assessment and Feasibility

programme. Interim Report 2. Brussels: NIRAS.

25

Ortiz, L., Put, M., De Bruyn, D., Moerkens, K. & Bernier, F. for Radioactive Waste Confinement; Proc. intern. symp.,

1996. Geological Disposal of Conditioned High-Level Tours, 1418 March 2005. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

and Long-Lived Radioactive Waste- Task 4.4: Large Scale Ramaeckers, C. & Van Cotthem, A. 2003. Analysis of the

Measurement of the Hydraulic Conductivity of the Boom instrumented rings. Belgatom report N002_a. Brussels:

Clay, Final Report 19941995. SCKCEN report R-3095. Belgatom.

Mol: SCKCEN. Volckaert, G., Ortiz, L., De Cannire, P., Put, M., Horseman,

Ortiz, L. 1997. Etudes de performance long terme: Analyse S.T., Harrington, J.F., Fioravante, V. & Impey, M., 1995.

des donnes hydrauliques dans la zone perturbe autour du MEGAS. Modelling and experiments on gas migration in

laboratoire souterrain HADES. SCKCEN report R-3162. repository host rocks. Report EUR 16235, Luxembourg:

Mol: SCKCEN. Commission of the European Communities.

Ortiz, L. & Van Geet, M. In preparation. Self-healing Wemaere, I., Marivoet, J., Labat, S., Beaufays, R. & Maes, T.

capacity of argillaceous rocks: review of laboratory 2002. Mol-1 borehole (AprilMay 1997) Core manipula-

results obtained from the SELFRAC project. Applied tions and determination of hydraulic conductivities in the

clay science, Clays in Natural & Engineered Barriers laboratory. SCKCEN report R-3590. Mol: SCKCEN.

26

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

steady state and accelerated creep, failure and post-failure behaviour

and applications in rock engineering

C. Erichsen

WBI W. Wittke Consulting Engineers for Tunneling and Geotechnical Engineering Ltd., Aachen/Stuttgart,

Germany

ABSTRACT: A three dimensional elastic constitutive model for rock salt is proposed. This stress strain law

takes into account the three phases of creep (transient, steady state and accelerated creep), dilatancy, as well as

the failure and post failure behaviour. The model was implemented into a finite element program and validated

on the results of laboratory tests and in situ measurements. A good qualitative and quantitative agreement with

the test and measurement results is achieved. A stability analysis for an underground repository in rock salt is

presented.

1 INTRODUCTION

World wide, salt deposits are not anymore used only for

mineral exploitation, but to an increasing extent also

for the underground storage of gases and fluids and as

underground repositories for hazardous or radioactive

waste. Because of this, the importance of questions

regarding the excavation and stability of openings in

salt rock increases continuously. The design and the

stability analysis for openings in salt rock necessitates

a model for the realistic description of the stress-strain

behaviour of rock salt. In the following, a constitute

law is presented, which has been developed by Kiehl

et al. (1998) and is an extension and advancement of

the constitutive laws of Wallner (1983) and Dring &

Kiehl (1996). Figure 1 schematically illustrates the

Figure 1. Primary, secondary and tertiary creep in an

form of creep curves as obtained with uniaxial creep uniaxial creep test.

tests, which are unconfined compression tests with a

constant load ( = const.). The stress leads to elas-

tic deformations el not depending on time as well as

to creep deformations c depending on time. If the secondary or steady component of the creep deforma-

creep stress is smaller than a stress F , the so-called tion s ; it increases linearily with time in an uniaxial

uniaxial yield stress, the increase of the creep defor- creep test (s = const.).

mation with time, i. e. the creep rate c is largest after If the creep stress is larger than the yield stress

applying the creep stress and then converges to a con- F , the creep curve usually has a point of inflection.

stant value. The creep deformation can, in this case, be After a delayed creep at the beginning, an accelerated

subdivided into two components. One is the so-called creep process starts as soon as the inflection point is

primary component of the creep deformation p , which passed, finally leading to a creep failure (Fig. 1). This

converges to a constant value and does practically not behaviour can be interpreted by a tertiary creep portion

anymore increase after a certain time. t , increasing overproportionally with time and being

Therefore, the primary creep is also called transient superimposed to the elastic, primary and secondary

(nonsteady) creep. The other component is known as deformation components.

27

2 STRUCTURE OF THE MODEL aid of the rheological model represented in Figure 2,

this consisting of a series arrangement of five differ-

Formulating the constitutive law, an analytical sep- ent rheological bodies each of these corresponding to

aration of different strain components is assumed a strain component:

to describe the stress-strain behaviour of rock salt

A linear elastic strain component (spring) to

as explained above. It is distinguished between five

describe the elastic behaviour el .

strain components, the summation of which yields the

A viscoplastic strain component (strain-hardening

total strain. The structure of the model in its one-

frictional element with a parallel damping element)

dimensional form can therefore be described with the

to describe primary creep p .

A viscose strain component (damping element) to

describe secondary creep s .

A viscoplastic strain component (strain-softening

frictional element with a parallel damping element)

to describe tertiary creep t .

A viscoplastic strain compontent (a further strain-

softening frictional element with a parallel damping

element) to describe the behaviour after a shear

failure (creep failure) NS or tensile failure NZ .

All strain components except the elastic component

el are irreversible and volumetric strains only occur

in the elastic range, during tertiary creep and during

Figure 2. Structure of rheological model.

tensile failure processes.

Table 1. Primary and secondary creep: strain rates and characteristic parameters.

28

This constitutive law has been implemented into The convergencies have been backanalysed using the

the three dimensional Finite-Element-Code FEST03 finite element code FEST03.

(Wittke 1990, Wittke 2000). The computed displacements fit well with the mea-

sured convergencies taking into account primary and

secondary creep only (Fig. 3).

3 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY CREEP

4 TERTIARY CREEP

In Table 1 the mathematically formulations of the elas-

tic behaviour of rock salt and of the primary and Tertiary creep is described by the viscoplastic rate

secondary creep are summarized. equation given in Table 2. Five parameters are required

The equations to determine the strain compo- to describe tertiary creep. These are the viscosity t for

nents are given for the general three-dimensional tertiary creep, the uniaxial yield stress F , the angle of

case. Because of the time dependence of the stress- flow F , the strain-softening modulus M and the angle

strain behaviour these equations are formulated as rate of dilatancy .

equations. Figure 4 shows the result of a triaxial creep test

The plastic potential eff is an invariant of the devia- carried out on a halite sample with a confining pressure

toric stress tensor, describing the deviation of the state of 3 = 15 MPa and six stages of load, the stage of load

of stress from the hydrostatic or petrostatic state of next to the last representing an unloading.

p

stress 1 = 2 = 3 . eff is the corresponding invariant During the first four stages of load, only primary

of the deviatoric strain tensor. It is to be noted that the and secondary creep deformations occur. After the last

definition of this quantity is only valid for the given and highest loading ( = 1 3 = 22 MPa), a very

case, in which no volume strains occur due to primary steep increase of the axial strain with time was mea-

p

creep (v = 0, Figure 2). sured. The reason for these accelerated creep rates are

According to Table 1 three parameters are neces- tertiary creep deformations.

sary to describe primary creep, these being called The comparison of the strains computed with the

viscosity p , strain-hardening modulus Ep and stress parameters shown in Figure 4 with the measured values

exponent m. shows that a good agreement between measurement

The three-dimensional formulation of secondary and analysis results can be achieved for all loading

creep is equivalent to the approach of Wallner (1983). stages.

Two parameters a and n are sufficient to model

secondary creep (Table 1).

In Figure 3 the horizontal and the vertical conver- 5 FAILURE AND POST-FAILURE

gencies measured over a period of three years in a BEHAVIOUR

drift which was excavated in rock salt are illustrated.

The deformations converge to a constant increase, thus For the failure criterion for shear failure D > 0 a

only primary and secondary creep occured in this case. Drucker & Prager (1952) equation with strain-

softening is used. As softening parameter the plastic

volumetric strain tv is introduced (Table 3). The math-

ematical formulation of the viscoplastic strain rates

after a shear failure {NS } is presented in Table 3 (upper

part).

A tensile failure occurs, when the tensile strength

t 0 is exceeded by the smallest principal normal

stress 3 . The strain rates arising after a tensile failure

are described by the flow rule given in Table 3 (lower

part).

Seven characteristic parameters are required to sim-

ulate the failure and the post-failure behaviour in case

of shear and tensile failure (see Table 3).

6 APPLICATION TO STABILITY

ANALYSIS OF UNDERGROUND

OPENINGS

Figure 3. Excavation of a drift in rock salt: comparison of The above mentioned finite element code FEST03,

measured and computed convergencies. in which the constitutive law for rock salt was

29

Table 2. Tertiary creep: strain rates and characteristic parameters.

implemented, was applied to various problems related as well as the integrity of the salt barrier against the

to the stability of underground openings in rock salt caprock in the long run. The filled openings together

(Erichsen & Werfling 1998, Wittke et al. 1998, Wittke with the salt rock form pillars, along which the loads

2000). resulting from the overburden can be transfered.

The example of an underground repository with a For the first step of the analyses, a petrostatic in-

large volume is used in the following to illustrate the situ state of stresses in the salt rock was assumed. In a

stability analysis as well as the effect of supporting second step, the excavation of the openings as well as a

measures (Erichsen & Werfling 1998). standing time of approximately 64 years up to the year

A three-dimensional computation section was cho- 2000 were simulated. In the year 2000, the filling of

sen for the stability analyses for the repository (Fig. 5). selected cavities was simulated. Then, a creep time of

It has a length of 550 m, a height of 475 m and a several thousand years was considered in the analyses.

width of 50 m. The finite element mesh consists of sev- The parameters used in the analyses were derived

eral slices and is subdivided into 14,308 isoparametric from laboratory tests, in situ tests and in situ

elements with a total of 64,184 nodal points. Thus, the measurements and the corresponding numerical

system of equations to be solved to get the nodal point interpretations.

displacements has a number of approximately 180,000 In Figure 6 the horizontal convergencies com-

unknowns. puted for the opening 2n on the 2nd mining level are

The concept for support is to reduce the degree of exemplarily compared with the measurement results.

volume of excavation by filling selected openings with From 1970 to 1996, a horizontal convergency of

a supporting backfill (partial filling, Fig. 7) and to approximately 5 mm was measured in this opening.

ensure the stability of the remaining system of cavities The results of two two-dimensional (2D) and one

30

Table 3. Failure and post-failure behaviour: strain rates and characteristic parameters.

three-dimensional (3D) analyses are plotted in com- displacements at the salt surface of more than 50% as

parison with this. In the two two-dimensional analyses compared with the two-dimensional analysis.

the creep parameter a was varied. A creep parameter of

a = 2.57 1010 %/h leads to larger computed displace-

ments than measured. A reduction of this parameter to 7 CONCLUSION

a = 1.67 1010 %/h results in a very good agreement

with the measuring results. A three-dimensional constitutive law for the simu-

The simulation with a three-dimensional model and lation of the elastic, the creep and the post failure

the same creep parameters leads to smaller displace- behaviour of salt rock is presented. 19 parameters are

ments than the corresponding two-dimensional analy- required for the description of the complete stress-

sis (Fig. 6). The reason for this is the load transfer in the strain behaviour:

longitudinal direction of the mining chamber which is

Two parameters to describe elastic behaviour.

simulated in the three-dimensional analysis. On the

Three parameters to describe primary creep.

other hand the large mining chambers are assumed

Two parameters to describe secondary creep.

to be indefinitely long in the two-dimensional analy-

Five parameters to describe tertiary creep.

ses. By this, the load-bearing capacity of the salt rock

Seven parameters to describe the failure and post-

is reduced in comparison with the three-dimensional

failure behaviour.

analysis. This leads to larger displacements.

The subsidence rates computed for the salt surface However, not every problem requires the determina-

are quickly reduced due to the supporting mea- tion of all parameters. As already mentioned, stresses

sures (Fig. 7). Here also, the influence of the three- smaller than the yield stress only lead to elastic as

dimensional load transfer in the longitudinal direction well as primary and secondary creep deformations. In

of the mining chambers is recognizable. The three- such cases, the stress-strain behaviour of the salt rock

dimensional load transfer leads to a reduction of the is completely described by the parameters E, , Ep ,

31

Figure 6. Convergencies in the mine: comparison of mea-

sured and computed displacements (Erichsen and Werfling,

1998).

several loading stages including unloading.

Werfling, 1998).

two parameters a and n are necessary to describe the

stress-strain behaviour.

This constitutive law has been implemented into the

three-dimensional finite elemente code FEST03. The

results of laboratory tests have been back-analysed

successfully. In Chapter 6 a stability analysis for an

Figure 5. Three-dimensional finite element mesh for stabil- existing underground repository in rock salt, carried

ity analyses (Erichsen & Werfling 1998). out with this model, is presented.

REFERENCES

creep often prevails, because the stress alterations due

to an openings excavation and, thus, the elastic and the Dring, T.; Kiehl, J.R. (1996): Das primre, sekundre und

primary creep deformations are limited with respect tertire Kriechen von Steinsalz Ein dreidimensionales

to time. In such cases, the elastic and the primary rheonomes Stoffgesetz. Geotechnik 1996/3, 194199.

32

Drucker, D.C.; Prager, W. (1952): Soil Mechanics and Plastic Wallner, M. (1983): Standsicherheitsberechnungen fr die

Analysis on Limit Design. Quartl. Appl Math., No. 10, Pfeilerdimensionierung im Salzbergbau. 5. Interna-

157165. tionaler Kongre ber Felsmechanik, Melbourne 1983,

Erichsen, C.; Werfling, J. (1998): Rumliche Berechnungen D8D14.

zur Untersuchung der Standsicherheit und der Wirkung Wittke, W. (1990): Rock Mechanics Theory and Appli-

von Sttzmanahmen fr eine Untertagedeponie im Stein- cations with Case Histories. Springer Verlag, Berlin,

salz. Geotechnik 1998/3, 217220. Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo.

Kiehl, J.R.; Dring, T.; Erichsen, C. (1998): Ein rum- Wittke, W. (2000): Stability Analysis for Tunnels, Fundamen-

liches Stoffgesetz fr Steinsalz unter Bercksichtigung tals. Geotechnical Engineering in Research and Practice,

von primrem, sekundrem und tertirem Kriechen, Dila- WBI-Print 4, Verlag Glckauf GmbH, Essen.

tanz, Kriech- und Zugbruch sowie Nachbruchverhalten. Wittke, W.; Schmitt, D.; Gattermann, J. (1998): Ver-

Geotechnik 1998/3, 254258. schliekonzepte fr Untertagedeponien Entwurf und

Kiehl, J.R.; Reim, J. (1999): A three-dimensional constitu- geotechnische Nachweise. Geotechnik 1998/3, 212216.

tive law for rock salt including transient, steady state and

accelerated creep, failure as well as post-failure behaviour.

Proc. 9th ISRM Congress, Vol. 2, Paris, 917920.

33

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Department of Geotechnical Eng. and Geosciences, Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Y. Wileveau

ANDRA, Service Scientifique, Bure, France

ABSTRACT: The paper addresses the issue of the description of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical

behaviour of argillaceous rocks. A theoretical formulation is first briefly described followed by a constitu-

tive law, developed for this type of materials, in which an elastoplastic approach is combined with damage

concepts. Theoretical formulation and constitutive law are then used to analyze and interpret the observations

gathered during the performance of an in situ heating test carried out in an underground laboratory. As a result of

the analysis, a better understanding of the relationship between the various interacting phenomena is achieved.

high, so some measure of support of the openings may

Argillaceous rocks (mudstones, claystones, marls, be required. Argillaceous materials may also be sen-

shales) result from mechanical, chemical and/or bio- sitive to chemical changes, such as oxidation, and to

logical alteration of clay sediments during diagenesis. desaturation effects.

After deposition, sediments are compacted as they If an argillaceous rock is selected as the geologi-

are buried beneath successive layers of sediment and cal host medium to house a repository of high level

cemented by minerals that precipitate from solution. radioactive waste, it is necessary to examine the rock

Porosity usually decreases during diagenesis while under very generalised loading conditions. The rock

grains of sediment, rock fragments and fossils can will be subjected to drying from tunnel ventilation and,

be replaced by other minerals. All these phenomena possibly, from the suction of the engineered barrier

result generally in a complex history reflected, in turn, surrounding the waste. This drying will be in turn com-

in complex mechanical behaviour. Some challenging pensated, at least partially, by water inflow from the

aspects of the behaviour of these materials are related outer reaches of the rock mass. High level radioactive

to their low porosity, significant bonding, marked waste is heat emitting, so a significant thermal loading

anisotropy, stiffness reduction upon loading, brit- will also be applied to the rock. Those hydraulic and

tle behaviour during shearing, crack opening during thermal changes will in turn bring about mechanical

unloading, and mechanical degradation upon wetting. and chemical changes.

Argillaceous rocks are often encountered in mining The phenomena outlined above interact strongly

and civil engineering works. Open mining excavations, with each other resulting in a complex coupled system.

road and canal construction, tunnelling, and landslide Consequently, a proper analysis of the situation must

remediation are typical examples. It is therefore not be placed in a multi-physics context and requires

surprising that studies have been periodically reported the establishment of appropriate coupled formulations

in the literature since the pioneering works done on and the performance of numerical analysis that incor-

Cucaracha shale during the construction of the Panama porate, in a realistic manner, the thermal, hydraulic,

Canal. mechanical and chemical aspects of the problem.

More recently, interest in argillaceous rock has been The formulation and analysis must also include a

enhanced by the fact that they are a geological medium constitutive model capable of reproducing the most

being considered as host rock for a deep underground salient behaviour features of the behaviour of argilla-

repository for high level radioactive waste. They have ceous rock. An important consideration in this field

attractive properties such as low permeability, signif- is the size of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ)

icant retardation properties for solute (and therefore as well as the degree of damage because such a zone

radionuclide) transport, a degree of self-healing capac- may provide a preferential pathway for radionuclide

ity and no foreseeable economic value. A possible migration.

35

Some rocks have been especially investigated in Equilibrium:

this context, particularly those associated with exist-

ing underground laboratories: Boom Clay in the Hades

laboratory in Mol, Callovo-Oxfordian mudstone in

the ANDRA underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute The notation used is as follows: , porosity, , density,

Marne (France) and Opalinus clay in the Mont Terri j, total mass flux, i, non-advective mass flux, q, advec-

laboratory located in northern Switzerland. Under- tive flux, u, solid displacement vector, , stress tensor,

ground laboratories allow, by the performance of b, body forces vector, , mass fraction, , mass con-

appropriate in situ tests, to observe the rock response tent per unit volume of phase ( = ), Sl , degree of

in complex situations mimicking some of the condi- saturation of liquid phase, E, specific internal energy,

tions likely to be encountered in a deep geological ic , conductive heat flux, jE , energy fluxes due to mass

repositories. motion. The superscript refers to the species and the

In this paper a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical subscript to the phase.

(THM) formulation is first briefly presented. After- The formulation must be completed with a number

wards a constitutive model for argillaceous rocks of constitutive laws that describe the various phenom-

incorporating elasto-plastic and damage features is ena under consideration.They have been presented and

summarily described. Formulation and constitutive discussed elsewhere (e.g. Gens and Olivella, 2000).

model are then applied to the modelling of an in Special consideration should be given, however, to the

situ heating test performed on Opalinus clay in the constitutive law describing the mechanical behaviour

Mont Terri laboratory. Neither chemical nor desatura- of argillaceous rocks, as described in the next section.

tion phenomena are considered in the work presented In fact, before solving the set of equations indi-

herein. cated above, the solid balance equation is eliminated

by introducing it in the rest of balance equations, mak-

ing use of the concept of material derivative. It can be

2 FORMULATION shown that, considering the change of porosity caused

by the solid grain deformation induced by temperature

The formulation is based on a multiphase, multispecies and total stress, the formulation presented is equivalent

approach. It is assumed that the porous medium is to Biots in the case of linear mechanical constitutive

composed of three species: mineral (), water (w) and laws. When the laws become nonlinear, this approach

air (a), distributed in three phases: solid (s), liquid (l) introduces an automatic variation of Biots coefficient

and gas (g). In the particular form presented here, the and Biots modulus consistent with the constitutive law

mineral species and solid phases coincide. The for- adopted.

mulation is based on the simultaneous solution of the The formulation presented allows the description of

equations for the balance of solid mass, the balance of the coupling existing between the process of heat flow

water mass, the balance of internal energy and equi- conduction, heat flow advection, change in internal

librium. Although it is formulated in a general way to energy due to phase changes, advective flow of liquid

include unsaturated materials, the analyses presented water, diffusive flow of vapour, changes in effective

in the paper involve only saturated media; therefore stresses, and changes in porosity due to deformation

the equation for the balance of air mass is not taken and solid thermal expansion.

into account.

The following balance equations are therefore

considered: 3 A CONSTITUTIVE MODEL FOR

Balance of solid: ARGILLACEOUS ROCK

3.1 General

The basis of the model consists in considering the pres-

ence of two different materials inside the medium: the

Balance of water mass: argillaceous matrix and the bonds (Figure 1). When a

load is externally applied to the medium, part of the

stresses will be carried by the bonds and part by the

matrix. The two materials will then experience differ-

Balance of internal energy: ent local values of stresses and strains. These values

are constrained by the condition that local strains must

be compatible with externally applied deformations,

by the stress-strain relationships of the matrix and the

bonds and by the fact that local stresses must be in

equilibrium with the external load.

36

in bond volume and dvM is the strain measured

externally on a sample of cemented material.

From equation (5), it follows that the three strain

increments are related by:

porosity is not equal to the external volumetric strain

because of bond deformability. It is extended to the

shear strain increments by the expression:

Figure 1. Schematic arrangement considered for a bonded Integration of Equations (6) and (7) from time t0

argillaceous material.

gives the following relationships between strains:

model for the matrix, a constitutive model for the

bonds and a stress partitioning criterion to specify the

way in which the applied stresses are shared. For sim-

plicity, the equations are expressed in triaxial space. since vM = v = v0 and qM = q = q0 at t0 .

Any load applied to an element of cemented mate-

rial after the time of bond deposition will distribute

3.2 Matrix itself between the soil matrix and the bonding accord-

The model assumes that bonds are responsible of the ing to a ratio that depends on the geometric arrange-

main structuring effects. The argillaceous matrix has ment of both components. Cordebois & Sidoroff

therefore the same local behaviour (expressed in terms (1982) proposed to use the energy equivalence princi-

of strains and stresses existing inside the matrix), inde- ple that establishes the equality between the energy of

pendently of the level of bonding. In this paper, a the composite material and the sum of energies for all

hardening elasto-plastic model based on the Hoek & components. For the case of a cemented material, this

Brown (1980) failure criterion has been adopted. principle leads to the expression:

The additional structuration caused by cement depo-

sition is accounted for in the model through the

introduction of second material component, called

bond, endowed with a behaviour typical of quasi-brittle

materials. Defining v = vb /(v v0 ) and q = qb /(q q0 ),

Let us suppose that bonding occurs at a given and using Equation (8), Equation (9) becomes:

time during deposit history t0 , characterized by in

situ stress state ( pb0 , qb0 ) and strain (v0 , q0 ). At

that time, part of the void ratio will be occupied by

the cementing material. Denoting e = VV /VS the void

ratio, eb = Vb /VS the amount of volume occupied by

bonds and eM = (Vb + VV )/VS the amount of volume Equation (10) provides a relationship between the

not occupied by clay particles per unit volume of solid external stresses ( p, q), the stresses inside the bonds

material, the following equality holds: and effective stresses ( pM , qM ) acting at the contact

between clay particles. ( pM , qM ) are related to vM and

qM by the constitutive law of the clay matrix described

in section 3.1.

Changes in e, eb and eM are measured by Relationship between ( pb , qb ) and (vb , qb ) is pro-

the following volumetric strains: dv = de/(1 + e), vided by the constitutive law of the bonding. Damage

dvb = deb /(1 + e) and dvM = deM /(1 + e). dv elasticity is considered as the modelling framework

is related to the change in porosity, dvb to the change for this material. More specifically, the damage model

37

established by Carol et al. (2001) has been selected

where a logarithmic damage measured is proposed:

model.

D is a measure of damage or fissuring of the mate-

rial and is equal to the ratio of bond fissures over the

whole area of bonds. Fissures are assumed to have 4 THE HE-D EXPERIMENT

null stiffness while bond material between the fis-

sures is considered as linear elastic with bulk and The HE-D experiment has been carried out byANDRA

shear moduli Kb0 and Gb0 . When D = 0, the mate- in the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory, excavated

rial is intact and bond stiffness is determined by Kb0 in Opalinus clay, a shale of Lower Aalenian age (Mid-

and Gb0 . As D increases, fissures develop and mate- dle Jurassic). Opalinus clay may be described as a stiff

rial stiffness decreases progressively. When D = 1, overconsolidated clay with a strong bedding struc-

no more resisting area exists inside the bonding and ture. The HE-D test is located in the shaly facies, that

bond stiffness is equal to 0. In that modelling frame- contains a higher proportion of clay minerals.

work, bond response is totally determined if Kb0 , To perform the experiment, a niche was excavated

Gb0 and evolution of D with load are known. Fol- from the main laboratory tunnel from which a 30 cm

lowing Carol et al. (2001) proposal, change of D is diameter borehole has been drilled with a total length

linked to the energy increment input to the bonds dub of 14 m. In the section close to the end of the borehole,

(equal to ( pb pb0 ) dvb + (qb qb0 ) dqb in triaxial two heaters have been installed. The heaters are 2m

conditions). The following expression has been used: long and can be pressurized to ensure a good contact

with the rock. The separation between heaters is 0.8 m.

In addition, a number of auxiliary boreholes have been

constructed to install a variety of instruments for the

monitoring of the test. Figure 3 shows a schematic

The current bond damage locus is defined in the layout of the test.

stress space as a threshold of equal energy r, corre- Approximately one month after installation and

sponding to the maximum energy input to the bond pressurization, the heaters were switched on with a

during its history. This condition draws an ellipse in total power of 650 W (325 W per heater). The heaters

the pb qb space. For a stress state moving inside the were then left under constant power during 90 days.

ellipse, no further damage develops. When the ellipse Afterwards the power was increased threefold, to

is reached by the current stress state, damage occurs. 1950 W (975 W per heater) and maintained at that

v and q define the part of load ( p, q) carried level for 248 days more. At the end of this second

respectively by bonds and matrix. With the assumption heating stage, the heaters were switched off and the

that the strains prevailingin the unfissured part of the rock allowed to cool. Temperatures, pore pressures and

bonds (vb , qb ), equal to 1 D times the strains (vb , deformations were measured throughout.

qb ) in the framework of Carol et al. (2001) model, are

directly proportional to (v v0 , q q0 ), v and q

can be rewritten as: 5 FEATURES OF ANALYSIS

computer code

where 0 is a coefficient related to bonding intensity. The numerical analyses have been performed in 2-D

According to Equation (14), v and q evolve from axisymmetric conditions, with the axis of symmetry

0 to 0 during the process of bond damage. This centred on the main borehole axis. This hypothesis

mechanism is accompanied by a destructuration of the obviously prevents the consideration of the anisotropy

material and a progressive transfer of load from bonds of material (mainly due to the presence of the bedding)

to clay matrix. Figure 2 shows a graphic summary of and of the in situ stresses. Full 3D analyses are being

the model. carried out at present but are not presented here. In any

38

Figure 4. Discretized domain and mesh used in the numer-

ical analysis.

Solid grain compressibility sT = 1.6 105 MPa1

Figure 3. Layout of the HE-D experiment. Linear thermal expansion of sT = 9.6 106 K1

solid grain

case, the overall behaviour of the test is adequately rep- Water compressibility w

l0 = 1002.6 kg m3

w w (pl pl0 ) w T

resented by the axisymmetric model. The mesh used lw = l0 e e pl0 = 0.1 MPa

and the extent of the domain modelled are presented w = 3.4 104 K1

w = 4.5 104 MPa1

in Figure 4. The analyses have been performed using

Water viscosity l = l0 e/T l0 = 2.1 1012 MPa s

the computer programme CODE BRIGHT (Olivella = 1808.5 K

et al., 2000) that incorporates the formulation outlined

Mechanical

above.

Young modulus E = 7000 MPa

Poissons ratio = 0.23

5.2 Boundary and initial conditions Biots coefficient b = 0.6

Uniaxial compression strength Rc = 10 MPa

The following stages are considered in the analysis:

Tensile strength Pt = 3.3 MPa

(i) excavation of the borehole, (ii) heater pressurization Strength reduction parameter sT = 0.6

to 1 MPa, (iii) application of the first stage of heater Damage threshold ro = 104 MPa

power (325 W/heater), (iv) application of the second Damage evolution parameter r1 = 107 MPa

stage of heater power (975 W/heater), and (v) switch- Hydraulic

ing off the heaters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity Kw = 5 1013 m/s

Initial stresses are assumed to be 4.28 MPa (an aver-

Thermal

age value of the measurements made in the area).

Linear thermal expansion of clay = 9 106 K1

Initial pore pressures are set at 0.9 MPa in accordance Thermal conductivity of clay T = 2.2 W m1 K1

with the observations made before the experiment. Heat capacity of solid grain C s = 840 J kg1 K1

The initial temperature is 17 C and initial porosity is

equal to 0.137 throughout the domain.

from previously available information. However, the

material stiffness value and the saturated hydraulic per-

5.3 Material properties meability have been determined from the evolution of

The main material properties are summarized in pore pressures measured during the drilling of the main

Table 1. Most of the properties have been obtained borehole. Figure 5 shows the comparison between

39

0 3.00

-50

S0

Pore pressure (kPa)

-100

2.00

-150

1.00

-200

z-axis

-250 H2-2

PBHE-D14 PBHE-D15 PBHE-D16 0.00

PR14(simul) [kPa] PR15(simul) [kPa] PR16(simul) [kPa]

H2-3 r=0.15m

-300 Pres D03

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 r=1.1m

-1.00

Pres D14

Time (days from start of excavation)

r=0.775m

Figure 5. Observed and computed pore pressures during Pres D17

-2.00

borehole excavation after parameter adjustment. r=2.96m

-3.00

-3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00

x-axis

to the main borehole axis. The line indicated by so represents

the bedding orientation.

nomena identified. Relevant couplings are, by order

of importance:

(a) Thermo-hydraulic coupling: thermal expansion of

Figure 6. Strength data for Opalinus clay determined in tri-

water and solid grain due to changes in temperature

axial tests (Schnier, 2004). The assumed Hoek & Brown (HB)

failure criteria are shown for comparison. generate a build-up in water pressure. Because the

increase in water pressure at one point of the massif

depends basically on the increase in temperature,

observed and computed pore pressures after adjusting the development of thermal gradients is accompa-

the parameters. Also, thermal conductivity has been nied by the generation of hydraulic gradients.

selected from a backanalysis based on 3D thermal (b) Hydro-mechanical coupling: pore pressures gen-

modelling.As expected, thermal conductivity turned to erated by the thermo-hydraulic coupling dissipate

be anisotropic with values of 2.8 and 1.6 W m1 K1 with time. This process is often referred as thermo-

parallel and perpendicular to the bedding planes, consolidation and it causes further deformation of

respectively.An average value of 2.2 W m1 K1 has the medium.

been used in the axisymmetric analyses.

Although there is a fair amount of scatter, laboratory The low porosity of Opalinus clay and the fact that

tests on Opalinus clay show that there is a notice- it remains saturated during the test implies that neither

able reduction of strength with temperature (Figure 6). pore pressure changes nor deformations cause notice-

This has been taken into account in the analysis by able changes in rock thermal properties; in particular

introducing a reduction of strength with temperature the rock thermal conductivity remains almost constant.

according to the expression (Laloui & Cekeravac, Thus, the temperature field is not affected by water

2003): pressures or displacements and, therefore, the cou-

pling from hydro-mechanical to thermal is negligible.

Consequently, the interpretation of the measurements

will be made in the following order: (i) temperatures

and pore pressures and (ii) deformations and other

mechanical variables.

6.2 Temperatures and pore pressures

6.1 Coupled phenomena The evolutions of the observed and computed temper-

Test observations and results obtained from the cou- atures at two points adjacent to Heater 2 (Figure 7) are

pled numerical analyses discussed below show a presented in Figure 8. The two heating stages can be

40

Figure 10. Evolution of pore pressures at point D03.

Observed and computed values.

to Heater 2.

Observed and computed values.

and computed values.

atures reached maximum values just above 100 C at Figure 12. Evolution of pore pressures at point D14.

the end of the second heating stages. There are some Observed and computed values.

differences between the temperatures at the two points

reflecting the thermal anisotropy of the Opalinus clay. D17), the locations of which are also shown in Figure 7.

About 200 days after switching off the heaters, the Again, the two stages of heating and the cooling phase

initial temperature is practically recovered and the are clearly visible. Points D03 and D14 are located at

experiment was terminated. The analysis reproduces different distances from the heater but they reach a sim-

well the observed variation of temperature throughout ilar temperature, about 50 C (Figures 9 and 11). This

the test, although, naturally, an axisymmetric model again reflects the effect of thermal anisotropy. How-

can not account for any anisotropic effects. ever, the reproduction of temperatures is globally quite

Figures 9 to 14 present the evolution of tempera- satisfactory. Temperatures are of course lower at point

tures and pore pressures for three points (D03, D14, D17, located further away from the heater (Figure 13).

41

Figure 13. Evolution of temperatures at point D17.

Observed and computed values.

stage of heating. Maximum temperature adjacent to the heater

is 109 C.

Observed and computed values.

clearly the connection between temperature variation

and pore pressure response. An increase of tempera-

ture leads to an immediate increase of pore pressure.

However, the relationship between the two variables is

not straightforward. To illustrate this, the time at which

the maximum of pore pressure is reached has been

indicated in both the temperature and pore pressure Figure 16. Pore pressure contours at the end of the second

plots. It can be clearly noted that the pore pressure peak stage of heating.

corresponds to a first increase of temperature. How-

ever, as time passes and temperature keeps increasing, pore pressure maximum has moved significantly away

pore pressures in fact reduce because of hydraulic due to the dissipation phenomena mentioned earlier.

dissipation. Naturally, the degree and rate of dissipa-

tion depend strongly on rock permeability. The pore

pressure response of point D17 (Figure 14), further

away from the heater, is much less sharp, indeed it is 6.3 Mechanical variables

even more gradual than analysis predicts. Deformations have been measured along borehole

A global perspective of the distribution of temper- BHE-D5. This observation borehole has been drilled

atures and pore pressures can be obtained using the perpendicular to the main borehole and it crosses

results of the analysis to plot the contours presented the area between the two heaters. Deformations have

in Figures 15 and 16. They represent the values at the been measured between a series of observation points

end of the second stage of heating just before the start along the borehole (Figure 17). Figures 18 and 19 show

of the cooling stage. It is interesting to note that maxi- the deformations measured in the sections 23 and

mum temperatures occur on the heater surface but the 1213 together with the analysis results. It can be noted

42

Figure 17. Location of the various measuring sections in

borehole BHE-D5. Coordinate (0,0) corresponds to the bore-

hole axis. The line indicated by so represents the bedding

orientation.

second stage of heating.

borehole BHE-D5. Observed and computed values.

second stage of heating.

Figure 19. Evolution of deformation in section 1213 in

borehole BHE-D5. Observed and computed values.

The reason for the difference is not apparent and is

that in the first stage of heating the computed results being investigated; in particular the effect of the pres-

show a reasonable agreement with observations. How- ence of steel and plastic tubing installed inside the

ever, this agreement breaks down from the start of the borehole.

second stage of heating. Although the pattern of the Figure 20 shows the overall distribution of com-

evolution of deformations is quite similar, the observed puted radial displacements at the end of the second

magnitudes are much larger than the computed ones. stage of heating, just before the heaters were switched

43

Terri underground laboratory. It can be stated that

that the model developed reproduces adequately the

main phenomena observed in the experiment. Quan-

titative comparisons are largely satisfactory with the

exception of deformations measured during the second

heating stage. As a result of the study, a consistent set

of parameters for Opalinus clay have been validated

and can be used for the prediction of future works and

experiments.

A detailed examination of the results allows the

classification of the couplings between phenomena a

hierarchical manner. The most important one is the

thermo-hydraulic coupling, i.e. the generation of pore

pressures by temperature. The pore pressures gener-

ated in this way dissipate subsequently giving rise to

deformations and displacements by hydro-mechanical

coupling. Naturally, displacements are also affected

by the thermal expansion associated with temperature

changes. In contrast, hydro-mechanical phenomena

have little effect on thermal observations as no rock

desaturation takes place and the thermal conductivity

is largely unchanged throughout the experiment.

Figure 22. Damage parameter (L) contours at the end of the ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

cooling phase.

The Authors gratefully acknowledge the technical and

off. Displacements are the combined effect of heat- financial contribution of ANDRA to this research.

induced expansion and the movements caused by the

pore pressure dissipation.

It is also interesting to check what is the extent of the REFERENCES

EDZ predicted by the analysis. To that end contours of Carol., I., Rizzi, E. & Willam, K. 2002. On the formulation

the damage parameter L have been plotted. Figure 21 of anisotropic elastic degradation. I. Theory based on a

shows the contours at the end of the second stage of pseudo-logarithmic damage tensor rate. Int. J. Solids and

heating, when the effects of temperature increase are Struct., 38: 491518

expected to be a maximum. It can be observed that Cordebois, J.P. & Sidoroff, F. 1982. Endommagement

the predicted EDZ is very restricted, affecting basi- anisotrope en lasticit et plasticit. J. de Mcanique

cally only the first row of elements adjacent to the Thorique et Applique, Numro Spcial: 4560

heater. Figure 22 indicates that damage has increased Gens, A. & Olivella, S. 2000. Non isothermal multiphase

flow in deformable porous media. Coupled formulation

at the end of the test after cooling. Although the size of

and application to nuclear waste disposal. In D.W. Smith

the EDZ has not changed noticeably, the intensity of & J.P. Carter (eds.), Developments on Theoretical Geome-

damage has become somewhat larger. Of course, the chanics The John Booker Memorial Symposium, Sidney,

limited extent of the EDZ is very much related to the Rotterdam: Balkema: 619640

small diameter of the cavity considered in this case. Hoek, E. & Brown, E.T. 1980. Empirical strength criterion

for rock masses. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering

Division, ASCE, 106: 10131035

Laloui, L. & Cekeravac, C. 2003. Thermo-plasticity of clays:

7 CONCLUSIONS

an isotropic yield mechanism. Computers and Geotech-

nics, 30: 649660

The development of a coupled formulation and an Olivella, S., Gens, A., Carrera, J. & Alonso, E. E. 1995.

appropriate constitutive law provides a useful the- Numerical formulation for a simulator (CODE_BRIGHT)

oretical tool to examine rationally the response of for the coupled analysis of saline media. Engineering

argillaceous rocks to a variety of thermal, hydraulic Computations, 13: 87112

and mechanical phenomena that interact with each Schnier, H. 2005. LT experiment: Strength tests on cylindrical

other in a complex manner. specimens, documentation and evaluation, (Phases 6 and

The approach has been applied to the analysis and 7), Mont Terri Project: Technical Note, TN 2002-50

interpretation of an intensively instrumented in situ

heating test carried out on Opalinus clay in the Mont

44

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

M. Ghoreychi

INERIS (Institut National de lEnvironnement Industriel et des Risques), Verneuil-en-Halatte, France

ABSTRACT: Long term evolution of abandoned underground mines in terms of stability and environmental

impacts depends on hydro-mechanical and geochemical processes involved in the interactions between rocks,

water and air. These coupled effects are discussed on the basis of the results of field investigations, in situ and

laboratory experiments as well as modeling. In particular the closing-induced mine flooding effects on ground

movement, overburden collapse and ambient air composition are analyzed. It comes out from this analysis

that mine flooding can result in ground uplift. This phenomenon is explained by poro-elastic behavior of the

overburden. Moreover re-distribution of effective stresses can induce some convergence of cavities walls and

reduction of mechanical properties of rocks. Besides, flooding may lead to a change in the composition of air

present in mining reservoirs. Connected to surface through fractures and other pathways, air poor in oxygen

and eventually containing undesirable gases (methane, radon) can be harmful for the persons staying in the

insufficiently ventilated buildings. These results allow to conclude that appropriate comprehension of hydro-

mechanical and geo-chemical coupled mechanisms involved in mine closing and post-mining is essential for

prevention and management of hazards.

Grande in 1998, Roncourt in 1999). They show up del-

During a few centuries, many industrial countries have icate problems associated with post-mining. Beyond

largely extracted their underground mining resources. the risks for inhabitants, buildings, water resources,

This was the case in France. In Lorraine iron ore basin, etc., a decreasing acceptance of the population can be

almost one milliard tons of iron ore was extracted. noticed clearly. This situation is natural: mining indus-

More than 40 000 km of galleries were excavated and try is no longer an income source for the town and the

several hundreds millions m3 of underground void inhabitants while the need for a sustainable develop-

were left out. ment of the concerned regions is increasing every day.

In the Nord et Pas-de-Calais coalfield, between Taking account of the growing sensitivity of the

1750 and 1990, about 600 shafts were excavated. concerned population to the security and the environ-

Almost 100 000 km of galleries were excavated for the mental issues, French administration felt essential to

extraction of 2400 millions tons of coal resulting in take special regulatory measures related to mine clos-

200 millions m3 of residual void. ing and post-mining. In this regard the mining law was

These numbers permit to measure the importance modified in March 1999 giving to the public author-

of mining activity and the potential impact of min- ities new responsibilities in terms of prevention and

ing activity in terms of surface collapse, subsidence, management of post-mining risks. In parallel, mining

changes in flow and pollution of surface or groundwa- companies were requested to fulfill some obligations

ter, gas emissions connected to the surface, landscape with respect to mine closing.

modification, etc. In spite of the fact that the nature and the extent of

Once the mining resources exhausted or due to post-mining impact may change in each case and many

the reduction of the extractive industry profit, mining factors (hydro-geological context, mining method,

activity ceased. The mines were closed up and aban- mine characteristics, extracted ore, etc.) may play a

doned without paying enough attention to the resulting significant role, the basic impacts can be the following:

security, environmental, economic, and social impacts.

Subsequently, nowadays many regions and towns Overburden instability (extended collapse, sink-

are exposed to the so-called post-mining hazards. hole, surface subsidence) causing damage to people,

A few significant cases of extended collapse or sur- houses and structures.

face subsidence causing serious damage to buildings Pollution and/or flow change of water resources

and structures were encountered in Lorraine iron ore (groundwater, surface water).

45

Change in air composition in confined structures as soon as the rock mass is flooded. Its value is then

(houses, buildings, etc.) subjected to gas emissions increased gradually (Pw > 0) as a function of water

coming from underground mines (oxygen-deficient rising. The maximum pressure (Pmax ) is given by the

air, rich in CO2 and likely in CH4 , H2 S, radon, etc.) static level of water table at the end of flooding (Hw ).

Risks associated with the facilities connected to the This pressure build-up is accompanied by a decrease

surface (shafts, galleries and adits). of mean effective stress (m ) in absolute value lead-

Impact of mine surface installations and buildings. ing to the expansion (volume increase) of the flooded

Tailings, breakwaters (dikes) and industrial mining strata. This phenomenon can provoke a ground uplift

residuals. (surface heave), during the transient flooding period.

In the following, a review of some hydro-

mechanical and geochemical processes involved in 2.1.1 Poro-elastic effect

post-mining is presented, on the basis of the results Such a phenomenon can be explained easily in the

of field investigations, in situ experiments, laboratory framework of poro-elasticity (Coussy, 1995):

tests and modeling. The paper focuses on the effects = bP 1 and = H:e (Elastic constitutive law)

associated with flooding of closed mines that is to say div( ) + Fvol = 0 (Equilibrium equation): z = gz

while water pumps are switched off. We will see in

and : respectively total stress tensor and effective

which way the coupled phenomena associated with

stress tensor

mine flooding can play a role on the post mining

e : elastic strain tensor

impacts mentioned above.

b: Biot coefficient (0 < b < 1)

1: unit tensor

div: divergence operator

2 HYDRO-MECHANICAL EFFECTS

: specific mass of the overburden depending on sat-

ASSOCIATED WITH MINE FLOODING

uration

g: gravity acceleration

In deep active mines, groundwater is usually pumped

Fvol : body force density given by gravity

out prior to the mining works. Subsequently water table

z: depth of a given level

is kept below the infrastructure level and the overly-

ing rocks may become unsaturated. In principle, the

Note: sign convention is < 0 in compression, < 0

saturation degree depends on hydro-geological and

in compression and P > 0.

mine ventilation conditions. In particular, the relative

These equations can be simplified as follows con-

humidity of the ventilated air has a significant effect

sidering the mean values of total stress (m ) and

on the saturation of the excavations near-by.

effective stress (m ), which are two scalars:

The situation is different for the closed mines:

groundwater is no longer pumped out. The water table

rises gradually leading to a re-saturation of the strata.

The transient flooding of the voids and the overbur-

den is accompanied by coupled hydro-mechanical and Ko : Undrained compressibility modulus

geochemical phenomena influencing the mechanical Ko = Eo/[3(1 2o )] in isotropic medium

behavior of both underground facilities and the sur- Eo and o : respectively undrained Youngs modulus

face. The flooding-induced stress re-distribution can and Poissons ratio

result in the deformation/displacement of the exca- In terms of variation, we have:

vations and the surface. These effects are discussed

below referring to in situ and laboratory data as well

as modeling results.

m and m : mean values of variations in total and

2.1 Flooding-induced ground uplift effective stress respectively

P: Change in water pressure, in average

As it was mentioned previously, mine flooding is V/Vo: flooding-induced volume change

a transient stage during which, in most cases, the

strata state changes from partially saturated to fully-

saturated. At the beginning, the rocks may be subjected

to a suction related to the capillary pressure (Pc ) which

is given by the difference between air pressure (Pa ) and Variation of total stress () is deduced from the equi-

water pressure (Pw ): (Pc = Pa Pw ). librium equation. In the view of simplicity, let the stress

The partially saturated rock can be assimilated to a tensor be isotropic, then:

medium with a negative water pressure (Pc is <0 and

Pa is negligible) while water pressure jumps to zero

46

s , sat , w : specific mass of solid, saturated rock and

water, respectively. Flooding

n = overburen porosity

overburden, the average value Pm = w g Hw /2.

Besides, volume change can be taken as:

Then we have:

a- Vertical displacement at the surface monitored by interferometer technique.

follows:

relationship:

1. Considering in first approximation that flooding b- Water rise monitoring.

level reaches ground level, ground uplift becomes

proportional to H2 that is to say strongly depth- Figure 1 (a and b). Results of surface displacement moni-

dependent: H = w gH2 (n + 0.5)(1 2o )/Eo toring co-related with water rise induced by mine flooding in

2. Ground uplift is inversely proportional to the over- Blanzy coalmine (France), (Carnec et al, 2001).

burden stiffness.

3. For a rough estimation of order of magni-

tude of ground uplift, let us consider H = Hw = fresh water but with saturated brine unless in case of

500 m, Eo = 3000 MPa, o = 0.25, n = 0.25, w g = an accidental flooding (very frequent in salt mines).

0.01 MPa/m. Then H = 0.3 m. This value suggests Nevertheless, even saturated brine has results in the

that the order of magnitude of flooding-induced modification of mechanical properties of rock salt

ground uplift is a few decimeters. In practice, a (creep and strength). These effects have to be con-

part of overburden expansion tends to close (con- sidered in the view of mine closing and post-mining

vergence) underground voids. As a result the rela- (Ghoreychi & Daupley, 2004).

tionship given above may lead to an over-estimation Other cases of mine flooding effect reported in the

of the ground uplift. literature for the mines excluding evaporate mines

highlight that surface uplift takes place after stabi-

2.1.2 Field data lization of the residual subsidence induced by mining

In general, the overall ground movement including works.

both flooding and mining works effects is a downward An interesting example is the case of Limburg

displacement. In other words, mining-induced subsi- coalfield in the Netherlands (Bekendam & Pttgens,

dence is the dominate effect compared to flooding- 1995). As shown in figure 2, in this case, the flooding-

induced heave (Daupley & Vinkler, 2000). This fact induced ground uplift is well co-related with the

is visible in figure 1 showing ground movement mining-induced subsidence. Meanwhile, the surface

measured over Blanzy coalmine (France) using inter- heave does not exceed 12 cm while the mining-induced

ferometer monitoring technique (Carnec et al, 2001). subsidence reaches 7 m. In addition, ground movement

The effect of mine flooding on subsidence has takes place in an extended area, nearly 10 km long.

also been observed in other mines. In some cases, Therefore the curvatures and the horizontal strains

a decrease in the subsidence rate has been noticed induced by flooding remain negligible in comparison

without any ground uplift. For example, this was the with the threshold values that can result in the struc-

case in Jeferson Island salt mine, in USA (Kupfer tures damage. This can be the case unless flooding

1976, Thomes & Gehle 1994, Brouard, 2002). Atten- provokes a collapse of the underground facilities. Such

tion has to be focused on the specificities of evaporite a situation may occur in case the mechanical strength

mines especially due to the solubility in water of these of the rocks is decreased considerably due to the rock

rocks. Indeed halite (Na Cl) mines are not flooded with immersion in water. This point is discussed further.

47

Figure 2. Flooding-induced surface heave and mining-

induced subsidence measured in Limburg coalfield, the

Netherlands (Nekendam & Pttgens, 1995).

These effects are discussed thanks to the results of

a pilot flooding experiment performed in France, in

the framework of GISOS, a scientific group dedi-

cated to the research on post-mining (group founded

by INERIS, BRGM, INPL and Paris Mining School).

The purpose of this pilot test was to investigate,

in the context of Lorraine iron ore basin, the impacts Figure 3. Lorraine iron ore basin, in the East of France.

of mine flooding on the stability of the excavations,

water quality and gas emission. This research was

motivated by the necessity of a good comprehension of

mechanisms involved in the overburden collapse and

subsidence occurred in the past in this basin, probably

in relation with mine flooding.

It may be useful to remind that Lorraine iron ore

basin is one of biggest mining basins in France, 120 km

long (from Luxembourg border to the North of Nancy)

and 30 km large (figure 3). The depth of mine workings

does not exceed 250 m. The mining began in the end of

19th century and lasted until 1980. The central basin

and the southern one have already been flooded but

the flooding of the northern basin has just begun in

November 2005. It will last several years.

A monitoring system composed of geotechnical,

geophysical and geochemical sensors is currently

under operation in this basin in order to follow contin-

uously hydro-mechanical behavior and water quality

during flooding. The pilot experiment was performed

prior to the decision taken on flooding of the Northern

basin flooding.

The experiment was conducted in Tressange mine

(Moselle Departement), extracted by room and pillar

method. In order to be sure of the site stability dur- Figure 4. Geological formations at Tressange site (Lorraine

ing the experiment, an area with large stable pillars iron ore basin, France).

was selected. It is located 220 m below the surface.

Three iron ore layers called yellow, grey and brown rooms was isolated by setting up tight dams, 3 m high

were mined out in this area. Two successive layers are (figure 5).

separated with an intercalary marl and limestone, 7 m The volume of this isolated space subjected to flood-

thick (figure 4). ing is about 3700 m3 . Flooding began in March 2002

The experiment was performed in the brown layer, and water level reached the roof three months later

the deepest one. A part of the mine, 60 m 60 m, because of high leakage within the fractured inter-

surrounding two rectangular pillars and connecting calary marl. The flow rate of leakage reached 9 l/s. The

48

Figure 6. Retention curve of Lorraine iron ore determined

in laboratory (Grgic et al, 2006).

iron ore basin, France).

residence time of water was between 5 and 10 days. Figure 7. Distribution of saturation degree around the exca-

The evacuation of water from the site began in August vations, given by numerical modeling (Souley & Thoraval,

2003. 2004).

The site was equipped with different sensors mon-

itoring geophysical, mechanical, hydraulic, thermal

and geochemical behavior and properties of rocks also been confirmed by numerical modeling (Souley &

prior, during and after flooding as well as after water Thoraval, 2004, Grgic, 2006). In the model, the rock

evacuation from the site. has been assimilated to a partially saturated porous

The basic results of Tressange pilot experiment are medium subject to hydro-mechanical coupled effects

presented below. (Lassabatre, 1994, Coussy & Lassabatre, 1995).

The retention curve (figure 6) was fitted using Van

Genuchten model.

2.2.1 Rock desiccation prior to flooding

The values of porosity and permeability of Lorraine

As mentioned in section 2, due to water pumping and

iron ore are respectively 2030% and 1019 1018 m2 .

mine ventilation, water pressure is negative prior to

Figure 7 presents the distribution of calculated satu-

flooding.

ration induced by the excavations (for more detail, see

Considering that the relative humidity of the venti-

Souley & Thoraval, 2004, Grgic, 2006). One can notice

lated air was 70% to 90%, the related capillary pressure

the significant decrease of saturation on the excavation

can be estimated between 13.9 and 47 MPa (the higher

wall where as the extent of the partially saturated zone.

value corresponds to the lower humidity).

Besides, the saturation degree of the rock mass can

be estimated on the basis of the retention curve (sat- 2.2.2 Flooding effects on the material properties

uration versus suction or relative humidity), obtained The distribution of P waves velocity monitored in a pil-

by laboratory tests (Figure 6 after Grgic et al, 2006). lar using seismic tomography is presented in figure 8.

One can notice that Lorraine iron ore samples become The velocity is systematically low at the peripheral

unsaturated easily as soon as the air is not fully sat- of the pillar. This is due to the so-called Excavation

urated any more. For example, a relative humidity of Damaged Zone induced by blasting. This result can

90% corresponds at most to 40% of saturation, that is be interpreted in terms of efficient pillar width taking

to say the material is almost dried! part in the overall equilibrium of the mine. In fact, the

The fact that the rock subjected to mine ventilation mobilized width of the pillar supporting the overbur-

could be found in a more or less dry condition, has den pressure is smaller than the apparent width. This

49

Figure 8. Increase in P waves velocity induced by flooding Figure 10. Closure measurement during flooding and water

measured by seismic tomography of a pillar (Balland et al, evacuation inTressange pilot experiment (Souley &Thoraval,

2002, GISOS, 2005). 2004).

Figure 9. Evolution of P waves velocity induced by Figure 11. Flooding-induced closure jump modeled in par-

flooding-drying monitored by seismic diagraphy within the tially saturated porous medium (Souley & Thoraval, 2004).

intercalary marl (Balland & Mazire in GISOS, 2005).

suggests that the effective extraction ratio is greater work of poro-mechanics of partially saturated media

than the apparent value. (Lassabatre, 1994, Coussy & Lassabatre, 1995), as

Further more, an increase in velocity values has it has been found by modeling Tressange test (Souley

been detected systematically after flooding took place. & Thoraval, 2004). Nevertheless, the closure jump

This result is explained by the increase of P wave veloc- (figure 11) associated with the drainage of the site

ity as a function of saturation. The same trend has at the end of the experiment cannot be reproduced by

been found in laboratory by testing the rock samples. numerical model unless the discontinuous behavior of

It has also been confirmed in situ within the inter- the fractured intercalary layer is modeled.

calary marl layer in the roof (figure 9). These results

have been obtained by seismic diagraphy carried out

in the intercalary layer. One can see that P wave veloc- 2.2.4 Flooding-induced micro-cracking

ity increases first as a function of saturation before During Tressange experiment, seismic emissions due

decreasing during water evacuation phase. to micro-cracks generated by flooding and final water

evacuation have been investigated using geophones (in

the rock) and hydrophones (in water). The results are

2.2.3 Flooding-induced displacement of the

presented in figure 12. One can see that both flooding

excavation

and water evacuation generate mico-cracks detected

As it was mentioned previously, in case the rock is

by microseismic monitoring. This phenomenon is

partially saturated, flooding results in a jump of water

explained by the two following factors:

pressure from negative values to zero before increasing

gradually due to water rising. 1. Reduction of uniaxial compression strength of the

This phenomenon is accompanied by a jump of wall iron ore as a function of humidity and water content,

closure of the galleries, as it is shown in figure 10. as it is shown in figure 13 (Grgic et al, 2006).

50

a. Decrease of O2 and increase of CO2 induced by flooding.

of Tressange pilot site, monitored by geophones and

hydrophones.

with hydro-chemical reaction induced by flooding: results of

Tressange pilot experiment (Pokryszka et al, 2004).

a reduction in oxygen content whereas CO2 content is

increased.

For example, flooding of abandoned mines can be

Figure 13. Reduction of uniaxial compression strength as accompanied by oxidation of pyrite (FeS2 ) and disso-

a function of relative humidity for Lorraine iron ore (Grgic lution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) according to the

et al, 2006). following chemical reaction:

saturation (provoking swelling) and desiccation

(leading to shrinkage).

This reaction corresponds to a coupled hydro-chemical

process in which the interactions between rock

3 GAS EMISSION AND MIGRATION TO THE (CaCO3 ), air (O2 ) and water are involved. In other

SURFACE words, such a reaction cannot take place unless oxy-

gen (air), water, calcite and pyrite are all four present

Catastrophic mining accidents (i.e. recently in China) in the medium.

generated by explosion, especially in coalmines, high- This oxygen-consuming hydro-chemical reaction

light the danger of mine gases like methane (CH4 ). accompanied by generation of CO2 has been investi-

However the hazards related to the other gas emissions gated by Pokryszka et al (2004) from INERIS in the

are much less known and less considered. An example framework of Tressange pilot flooding test presented

is the air poor in oxygen that can be present in the non above. The results given in figure 14 show that the

ventilated underground cavities. Another example is chemical reaction is activated as soon as the flooding

the radon concentration in such cavities. begins.

Ambient air usually contains 20.9% of oxygen and The consequence of such a phenomenon for the

0.03% of carbon dioxide. These proportions may vary exposed persons health depends on the values of O2

in the underground cavities because of various factors, and CO2 . For instance, 34% of CO2 associated with

especially in presence of geochemical interactions and 1416% of O2 provokes headache while less than 6%

bacteriological activities. Two common processes are of oxygen and more than 10% of CO2 result in death.

51

This is why the access to the abandoned mines can be

harmful due to the lack of ventilation.

The risks associated with harmful gas emissions are

not limited only to the case of access to the under-

ground space, the inhabitants of buildings over the

mines can also be threatened. In fact in closed mines,

the air being poor in oxygen and sometimes contain-

ing an excessive concentration of radon, it may be

connected to buildings and structures at the surface.

Even if the entrances of galleries and shafts have been

closed up, their tightness to gas emissions is not per- a- Surface temperature in C.

fect. Moreover pathways may exist. This may be the

case of fractures induced by mining works.

A short review of a real case may be useful: this case

is that of Moyeuvre-Grande, a small town in Lorraine

Department, East of France, in the Lorraine iron ore

basin. Following the problems revealed by the inhabi-

tants confronted with a bad functioning of their heating

installation in the building basement, INERIS was

requested to investigate the case, to highlight its origin

and to propose a solution (Pokryszka et al, 2004). The

situation can be understood thanks to the investiga-

tion results plotted in figure 15. Its comes out that the b- Airflow rate (in l/s): negative values correspond to inflow.

whereas the temperature inside the mine is more or

less constant. In winter, mine temperature is higher

than surface temperature. Then the airflow is oriented

towards the surface and the mine gases present in the

mine air are conducted to the surface. The situation

is reversed in summer since the surface temperature

is higher than that of mine reservoirs. This situation

leads to an air transfer from outside to the mine.

One can notice that the measured values of tem-

perature, air flow rate and radon concentration are

c- Radon concentration (in Bq/m3).

well co-related. Moreover in warm periods, radon con-

centration in the underground air connected to the

surface is very high, up to 10 000 Bq/m3 . Such values

being much higher than the reference admissible value

of 400 Bq/m3 , a special attention has to be focused

on this problem. Indeed special measures have to be

taken to reduce considerably radon concentration in

the air. Although an efficient ventilation of the exposed

buildings becomes essential.

We remind that except for some mines (i.e. ura-

nium mines), radon emission is not generated by mine d- Mechanism of temperature-induced free convection of air and gas transfer

to the surface.

and mining. In fact any insufficiently ventilated under-

ground space can be affected by a radon concentration Figure 15 (a, b, c and d). Measurements and mechanism

since this gas can migrate easily. Under the pressure related to gas emissions induced by the temperature dif-

head effect, any present gas can migrate from the rocks ference between mine reservoir and surface The case of

naturally containing (more or less) radioactive ele- Moyeuvre-Grande old iron mine, East of France (Grabowski

ments to the underground spaces or towards any other et al, 2003, Pokryzska et al, 2004).

free surface. This is why radon is always present at

surface, indeed at low concentration. In fact radon cor-

responds to the principal way of natural exposure of the air (222 Rn is generated by radium 226 Rd which

man to radioactivity. is produced itself by uranium 238 U). Its half-life, 3.8

Among the three isotope of this radioactive gas days, is long enough to let radon migrate and reach the

(219 Rn, 220 Rn, 222 Rn), 222 Rn is the most present in surface.

52

4 CONCLUSION par interfromtrie radar : perspectives et applications,

Environnement (Socit Industrie Minrale) N 14 : 2123

Long term impact of closing of underground mines Coussy, O. 1995. Mechanics of porous continua, 2nd ed.

in terms of security of people and structures and pro- (Wiley)

Coussy, O., Lassabatre, T., 1995. Mechanical behaviour

tection of environment has to be evaluated and man-

of partially saturated media-modelisation of desiccation

aged carefully. In this view the interactions between shrinkage. Mechanics of porous media (Chrlez), Balkema,

water, air and rocks have to be well understood and Rotterdam, 245264

considered. The transient period of mine flooding Ghoreychi, M. & Daupley X. 2004. Devenir long terme

can be accompanied with an activation of coupled dexploitations abandonees de sel, Revue Franaise de

hydro-mechanical and geo-chemical processes. They Gotechnique, N 106107: 121129

may have a significant effect on the quality of water Grabowski, D. & Pokryszka, Z. 2003. Noxious gas emis-

resources and air and upon the long-term stability sions from the closed iron mines to the built-up areas in

of the overburden. The change in the pore pres- the surface. Proc. Of the 10th International Congress of

the ISRM Technology Roadmap for Rock Mechanics,

sure induced by water rising may result in different

Sandton city, South Africa, 812 september 2003, vol. 1:

effects: ground uplift, cavities closure and weaken- 409413

ing of mechanical properties of rocks. Moreover, the Grgic, D., Homand, F. & Giraud, A. 2006. Modeling of the

underground air, poor in oxygen but rich in carbon drying and flooding of underground iron mines in Lor-

dioxide, radon and sometimes explosive gases can be raine (France), International Journal of Rock Mechanics

in connection with the buildings through the existing and Mining Sciences, 43: 388407

pathways and fractures. Daupley, X. & Vinkler, F. 2000. Impact de la remonte des

All these hazards have to be investigated, under- eaux au sein des travaux miniers souterrains sur la stabilit

stood and managed, in the view of efficient prevention de la surface, Report INERIS-DRS-21681/R05, August 8,

2000

and mitigation of risks for the people, possessions and

Kupfer, D.H. 1976. Shear zones inside Gulf Coast salt

ecosystems. stocks help to delineate spines of movement. American

Association of Petroleum Geology, Bull. 60: 14341447

Pokryszka, Z. & Grabowski, D. 2004. Emissions gazeuses

REFERENCES partir des vides miniers dans le basin ferrifre lorrain,

Revue Franaise de Gotechnique, N 106108: 3139

Balland, C., Forney, F., Petitt, W. 2002. Technique Lassabatre, T., 1994. Couplages hydromcaniques en milieu

dinstrumentation ultrasonique applique la carac- poreux non satur avec changement de phase: applica-

trisation de lendommagement douvrages souterrains, tion au retrait de dessiccation. PhD thesis, Paris, Ecole

Journes AGAP Qualit, Nantes, 78 novembre 2002, Nationale des Ponts et Chausses

LCPC Souley, M. & Thoraval, A. 2004. Modlisation hydrom-

Bekendam, R.F. & Pttgens, J.J. 1995 Ground movements canique de lennoyage partiel dun site exprimental dans

over the coal mines of southern Limburg, The Netherlands une mine de fer de Lorraine, Journes Natioales de

and their relation to rising mine waters, Land Subsidence, Gotechnique et de Gologie de lIngnieur (JNGG), Lille

Proc. of the fifth International Symposium on Land 2830 juin, 493502

Subsidence, The Hague, Oct; 1995 (IAHS Publisher), Synthses des travaux de recherche aprs-mine fer 2004,

234:312 (GISOS), Fvrier 2005

Brouard, B. 2002 Etude bibliographique sur les accidents dans Thoms, R.L. & Gehle, R.M. 1994. The Jeferson Island

les bassins salifres rsultant dune dissolution volontaire mine flooding revisited In Proc. Solution Lining Research

ou non, Brouard Consulting report, 14 mars 2002 Institute Spring Meeting, Huston

Carnec, C., King, C., Raucoules, D., Guise, Y., Paquette, Y.

2001. Suivi de mouvements rsiduels sur sites miniers

53

1 Multiphysics coupling

1.1 Theoretical concepts

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Emmanuel Detournay

University of Minnesota, USA

Andrew P. Bunger

CSIRO Petroleum, Australia

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the plane strain problem of a shallow fluid-driven fracture propagating

parallel to a free-surface in an impermeable elastic rock. This problem has applications into magma-driven

fractures such as sills, conditioning of ore masses by hydraulic fracturing to enhance caveability, and excavation

of hard rocks by hydraulic means. We present two similarity solutions for cases when the fracture length is

large compared to its depth: (i) the O solution with only a small fraction of the fracture occupied by the injected

fluid, and (ii) the K solution with the fracture completely filled by the fluid. It is shown that the O solution captures

an intermediate episode of the fracture propagation under conditions of small toughness and confining stress

and that the K solution corresponds to the large time asymptotic evolution of the fracture.

1994; Bunger and Detournay 2005).

Modeling of fluid-driven fractures has been an ongo- The presence of a free surface affects in several ways

ing effort over the past 50 years, starting with the pio- the propagation of a fluid-driven fracture. First, the

neering work of Khristianovic and Zheltov (1955). reduced normal stress across the near-surface fracture

This activity has been mainly motivated by hydraulic plane generally implies the existence of a fluid lag.

fracturing, a method widely applied in the petroleum Fluid lag is the non-wetted zone that exists between

industry to stimulate oil and gas wells. Hence, the main the tip and the fluid front in a hydraulic fracture and

thrust of the modeling effort has been directed towards its size depends in a sensitive manner on the normal

solving the problem of a deep hydraulic fracture stress o acting across the fracture plane (Garagash and

in an infinite elastic medium, either homogeneous Detournay 2000). Second, a fracture initially parallel

(Perkins and Kern 1961; Barenblatt 1962; Geertsma to the free surface will eventually curve towards the

and de Klerk 1969; Spence and Sharp 1985) or non- free surface as the mode II stress intensity factor KII is

homogeneous (Wang and Clifton 1990; Siebrits and non-zero, with the curvature

of the fracture controlled

Peirce 2002). by the parameter = H /KIc (Zhang et al. 2002;

However, hydraulic fracturing has recently been Bunger et al. 2004).

applied to contaminant spill remediation (Murdoch In this paper, we consider the plane strain propa-

2002), excavation of hard rocks (Young 1999), and gation of a fracture growing at a distance H from the

cave inducement in mining (Jeffrey and Mills 2000), free surface in an impermeable elastic rock charac-

which involve growth of a fracture near a free sur- terized by Youngs modulus E, Poissons ratio , and

face. Furthermore, hydraulic fracturing is an important fracture toughness KIc , see Fig. 1.The fracture is driven

mechanism in a number of near-surface geological by an incompressible Newtonian fluid of viscosity ,

processes (Pollard and Hozlhausen 1979), such as the injected at a constant rate Qo . This problem is further

formation of saucer-shaped sills. For these cases, the characterized by o , the preexisting normal stress act-

hydraulic fracturing problem must then be formulated ing across the fracture plane. Finally, it is assumed that

in a half space to account for the effect of the free sur- is large enough to not influence the solution, other

face. Few models incorporate, however, the influence than to cause the fracture to propagate parallel to the

of a free surface on the propagation of a fluid-driven free surface. The confining stress o , which generally

fracture, and with some exceptions (Zhang et al. 2005; arises from gravity, could be either compressive or ten-

Bunger 2005) these models are restricted to the lim- sile, depending on the orientation of the half-plane.

iting case of a uniformly pressurized fracture (Pollard Here we restrict consideration to compressive or zero

57

2 REGIMES OF PROPAGATION

As discussed below within the restricted context of a

shallow fracture, the solution w(x, t), p(x, t), (t) and

f (t) is governed by a set of equations derived from

elasticity, fracture mechanics, and lubrication theory,

and the relevant initial and boundary conditions. For

the following discussion, it is useful to introduce a

scaling factor W for the aperture and a scaling factor

Figure 1. Shallow hydraulic fracture propagating parallel to P for the net pressure

a free-surface.

is below the horizontal free surface (Fig. 1).

The solution of the hydraulic fracturing problem as well as the time scale T

consists of the fracture aperture w(x, t), the net pres-

sure p(x, t) = pf (x, t) o (where pf (x, t) is the fluid

pressure), the fracture half-length (t), and the half-

length f (t) of the fluid-filled region. The functions

w(r, t), p(r, t), (t), f (t) depend on the injection rate together with a dimensionless toughness K and a

Qo , on the confining stress o , and on three material dimensionless confining stress S (Zhang et al. 2005)

parameters E , K , and

several similarity solutions of the form (Spence and

where E and are the rock Youngs modulus and Pois- Sharp 1985; Garagash 2006; Detournay 2004)

sons ratio respectively, KIc is the rock toughness, and

is dynamic viscosity of the Newtonian fluid.

This paper focuses on presenting scaling laws and

two similarity solutions for a fracture propagating

under conditions when the ratio of the fracture half-

length over the depth H is large. (The fracture is

assumed to propagate symmetrically with respect to

the injection point, and is thus the length of a fracture where the functions denoted by an asterisk and the time

wing). A large /H ratio implies that the opening of exponents depend on the similarity solution. These

the fracture can be analyzed using beam theory. The similarity solutions can be classified either as early

similarity solutions, which will be shown to evolve time, large time, or intermediate asymptotic solutions.

according to a power law, correspond to two particu-

lar episodes of the propagation of a hydraulic fracture

parallel to a free-surface. 2.2 Deep fractures

First we summarize previous results showing that Consider first the restricted case of a deep fracture

the evolution of such a fracture takes place relative to (/H 1). It can be shown that the deep fracture solu-

three different time scales and that the general solu- tion evolves from an early time similarity solution

tion can be represented in prismatic parametric space (Garagash 2006) characterized by the time exponents

denoted as OMKOMK (Bunger and Detournay 2006). = 1/3, a = 1/3, a = 2/3, a = 2/3 and a finite

Then we derive two similarity solutions, which can be lag, to a large time similarity solution with same time

identified with the O and K vertex of that space. The exponents but with zero lag (Spence and Sharp 1985;

O solution is characterized by a large lag between the Detournay 2004). Large time is here to be understood

fluid front and the crack tip and by a fluid fraction within the context of the deep fracture case only; i.e.

f = /f (with f denoting the half-length of the fluid- the time is large with respect to the time scale that char-

filled region) increasing according to a power law, acterizes the progressive disappearance of the lag, but

while the K solution pertains to fracture completely is still small compared with T , a measure of the tran-

filled by the injected fluid (zero lag). sition time from a deep to a shallow fracture. Thus, in

58

the context of the general problem, this second sim-

ilarity solution is actually an intermediate similarity

solution, which can be reached under the condition

S 1 (Zhang et al. 2005).

At early time, the position of the crack edge and of

the fluid front evolves according to

in a tabulated form, or in closed-form asymptotically

for small K (Garagash 2006). (The significance of the

subscript ok will be clarified below.) Within the con-

text of a deep fracture, the fluid fraction f = f /

increases with time from an early time value given

by f ok = ok /ok to 1. Figure 2. Parametric space OMKOMK with the OMK-face

corresponding to a deep fracture (/H 1) and the OMK to

a shallow one (/H O(1)).

2.3 Parametric space

It is useful to track the evolution of the fracture in is characterized by a very small fluid-filled region

the prismatic parametric space OMKOMK, depicted f 1, which is growing according to f 5/8 ; i.e.

in Fig. 2 (Detournay and Garagash 2006; Bunger the fluid front is moving faster than the fracture front.

and Detournay 2006). For the moment, we consider Also the power law exponents in (5) are given by =

the face OMK which pertains to a deep fracture 4/9, a = 7/9, a = 2/9, a = 5/36. The M-vertex

(/H 1). A line parallel to the OM-edge within the solution is either the large time solution if K = 0

face OMK represents solutions characterized by a con- or another intermediate solution under certain condi-

stant K, with the OM-edge corresponding to K = 0 tions. At the M-vertex, there is a zero lag (f = 1) and

and the K-vertex to K = . The OK- and the MK- the time exponents take the following values = 5/9,

edge represent, respectively, locus of small time and a = 11/9, a = 4/9, a = 1/3. Finally the K-vertex

intermediate time similarity solutions. For a given K is the large time solution if K > 0 and is character-

the solution evolves, therefore, from a point A on the ized by zero lag, a uniform pressure and by = 2/3,

OK-edge to a point A on the MK-edge along the line a = 2/3, a = 1/3, a = 1/3.

AA , with an associated growth of the relative size of The prismatic space is the general domain of solu-

the fluid-filled region from a minimum value along tion, with the solution point departing the face OMK

OK to 1 along MK. when the effect of the free-surface becomes notice-

The OK- and MK-edges represent also the loci of able and heading towards the face OMK. The three

solutions for o = 0 and o = , respectively. Hence, other faces of the prism also correspond to restricted

the solution remains self-similar (same point on the cases. The solution space is reduced to the face OOKK

OK-edge) if o = 0 as long as /H 1, which implies, if o = 0, to the face MMKK if o = , and to the

for example, that both the length of the fracture and face OOMM if K = 0. (In particular, the solutions

the size of the fluid-filled region grows according to on the face OOMM can be interpreted as reopen-

t 2/3 . Similarly, for o = , the solution is always on ing of a preexisting discontinuity parallel to the free

a point of the MK-edge, where it evolves in a self- surface.)

similar manner. Strictly speaking, the case o =

should be understood as the limit of large o , with the

evolution from the OK- to the MK-edge taking place 3 SHALLOW FRACTURES

increasingly rapidly with o .

It is straightforward to analyze the influence of the 3.1 Governing equations and boundary conditions

free-surface, using this parametric space. Indeed, con-

sider now the face OMK, which represents the space We now turn towards a formulation of the problem,

of the solution for the limiting case /H 1, when the specific for shallow hydraulic fractures. In view of the

layer between the fracture and the free-surface behaves problem symmetry, we consider only one half of the

as a beam (with the fracture aperture equated to the fracture 0 < x < .

transverse deflection of the beam). Now, only the solu- Elasticity equation:

tions at the three vertices are self-similar as discussed

below, with each similarity solution symbolizing a

different physical situation. The O-vertex solution

59

This equation is not appropriate for scaling purposes well as the fracture half-length and the half-length

when the fracture fluid-filled fraction f / is small f of the fluid-filled region as

(which entails a large p/E ). Under these conditions,

we rewrite (7) after taking into account the boundary

condition in the lag region as

where (x) denotes the Dirac Delta function, and coordinate = x/(t) (0 1), a characteristic open-

F(t) is a net force equal to ing W (t), a characteristic pressure P(t), and two length

scales L(t) and Lf (t) of the same order of magnitude

as (t) and f (t), respectively. Also two dimensionless

evolution parameters P1 (t) and P2 (t), which depend

monotonically on t, have been introduced.

Lubrication equation: It is in fact necessary to define the alternate coordi-

nate = x/f (the position along the fracture scaled by

the length f of the fluid-filled region), for situations

where the size of the fluid-filled region is small com-

Inlet condition: pared to the crack length. We also define the dimen-

sionless parameter = Lf /L as a measure of the

relative size of the fluid-filled region over the crack

length. The two coordinates and are evidently

related by = /f . Note that the true fluid frac-

tion f = f / and that f asymptotically only

at small and large time (since and f depend in

general on P1 and P2 ).We denote by a prime the

Condition in the lag zone: field quantities expressed in terms of . In other

words, F ( ) = {, f , ( ), ( )} and F ( ) =

F( f /).

Condition at the fluid front: Five dimensionless groups emerge from express-

ing the system of equations (7)(15) in terms of the

dimensionless quantities defined in (17). For solutions

characterized by a large lag ( 1) the four unknown

quantities P, L, W , and , have to be determined by

where the dot implies differentiation with respect setting four of these groups to 1, while for zero lag

to time. scalings ( = 1), only P, L, W have to be determined

Tip conditions and propagation criterion: by setting three of these groups to 1.

Although various scalings can be devised by set-

ting different groups or monomial containing to some

dimensionless groups to 1, we are here essentially

See Dyskin et al. (2000) for a justification of this motivated by physical arguments in defining the O,

criterion. M, and K scalings. See the expressions for P, L, and

for these three scalings in Table 1. Finally, the two

In the above, we have introduced the parameters E

and K for the shallow case, which are related to their Table 1. Scaling factors P and L as well as for the three

full space equivalents E and K , respectively, by scalings introduced for shallow hydraulic fractures.

Scaling P L

19 1

K 12 H 6 E 5 H 6 Qo3 t 2 9

O K

with KM1 = 1.932. E 4 Qo6 t 7 K 6

1 3 3 4 19

5 E 4 H 12 9 E H Qo t

M 1

3.2 Scaling Qo6 t 11

Following the scaling approach developed for deep 10 3 16 2 3 2 2 16

K H E H Qo t

fractures (Detournay 2004), we introduce the dimen- K 1

E 4 Qo4 t 4 K 2

sionless crack opening , net pressure , flux , as

60

evolution parameters P1 and P2 are identified with the of order O() at most. With this simplification, the O

two remaining dimensionless groups for the M and K solution can readily be completed using the lubrication

scalings or the remaining group and for the O scaling. equations and remaining boundary conditions

In particular,

O scaling:

The solution at the K-vertex (M = 0 and Sk = )

is of the form Fk0 () = {k0 , k0 (), k0 }. As the pres-

sure in the fracture is uniform, the aperture field is here

K scaling: given by k0 = k0 (0)(1 2 )2 . This equation com-

bined with the volume balance and the propagation

criterion yields the K solution

of P1 and P2 (which can be interpreted as an evolution

relative to two distinct time scales), it is convenient to 4 CONCLUDING REMARKS

express the solution in terms of the dimensionless time

= t/T and the trajectory parameter (corresponding The O and K similarity solutions for a shallow

actually to a ratio of time scales) with hydraulic fracture outlined in this paper represent par-

ticular episodes in the life of a hydraulic fracture that

propagates at a constant depth H , which is large com-

pared to the nucleation length of the fracture. Within

this more general context, the K solution corresponds

the large time asymptotics; however, the O solu-

Thus the evolution parameters can be written as tion represents an intermediate time asymptotics only

under conditions of small toughness K 1 and small

stress S 1. Under these particular conditions, the

solution evolves in the parametric space OMKOMK

(Fig. 1) by first closely following the OO-edge, then

heading towards the K-vertex essentially following the

3.3 Similarity solutions OK-edge. In this case, the solution is characterized by

the existence of three similarity regimes.

It can be demonstrated that the system of equations Figure 3 illustrates the results of a numerical simu-

(7)(15) accepts three similarity solutions, which are lation conducted for K = 0.1 and S = 0, starting from

conceptually represented by the three vertices of the a point close to the OK-edge until the vicinity of the

OMK face of the space shown in Fig. 1. Each sim- O-vertex (Zhang et al. 2005). Such a path roughly

ilarity solution takes a finite value in the associated

scaling, with the corresponding evolution parameters

degenerating either to 0 or to . Within the restricted

context of a shallow fracture, the O and the K sim-

ilarity solutions represents the small and large time

asymptotics, respectively. The life path from the O-

to the K-vertex depends on : the trajectory = 0

corresponds to the path O-M-K characterized by two

separated time scales, while the trajectory = is

associated with the direct path O-K (corresponding,

for example, to o = 0.) Thus the M solution is an

intermediate asymptotics, experienced only if 1.

Consider first the solution at the O-vertex (K = 0

and So = ). The fluid fraction f is small but increas-

ing as 1/3 , as can be surmised from = K = 1/3 .

The O solution is of the form Fo0 () = {o0 , f o0 ,

Figure 3. Evolution of fracture length and fluid fraction

o0 (), o0 ()}. The fracture aperture corresponds to f for K = 0.1 and S = 0 (Zhang et al. 2005). The numeri-

a force dipole at the origin and is given by o0 = cal simulation captures the transition between the small time

o0 (0)(1 3 2 + 2 3 ). This expression implies that similarity OK solution and a solution close to the intermedi-

the fracture aperture in the fluid-filled region can sim- ate asymptotic O solution. (The asymptotes are represented

ply be set to the inlet opening o0 (0) with an error by the dashed lines.)

61

approximates the OO-edge. It can be seen from Fig. 3 Jeffrey, R. and K. Mills (2000). Hydraulic fracturing applied

that the numerical algorithm captures well the transi- to inducing longwall coal mine goaf falls. In Pacific Rocks

2000, Rotterdam, pp. 423430. Balkema.

tion between the two asymptotic regimes, which takes

Khristianovic, S. and Y. Zheltov (1955). Formation of verti-

place approximately between 2 103 to 1. Fig- cal fractures by means of highly viscous fluids. In Proc.

ure 3 also shows the interesting result that the fluid 4th World Petroleum Congress, Rome, Volume II, pp.

front recedes in relative terms during the transition 579586.

period. Murdoch, L. (1993). Hydraulic fracturing of soil during lab-

oratory experiments. Part 2: Propagation. Geotechnique

43(2), 267276.

REFERENCES Murdoch, L. (2002). Mechanical analysis of idealized shal-

low hydraulic fracture. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. 128(6),

Barenblatt, G. (1962). The mathematical theory of equi- 488495.

librium cracks in brittle fracture. Adv. Appl. Mech. VII, Perkins, T. and L. Kern (1961). Widths of hydraulic fractures.

55129. J. Pet. Tech., Trans. AIME 222, 937949.

Bunger, A. (2005). Near-Surface Hydraulic Fracture. Ph. D. Pollard, D. and G. Hozlhausen (1979). On the mechanical

thesis, University of Minnesota. interaction between a fluid-filled fracture and the earths

Bunger, A. and E. Detournay (2005). Asymptotic solution surface. Tectonophysics 53, 2757.

for a penny-shaped near-surface hydraulic fracture. Eng. Siebrits, E. and A. Peirce (2002). An efficient multi-layer

Fract. Mec. 72(16), 24682486. planar 3D fracture growth algorithm using a fixed mesh

Bunger, A. and E. Detournay (2006). Scaling and interme- approach. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng. 53, 691717.

diate asymptotic behavior of hydraulic fracture grow- Spence, D.A. and P. W. Sharp (1985). Self-similar solution for

ing parallel to a free-surface. SIAM J. Appl. Math. In elastohydrodynamic cavity flow. Proc. Roy. Soc. London,

preparation. Ser. A 400, 289313.

Bunger, A., R. Jeffrey, and E. Detournay (2004, June). Wang, G., M. Dusseault, J. Pindera, and L. Rothenburg

Toughness-dominated near-surface hydraulic fracture (1994). Influence of subsurface fractures on surface defor-

experiments. In D. P. Yale, S. M. Willson, and mation of an elastic half-space. Int. J. Numer. Anal.

A. S. Abou-Sayed (Eds.), GulfRock04 Conference (6th Methods Geomech. 18, 287303.

NARMS), Houston. ARMA. Wang, J. and R. Clifton (1990). Numerical modeling of

Detournay, E. (2004). Propagation regimes of fluid-driven hydraulic fracturing in layered formations with multi-

fractures in impermeable rocks. Int. J. Geomechanics 4(1), ple elastic moduli. In Rock Mechanics Contributions and

111. Challenges, Rotterdam, pp. 303310. Balkema.

Detournay, E. and D. Garagash (2006). Scaling laws for a Young, C. (1999). Controlled-foam injection for hard rock

radial hydraulic fracture propagating in a permeable rock. excavation. In Rock Mechanics for Industry, Proceedings

Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. A. To be submitted. of 37th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Vail, Colorado,

Dyskin, A., L. Germanovich, and K. Ustinov (2000). Asymp- Vol 1, Rotterdam, pp. pp.115122. Balkema.

totic analysis of crack interaction with free boundary. Int. Zhang, X., E. Detournay, and R. Jeffrey (2002). Propaga-

J. Solids Structures 37(6), 857886. tion of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture parallel to the

Garagash, D. (2006, March). Plane-strain propagation of a free-surface on an elastic half-space. Int. J. Fracture 115,

fluid-driven fracture during injection and shut-in: Asymp- 125158.

totics of large toughness. Eng. Fract. Mec. 73(4), 456481. Zhang, X., R. Jeffrey, and E. Detournay (2005, November).

Garagash, D. and E. Detournay (2000). The tip region of a Propagation of a hydraulic fracture parallel to a free

fluid-driven fracture in an elastic medium. ASME J. Appl. surface. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 29(13),

Mech. 67, 183192. 13171340.

Geertsma, J. and F. de Klerk (1969). A rapid method of pre-

dicting width and extent of hydraulic induced fractures.

J. Pet. Tech. 246, 15711581. (SPE 2458).

62

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

partially frozen cement paste

Institut Navier, L.M.S.G.C., 2, alle Kepler, Champs sur Marnes

under a thermal gradient, has been developed. This study reveals that, unlike some authors opinions, skin damage

(called scaling) can occur without a brine layer in contact with the frozen surface. In order to explain this

behaviour, a poroelastic model is built up. It is based on the coupling between liquidice crystal thermodynamic

equilibrium, Darcean water transport, thermal conduction and elastic properties of the different phases that

form the porous material. The stress on the solid matrix is calculated through the liquid water content versus

temperature experimental curve. A maximum of tensile stress near the surface submitted to frost action is

predicted for low permeable cement pastes. This could be at the origin of scaling.

Index i refers to phase i (solid matrix (i = m), ice crystal

All the liquid water within a porous medium sub- (i = c) or liquid water (i = l)).

mitted to frost action does not freeze at the same

temperature. This is commonly attributed to water Symbols Signification

confinement, impurity or supercooling (Scherer 1993;

i Dielectric constant

Dash, Fu, and Wettlaufer 1995). As a consequence, Sl , Sc liquid (l) or ice (c) saturation

an initially water-saturated porous material remains Lagrangian porosity

filled with both ice and liquid water down to at least Sf Volumetric entropy of fusion

40 C (Jehng, Sprague, and Halperin 1996). Nowa- pi Pressure

days, the mechanical response of a porous material pcap Capillary pressure = pc pl

is generally attributed to the combination of the 9% i Mass density

volumic liquid to solid expansion, the transport of m Matrix hydrostatic stress

unfrozen liquid water through the porous network and Ci Volumetric heat capacity

i Thermal conductivity

the thermomechanical properties of all the phases.

Permeability

A poromechanics-based approach has been recently Ki , Gi Bulk and shear elastic moduli

developed to understand and quantify all these phe- b Biot coefficient = 1 K/Km

nomena both at the pore scale (Coussy and Fen-Chong i Volumetric thermal coefficient

2005) and at the material scale (Coussy 2005). The

latter includes the effect of air voids, as experimen-

tally studied in (Wang, Monteiro, Rubinsky, and Arav

1996). internal frost, scaling, and the macroscopic poroelastic

Surface scaling results in the unsticking of local properties of the structure.

pieces from the surface. The mechanisms underly-

ing this phenomenon are still imperfectly understood.

Here, the occurrence of scaling in a specimen under

an unidimensional thermal gradient and submitted to 2 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

freezing-thawing cycles is investigated. First, an exper-

imental study is carried out in order to emphasize that, 2.1 Tested materials and related properties

unlike some authors opinions (Verberk and Klieger Cement pastes, with 0.4 water-cement mass ratio

1957; Valenza and Scherer 2005), scaling can occur (called W/C ratio), are prepared with a 5-liter mortar

without any salts nor brine layer. Then, a porome- mixer, and cast in 150 mm high cubic moulds. Ordi-

chanic model is built up to establish a link between the nary Portland Cement CEM I CPA 52.5 N CP2 and

63

Table 2. Cement paste characteristics: 0 is the water poros-

ity (i.e. evaluated from the sample mass difference between

dried and saturated states), MIE is the porosity from a

mercury injection experiment and 0 the Katz-Thompson

permeability.

Param. 0 MIE 0

Unit m3 /m3 m3 /m3 1021 [m2 ]

3d & 4d 0.29 0.19 41.0

mens are removed from their mould and stored in moist

condition (relative humidity rh = 95% 5%) during Figure 1. Comparison between experimental data and fitted

6 months. They are further cut and cored in 20 mm curves for the Sl () curves for 1 and 2 samples.

thick and 40 mm diameter slices and remained in water

before tested. Some specimens (index d) are dried in

an oven at 55 C then saturated with degassed distilled

water at 3 kPa air pressure before being tested.

For each kind of specimen (i.e. previously dried

or virgin) the permeability is estimated using a mer-

cury injection experiment through the Katz-Thompson

relation (Katz and Thompson 1987) and the relation

between the amount of water which remains liquid

(Sl ) versus temperature () is determined using the

capacitive method described bellow. Cement paste

characteristics are reported in table 2 and Sl () rela-

tions on figures 1 and 2. In all that follows, stands for

Celsius temperature and T for absolute temperature in

Kelvin (T [K] = [ C] + 273.15).

Figure 2. Comparison between experimental data and fitted

The experimental curve Sl () is estimated using a home curves for the Sl () curves for 3d and 4d predried samples.

made capacitive sensor apparatus. The full description

of the experimental set up and calibration are reported As it is sketched on figures 1 and 2, in the [30 C,

in (Fen-Chong, Fabbri, Guilbaud, and Coussy 2004) 0 C] temperature range, Sl () varies linearly, except

and (Fabbri, Fen-Chong, and Coussy 2005). In short, for two particular temperatures on cooling, around

this technique relies upon the dielectric properties of 5 C and 20 C, and one, around 5 C on heating,

liquid water, ice, air, and mineral substrate in the radio- where the slope changes significantly. These freezing-

frequency range. The estimation of the liquid water thawing temperatures are related to the confinement

content versus the temperature in freezing cement where the phase change take place (Brun, Lallemand,

pastes is based upon the Lichtenecker multi-scale Quinson, and Eyraud 1977). This kind of behaviour,

model which furnishes a relation between the mea- also observed for water retention capillary curves, is

sured global dielectric constant of the medium (global ), well described by the following Van- Genuchten-like

the liquid saturation and the dielectric constants of all (Van Genuchten 1980) sigmoidally functions:

the phases:

and solid matrix (m ) are evaluated from the compar-

ison between tests of fully saturated specimens and

dried ones. The ice dielectric constant (i ) is taken

from literature data.

64

where Sl, frost () and Sl,thaw () are the liquid satura- Table 3. Scaling tests experimental results. The scales

tion ratio on freezing and thawing, while k stands masses are in [g/m2 ].

for the number of freezing peaks, i for the tem-

perature at which each of them happens, for the 1 2 3d 4d

temperature at which the thawing peak happens and

14 cycles 4 27 Destroyed Destroyed

nf = 1 ki=1 i for the non-freezable water content.

28 cycles 117 145 * *

These coefficients can be evaluated from the analysis 42 cycles 152 154 * *

of the Sl () derivative curve. Because the liquid sat- 56 cycles 168 182 * *

uration ratio is a continuous function, Sl, frost (th ) and

Sl,thaw (th ) are equal and the coefficient T must be:

2.4 Results

Table 3 shows the evolution of scales mass per unit of

surface. As we can see, no scaling occurs on previously

1 n dried 3d and 4d cement pastes. Indeed, these two spec-

with fn, () = 1 + n 1n and th the temper- imens are totally crushed by internal cracking during

ature at which the thawing begins. the fourteen first cycles. On the contrary, a significant

Finally coefficients i , ni and n, which are the scaling occurs on 1 and 2 ones. This result clearly indi-

amplitude and the shape factor of the ith freezing sig- cates that scaling can occur without a frozen brine layer

moidally function and the shape factor of the thawing in contact with the surface submitted to frost action.

curve, remain to be fitted. It must be emphasized that In all cases, the external actions are the same and

and n appear to be independent of th on all tested the differences rely on the intrinsic characteristic of

cement pastes (six Ordinary Portland Cement Pastes the tested media (i.e. amount of ice formed versus tem-

with W/C ratio from 0.3 to 0.5). Thus, the fit of only perature, permeability, and thermo-mechanical prop-

one thawing curve is sufficient for building up all the erties). In order to understand how these parameters

thawing curves. determine the mechanical response of the sample, the

Figures 1 and 2 show the comparison between the material behaviour law developed in (Coussy 2005) is

experimental data and the fitted curves using (2) dif- adapted and applied to our case. Then, using the same

ferent thawing temperatures (the green, red and black boundary conditions as the experimental ones, results

curves respectively stand for thawing stages that begin from the model will be compared to experimental

at 30 C, 20 C and 15 C) keeping and n observation.

constant for each thawing curves.

3 POROMECHANICS OF FREEZING

2.3 Experimental set-up MATERIALS

The tested sample is inserted between two hollow pis-

tons each filled with a fluid from a cryostat. Their The specimen is modelled as an axisymetric structure

temperature is controlled thanks to a PT100 sensor. made up of an isotropic medium, of length L and lateral

The one in contact with the specimen bottom side is surface S, ideally insulated on its bottom and lateral

hold at constant temperature equal to 10 C. The other surfaces. The Cartesian coordinate system (O, x, y, z)

one is subjected to 56 cycles from 0.1 C 0.1 C to is used, with O the center of the surface which is sub-

20 C 0.1 C. The temperature rate is 10 C/hour. mitted to frost action and x following the symmetry

Freezing is stopped at 20 C and thawing at 0.1 C. axis from the top to the bottom of the specimen. At

A one-hour temperature step is made at the end of the macroscopic scale the flow of heat and liquid only

freezing and a two-hour one at the end of thawing. happens in the direction x and no water flux (w) hap-

The thermal insulation of the specimen lateral sur- pens through the x = 0 and x = L surfaces. The further

faces is made thanks to an expanded polystyrene analysis will be made using the elementary volume

ring. In order to avoid surface desaturation during d = Sdx.

freezing-thawing cycles, each specimen is wrapped by The specimen bottom side (x = L) is initially

a moisture resistant Parafilm sheet. The surface sub- at Tb = 283.15 K, while its top side (x = 0) is at

mitted to frost action in not in contact with a frost layer Tt = 273.25 K. The permanent state is reached before

(i.e. a water or brine layer). the beginning of the test. Thus, the initial temperature

Each fourteen cycles, the specimen is weighed in of the sample is T0 (x) = Tt + (Tb Tt )x/L. At t = 0,

order to verify that no water supply nor evaporation the x = 0 surface is submitted to a progressive decrease

have occurred during the test. Then, the Parafilm sheet of temperature while the x = L surface is held at Tb .

is removed and scales are sampled, dried at 50 C In this study, no external loading is applied to

during 4 days and weighted. the structure. Noting the external surface of

65

the specimen, n the outward unit vector perpen- the self-consistent differential scheme (Dormieux and

dicular to this surface and the stress tensor, the Bourgeois 2003) as = 0 (Sl )2/3 , where 0 is the con-

mechanical boundary condition can be expressed as stant initial permeability, while the term (Sl )2/3 stands

n = 0 on . for the relative permeability accounting for the change

The thermodynamic equilibrium between water in in porous volume due to the solidification of liquid

liquid form and its ice crystal requires the equality of water. l (T , pl ) is evaluated from a recent empirical

their specific chemical potentials. Its differentiation, relation proposed by (Harris and Woolf 2004).

combined with liquid-crystal constitutive equations Following the Fouriers Law, the heat flow can be

and considering a small density difference between expressed as q = (Sl ) T x

x, with (Sl ), the isotropic

liquid and crystal phases of water furnishes (Coussy thermal conductivity. (Sl ) is estimated from each

2004): phases conductivities using the well-known (n + 1)-

phase multi-scale scheme developed in (Herv 2002).

Under these conditions, the second law of thermody-

namic applied to the porous medium for a reversible

evolution leads to:

where Sf = c0 (sl0 sc0 ) and Cf = c0 (cp,l

0

cp,c

0

) are

respectively the entropy of fusion and the heat capac-

ity difference between water and ice per unit of crystal

volume while pcap = pc pl stands for the capillary

pressure.

Due to the temperature gradient along the struc-

ture, the pressure field is not uniform and a supposed

Darcean liquid flow is created. Then, neglecting the ice where T 0 (Sf + Cf ln T /Tf ) Sc /T stands for the

flow, considering a small density difference between latent heat of solidification (resp. fusion) of water,

liquid and crystal phases of water and under the small Cpl = l0 cp,l

0

for the heat capacity of water per unit

deformation assumption, the overall mass conserva- of volume while Cm + 0 (Cpl Sc Cf ) represents the

tion of water (m = ml + mc ), in both liquid and crystal average heat capacity of the porous medium.

forms leads to the first order following expression: Numerical application is made with l0 = 9.97

10 MN/m3, c0 = 9.17 103 MN/m3, 0l = 68.7

3

106 K1 , Kl = 1970 MPa, Kc = 4310 MPa, l =

0.56 + 0.0017(T T0 ) W/(mK), c = 2.15 0.0123

(T T0 ) W/(mK) (Lide 2001), Sf = 1.2 MPa/K, Cf =

2.14 MPa/K, Cpl = 4 MPa/K (Brun, Lallemand,

Quinson, and Eyraud 1977), Cm = 1.36 MPa/K

with A = 0 Sc (1/Kc 1/Kl ) + b2 /K + (b 0 )/Km + (?), = m = 30 106 K1 (Ulm, Acker, and Lvy

0 /Kl . The source term of liquid pressure is divided 1999), K = 14100 MPa, Km = 31800 MPa, b = 0.55

into three distinct contribution. The first, = (Ulm, Constantinides, and Heukamp 2004), m =

0 Sc (c0 /l0 1) is a positive term during cooling 1.9 W/(mK) (deduced from the experimental values of

which expresses the effect of expansion which hap- saturated and a dried cement pastes conductivity given

pens when liquid water freeze due to the mass density by (Kim, Jeon, Kim, and Yang 2003)).

difference between liquid and solid phases of water. Finally, the x = 0 temperature is the same as the

T = 0 [ l + Sc (l c )](T T0 ) accounts for experimental one, thus Ts (t) = 273.15 0.002792 t

the liquid pressure source due to the relative thermal for t [0, 7200], Ts (t) = 253.15 for t [7200, 10800]

contraction between the solid matrix and the in-pore and Ts (t) = 253.15 + 0.002792 (t 10800) for

constituent. And finally, pcap = pcap (0 Sc (1/Km t [10800, 18000] where T is expressed in Kelvin and

1/Kc ) bc (b/K + 1/Km )) is a negative decreasing t in second.

function of cooling (1/Km < 1/Kc ) and account for the

liquid pressure source due to flows at the microscopic

scale which drives liquid water to the already frozen 4 NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS AND

sites, in order to meet at any time the (4) liquid-crystal DISCUSSION

equilibrium condition.

Finally, (Sl ) and l (T , pl ) are respectively the The (56) system is solved using the Newton-

permeability of the porous medium and the viscos- Raphson method on a structure discretised accord-

ity of liquid water. Since no liquid flow can occur ing to the finite volume method implicit scheme

through ice crystal, (Sl ) can be easily estimated using (Eymard, Gallouet, and Herbin 2000). In order to

66

The maximum elastic tensile strength of a mature

Ordinary Portland Cement Paste with a 0.4 water-to-

cement ratio, t , is about 4 MPa (Taylor 1997). For

3d and 4d cement pastes, as sketched on figure 3, the

tensile stress predicted is much higher than t all over

the specimen which is consequently destroyed.

For 1 and 2 cement pastes, the tensile stress

predicted is around t only near x = 0. This latter,

enhanced by a poor surface quality and an increas-

ing number of freezing-thawing cycles, can explain

the observed damage on the skin surface. Actually, in

case of the low permeability of cement pastes, the liq-

uid flow expulsion is not important enough to relax the

whole local overpressure caused by thermal stresses

and the liquid-ice difference of density. Thus, this pore

overpressure, which produces a local tensile stress on

the matrix, remains localized near the x = 0 surface

where the ice formation is the most important. The

high difference in tensile strength amplitude between

the two kinds of specimen is due to the large amount of

ice formed in 3d and 4d (Sc 0.55 for T = 253.15 K)

compared with 1 and 2 (Sc 0.1 for T = 253.15 K),

while the shape difference is due to the contrast in their

initial permeability (k0 = 4.3 1021 m2 for 1 and 2

while k0 = 41.0 1021 m2 for 3d and 4d).

Indeed, in case of initial and boundary conditions

which force the top surface temperature to be lower

than the bottom one, water will first freeze near the

skin (x = 0) surface. If the amount of ice formed is

important enough and the permeability is too small

to relax pore overpressure, scaling will occur. This

latter appears to be an internal frost-like damage

enhanced by the x = 0 surface boundary condition.

Figure 3. Hydrostatic stresses profiles at different times Consequently, likewise the experimental observations,

predicted from the numerical calculation for P4-E-1&2 (left the poromechanic model predicts an internal frost

graph) and P4-E-3d&4d (right graph) cement pastes.

damage for the pre-dried specimens and scaling for

the other ones although they are submitted to the same

evaluate the susceptibility of the porous media to external actions.

be damaged, the hydrostatic part of the stress ten-

sor m = 1/3tr(m ) will be studied. As reported in

(Chateau and Dormieux 2002), neglecting the influ-

ence of the interfacial tension between liquid water 5 CONCLUSION

and pore walls, m can be linked to the skeleton

First, an experimental device, in which a cement spec-

stress and the equivalent pressures of liquid and crystal

imen is submitted to freezing-thawing cycles under

by the relation (1 0 )m = + (l pl + c pc )1. Then,

a thermal gradient, has been developed. This study

m can be expressed through (4) as: reveals that, unlike some authors opinions, scaling can

occur without a brine layer in contact with the frozen

surface. Then, in order to explain this behaviour, a

poroelastic model has been developed. Then, the stress

on the solid matrix has been calculated and a max-

imum of tensile stress, which can be at the origin

of frost-scaling, has been predicted near the surface

submitted to frost action. Finally, the two key param-

eters are found to be permeability and the amount of

The m profiles, calculated from (7), are reported on ice formed. The former one influences the difference

figure 3. between the surface and the core mechanical response

67

while the latter acts rather on the global amplitude of Harris, K. and L. Woolf (2004). Temperature and volume

pore overpressure and tensile stress in the matrix. dependence of the viscosity of water and heavy water at

low temperatures. Journal of Chemical and Engineering

Data 49(4), 10641069.

Herv, E. (2002). Thermal and thermoelastic behaviour of

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Brun, M., A. Lallemand, J. Quinson, and C. Eyraud (1977). Jehng, J., D. Sprague, and W. Halperin (1996). Pore struc-

A new method for the simultaneous determination of ture of hydrating cement paste by magnetic resonance

the size and the shape of pores : The thermoporometry. relaxation analysing and freezing. Magnetic Resonance

Thermochimica Acta 21, 5988. Imaging 14(7/8), 785791.

Chateau, X. and L. Dormieux (2002). Micromechanics of Katz, A. and A. Thompson (1987). Prediction of rock elec-

saturated and unsaturated porous media. International trical conductivity from mercury injection measurement.

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chanics 26, 831844. Kim, K.-H., S.-E. Jeon, J.-K. Kim, and S. Yang (2003). An

Coussy, O. (2004). Poromechanics. John Wiley & Sons. experimental study on thermal conductivity of concrete.

Coussy, O. (2005). Poromechanics of freezing materials. Cement and Concrete Research 33, 363371.

Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 53, Lide, D. R. (Ed.) (2001). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

16891718. 2001-2002 (82nd ed.). CRC Press.

Coussy, O. and T. Fen-Chong (2005). Crystallization, pore Scherer, G. (1993). Freezing gels. Journal of Non Crystalline

relaxation and micro-cryosuction in cohesive porous Solids 155, 125.

materials. Comptes Rendus Mecanique 333, 507512. Taylor, H. (1997). Cement Chemistry 2nd Edition.

Dash, J. G., H.-Y. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer (1995). The premelt- Ulm, F.-J., P. Acker, and M. Lvy (1999, march). The chun-

ing of ice and its environmental consequences. Reports on nel fire. ii: Analysis of concrete damage. Journal of

Progress in Physics 58, 115167. Engineering Mechanics, 283289.

Dormieux, L. and E. Bourgeois (2003). Introduction la Ulm, F.-J., G. Constantinides, and F. Heukamp (2004). Is

micromcanique des milieux poreux. Presses de lEcole concrete a poromechanics material? a multiscale investi-

Nationale des Ponts et Chausses. gation of poroelastic properties. Material and structures/

Eymard, R., T. Gallouet, and R. Herbin (2000). The Concrete Science Engineering 37, 4358.

finite volume method. Handbook of Numerical Analysis, Valenza, J. and G. Scherer (2005). Mechanisms of salt scaling.

P.G. Ciarlet and J.L. Lions editor. Materials and Structures 38, 479488.

Fabbri, A., T. Fen-Chong, and O. Coussy (2005). Dielec- Van Genuchten, M. (1980). A closed form equation for pre-

tric capacity, liquid water content, and pore structure dicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils.

of thawing-freezing materials. Cold Region Science and Soil Science Society of America Journal 44(5), 892898.

Technology 44, 5266. Verberk, G. and P. Klieger (1957). Studies of salt scaling of

Fen-Chong, T., A. Fabbri, J.-P. Guilbaud, and O. Coussy concrete. Highway research board bulletin no 100.

(2004). Determination of liquid water content and dielec- Wang, K., P. Monteiro, B. Rubinsky, and A. Arav (1996).

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68

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Sorptive storage of CO2 on coal dust and flotation waste from coal

processing in abandoned coal mines

Chair of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

ABSTRACT: The processing of mined hard coal and lignite subsequently leads to a high amount of mining

waste. Laboratory sorption experiments on this material revealed high CO2 adsorption capacities. The sorptive

storage of CO2 on mining waste offers an approach for CO2 sequestration with the favourable secondary effects

of mining waste disposal and reduction of mining damage. Different storage scenarios and disposal techniques

depending on the regional mining techniques are studied.

also additional sorption capabilities for CO2 .

The reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions is The project is subdivided into work packages which

of major importance with respect to sustainability cover the sample acquisition and characterisation, CO2

towards the world climate concerning the green- sorption experiments on mining products and min-

house effect. Several ideas of CO2 sequestration ing waste, development of underground storage tech-

using submontane techniques have been suggested niques for CO2 and mining waste as well as estimation

and discussed. The different strategies will be finally of storage potentials for CO2 .

evaluated by their cost, technical feasibility and reli-

ability towards the permanent fixation of CO2 in the

geological formations. 2 SAMPLE AQUISITION

The CO2 Trap project is funded by the German

Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Flotation waste and flotation headings samples were

under grant 03G0614A) and part of the German taken in July 2005 at the coal processing plant Pros-

research program Geotechnologien (Investigation, use per in Bottrop/Germany run by Deutsche Steinkohle

and protection of the underground). At the present time AG (DSK). The raw fine coal sample from the coal

two technologies are taken into account to research processing plant Prosper in Bottrop and coal dust sam-

the mineral and physical trapping of CO2 and its ples from coal mine Bergwerk West/Germany were

geological storage (Khn et al. 2005). obtained by DSK at the end of July 2005. Further-

The described project is part of technology II which more, the DSK Anthrazit Ibbenbren GmbH provided

intends to examine the physical trapping of CO2 on samples of flotation waste, flotation headings and raw

residual coal and coal waste material. It focuses on fine coal. Finally lignite dust samples were taken at

sorption of CO2 on waste coal dust and flotation sludge the strip mining Hambach/Germany, retrieved by the

from coal processing plants and the productive future RWE Power AG.

use of abandoned coal mines as storage spots. All mentioned samples represent products and

A large amount of waste material like flotation waste material from coal processing facilities of the

sludge is being produced during the coal processing German mining industry.

of mined hard coal and lignite. The CO2 sorption rates It is planned to increase the number of flotation

of this fine coal material are quite high. In compar- waste samples to increase the reliability of assessment

ison to compact coal it appears to result from the concerning available coal processing remainders of

significant concentration of organic carbon, the high the German coal industry. Furthermore, samples of

specific surface and the high porosity of the coal dust aboveground disposed flotation waste material will be

and sludge material. This technology offers an eco- taken to examine the sorption capabilities of long term

nomic way for disposal of waste material from coal stored material. A further emphasis of sample acqui-

processing, discontinuation of mine waste storage in sition will concentrate on lignite waste material from

aboveground heaps, reduction of subsidence by filling strip mining.

69

3 SAMPLE CHARACTERISATION Table 1. Geotechnical parameters of flotation waste sam-

ples taken at Prosper/Bottrop and Ibbenbren.

A detailed sample characterisation is essential for the

interpretation of sorption experiments with CO2 as Flotation waste Flotation waste

well as the conceptual design of underground storage. Parameter Unit Prosper/Bottrop Ibbenbren

Therefore a mineralogical, geotechnical and petro-

Soil type U, t*, fs U, ms, fs, t

graphical analysis of the received samples has been

conducted within the scope of this project. Grain size T% 40 8

distribution U% 47 57

Based on the results of geotechnical, petrographi-

S% 13 35

cal and mineralogical examination activities a standard

method for sample characterisation will be evaluated Particle density g/cm3 2.23 2.36

to accelerate the examination process and to admit Ignition loss % 27.0 20.9

quick allocation of samples in preparation of sorption TOC % 18.43 9.55

experiments and numerical simulations. Moisture % 23.0 29.4

content

Flow limit % 32.34 27.08

3.1 Geotechnical properties Plastic limit % 22.62 19.11

Plasticity index % 9.72 7.97

All geotechnical properties of the received sam- Consistency 0.96 0.32

ple material were examined in repeat determination index

according to DIN (2003a & 2003b). The grain size State Stiff Liquid

distribution was determined for both materials and is Friction angle 26.24

displayed in table 1. Figure 1 shows the curves of Cohesion kN/m2 15.85

respectively two samples of Prosper and Ibbenbren

flotation waste.

Based on the grain size distribution the soil type

may be termed as heavy clayish silt for the Prosper

sample and middle sandy silt for the Ibbenbren sam-

ple. The particle density of both samples was measured

by the use of a capillary pyknometer and additionally

with the volumetric method in the sorption appara-

tus with identical results as shown in table 1. Ignition

loss and total organic carbon content of the Ibbenbren

sample are slightly lower than of the Prosper sample.

According to the analysis the condition limits of the

characterised samples differ notably in their moisture

content due to differences in the drying procedure of Figure 1. Granulometric curves of flotation waste samples

both processing plants. The flotation waste of Ibben- taken in Prosper/Bottrop and Ibbenbren.

bren is dried in sedimentation tanks in contrast to

the dehumidification in chamber filter presses of the characteristics, design of a quick test to verify state

Prosper material. Therefore, the Prosper sample may conditions of the examined soil samples using the

be classified as stiff and the Ibbenbren sample as vane apparatus and analysis of proctor compactness

liquid. to investigate the moisture contentdensity correlation

In preparation of storage and logistic concepts as of the sample material.

well as numerical simulations of transport, interme-

diate bearing and final underground storage of the

named materials the shear parameters of the Prosper 3.2 Petrographical properties

flotation waste were examined. The petrographical properties of the sample mate-

In the upcoming phase of the project adaptation rial were determined in order to correlate specific

the following geotechnical studies in respect of trans- parameters to the sorption properties of the material.

port, short-term storage and long-term disposal of the As shown in table 2 the parameters of the flotation

materials will be conducted: water absorption abil- material as well as the raw fine coal from Ibbenbren

ity to examine the moisture expansion ability of clay and Prosper differ up to 15% in regard to volatile mat-

minerals in the flotation waste material, compressibil- ter, TOC (total organic carbon) and also TIC (total

ity and permeability experiments to study the time inorganic carbon).These parameters are mainly depen-

subsidence behaviour of the named sample materials, dent on the constitution of the mined coal seams

increase number of shear stress tests on all flota- and also on the method of coal processing used at

tion waste samples to determine the stability evidence the processing plant. The coal dust materials from

70

Table 2. Petrographical parameters of the taken samples (TC = total carbon; TOC = total

organic carbon; TIC = total inorganic carbon; waste = flotation waste; headings = flotation

headings; rf coal = raw fine coal).

content matter content TC TOC TIC

Sample (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

Waste2 72.93 14.27 0.91 19.26 18.43 0.83

Headings1 38.48 6.27 0.17 71.53 55.53 15.99

Headings2 14.18 26.36 0.37 70.21 69.16 1.06

Rf coal1 51.68 6.61 2.76 52.64 32.90 19.73

Rf coal2 38.25 22.93 2.16 50.71 48.60 2.11

Coal dust3 25.28 23.37 4.90 58.67 57.35 1.32

Coal dust4 21.31 14.73 5.39 69.36 65.15 4.21

Fly ash5 95.96 1.48 0.15 1.98 1.63 0.35

Fly ash6 77.09 25.87 3.48 16.36 16.19 0.17

1

sampled at Ibbenbren.

2

sampled at Prosper/Bottrop.

3

medium volatile coal dust from coal mine Bergwerk West.

4

low volatile coal dust from coal mine Bergwerk West.

5

as incineration product of lignite coal mixture.

6

as incineration product of Hambach coal.

of bituminous coals.

The Hambach fly ash sample is also of further

interest for this project due to its relatively high TOC

content and waste properties as product of the lignite

combustion at the power plants.

In addition to further examinations of TC (total car-

bon), TOC and TIC as well as volatile matter for future

samples the study of maceral composition and vitrinte

reflectance are scheduled for the taken samples.

3.3 Mineralogical properties Prosper/Bottrop (TOC = 18.43%) with varying water content

First results of x-ray fluorescence analyses of all at 45 C.

named samples indicate a mineral composition mainly

consisting of quartz, muscovite, kaolinite, illite, and therewith calculation of achievable CO2 storage

ankerite, clinochlore, hematite, calcite and dolomite. potentials by the use of this technology.

An upcoming analysis by the x-ray diffraction method The CO2 adsorption isotherms have been deter-

will indicate the total allotment of these minerals in mined by experiments in a single-gas adsorption appa-

the sample materials. ratus as described by Busch et al. (2004 & 2005) at a

temperature of 45 C and pressures up to 200 bar.

AND MINING PRODUCTS 4.1 Mining waste

Figure 2 shows CO2 excess adsorption isotherms for

One of the main objectives of this project is the flotation waste from Prosper/Bottrop with varying

determination of adsorption behaviour of different water content. The main isotherm characteristics are

mining products and waste materials in regard to identical. Beyond 85 bar hitherto not known volumet-

their mineral composition, specific surface, poros- ric effects (e.g. coal swelling and density variations of

ity and granulometric properties. This knowledge the adsorbed phase) lead to a decrease of the excess

is crucial for an estimation of adsorption capacity sorption graph. CO2 adsorption capability does not

71

Table 3. CO2 sorption capacity of flotation waste from (85 bar). This effect is supposed to depend on particle

Ibbenbren (dried at 60 C) in regard to certain pressure size and porosity of the flotation waste materials.

fields.

Pressure field (mmol/g) (kg/t) 5 UNDERGROUND STORAGE CONCEPTS

FOR CO2 AND FLOTATION WASTE

Low 0.100.35 8.815.4

(5 to 40 bar) The underground storage reliability of CO2 on flota-

Medium 0.350.40 15.417.6 tion waste mainly depends on durability of pressure

(40 to 70 bar) and temperature as well as other parameters which will

High 0.400.48 17.621.12 be discussed later. The temperature in a depth between

(70 to 100 bar)

500 and 1000 m is nearly constant contingent on the

depth-factor of 3 C per 100 m. Therefore, the crucial

point is the pressure stability until the flooding of the

abandoned mine which is supposed to be the storage

spot.

After mine abandonment the cost-intensive water

drainage is shut down and the mine becomes flooded.

The flooding process lasts about 3 to 5 years. Accord-

ing to this a water level rise of 50 m which corresponds

to a hydrostatic pressure of around 5 bar would be

reached within 3 to 6 months. This time span equals

the necessary duration of maintaining constant pres-

sure conditions in the storage section to avoid CO2

desorption from the material before completion of the

flooding phase. Three approaches of mining waste and

CO2 injection order will be discussed.

Figure 3. CO2 Excess sorption on coal dust (Bergwerk

West), lignite coal dust (Hambach) and raw fine coal (Pros-

per/Bottrop) at 45 C.

5.1 Concurrent CO2 and mining waste injection

decrease below the adsorption peak of 85 bar at these This injection technique is based on physiochemical

higher pressures. linkage of CO2 to flotation sludge material with

Higher CO2 adsorption rates correlate with lower following disposal in terms of stowing material

water content in the low pressure range between 0 and replacement during longwall mining. Basically, the

40 bar. Water content becomes a negligible factor techniques of pneumatic and hydraulic stowing as

for adsorption capacity above the low pressure range. described by Jger et al. (1990) may be used in com-

The maximum of CO2 excess adsorption capacity on bination with longwall mining.

the flotation waste sample dried at 60 C is around Assuming the ability of CO2 to adsorb to moist

0.45 mmol/g at 85 bar. The CO2 adsorption capacities material under certain conditions and regarding oper-

of flotation waste from Ibbenbren are slightly higher ational safety during the mining process the hydraulic

with a maximum of 0.48 mmol/g at 85 bar. stowing method will be considered for this technology.

The whole pressure range may be subdivided into The mining proceeds with the aid of a coal cutting

three pressure fields (low, medium and high) as shown machine with trailed shields that sustain the mining

in table 3 to illustrate the sorption capacities at various cavity. The overburden layers collapse and subside

ranges. behind the shield in accordance to its progressive

movement through to the overlying bedrock pressure.

The suspension will be injected via drag pipes with a

pressure up to 200 bar into the cavities of the mined

4.2 Coal processing products area.

Coal processing products offer significantly higher A drift corollary barrage is created at the borders

CO2 adsorption capacities in comparison to coal pro- of the mining area to act as first safety barrier for

cessing waste showing maxima above 1.0 mmol/g for the injected stowing material. The sorption process

hard and lignite coal dust (figure 3). takes place in an aboveground sorption reactor at low

This is based on the high TOC content of these mate- pressures around 5 bar. Afterwards, the CO2 -charged

rials. The maximum of the raw fine coal adsorption material is stored at low pressure due to equilibration

isotherm is slightly lower with about 0.6 mmol/g at atmospheric pressure conditions behind the shield.

72

5.2 Pre-flooding CO2 injection Table 4. Estimation of storage potential by use of concurrent

mining waste and CO2 injection.

Pre-flooding CO2 injection is based on charge of min-

ing drifts with flotation waste by the use of a dry Parameter Allotment Reference

stowing solution, like e.g. pneumatic stowing, at a

medium pressure around 30 bar. Longwall mined coal 60 Mt (DSK,

Multiple parallel drainage pipes are installed at var- material pers. comm.)

ious heights in the drift before the charging process to (Germany 2004)

ensure sufficient gas transmissibility of the stowing Density of mined 1.65 g/cm3 estimated

material throughout its entire thickness. After stow- coal seams

ing process completion the drift is sealed by a barrage Equivalent mined 36.4 Mm3 /a calculated

volume

including a gas injection pipe that should be sealed as

Volume usable for 30% (DMT,

well. The barrage construction needs to be pressure hydraulic stowing pers. comm.)

consistent up to 50 bar until the hydrostatic pressure during longwall

reaches the estimated level of about 30 bar during the mining

flooding phase of the mine. CO2 adsorption 20.8 kg/m3 measured

The installation and preparation of the injection capacity flotation

infrastructure begins following to mine abandonment waste Ibbenbren

before water management is shut down and the flood- (at 5 bar)

ing process begins with the already discussed ascent. Particle Density 2.38 g/cm3 measured

The CO2 injection process into the sealed drifts should flotation waste

Ibbenbren

be finished before the flooding phase sets in to ensure Estimated total 226,260 t/a calculated

a high pore space accessibility of the flotation waste CO2 storage potential

material. After CO2 injection the pipe has to be sealed

at height of the barrage. This may be realised by the

use of a pump capable plug as closing-off the injec-

tion. The pipe infrastructure remains in the abandoned

mine. The final storage pressure level reaches up to A total storage potential of around 230,000 t/a is avail-

100 bar. able by use of concurrent CO2 and mining waste

injection during longwall mining operation (table 4).

The material appearance dependent sorption poten-

tial capacity based on the German mining waste pro-

5.3 Post-flooding CO2 injection duction since 1980 amounts to around 50 Mt CO2 . A

This scenario demands the installation of trans- general review of the accessibility of this aboveground

port infrastructure and barrage systems to applicable disposed material is required.

deposits in abandoned mines before cessation of water

management. CO2 is fixated to mining waste in a

sorption reactor aboveground under high pressure con-

ditions around 85 bar which is consistent with the 7 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

determined excess sorption peak for all materials. The

injection of the originated CO2 mining waste suspen- Waste material from coal processing plants offers high

sion begins when a hydrostatic pressure equal to the CO2 adsorption capabilities. A synergetic effect is

fixation pressure is reached at the aimed applicable reachable by underground storage of CO2 adsorbed

deposit as a result of the flooding process. to flotation waste by simultaneous reduction of CO2

emissions, reduction of mining subsidence through

hydraulic stowing techniques and subsurface disposal

of mining waste.

6 ESTIMATION OF STORAGE CAPACITIES The sorption capacity mainly depends on TOC

content, porosity, grain size, coal rank and vitrinite

An exemplaric estimation of the storage capacity has reflection (Prinz 2004). An assessment of sorption

been made for use of the concurrent CO2 injection sce- capacity based on geotechnical, petrographical and

nario (table 4) based on mining specific information mineralogical properties of the materials is one of

retrieved by DSK and Deutsche Montan Technologie the study objectives. Therefore, a wide range of sam-

GmbH (DMT) and the results from the experiments ple analyses is conducted and correlated with the

described above. measured excess sorption isotherms.

The total CO2 storage potential primarily depends Adsorption rates around 0.5 mmol/g are achievable

on the adsorption capacity of the flotation waste mat- at an experimental stage. The development of a new

erial and the volume usable for hydraulic stowing. sorption reactor is scheduled in order to examine the

73

equilibration properties of CO2 -charged material in Busch, A., Gensterblum Y., Krooss B.M., Siemons N.

mine water. 2005. Investigation of high-pressure selective adsorp-

Different techniques for CO2 and mining waste stor- tion/desorption behaviour of CO2 and CH4 on coals: An

age are discussed at this moment. The final storage experimental study. International Journal of Coal Geology

(in press).

technique may be adapted to the regional established DIN Taschenbuch Nr. 36 2003a. Beuth (ed). Erd- und

mining techniques e.g. longwall or pillar mining to Grundbau.

ensure maximal use of storage capacities. DIN Taschenbuch Nr. 113 2003b. Beuth (ed). Erkundung und

Assuming the measured adsorption rates, storage Untersuchung des Baugrunds.

potential in combination with longwall mining has Khn, M., Asmus, S., Azzam, R., Back, M., Busch, A.,

been estimated to around 260,000 t CO2 /a. Accord- Class, H., Clauser, C., Dengel, A., Dose, T., Ewers, J.,

ing to the availability of aboveground disposed mining Helmig, R., Jger, K., Kempka, T., Kroo, B.M., Littke, R.,

waste since 1980 a CO2 storage potential of about 50 Peiffer, S., Schlter, R., Stanjek, H., Strobel, J.,

Mt is theoretically available in Germany by the use of Vosbeck, K.,Waschbsch, M. 2005. CO2 Trap - develop-

ment and evaluation of innovative strategies for mineral

mining waste as CO2 storage medium. and physical trapping of CO2 in geological formations

A further important aspect of this study is the deter- and of long-term cap rock integrity. In: Stroink, L. (ed).

mination of export potentials of the mentioned tech- GEOTECHNOLOGIEN Science Report: Investigation,

nologies. Based on the amount of mined coal North utilisation and protection of the underground, 144 p.

America offers 30 and Asia even 50 times as much Jger, B., Obermann, P., Wilke, F.L. 1990. Studie zur

CO2 storage potential in comparison to Germany. Eignung von Steinkohlebergwerken im rechtsrheinis-

chen Ruhrkohlenbezirk zur Untertageverbringung von

Abfall- und Reststoffen. 4 Text - 1 appendix volume,

REFERENCES unpubl. feasibility study on behalf of North Rhine -

Westphalia State Environment Agency (LUA NRW),

Busch, A., Gensterblum, Y., Krooss, B.M., Littke, R. 2004. Dsseldorf.

Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption/diffusion Exper- Prinz, D. 2004. Die Porenstruktur von Kohlen, Ph.D. - thesis

iments on coal: An upscaling- and modeling approach. 2004, RWTH Aachen University, Faculty of Georesources

International Journal of Coal Geology 60, 151168. and Materials Engineering.

74

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

ABSTRACT: Underbalanced drilling (UBD) is one of the fastest growing drilling techniques in the petroleum

industry for the past two decades. Since the bottomhole pressure is always kept below the formation pore pressure

in UBD, there is an increased risk of wellbore instability, which must be addressed at both planning and drilling

phases. The operating bottomhole pressure is limited by the lower limit (the collapse pressure) and the upper

limit (the pore pressure) in UBD. It is important to estimate the collapse pressure with sufficient accuracy and to

operate the drilling pressure within the allowable range. In this paper, several computational models are used to

analyze the collapse pressure at various depths in a case study incorporating the field stress around the wellbore

wall into a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. They include linear elastic models with isotropic stress field and

poroelastic models with permeable and impermeable borehole wall.

ing underbalanced drilling the bottomhole-circulating

The application of underbalanced drilling techniques pressure is the only controllable variable (McLellan &

has been increasing due to its advantages in specific Hawkes, 2001). The collapse pressure or minimum

situations. In underbalanced drilling the bottomhole mud weight required to prevent wellbore wall failure is

pressure is maintained between two pressure limits, often estimated using elastic brittle models (Aadnoy &

which determine the underbalanced drilling pressure Chenevert, 1987), which assume that failure occurs

window. The formation pore pressure gives the upper when the peak strength of the rock is reached. (Bradley,

limit while the wellbore stability pressure or collapse 1979) worked out a semi empirical approach, which is

pressure gives the lower limit (McLennan et al. 1997). helpful for predicting the limit of elastic behavior of

Maintaining a stable borehole is the uppermost in rock.

drilling, whether a well is being drilled with overbal- The fundamentals for studying the environment

anced or underbalanced drilling techniques. Wellbore around the wellbore were done by Westergaard in 1940,

instability can lead to higher than necessary drilling based on Terzaghis effective stress theory. Later Biot

cost. The stability of wellbore during drilling is gen- in 1941 developed these theories further and clearly

erally maintained by the mud weight or bottomhole explained the role of pore pressure and fluid flow

circulating pressure, which exert radial compression (Cheatham, 1984). Since then, several authors have

on the wellbore wall. Generally wellbore instability contributed to the effect of pore pressure on stress

during drilling can be caused by two sets of factors: distribution around a wellbore (Paslay & Cheatham,

1963) by applying poroelasticity theory to analyze

1. The mechanical factors; the stresses around the the wellbore stability. (Gnirk, 1972) Gnirk realized

wellbore walls, pressure acting on wellbore wall and the plastic zone around the wellbore and calculated

rock mechanical properties. wellbore pressure required to prevent plastic yielding

2. The physico-chemical factors; the rock chemical of the wellbore. (Bratli & Risnes, 1981), (Risnes &

properties, the interaction between the drilling fluid Bratli, 1982) applied the theory of elasticity and

and the shale exposed on the wellbore wall. plasticity together with the supposition that the rock

obeys Coulomb criterion. (McLellan & Wang, 1994)

Quantitative analysis of wellbore stability is based on developed a poro- elastoplastic well stability model.

mechanical aspects. It requires the information of new

stresses, strains and pore pressures in the rock mass

around the wellbore after a well has been drilled. The 2 WELLBORE STABILITY ANALYSIS

new stresses around the wellbore can be determined

from the application of the principles of continuum Conventionally wellbore stability analyses are based

mechanics. A careful study and interpretation of these on either elasticity or the poro elasticity theory, where

75

the formation is assumed homogeneous with or with- 2.3 Stresses around the wellbore in linear

out pore fluid. However, such solutions may result in elastic formation

erroneous conclusions for naturally fractured porous In linear elastic formation it is assumed that: (1)

formations because fractures introduce important Stresses around the borehole are under a plain strain

heterogeneities. condition; the components of stress are the linear

Mainly two elements are required in wellbore stabil- function of the components of strain. (2) The forma-

ity analyses, the constitutive model to compute stresses tion with or without pore fluid is homogeneous and

around the wellbore and the failure criterion. isotropic.

In this study we have computed the stresses around In linear elastic formation, the borehole wall is the

the wellbore based on the in-situ stresses and pore area where the largest stress differences occur, there-

pressure by using linear elastic/poroelastic methods fore the borehole failure is expected to start or initiate

at various scenarios. The computed stresses are com- at the wellbore wall. For a vertical hollow borehole

pared with Mohr-Column failure criterion whereby the in a formation with horizontal isotropic stress (equal

collapse pressure, below which rock failure can occur, horizontal stresses), then stresses at a point of the wall

is estimated. The major step for the analyses is to cal- of the wellbore are (Fjaer et al. 1992):

culate the well pressure required to avoid the wellbore

collapse. In the UBD situation the failure will occur

first at the wellbore wall when the stress concentration

will exceed the limits at the wellbore wall. Therefore,

our main area of interest for the stress solution is at the

wellbore wall.

zontal stress component; v = Vertical stress compo-

Drilling changes, the initial stress state in the formation nent; r = Radial stress; = Tangential stress; and

to be drilled and redistributes stresses near the wellbore z = Axial stress.

region. The redistributed stress state may exceed the

rock strength and hence, failure can occur. A wellbore

fails either by exceeding the tensile strength of the 2.4 Stresses around a wellbore in poroelastic

rock or by exceeding shear/compressive strength of formation

the rock. In a field situation, normally the wellbore is sur-

rounded by porous rock, so the pore pressure has to

2.2 Failure criteria be included by applying effective stresses concept.

Effective stresses mainly control both compressive

A Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is widely used for and tensile failure in poroelastic formations. Terzaghi

predicting shear failure of wellbore. The concept of (1923) argued that increasing the external hydrostatic

Mohr-Coulomb criterion is that failure occurs if the pressure produces the same volume change of the

maximum shear stress on any plane in a rock reaches material as reducing the pore pressure with the same

its shear strength. It can be represented in terms of amount and shear stress depends only on the difference

the minimum and the maximum principal stresses as between the normal stress and pore pressure pf .

(Fjaer et al. 1992):

constant; pf = Pore pressure; and = Normal stress.

Stresses around the wellbore in poroelastic forma-

tion can be further characterized into: (1) Permeable

wellbore wall and (2) Impermeable wellbore wall.

The total stresses around the wellbore wall can be

obtained by superposing in-situ stresses and the pore

Where 1 = Maximum principal stress; 3 = Minimum pressure at the wall of the wellbore. Total stress com-

principal stress; CO = Uniaxial compressive strength; ponents at the wellbore wall are given as (Hasio, 1988),

So = Cohesion; = Internal friction angle; and (McLean & Addis, 1990):

= Failure angle (angle between the normal of the

failure plane and the major principal stress axis).

76

( > z > r ). Substituting and r from Equations

(8) & (9) in Equation (7) then in Equation (1) we get:

Where PF = Far field formation pressure; and Equation (13) provides the minimum pressure

v = Poissons ratio. required to prevent wellbore collapse for a permeable

wellbore wall.

2.4.2 Impermeable wellbore wall

If the wellbore wall is impermeable, there will be no 2.5.4 Poroelastic formation impermeable wellbore

fluid penetration into the wellbore wall, then we have wall

PF = pf pore pressure assumed to be constant and the The collapse pressure for impermeable wellbore wall

stress solution around the wellbore becomes identical is calculated at the same condition ( > z > r ).

as expressed in Equations (4, 5 & 6) (Fjaer et al. 1992). Putting and r from equations (4) & (5) in Equation

(7) then in Equation (1) we get:

In order to predict the collapse pressure, computed

stresses will be compared with Mohr-Coulomb failure Equation (14) provides the minimum wellbore pres-

criterion. sure for the case of impermeable wellbore wall.

2.5.1 Linear elastic dry formation 2.6 Safe UBD pressure window

case(a) > z > r

In order to avoid instability problems during under-

Where the tangential stress is the maximum, axial

balanced drilling, it is important to determine the safe

stress is the intermediate and radial stress is the mini-

pressure window; the range of pressure value can be

mum. Substituting tangential and radial stresses from

used, the upper limit is set by the formation pore pres-

Equations (4) and (5) in Equation (1), we can get the

sure while the lower limit is the collapse pressure,

value of wellbore pressure:

which has been discussed earlier for various scenar-

ios. In order to determine the safe pressure window

for the field application, the above-derived expressions

are applied to the case study. The input parameters

Equation (11) states that if the wellbore pressure is less are listed in Table 1 and Table 2 obtained from one of

than the above-calculated value then a shear failure the Louisiana offshore well (Wellstab database, 2005).

will occur at the wellbore wall. The collapse pressures are calculated using linear elas-

tic and poro elastic methods. The results are shown in

2.5.2 Linear elastic dry formation Figures (14).

case(b)z > > r It is observed that expressions (11) and (12) for

Where axial stress is the maximum principal stress and linear elastic dry formation provide the most optimistic

radial stress is the minimum principal stress. Substi- results. A wider safe pressure window exists for deeper

tuting the axial and radial stresses from equations (5) depths as shown in Figures 1, 2.

and (6) in Equation (1) we get: Figure 3, shows the operating range of UBD oper-

ations by using poroelastic approach for permeable

wellbore wall (Equation 13), it indicates that underbal-

anced operation can be performed until the depth of

1050 meter for this particular well and below this depth

Thus, if the well pressure values fall below the value it is not possible to continue underbalanced drilling

obtained by equation (12), shear failure will occur at operation as collapse pressure exceeds the pore pres-

the wellbore wall. sure. The safe pressure window becomes gradually

narrower with increasing depth.

2.5.3 Poroelastic formation permeable The expression (14) for poroelastic formation with

wellbore wall impermeable wellbore wall gives narrower safe pres-

For permeable wellbore wall the pore pressure at the sure window as shown in Figure 4, for UBD. It is

wellbore wall is equal to the well pressure, wellbore observed that underbalanced drilling operations can

collapse pressure can be calculated by comparing com- only be applicable to the depth of 910 meter for this

puted stresses into the failure criterion, at condition well, in case the wellbore wall is impermeable.

77

Table 1. Input parameters (in-situ stresses and pore pressure).

below Kelly True vertical Pore pressure Vertical stress horizontal horizontal

bushing (MD) depth (TVD) (pf ) (v ) stress (h ) stress (H )

(m) (m) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa)

585.216 0 0 0 0 0

737.616 152.4 1.59 3.41 2.42 2.72

890.016 304.8 3.02 6.87 4.7 5.41

1042.416 457.2 4.65 10.38 7.24 8.15

1194.816 609.6 6.38 13.9 9.71 11.25

1347.216 762 8.05 17.16 12.29 13.98

1499.616 914.4 9.13 21.01 14.39 16.52

1652.016 1066.8 10.99 23.95 17.07 19.36

1804.416 1219.2 12.2 27.28 19.67 22.29

below Kelly True vertical friction Cohesion Biots

bushing (MD) depth (TVD) Poissons angle () (So ) constant

(m) (m) ratio (v) (Deg) (MPa) (a)

737.616 152.4 0.2 46.2 1.25 0.96

890.016 304.8 0.21 44.5 1.49 0.96

1042.416 457.2 0.22 45.2 1.62 0.96

1194.816 609.6 0.21 44.7 1.82 0.96

1347.216 762 0.22 43 1.97 0.96

1499.616 914.4 0.22 41.6 2.15 0.96

1652.016 1066.8 0.22 41.7 2.44 0.96

1804.416 1219.2 0.22 42.4 2.57 0.96

0 4 8 12 0 4 8 12

0 0

Pore pressure (MPa) Pore pressure (MPa)

Collapse pressure (MPa)

Collapse pressure (MPa)

400

400

TVD (m)

TVD (m)

800

800

1200

1200

Figure 2. Safe pressure window for linear elastic dry

formation case (b) z > > r .

Figure 1. Safe pressure window for linear elastic dry

formation case (a) > z > r .

rock strength can be determined by comparing the sen-

sitivity results with base results. Sensitivity tests were

2.7 Sensitivity analysis done for cohesion and internal friction angle.

In order to address and rank the influence of material Sensitivity analysis was performed only for poro-

strength on the predicted safe pressure, the effects of elastic formation and permeable wellbore wall, to

78

Pressure (MPa) Pressure (MPa)

0 4 8 12 0 4 8 12

0 0 Pore pressure (MPa)

Pore pressure (MPa)

Collapse pressure base case

Collapse pressure (MPa)

(MPa)

Collapse pressure with 5%

400 increase in cohesion

TVD (m)

400 increase in cohesion

Collapse pressure with 15%

800 increase in cohesion

TVD (m)

1200

800

(Permeable wellbore wall).

Pressure (MPa)

0 4 8 12

0 1200

Pore pressure (MPa)

Collapse pressure (MPa) Figure 5. Effects on collapse pressure with increase in

cohesion.

400

TVD (m)

Pressure (MPa)

0 4 8 12

0 Pore pressure (MPa)

800

Collapse pressure base case

(MPa)

Collapse pressure with 5%

decrease in cohesion

1200 Collapse pressure with 10%

decrease in cohesion

Figure 4. Safe pressure window for poroelastic formation 400 Collapse pressure with 15%

(Impermeable wellbore wall). decrease in cohesion

TVD (m)

stable.

Cohesion values are varied by increasing and

decreasing 5%, 10% and 15% respectively of origi- 800

nal values listed in Table 2. The effects on the collapse

pressure are shown in Figures 56.

The values for internal friction angle are also

varied by increasing and decreasing 5%, 10% and

15% respectively of base values listed in Table 2.

Figures 78 indicate the effects on the collapse

pressure. 1200

It is observed that the safe pressure window

becomes wider as the rock strength parameters Figure 6. Effects on collapse pressure with decrease in

increase and narrower while decrease. The variation in cohesion.

results is significant and it indicates that both the cohe-

sion and internal friction angle are the key governing 3 CONCLUSION

factors in maintaining the stability during the drilling.

Correspondingly, the effective depth at which UBD The most important factors affecting the wellbore sta-

can be used increased and decreased respectively. bility during underbalanced drilling are the in-situ

79

Pressure (MPa) Linear elastic/poroelastic modeling can be used to

0 4 8 12 predict the optimal range of bottomhole circulating

0 Pore pressure (MPa) pressure that is high enough to avoid severe wellbore

Collapse pressure base case collapse and low enough to maintain underbalanced

(MPa) situation.

Collapse pressure with 5% This study indicates that rock failure depend on

increase in internal friction angle the effective stresses and strength of the formation.

Collapse pressure with 10% Cohesion and internal friction angle affect the well-

400 increase in internal friction angle

Collape pressure with 15%

bore stability; the higher values of both rock strength

increase in internal friction angle parameters lower the risk of wellbore instability.

Additional enhancement should be considered to

TVD (m)

order to improve the accuracy and practical applicabil-

ity of the results. These enhancements might include

800

the effects of fluid flowing into the wellbore, three

dimensional rock yielding, thermal effects on rock

failure, time dependent effect, well orientation and

inclination effect, physico-chemical interactions and

wellbore hydraulics that account for erosion.

1200

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Figure 7. Effects on collapse pressure with increase in We appreciate the support of Maurer Technology Inc.

internal friction angle. for providing us with data.

Pressure (MPa)

0 4 8 12

REFERENCES

0 Pore pressure (MPa)

Aadnoy, B.S. & Chenevert, M.E. 1987. Stability of Highly

Collapse pressure base case Inclined Boreholes. SPE J 16052.

(MPa)

Bradley, W.B. 1979. Mathematical Stress Cloud can Predict

Collapse pressure with 5%

Borehole Stability. Oil & Gas Journal., Vol.77, No 8.

decrease in internal friction angle

Collapse pressure with 10% Bratli, R.K. & Risnes, R. 1981. Stability and Failure of Sand

decrease in internal friction angle Arches. SPE J 8427.

400 Collapse pressure with 15% Cheatham, J.B. Jr.1984. Wellbore Stability. SPE J 13340.

decrease in internal friction angle Fjaer, E., Holt, R.M., Horsrud, P., Raaen, A.M. & Risnes, R.

1992. Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics: 109127,

TVD (m)

Elsevier.

Gnirk, P.F. 1972. The Mechanical Behavior of Uncased. Well-

bores Situated in Elastic/Plastic Media under Hydrostatic

800 Stress. SPE J 3224.

Hsiao, C. 1988. A Study of Horizontal-Wellbore Failure. SPE

J 16927.

McLean, M.R. & Addis, M.A. 1990. The Effect of Strength

Criteria on Mud Weight Recommendations. SPE J 20405.

McLellan, P.J. & Hawkes, C.D. 2001. Borehole Stability

Analysis for Underbalanced Drilling Advanced Geo-

1200

Technology Inc. JCPT Paper: 9907.

McLellan, P.J. & Wang,Y. 1994. Predicting the Effects of Pore

Figure 8. Effects on collapse pressure with decrease in Pressure Penetration on the Extent of Wellbore Instability:

internal friction angle. Application of a Versatile Poro- Elasto Plastic Model. SPE

J 28053.

McLennan, John et al., 1997. Underbalanced Drilling Man-

stress state, pore pressure, wellbore pressure and rock ual: 48, Gas Research Institute, GRI Reference No:

properties. Amongst all these factors wellbore pres- 97/0236.

sure is the only controllable or variable factor during Paslay, P.R. & Cheatham, J.B. 1963. Rock Stresses Induced

by Flow and Fluids into Boreholes. SPE J 482.

underbalanced drilling operation. Risnes, R., Bratli, Rolf K. & Horsud, P. 1982 Sand Stresses

Wellbore instability must be addressed at both Around a Wellbore. SPE J 9650.

planning and drilling phases of a well with accurate WellStab-Plus 2005. Advanced Wellbore Stability Model,

monitoring of bottomhole pressure and using various (data base). and Users Manual Version 1. Maurer Tech-

predictive techniques individually or in combination. nology Inc.

80

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

M. Mainguy

Institut Franais du Ptrole France

A. Onaisi

Total France

ABSTRACT: Caprock integrity is of primary importance for a safe storage of acid gas in underground reser-

voirs. This paper analyses the mechanical impact of acid gas leakage in the caprock when the reservoir pressure

overpasses the capillary entry threshold. We propose analytical expressions for the effective stress changes result-

ing from gas and capillary pressure changes under particular stress paths. These expressions make possible to ana-

lyze the fracturing conditions of the caprock and to quantify the effective stress changes resulting from gas leakage

into a caprock. A synthetic model of H2 S leaking through a caprock reveals minor water saturation decrease with

very low effective stress changes in the caprock. Actually, significant mechanical effects are only possible at very

low water saturation levels that might hardly be reached due to the particular fluid flow conditions of the model.

might reduce the compressive stresses in the caprock

The petroleum industry plans to re-inject acid gases (e.g. Schmitt et al. 1994). In turn, pre-existing fractures

after being separated from hydrocarbon back into the could be activated and gas flow could develop along

underground. The injection horizons might be either preferential pathways. Such a process is thought to be

aquifers or depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs.The injec- self maintaining or even accelerating due to enhanced

tion will give rise to several coupled physical and permeability in the invaded zone.

chemical processes that raise concern about the safety No analysis of the mechanical impact of the caprock

of the storage sites over a long period of time. The water saturation decrease has been realized because

integrity of the bounding seal (i.e. caprocks and wells) the capillary entry pressure of the caprock is gen-

that constitutes the barrier against acid gas migration is erally thought to be sufficient to prevent from gas

a major concern for a successful storage (Jimenez & leakage. Therefore, this work provides a qualitative

Chalaturnyk 2002, Hawkes et al. 2004). Injection of and a quantitative analyses of the mechanical impact

acid gases produces an increase of pore pressure which of gas leakage in the caprock. The qualitative approach

in turn changes the stress field and causes defor- is based on an effective stress approach using the

mation in the reservoir and surrounding formations equivalent pore pressure proposed by Coussy (2004).

(Rutqvist & Tsang 2003). The change in stress can The results of the effective stress approach are com-

affect the hydraulic integrity of the caprock leading pared with the effective stress changes predicted by the

to leakage and failure of the seal. The caprock may Barcelona model (Alonso et al. 1990). The quantitative

be discontinuous and may contain preexisting discon- approach is based on a fluid flow simulation that mod-

tinuities such as fault and fractures of various sizes. els H2 S leaking through a shale caprock. Pressure and

These discontinuities constitute a preferential path for saturation changes are used to estimate the effective

the acid gas to leak through the caprock (Gurevich stress change using the analytical expressions derived

et al. 1993). with the effective stress approach.

Gas leakage in the caprock is likely to occur when

the pressure difference between the gas phase and the

liquid phase in the pores adjacent to the caprock is 2 QUALITATIVE APPROACH USING

higher than the capillary entry pressure of the caprock. ANALYTICAL EXPRESSIONS

This phenomenon has been experimentally studied

on fine grained rocks by Horseman et al. (1999) This section analyses the risk of rock fracturing

and Hildenbrand et al. (2002). This paper aims at that may result from gas leakage in caprocks. The

evaluating the mechanical effects, especially fractur- analysis is based on analytical expressions of the stress

ing conditions, resulting from the decrease of water changes induced by gas pressure and capillary pressure

81

changes using first an effective stress approach for par- Second, oedometric conditions are supposed (i.e.

tially saturated porous media, and then the Barcelona dh = 0 and dz = 0). These conditions make possible

model developed for partially saturated soils. The to express the horizontal total stress change as a

first approach makes possible to analyze the influence function of the equivalent pore pressure changes:

of stress paths, gas pressure and capillary pressure

changes on rock fracturing. Then, the results on the

second model are compared with the effective stress

approach on an oedometric stress path.

Third, for plane deformation (i.e. dz = 0) with no

variations of the horizontal total stresses (i.e. dh =

2.1 Effect of stress path dH = 0) the vertical stress change reads

The effect of stress path on rock fracturing is analyzed

using the framework developed by Coussy (2004) for

partially saturated porous medium. Under the assump-

tions of no hysteresis in the capillary pressure curve,

that this curve does not depend on strain and that the Equations 4 to 6 show that the total stress change

skeleton free energy can be divided in a solid matrix is proportional to the equivalent pore pressure change.

free energy and an interfacial energy U , Coussy (2004) However, the gas and capillary pressures will simulta-

defines an equivalent pore pressure of the form: neously increase during gas leakage through a caprock.

The gas pressure increase at constant saturation and

capillary pressure leads to an increase of the total

stress. In contrast, capillary pressure increase at con-

with Sw = water saturation, pw = water pressure, Sg = stant gas pressure triggers a decrease of the total stress.

gas saturation and pg = gas pressure. Coussy (2004) This last effect is partially attenuated by the water sat-

shows that this equivalent pore pressure replaces the uration decrease associated with the capillary pressure

pressure used in the poroelastic constitutive law of sat- increase. Therefore, the two effects act in different

urated porous medium. This makes possible to define ways so that the global effect on stresses is not easy to

an effective stress on the form ij = ij bij where forecast.

ij = the total stress, bij = Biots tensor and using the In order to investigate the fracturing conditions for

convention of rock mechanics. Using the differential the different stress paths highlighted previously, the

form of the interfacial energy, the following expression evolutions of the Mohr circles are drawn for the cases

of the incremental effective stress is derived (Coussy where the gas pressure effect dominates (i.e. d > 0)

et al. 1998): and where the capillary pressure effect dominates (i.e.

d < 0). To do so, the initial rock stress state is defined

with the 3 principal total stresses v , h and H with

0 < h < H < v . These stresses and the initial equiv-

alent pore pressure define the initial effective stresses

where pc = pg pw = capillary pressure. In what fol- v , h and H . Using Equation 2 and expressions 4

lows and for sake of simplification the Biots tensor is to 6 of the total stress changes, the effective stress

fixed to Kronecker delta ij . Assuming linear elastic- changes associated with the different stress paths are

ity, the incremental effective stress tensor is related to expressed as a function of equivalent pore pressure

the incremental strain using the drained bulk modulus change. These expressions are used to plot on Figures 1

Kd and the shear modulus G: and 2 the changes in Mohr circles resulting from pos-

itive and negative changes in equivalent pore pressure

respectively. Therefore, the fracturing conditions can

be assessed when assuming that the rock failure can

be detected using a Mohr Coulomb failure criterion

Equations 2 and 3 can be used to investigate the (i.e. straight lines on Figures 1 and 2). For sake of sim-

effect of stress path on the effective stress change due plicity, the vertical and horizontal components of the

to water saturation decrease. Three stress paths are effective stress changes are fixed at zero in the case of

considered in what follows. First, assuming no volu- no volumetric change. Therefore, for that stress path,

metric changes (i.e. dii = 0), it is straightforward from the Mohr circles are unchanged with respect to the

Equation 2 that the mean total stress change is directly initial configuration.

related to the equivalent pore pressure change: Figure 1 shows that, when the gas pressure effect

dominates, the diameter of the larger Mohr circle

between h and v decreases for the oedometric stress

path and increase for the plane deformation stress path.

82

We first use the assumption of constant total verti-

cal stress to express the deviatoric stress change as a

function of the gas pressure change and the net mean

stress p (with p = mean total stress pg ). Then, using

the assumption of uniaxial vertical strain and the elas-

tic constitutive law, the change in horizontal total stress

can be expressed on the form:

effect dominates). where G = shear modulus, v = specific volume, =

elastic stiffness parameter for change in net mean

stress, s = suction or capillary pressure, s = elastic

stiffness parameter for change in suction and patm =

atmospheric pressure. The terms in factor in the right-

hand side of Equations 5 and 7 are similar when

considering that the drained bulk modulus of the linear

elastic law is equal to the term vp/ of the linear log-

arithmic law used in the Barcelona model. Therefore,

for the oedometric stress path, the Barcelona model

can be interpreted as an effective stress model such

as the Bishops effective stress (Bishop 1959) with the

Bishops parameter defined by:

pressure effect dominates).

A similar result can be derived when considering

Furthermore, both circles are translated toward the an elasto-plastic behavior of the rock due to suction

region of tensile stresses so that the risks of tensile fail- change. Actually, using the hardening law of the suc-

ure and shear failure increase for oedometric and plane tion yield surface, the following expression of the

deformation respectively. Figure 2 shows that, when change in horizontal total stress can be derived:

the capillary pressure effect dominates, the diameter

of the larger Mohr circle between h and v behaves in

an opposite manner as in the previous case. Therefore,

only the oedometric stress path leads to shear fractur-

ing conditions when the Mohr circles are translated

toward the region of compressive stresses. In what fol- where s = elasto-plastic stiffness parameter for

lows, we only consider the oedometric stress path that change in suction. This last parameter is the only one

carries the higher risk of fracturing. For this stress path, that distinguishes Equation 7 from Equation 9. For

we compare the results obtained with linear elasticity soils, s is larger than s so that the capillary effects

using the effective stress principle with the result of on the total stress changes are enhanced in the elasto-

the Barcelona model on the same stress path. plastic case. Last, as for the elastic case, Equation 9

can be interpreted using the Bishops effective stress

but with a Bishops parameter defined with Equation

2.2 Comparison with Barcelona model 8 with s replaced by s .

The Barcelona model is a constitutive model that As for the effective stress approach, Equations 7

describes the stress-strain behavior of partially sat- or 9 provide a qualitative comprehension of the stress

urated soils (Alonso et al. 1990). Contrarily to the changes induced during gas leakage in caprocks. How-

effective stress approach, the Barcelona model uses ever, these equations require the stiffness parameters

independent variables (net mean stress, deviatoric for changes in suction that have not been identified for

stress and soil suction) to model the soil behavior. caprocks. For that reason, the effective stress approach

Therefore, the Barcelona model makes possible to that requires less parameters is preferred and used in

reproduce the phenomenon of soil collapsing under the following section to estimate the range of effective

wetting that failed to reproduce the effective stress stress changes induced by acid gas re-injection in a

approach under linear elasticity. reservoir.

83

Table 1. Fluid flow properties for reservoir and caprock.

Permeability (1017 m2 ) 200 0.11

Irreducible water saturation 0.3 0.66

Entry capillary pressure (MPa) 0 0.27

Maximum capillary pressure (MPa) 1.0 6.37

70

60

50

40

Figure 3. One dimensional H2 S flow in a reservoir-caprock

system. 30

20

10

3 QUANTITATIVE APPROACH USING 0

FLUID FLOW SIMULATIONS 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0

Water saturation (-)

This section quantifies the effective stress changes

induced by H2 S injection into a porous reservoir Figure 4. Capillary pressure cure for the caprock.

located beneath a low permeable caprock. The prob-

lem is simplified to a one-dimensional vertical column

of a reservoir-caprock system as displayed on Fig- to the gas/water system using an interfacial tension of

ure 3. The reservoir is 460 m thick with a top located at the gas/water equal to 11.5 mN/m and a contact angle

3500 m. The reservoir rock is overlayered with a 100 m equal to 60 degrees.

thick caprock of low permeability. The reservoir and Figure 4 displays the capillary pressure curve of

the caprock are initially fully saturated with water and the caprock for the acid gas/liquid system. It shows

H2 S is massively injected in gas phase at the bottom that when the water saturation decreases from 1 to the

of the reservoir during 80 years. The injection rate at irreducible water saturation, the capillary pressure

surface conditions is constant and fixed at 2 millions increases by more than 6 MPa. Therefore, a high

m3 per day. decrease of the water saturation in the caprock rep-

A fluid flow model is set to compute the pressure resents a threat for the caprock integrity if fracturing

and saturation changes associated with H2 S flow- conditions are reached. The capillary pressure curve of

ing in the reservoir and leaking into the caprock. the reservoir rock remains equal to the entry capillary

Fluid flows are modeled with a reservoir simulator pressure until the water saturation tends to the irre-

assuming two phases (gas and liquid) with two con- ducible water saturation in the reservoir rock. When

stituents in each phase (H2 S and water). The fluid flow the irreducible water saturation is reached, the capil-

model accounts for diffusion in the liquid and gaseous lary pressure in the reservoir rock equals the maximum

phases. The reservoir caprock system is meshed with capillary pressure. For the sake of simplicity, linear

cells of dimension 2000 m 5000 m 10 m, the latter laws are used to model the relative gas and water

size being the vertical one. The fluid flow simulation permeability curves.

stops after 1200 years when the acid gas reaches the Figures 5 to 7 display the gas saturation, capillary

top of the caprock. The reservoir rock is a carbon- pressure and gas pressure changes in the top of the

ate rock whereas the caprock is shale. Table 1 gives reservoir (3500 m down to 3700 m) and in the caprock

the reservoir rock and caprock fluid flow properties. (3400 m to 3500 m) at four time values (i.e. after 42,

The fluid flow properties of the caprock are deduced 80, 400 and 1200 years). H2 S injection starts at time

from the values measured by Schlmer & Krooss 2000 and the acid gas accumulates by buoyancy at the

(1997) on a caprock coming from the Smrbukk top of the reservoir. The capillary pressure reaches the

field, Haltenbanken area, offshore mid-Norway. The entry capillary pressure of the caprock at time 2042

caprock lithology is an alternate bedding of quartz- (see Fig. 6). Therefore, after this time, the acid gas

free clay layers and coarse grained silt (sample H13 starts to leak in the caprock. H2 S injection stops at

from Schlmer & Krooss 1997). The capillary pres- time 2080 when the gas column height is about 110 m

sures have been converted from the air/mercury system (see Fig. 5). After this time, the gas column continues

84

0.8 3.0

cap rock reservoir

2.0

Gas saturation (-)

0.6

2042

2080 1.0

0.4

2400

0.0

3200 vertical

0.2

-1.0 horizontal

0.0

-2.0

3400 3500 3600 3700

2000 2300 2600 2900 3200

Depth (m)

Time (years)

times. Figure 8. Effective stress changes since beginning of gas

leakage at the bottom of the caprock.

5

cap rock reservoir an oedometric stress path. Therefore, the horizontal

Capillary pressure (bar)

2042 function of the equivalent pore pressure change with:

3 2080

2400

2

3200

1 where = drained Poisson ratio of the caprock is fixed

to 0.3 in what follows. Equations 10 are based on linear

0

3400 3500 3600 3700 elasticity and assume a simplistic stress path. There-

Depth (m) fore, it can be seen as a rough estimation of the effective

stress changes resulting from water saturation decrease

Figure 6. Capillary pressure changes with depth at different in the caprock. This approach is very easy to apply

times. because it only requires one mechanical parameter and

one fluid flow variable: the equivalent pore pressure.

350

This variable integrates simultaneously the effects of

cap rock reservoir the gas pressure changes and of the capillary pressure

Gas pressure (bar)

340

changes.

Figure 8 displays the evolution with time of the hor-

2042 izontal and vertical effective stress changes computed

2080 with Equations 10 using the equivalent pore pressure

330

2400 change given by the fluid flow simulations. The effec-

3200 tive stress changes are plotted at the bottom of the

320 caprock (i.e. lower cell in the caprock) where the cap-

3400 3500 3600 3700 illary pressure changes are maximal (see Fig. 6). The

Depth (m)

effective stress changes are computed since time 2042

at which the gas starts to leak in the caprock. The verti-

Figure 7. Gas pressure changes with depth at different

times.

cal effective stress change is the opposite in sign of the

equivalent pore pressure change. Therefore, the equiv-

to grow up to about 140 m because of gas migration alent pore pressure change is first positive between

from the injection zone to the reservoir top. The gas times 2042 and 2080 and then negative after time

leakage into the caprock is not easy to observe on Fig- 2080. Between times 2042 and 2080, the equivalent

ure 5 because of a very small water saturation decrease pore pressure increase is mainly due to the gas pres-

in the caprock. H2 S leakage in the caprock can be sure increase and the stress evolution can be illustrated

more easily observed on Figure 6 that shows the cap- with Figure 1. H2 S injection stops at time 2080 and the

illary front penetrating towards the top of the caprock. gas pressure drops after this time leading to a decrease

The fluid flow simulation stops at time 3200 when the of the equivalent pore pressure. This effect is enhanced

acid gas reaches the top of the caprock. Last, Figure 7 with the capillary pressure increase so that the equiva-

shows that the gas pressure is not significantly affected lent pore pressure change is negative after time 2080.

between times 2042 and 3200. Therefore, after time 2080, the stress evolution can be

To evaluate the mechanical impact of gas leakage illustrated with Figure 2. Nevertheless Figure 8 shows

into the caprock, we use the analytical expressions of that the maximal values of the effective stress changes

the effective stress changes derived in section 2.1 for are minor. On the one hand, the maximum effective

85

stress decrease due the gas pressure increase is only of also discussed in regard of the Barcelona model. The

1 bar. On the other hand, the maximum effective stress result shows that, for the oedometric stress path, the

increase observed for a negative value of the equiva- Barcelona model can be seen as an effective stress

lent pore pressure is of 2 bar. Therefore, these ranges of model with a Bishop coefficient depending on the

effective stress changes are too small to have a marked stiffness parameters for change in suction.

mechanical impact on the caprock. Especially, these The effective stress changes resulting from gas leak-

changes appear not to be sufficient to trigger some age into a caprock is quantified on a synthetic model of

fracturing mechanisms in the caprock. H2 S leaking through caprock. The model provides the

If the water saturation decrease in the caprock can equivalent pore pressure change that is used to estimate

trigger significant capillary pressure increase, this the effective stress change for an oedometric stress

effect does not take place in the present analysis. path. Fluid flow simulations show a very small water

This is due to the fluid flow model that shows a lim- saturation decrease in the caprock due to the particu-

ited decrease of the water saturation in the caprock. lar fluid flow conditions. Therefore the capillary effect

Indeed, at the end of the simulation, the gas satura- and the equivalent pore pressure changes are not suffi-

tion at the bottom of the caprock is only limited to cient to trigger significant effective stress changes and

0.035 (see Fig. 5) whereas the maximum gas saturation thus activate pre-existing fractures.

is approximately ten times bigger. Even if this result

may strongly depends on the reservoir parameters and

laws used for the fluid flow simulations, the capillary REFERENCES

pressure increase in the caprock seems to be restricted

Alonso, E.E., Gens, A. & Josa, A. 1990. A constitutive

because of the fluid flow conditions. Actually, the gas

model for partially saturated soils. Geotechnique 40(3):

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4 CONCLUSIONS Hildenbrand, A., Schlmer, S. & Krooss, B.M. 2002. Gas

breakthrough experiments on fine-grained sedimentary

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storage of acid gas in underground reservoirs. This Horseman, S.T., Harrington, J.F. & Sellin, P. 1999. Gas

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dominates, tensile failure is likely to occur whereas Schmitt, L., Forsans, T. & Santarelli, F.J. 1994. Shale test-

shear failure might occur when the capillary pres- ing and capillary phenomena. International Journal of

sure effect dominates. The relevance of the analytical Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics

expression derived under oedometric stress path is Abstracts 31(5): 411427.

86

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Parameter estimation

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

R.F.T. Lomba

Petrobras, Brazil

ABSTRACT: Shales are argillaceous rocks that present a complex geomechanical behavior. Due to their very

low intrinsic permeability and very tight pores, the determination of the parameters that control pore fluid

pressure diffusion and solute transport is not a simple matter. In this paper we present a practical methodology to

determine the chemoporoelastic parameters necessary to model the coupled chemoporoelastic wellbore stability

in shales. The methodology combines experimental tests and analytical modeling. In order to determine the

chemoporoelastic parameters, offshore shale samples from Campos Basin (Brazil) were submitted to hydraulic

and chemical gradients in a diffusion cell. Examples of application to wellbore stability in shales are presented

in a companion paper submitted to this Conference referred to as Part II.

solving the inverse problem in such a way that the

Drilling through shales can become a very difficult differences between the experimental data and the pre-

operation. When drilling for oil and gas, more than dicted results are minimized. Three parameters are

75% of the drilled sections contain shales, which are obtained: the fluid diffusion coefficient, c, the effective

the major source (90%) of wellbore instability prob- solute coefficient, De, and the reflection coefficient or

lems. Wellbore instability, hole enlargement, stuck membrane efficiency.

pipe, high torque and drag, and side tracking are some Chemoporoelastic analysis must be used in prob-

of the most challenging drilling problems related to lems such as wellbore stability, nuclear waste man-

shale formations (Al-Bazali, 2003). agement and contaminant barrier. Examples of appli-

Wellbore stability problems are caused primarily by cation to wellbore stability in shalles are presented in

changes in the near wellbore pore pressure and rock paper submitted to this Conference referred as Part II.

stresses. The excess of rock effective stresses over the Initially, the governing equations and their solu-

rock strength can cause collapse (shear) or breakdown tions for the chemoporoelastic problem in 1-D are

(tensile) failure of the drilled formation. Pore pressure presented. Next, a brief description of the solution used

alterations due to osmotic effects are a function of the for the inverse problem is given. The method is applied

water activity in the drilling fluid and the membrane to pressure transmission tests carried out on offshore

efficiency of the shale. shale samples and saline solutions.

This paper deals with the determination of chemo-

poroelastic parameters of shales that are to be used

for wellbore stability purposes. Herein, we present the 2 GOVERNING EQUATIONS

analytical model to simulate the experimental test to

evaluate rock-drilling fluid interaction and a practi- 2.1 Constitutive equations

cal methodology to determine the chemoporoelastic

The constitutive equations for the poroelastic material

parameters of shales. The methodology combines

can be described in terms of total stress (ij ) and pore

experimental tests (Muniz et al. 2004 & Muniz et al.

pressure ( p) (see Equations 1 and 2),

2005) and analytical modeling. In order to determine

the chemoporoelastic parameters, shale samples from

Campos Basin (Brazil) were submitted to hydraulic

and chemical gradients in a diffusion cell.

87

In the experimental tests, in order to evaluate the

shale-drilling fluid interactions, hydraulic and ionic

gradients were imposed through shale samples. Con-

sidering the particular case of the irrotational displace-

where K is the drained bulk modulus of elasticity, e is ment field in semi-infinite domain, for the uniaxial

the solid volumetric strain, ij is the Kronecker delta, strain problem, and maintained constant the stress

G is the shear modulus, eij is the solid strain tensor, (xx ), the analytical model for the pressure diffusion

is the Biot coefficient, B is Skemptons pore pressure phase becomes,

coefficient, is the increment of fluid content and

and u are the drained and undrained Poissons ratio,

respectively (Detournay & Cheng 1993).

The last term in Equation 1 represents the effect of

the swelling behavior of the shale. This term was not Where the fluid diffusion coefficient is given by:

considered in this study mainly due to the fact that the

volumetric expansion observed in our experiments has

been associated to a reduction in effective stress. Fur-

ther experiments are under way in order to investigate The initial and boundary conditions for simulating

this matter a bit deeper. the experimental tests, in the pressure diffusion phase,

are given by,

The fluid transport through shale is expressed as:

the value of p as a function of time is,

meability, is the fluid viscosity, is the reflection

coefficient; R is the universal gas constant; T is the The pressure diffusion phase of experimental test is

temperature; Ms is the solute molar mass; d is the representing by (9). In this phase the parameter c (fluid

solute dissociation factor and C is the concentration diffusion coefficient) is obtained through the inverse

of solute. The reflection coefficient characterizes the analysis.

efficiency of the membrane. It ranges between = 0

(no membrane) to = 1 (ideal membrane).

3 ION DIFFUSION AND CHEMICAL OSMOSIS

2.3 Balance laws

3.1 Governing equations: ion diffusion

Two balance laws are needed to describe the problem:

total stress equilibrium equation, (4) and the continuity Chemical diffusion was considered to be caused only

equation, (5). by differences in ion concentration. This movement

is governed by Ficks law and depends on the effec-

tive solute coefficient De . We have assumed that ion

transport due to advection is negligible in face of the

extremely low permeability of the shales. This is in

agreement with other studies, for instance, (Heidug &

Wang (1996) and Ghassemi and Diek (2003)). Con-

sidering the experimental tests configuration the fol-

2.4 Diffusion equations lowing equations were particularized for 1D problem:

Combination of Darcys law, the continuity equation The solute flux Js is given by,

and the constitutive relation (2) yields the diffusion

equation for p. The diffusion of pore pressure is thus

coupled with the rate of change of the volumetric strain

to yield Equation 6 that is the governing equation for where C is the concentration of the solute. According

the pore fluid diffusion. to the continuity equation,

88

Considering Ficks law and the continuity equation,

we have that: Initial guess

Mathematical External

model perturbation

Parameter Objective

4 CHEMOPOROELASTICITY update function

pressure diffusion coupling Optimization Criteria

algorithm No achieved?

Considering the Darcys law for the case the full fluid Yes

transport through shale (3), the Ficks law and the con-

End

tinuity Equation 11, we obtain the governing equation

for the coupled chemohydromechanical problem in 1D

see Equation 13. Figure 1. General algorithm: inverse problem.

data is a typical inverse problem (see Figure 1). The

inverse problem can be divided in three main parts (see

The boundary conditions for simulating the exper- Vanderplaats 1984 & Arora 1989):

imental tests, are given by,

(a) Establish the mathematical model that describes

the problem in question. In our case, the chemo-

poroelastic 1D problem.

(b) Define an objective function to help obtain the

set of parameters that best approximates the

Equation 14 was solved by Laplace transform.Thus, experimental results considering the mathemati-

the value of p as a function of time is: cal model. In order to measure the agreement and

minimize the discrepancy of both responses, an

objective function must be constructed. The objec-

tive function with most extensive use in inverse

problems is the weighted least squares:

with:

ence between the observed data and the resulting

data generated by the mathematical model.

The ion diffusion phase of the pressure transmis- c) Objective function minimization: The central

sion test is described by Equation 15. In this phase requirement is to minimize the objective function

the parameters: De (effective solute coefficient) and to find a set of parameters (c, De , ), that is,

(reflection coefficient) are obtained through the

inverse analysis.

This work applied the Newton (Nocedal & Wright

5 INVERSE PROBLEM 1999) and conjugate gradient algorithm (Atkinson

1988) for parameter estimation. For the cases analyzed

The objective is to identify the unknown parameters herein, the results obtained using the two algorithms

characterizing a shale-drilling fluid system that best were about the same.

fits the experimental curves. In order to determine

the chemoporoelastic parameters, shale samples from

Campos Basin (Brazil) were submitted to hydraulic 6 PARAMETERS ESTIMATION

and chemical gradients in a diffusion cell. Details

about the experimental tests are encountered in Muniz The shale samples used during the experimental tests

et al. (2004). were obtained from wells drilled in Brazilian offshore

89

Table 1. Data set used in analytical simulations.

Experimental

2

Analytical

Pressures (MPa)

Data description

1.5

Universal gas constant (Pa m3 /k mol) 8.31451

Temperature ( K) 295.15 1

Solute molar mass (Kg/mol) 0.111

Solute dissociation factor 2.601 0.5

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Time (h)

2

Pressure (MPa)

1.5

1 2.5

Experimental

2

Pressure (MPa)

0.5 Analytical

1.5

0

0 20 40 60 80 1 Experimental

Time (h) Analytical

0.5

Figure 2. Experimental and Analytical simulations: CP-30. 0

0 10 20 30 40 50

Time (h)

area at about a depth of 3500 m and under 2000 meters

of water. Rabe (2003) presents the description of this Figure 4. Experimental and Analytical simulations: CP-33.

shale.

The 1D chemoporoelastic model and inverse prob-

Table 2. Parameters estimated in the inverse analysis.

lem solution was applied to obtain a set of parameters

that describe the behavior of this shale in three differ- Samples

ent samples. Each tests used different concentration of

CaCl2 saline solution. The data set displayed in Table 1 Parameters CP-30 CP-31 CP-33

was used in all analytical simulations.

Figure 2 presents the results of the pressure trans- c (108 m2 /s) 2.0 4.0 4.1

mission test carried out on sample CP-30. Two stages De (1011 m2 /s) 2.75 2.95 3.75

0.0324 0.0466 0.0250

can be identified in this figure: Stage number 1 cor-

responds to the pressure diffusion phase where only

pressure gradient is applied to the sample. This stage

took about 24 hours to be completed for this sam- the inverse analyse using the optimization algorithms,

ple and fluid used. The pressure at the top of the adopting Equation 17 which simulates the ion diffu-

sample was increased from 0.4 MPa to 2.1 MPa. The sion phase and the experimental data obtained from

parameter c (fluid diffusion coefficient) was deter- sample CP-30. This samples has 41.26% of porosity.

mined through the inverse analyse, adopting Equation The Figures 3 and 4 present the pressure versus

9 which simulates the pressure diffusion phase and the time generated during the pressure transmission test on

experimental data obtained from sample CP-30, using samples CP-31 and CP-33 where were used concentra-

the optimization algorithms. Stage number 2 corre- tions of 35 and 25% of CaCl2 . The porosity of samples

sponds to the ion diffusion phase where a chemical 31 and 33 are, respectively, 40.41% and 40.40%.

potential is applied to the sample. Thus, the fluid in It is possible to notice in all these figures that the

contact with the top of the sample is changed from curves from analytical model are very close to the

water to saline solution (in this case 25% CaCl2 ). Pres- experimental curves, indicating that the methodology

sure transducer was used to monitoring the pressure adopted can simulate very well the acting mechanisms.

variation at the bottom of the sample with time. During The obtained parameters are shown in Table 2.

this stage there will be ion diffusion and the devel- The osmotic pressure can be expressed by van

opment of osmotic pressure. The overall result is a Hoffs equation assuming that the membrane is an

decrease in pressure such as indicated in Figure 2. ideal one (ions movement isnt allowed) and the sin-

The parameters De (effective solute coefficient) and gle binary fluid is considered, i.e., a solvent and only

(reflection coefficient) were determined through one solute. However, that equation cannot be directly

90

applied to represent osmotic pressures in clays and ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

shales, because these materials present weak osmotic

membrane properties (Fritz 1986 and Al-Bazali, The authors would like to thank Petrobras for sponsor-

2003). The ions movement is not fully restricted and ing this project and to grant permission to publish the

the osmotic pressure should be corrected through the results.

reflection coefficient. Also, due to the solute dissoci-

ation the dissociation factor must be considered (d).

Thus the osmotic pressure can be expressed as: REFERENCES

Al-Bazali, T.M. 2003. Membrane Efficiency Behavior of

Shales. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin,

Austin, 58 pp.

Arajo, E.M.P. de 2006. Coupled Termochemoporoelastic

Model for Wellbore Stability Analysis in Shales. PhD The-

For the sample CP-31, using the reflection coef- sis (in Portuguese), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio

de Janeiro, Brazil.

ficient obtained in the inverse analysis, the osmotic

Arora, J.S. 1989. Introduction to optimun design. McGraw-

pressure is Po 1.2 MPa and the mean value obtained Hill, Inc.

from the experimental test was Po 1.1 MPa. In spite Atkinson, K. 1988. An introduction to numerical analysis.

of the very low reflection coefficient obtained it is 2nd Edition. Section 8.9, John Wiley & Sons.

possible to generate considerable osmotic pressure by Carslaw, H.S. & Jaeger, J.C. 1959. Conduction of heat in

using a high solute concentration. solids. 2nd. Edition. Oxford University Press.

Detournay, E. & Cheng, A.H.-D. 1993. Fundamentals of

Poroelasticity. In: J.A. Hudson (Editor), Comprehen-

sive Rock Engineering: Principles, Practice & Projects.

7 DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Pergamon Press, Headington Hill Hall, pp. 113171.

Ghassemi, A. & Diek, A. 2003. Linear chemo-poroelasticity

for swelling shales: theory and application. Journal of

In order to describe the shale saline solution interac- Petroleum and Engineering 38, pp. 199212.

tion, a chemoporoelastic model was used. The interac- Heidug, W. & Wong, S.-W. 1996. Hydration swelling of

tion between fluid and shale was investigated through water-absorbing rocks: a constitutive model. Interna-

a pressure transmission test where pore fluid pres- tional Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in

sure is monitored when both hydraulic and chemical Geomechanics, Vol. 20, 403430.

gradients are applied to a shale sample. Kreyszig, E. 1993. Advanced engineering mathematics.

The 1D chemoporoelastic model was used to obtain USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

a set of parameters that describe the behavior of Muniz, E., Fontoura, S.A.B. & Lomba, R.F.T. 2004. Devel-

opment of equipment and testing methodology to evalu-

the shale. First of all, the fluid diffusion coefficient

ate rock-drilling fluid interaction. GulfRocks04, The 6th

obtained was around 4 108 m2 /s, which is within North America Rock Mechanics Symposium (NARMS);

the order of magnitude of other shales tested in Brazil. Houston, Texas, Paper 599.

The experimental data was well represented by this Muniz, E., Fontoura, S.A.B. & Lomba, R.F.T. 2005a. Rock-

parameter. drilling fluid interaction studies on the diffusion cell.

The effective solute coefficient, De, is around LACPEC, LatinAmerican and Caribbean Petroleum Engi-

4 1011 m2 /s and the membrane efficiency was very neering Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Paper SPE:

low for this shale: less than 5%. The membrane 94768.

efficiency obtained in the sample CP-31 is the approx- Muniz, E., Duarte, R.G., Fontoura, S.A.B. & Lomba, R.F.T.

2005b. Evaluation of shale-drilling fluid interaction

imately 5%. This value agrees with that obtained by

for studies of well stability. Alaska-Rocks05, 40th

van Oort (2003) when testing a Pierre type I shale also U.S. Rock Mech. Symp. (ARMS/USRMS), Anchorage,

with 35% CaCl2 . For Pierre type II shale, Tan et al. Alaska.

(1996), using 20% w/w NaCl obtained membrane Neuzil, C.E. 1994. How permeable are clays and shales?

efficiency in the range from 6% to 10%. For Brazil- Water Resources Research, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 145150.

ian shale, Muniz et al. (2005) using also 35% w/w Nocedal, J. & Wright, S.J. 1999. Numerical Optimization.

CaCl2 obtained membrane efficiency in the range Springer-Verlag.

from 1% to 1.5%. Other shales have been tested and Rabe, C. 2003. Experimental study of the drilling-fluid-

higher membrane efficiency has been obtained. How- shale interaction through immersion tests. PhD Thesis (in

Portuguese), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de

ever, it is important to notice that the chemoporoelastic

Janeiro, Civil Engineering Department, 290 p.

model used represents very well the overall behavior of Sarout, J. 2003. Experimental identification of chemo-

the shale. As conclusion, the methodology presented poroelastic parameters for reactive shales. M.Sc. Thesis,

herein seems to be a strong mean to obtain chemo- University of Minnesota, 120 p.

poroelastic parameters of shales. Finally, this study is Tan, C.P., Richards, B.G. & Rahman, S.S.: Managing

similar to the research developed by Sarout (2003). physico-chemical wellbore instability in shales with the

91

chemical potential mechanism, Paper SPE 36971 pre- Technical Conference and Exhibition, 1994, SPE 28309,

sented at the 1996 Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference, New Orleans, 137146 p.

Adelaide, 107116. van Oort 2003. On the physical and chemical stability of

Vanderplaats, G.N. 1984. Numerical optimization tech- shales. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 38

niques for engineering design: with applications. New (2003), 213235.

York McGraw-Hill, Inc.

van Oort et al. 1996. Transport in shales and the design

of improved water-based shale drilling fluids. Annual

92

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Computational analysis

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

C.J. Gonalves

PETROBRAS, Brazil

ABSTRACT: This paper is Part II of a series of two papers concerned with incorporating chemoporoelasticity in

wellbore stability analysis in shales. The main goal is to incorporate chemoporoelastic effects in wellbore stability

design in shales using realistic parameters, which were determined by applying the described methodology in

Part I. The governing equations for the evaluation of stresses, pore pressure and solute concentration around

the wellbore are presented. These equations are integrated in the Laplace domain and back inverted to the time

domain through a numerical algorithm. In addition, a practical methodology for computing the collapsed area

around the borehole was applied, which allows a better specification of mud weight window. The model and

the methodology were used to investigate the impact of chemoporoelasticity in wellbore stability analysis. The

results show that an adequate specification of the solute concentration in the drilling fluid composition generates

an efficient time-dependent control of the borehole stability.

coupling between the poroelastic and chemical effects.

For the oil industry, designing wells in shales repre- The pore pressure field around the borehole is

sents a great challenge because more than 90% of deeply impacted by the chemical gradient between the

stability problems during the drilling occur in this kind drilling fluid and the shale, due to the osmotic effect.

of rocks. Moreover, the annual costs due to instability This way, an adequate specification of the solute con-

problems overcome US$ 500 million. centration in the drilling fluid composition slows down

This paper is Part II of a series of two papers the pore pressure penetration, maintaining safe the

concerned with incorporating chemoporoelasticity in stability window for a large time, and consequently,

wellbore stability analysis in shales. In spite of the the- reducing the cost of wellbore construction.

oretical and experimental studies in the last few years

about this theme (Chenevert & Pernot 1998, Ewy &

Stankovich 2002, Ghassemi & Diek 2001, van Oort 2 GOVERNING EQUATIONS

1994), the use of chemoporoelasticity in the oil indus-

try has not become a current practice yet. The main In spite of the importance of thermal forces on the sta-

difficulty in applying coupled models is the lack of the bility of shales during drilling (Arajo 2005), herein

parameters required as data set. we consider shales only as chemoporoelastic materials

In order to contribute with the dissemination of in isotermic situations.

chemoporoelasticity into the practice of wellbore sta-

bility analysis in shales, this paper shows how to spec-

ify the density of the drilling fluid taking into account 2.1 Constitutive equations

its solute concentration. The stability analysis is car- A chemoporoelastic material can be described by a set

ried out using realistic chemoporoelastic parameters of constitutive equations to total stress (ij ) and pore

of a shale, which were obtained in Part I. pressure ( p), respectively:

The closed-form solution presented herein was

developed to compute the changes of stress, pore pres-

sure and solute concentration around the borehole

when drilling through shales, using a fast and robust

93

where c is the fluid diffusion coefficient. Notice that in

where ij and eij denote the total stress and strain ten-

Equation 9 pore pressure is uncoupled from the strain

sors, respectively; e is the volumetric strain; ij is the

field, due to the irrotational displacement field around

Kronecker delta; f is the fluid density, is the

the borehole in a semi-infinite domain (Wang, 2000).

swelling parameter, C is the solute concentration,

is the increment of fluid content; G is the shear mod-

ulus, and u are the drained and undrained Poissons 2.4 Problem description

ratio, respectively, B is Skemptons pore pressure coef-

ficient, and is Biots coefficient. Drilling a wellbore through shale results in a redistri-

bution of its original stress, pore pressure and solute

concentration. In order to compute these changes, the

2.2 Transport laws set of Equations 810 must be solved. Let us con-

sider an inclined borehole with radius a, drilled in

The fluid transport (Jf ) and solute transport (Js ) equa- anisotropic stress field as showed in Figure 1. The

tions are expressed, respectively, as follows: problem is treated in the borehole coordinate sys-

tem formed by x-y-z axis. Notice that this system is

obtained by a rotation and an inclination from the

far-field stress coordinate system X-Y-Z.

The boundary conditions at the far-filed, r ,

where r is the radial distance from the borehole

axis, are:

where k is the intrinsic permeability, is the fluid

viscosity, is the reflection coefficient, R is the gas

constant, Ms is the solute molar mass, T is the absolute

temperature, d is the solute dissociation factor and De

is the effective solute diffusion coefficient.

A complete description of the chemoporoelastic

behavior of shales must also take into account the

balance laws. The mechanical equilibrium equation

states:

flow, respectively, are also necessary:

with Equations 57, the following set of equations is

obtained:

94

At the borehole wall, r = a, the boundary conditions

become:

Due to the linearity, the problem is decomposed in

three sub-problems: a plane strain problem, a uniaxial

problem and anti-plane shear problem (Cui et al. 1997,

Detournay & Cheng, 1988). The plane strain problem

is solved in the Laplace domain and considering three

individual modes, for each the boundary conditions at

the borehole wall are:

Mode 1:

Mode 2:

where:

Mode 3:

3 COLLAPSE MANAGEMENT

considering only the borehole wall, in other words, the

stability window is constrained between the pressures

that generate ruptures either by compression (collapse)

or tensile (fracture) at the borehole wall. However, col-

lapse rupture is often not catastrophic and does not

adversely affect drilling.This way, it is possible to man-

age the collapse development around the borehole in

The solutions for modes 1 and 3 can be found else- order to improve the stability window determination.

where (Cui et al. 1997). Here, for brevity we show In addition, drilling with pressures close to the fracture

only the solution for mode 2: limit it is also dangerous, because this kind of rupture

always results in serious problems to the borehole.

A practical methodology was developed by (Arajo

et al. 2005), which allows to determine collapsed area

95

Table 1. Data set used in the computational analysis.

Overburden gradient 21.07 kPa/m

Maximum horizontal stress gradient 16.85 kPa/m

Minimum horizontal stress gradient 15.32 kPa/m

Pore pressure gradient 9.58 kPa/m

Geothermal gradient 4.5 102 C/m

Original solute concentration 20 kg/m3

Wellbore diameter 0.20 m

Young modulus 2200 MPa

Drained Poissons ratio 0.22

Fluid diffusion coefficient 4 108 m2 /s

Porosity 0.40

Biots coefficient 0.9

Solute molar mass (CaCl2 ) 0.111 kg/mol

Figure 2. Collapsed area around the borehole versus drilling Reflection coefficient 0.046

fluid pressure. Solute dissociation factor (CaCl2 ) 2.601

Pore fluid density 1000 kg/m3

Swelling coefficient 0 MPa

values around the borehole corresponding to a given

Effective solute diffusion coefficient 2.95 1011 m2 /s

drilling fluid pressure range. Figure 2 shows schemati- Cohesion 3 MPa

cally the methodology. Ay represents the ratio between Friction angle 28.4

the collapsed area and the borehole area, which devel-

ops due to drilling fluid pressure Pw .

In Figure 2 LCP indicates the lower collapse pres-

sure, UCP the upper collapse pressure and UFP

the upper fracture pressure. Traditionally, the mud

weight window (MWW) is constrained between LCP

and UFP. Basically, the methodology allows drilling

the borehole with a mud pressure less than LCP, which

will generate a specific collapsed area. Notice that the

traditional mud weight window is narrower than the

proposed using the methodology.

In addition, it is important to mention that the meth-

odology allows the use of any stress model and failure

criterion. In this work, pore pressure and stresses

are calculated through the chemoporoelastic model

described in the previous section, and the failure

criterion used was the modified Lade (Ewy 1999).

pressure 30 min after drilling.

A borehole drilled through a shale in an anisotropic

stress field is taken as example. The main goal of the simulation results in a safer situation than the poroelas-

analysis is to determine the benefits of dimensioning tic simulation.This occurs due to the chemical gradient

the solute concentration in the drilling fluid composi- between the drilling fluid and the shale, which gener-

tion on the pore pressure penetration, and consequently ates an osmotic pressure that slows down the pore pres-

on the borehole stability. Table 1 shows the data set sure penetration into the shale as shown in Figure 5.

used in the analysis. The fluid diffusion coefficient, In a similar way, Figure 4 shows the collapsed area

reflection coefficient and effective solute coefficient around the borehole, as a function of the drilling fluid

were determined in Part I, using the sample CP31. pressure, 1 day after drilling. Notice that the poroelas-

Figure 3 shows the collapsed area as a function of tic simulation shows a significant growth of the col-

the drilling fluid pressure, 30 min after drilling. Notice lapsed area, now, larger than 5% for any drilling fluid

that in this particular case, collapse will occur for pressure. Actually, the situation could be even worse,

any drilling fluid pressure. Therefore, it is impor- because if the solute concentration in the drilling

tant to select the minimum value of the drilling fluid fluid is less than the solute concentration in shale, the

pressure based on the maximum allowed value of osmotic flow will reverse, and as a consequence, the

the collapsed area. Notice that the chemoporoelastic pore pressure penetration will increases.

96

Figure 4. Collapsed area as a function of drilling fluid Figure 6. Pore pressure penetration into the shale 1 day after

pressure 1 day after drilling. drilling.

improve wellbore stability. A solute concentration in

the drilling fluid high than the solute concentration

in the shale generates an osmotic pressure that slow

down the pore pressure penetration. Even one day

after drilling, the osmotic pressure contributes to main-

tain the mechanical support on the borehole wall, and

consequently its stability.

The analysis also pointed out that if chemical

effects are neglected the wellbore stability problems

can increase, mainly, as the time progress, in agree-

ment with the industry practice, that always report that

wellbore stability in shales are time-dependent.

In addition, the results indicate that wellbore stabil-

ity problems in shales cannot be solved just specifying

the drilling fluid pressure, because when using water-

based fluids the pore pressure penetration always

Figure 5. Pore pressure penetration into the shale 30 min occurs, and can only be reduced controlling other prop-

after drilling. erties of the drilling fluid, in particular, the solute

concentration.

In an opposite way, chemoporoelastic simulation

shows that an adequate specification of the solute

concentration in the drilling fluid results in the main- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

tenance of the wellbore stability. Even 1 day after

drilling, there are values of drilling fluid pressure that This paper was developed during the PhD work of the

maintain the collapsed area less than 5%. Figure 6 first author, who would like to thank FAPERJ (Foun-

clearly shows that the mechanical support from the dation of Support to the Research of the State of Rio de

drilling fluid pressure, when applying chemoporoelas- Janeiro) for the scholarship granted during his course.

tic model, does not dissipate, because the pore pressure Thanks are extensive to PETROBRAS for the finan-

penetration is avoided. cial support to wellbore stability project at Pontifical

Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro.

5 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

A wellbore stability analysis in shale was carried Arajo, E.M.P. 2005. A Coupled Thermochemoporoelastic

out incorporating chemoporoelasticity. The chemo- Model for Wellbore Stability Analysis in Shales. PhD

poroelastic effects were incorporated through realistic Thesis (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro: Pontifcia Univer-

parameters determined from shale samples. sidade Catlica do Rio de Janeiro.

97

Arajo, E.M.P., Fontoura, S.A.B. & Pastor, J.A.S.C. 2005. A Ewy, R.T. & Stankovich, R.J. 2002. Shale-Fluid Interac-

Methodology for Drilling Through Shales in Environ- tions Measured Under Simulated Downhole Conditions.

ments with Narrow Mud Weight Window (NMWW). IX SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference. Irving, Texas,

SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineer- Paper SPE/ISRM 78160: Society of Petroleum Engineers.

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Chenevert, M.E. & Pernot, V. 1998. Control of Shale hole in Shale. Rock Mechanics in the National Interest.

Swelling Pressures Using Inhibitive Water-Based Muds. Washington, D.C., USA. Swets & Zeitlinger Lisse: 8591.

SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. New van Oort, E. 1994. A Novel Technique for the Investigation

Orleans, Louisiana, Paper SPE 49263: Society of of Drilling Fluid Induced Borehole Instability in Shales.

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tic Solution for an Inclined Borehole. ASME Journal of Petroleum Engineers.

Applied Mechanics, 64: 3238. Wang, H.F. 2000. Theory of Linear Poroelasticity with Appli-

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Modified Lade Criterion. SPE Drilling & Completion,

14(2).

98

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

rocks under CO2 injection

M. Seyedi

BRGM/ARN, Orlans, France

A. Mushtaq

BRGM/ARN, Orlans, France & LMT-Cachan , Cachan, France

F. Hild

LMT-Cachan, Cachan, France

ABSTRACT: Injection of CO2 into geologic formations is being practiced today to decrease the greenhouse

gas effect, but it is not yet possible to predict with confidence storage volume, formation integrity and long term

reliability. Potential CO2 leakage towards the surface can be associated to the cracking state of the rock mass

through the permeability-fracturing state relationship. A probabilistic method based on the initial distribution of

defects is proposed to describe different aspects of the formation of crack networks in rocks under CO2 injection

conditions. Propagation of single cracks is discussed by studying the stress intensity factor variation and the

possibility of crack network formation is shown. The interaction between cracks is modeled by considering

obscuration zones corresponding to shielding effects created by each crack.

the present work, the crack formation due to added

Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and pressure caused by gas injection is studied.

other gases in the earth atmosphere are aggravating the The failure of a rock sample has a random charac-

natural greenhouse gas effect and leading to unwanted ter. The failure stress is scattered and the average level

climate changes, with risks of extreme weather, ris- decreases with the volume of the sample. The effect

ing sea level and adverse effects on agriculture and of this scatter on the mass stability and its capacity to

biodiversity. store gas must be taken into account. In this frame-

The storage of CO2 in major geological formations work, the study of cracking states in the vicinity of the

such as the oil and gas tanks, deep saline reservoirs, reservoir is of crucial importance. The direct relation-

unminable coal beds and deep oceans is a promising ship between the cracking state of the ground and its

solution to decrease the effect of pollution by CO2 . permeability bring us to the development of models

Injection of CO2 into geologic formations is being for cracking prediction and its change with time.

practiced today by the petroleum industry for enhanc- The rock mass heterogeneity can be described by

ing oil reservoirs, but it is not yet possible to predict the presence of defects with a random distribution.

with confidence storage volume, formation integrity The scatter of failure stress for rock samples can be

and storage performance over long time periods. explained by the presence of micro-fractures (i.e. ini-

Potential CO2 leakage towards the surface can be tial defects) that are at the origin of crack initiation,

associated to specific local stress states in the caprock causing the possible failure of the sample. A proba-

and sealed wells due to the heterogeneity of rock bilistic model based on a Poisson point distribution of

masses, the regional stress state and the pressure micro-fractures is used to describe this random char-

change in the reservoir. It is worth noting that all these acter by relating the material microstructure and its

different aspects are coupled with each other and a macroscopic behavior.

detailed study of the integrity of the reservoir requires First, the probabilistic aspects are studied for an iso-

taking into account the hydro-mechanical behavior lated crack nucleated on the inner surface of a hollow

of the sealing rocks and their potential cracking as cylinder with an internal pressure increase. Nucleation

well as the long term change of temperature, pres- and propagation of an isolated crack is discussed and

sure states and physical geochemical properties of the an arrest probability of the crack is investigated.

99

Second, we focus on the formation of multiple

cracks in a network. The existence of each crack modi-

fies the stress field. Shielding and amplification zones

are created around the crack. The shielding effect can

be explained by considering the influence of these

zones on the propagation of the other cracks (e.g., the

compliance of a structure is strongly influenced by a

crack loaded in mode I; conversely, it is not influenced

in the crack direction). The possible interaction bet-

ween initiated cracks is modeled by introducing a

shielding probability for each initiated crack based on

the material heterogeneity.

Figure 1. Reservoir or injection well idealized as a hollow

Two phases can be distinguished during the gas storage cylinder under internal pressure.

process.The first one is the injection phase. During this

phase the internal pressure of the reservoir increases. where Y is a dimensionless geometry parameter and

This pressure reaches its maximum value at the end of the applied stress. The propagation occurs when K

the injection phase and then remains constant during is greater than the fracture toughness KIc . By con-

the second phase.To study how this added pressure will sidering the above-mentioned definition of the stress

change the mechanical equilibrium of the rock mass intensity factor, the initiation stress i of each crack

and what will be the change of crack and fracture net- can be related to its initial size a by

works existing in the rock following the injection, two

hypotheses can be considered for the crack network

formation.

The first one assumes that the cracks start to prop-

agate from initial flaws. In this case, crack initiation is Let us idealize the geometry of an injection well and

defined as the onset of propagation of an existing flaw the reservoir as a hollow cylinder (Fig. 1) to demon-

(modeled as an existing crack) when the injection pres- strate the initiation conditions in these two cases with

sure increases. No new crack initiation occurs after the the closed-form solutions. The stress components read

end of the injection phase, only sub critical propagation

can start when the pressure is maintained. The second

hypothesis consists of continuous crack initiation as

well as propagation after the application of pressure.

In the present work, we consider the first hypothe-

sis to model the formation of crack networks in a

rock mass.

By considering rocks as a brittle material, the weak-

est link hypothesis (Freudenthal 1968) can be made

and a two-parameter Weibull model (Weibull 1939) where pint is the internal pressure, R and Q the internal

can be used to describe the scatter of failure stresses and external radii of the cylinder, r the radial coordi-

nate and the Poissons ratio. The stress heterogeneity

factor characterizes the effect of the load pattern on the

cumulative failure probability (H = 1 when a domain

is loaded in pure tension). By considering that the hoop

where PF is the failure probability, H a stress hetero- stress is the main cause of cracking, the stress het-

geneity factor, S the surface, S0 0m the Weibull scale erogeneity factor can be obtained from the following

parameter, the applied stress and m the Weibull equation

modulus.

Let us assume that the initial size of crack is a.

Its propagation is driven by the stress intensity factor

(SIF)

where d = rdrd and f the failure stress in ten-

sion. On the inner surface of the cylinder (i.e., r = R),

100

Figure 2. Stress heterogeneity factor as a function of m Figure 3. The effect of the Q/R ratio on the initiation

and Q/R. probability.

when m is an integer

equals

are plotted in Fig. 2. The results show that when Q/R

tends to one, H also tends to one. In other words,

a quasi-uniform stress field exists. Conversely, when

Q/R increases, the stress field becomes more hetero-

geneous and the value of H decreases. This trend is

more important for larger values of m.

Figure 4. The effect of the S/S0 ratio on the initiation

probability.

2.2 Crack initiation probability

Equation (1) defines the failure probability when the

field is more heterogeneous, the initiation probability

weakest link condition can be considered. Let us con-

decreases.

sider that the crack initiation process at each point is

Figure 4 shows the variation of the initiation prob-

independent of the other points. The crack initiation

ability as a function of the normalized failure stress in

probability can be described by Equation (1). Substi-

tension for different values of S/S0 . This plot exem-

tuting the value of H in Equation (1), the initiation

plifies the scale effect on the initiation probability.

probability is plotted for different values of Q/R and

The initiation probability increases with an increasing

S/S0 as a function of normalized failure stress in Fig. 3

loaded surface for the same pressure level.

and 4. For a given value of m, H decreases when Q/R

increases. Consequently, for the same pressure level,

the crack initiation probability is smaller for the big- 2.3 Average crack radius

ger values of Q/R. When the stress heterogeneity is Let us now find the average radius of cracking in

close to one, all points are loaded in the same manner. a hollow cylinder submitted to an internal pressure.

On the other hand, when Q/R increases, i.e. the stress The survival probability of all elements for an inner

101

modulus decreases, the average crack radius increases.

A high value of m corresponds to a small scatter in

the material properties. The cracks will initiate where

the stress level is the highest. Thus by increasing the

value of m, the average cracking radius tends to one,

which means close to the inner surface of the cylinder.

These results show that in all analyzed cases, initiation

is concentrated close to the inner surface because of

the stress heterogeneity. In the following analyses it is

assumed that initiation occurs on the inner surface.

single crack through the thickness of a hollow cylin-

der. With this study, it is shown that a crack network

will be formed as a consequence of an applied internal

pressure if a crack can be initiated. Second, a proba-

Figure 5. The effect of material heterogeneity on the average bilistic model is introduced to study the formation of

cracking radius. crack networks.

pressure equal to pint is (Oh & Finnie 1970) 3.1 Propagation of a single crack

Let us consider an edge crack on the inner surface of a

thick hollow cylinder submitted to an internal pressure

pint . The stress intensity factor K can be considered as

where pr is the failure probability of the element the main factor that governs the propagation of the

located at ri and PF the failure probability that can crack. To study whether a crack will grow or stop,

be rewritten from Equation (1) as the SIF value is compared with the fracture toughness

KIC for different crack lengths as the applied internal

pressure increases. Finite element calculations were

performed and the results are plotted in Fig. 6. Two

opposite trends can be distinguished in the change of

By substituting the definition of the stress hetero- the stress intensity factor as a function of the crack

geneity factor (H ) in Equation (9) and considering length. This trend change is the result of a compe-

only the first order terms, the derivative of the failure tition between the effects of crack length and stress

probability becomes level in the studied body. The stress intensity factor

is a function of the square root of the crack length

and the applied stress. As the crack length a increases,

the stress level decreases. In the first part, the crack

length effect is predominant and K increases when a

increases. However in the second part, the stress level

If Equation (10) is integrated as a function of inter- predominates and K decreases when a increases. Fig-

nal pressure pint and the polar coordinates r and , the ure 6 shows that a crack will be initiated as soon as

average crack radius is expressed as the K value reaches the fracture toughness. The cracks

will grow by increasing the inner pressure. When the

applied pressure reaches the maximum value, the crack

continues to propagate and stops when K becomes less

than KIC .

These results show that a single crack will stop after

propagating up to a given length for which the stress

intensity factor becomes less than the fracture tough-

where r/R is the normalized average crack radius in a ness. As a first crack stops, another one can be initiated

hollow cylinder submitted to an internal pressure and on a second initiation site. The second crack will stop

x = Q/R. Figure 5 shows the variation of the average for the same length and a third one can be initiated and

crack radius as a function of the Q/R ratio for different this series can continue. It means that a crack network

values of the Weibull modulus m. When the Weibull will be formed.

102

The obscuration (i.e. relaxation) zone is the key

quantity that describes the interaction between ini-

tiated cracks and defects. The obscuration zone can

be defined as a zone in which the local stress is

smaller than applied stress. Finite element calculations

(Mushtaq 2005) show that its size is proportional to the

applied pressure pint and a power function can be used

as a first estimation of the obscuration zone size Zobs

1, 2 or 3). The initial defect distribution characterized

by t can be split into two parts and the average density

of cracks can be written as

zone of measure Z for an applied pressure less than or

Figure 6. Study of the propagation of single cracks through equal to p. The subscripts indicate the cracking density

the comparison between stress intensity factor and fracture (b), the obscured density (obs), and the total defect

toughness.

density (t).

3.2 Probabilistic treatment of crack network Furthermore, we assume that the total defect dis-

formation tribution is modeled by a Poisson point process of

intensity t . New cracks will initiate only if a defect

Let us assume that all cracks will initiate at one of the exists in the considered zone and if no cracks obscure

initial defects randomly distributed within the mate- it, so that

rial. A power law of the applied stress can model the

density of the defects

the defect. The variable 1 Pobs can be split into an

infinity of events defined by the probability of finding

where m and 0m /0 are material-dependent parameters

at p a new defect during a stress increment dp in an

and <> the Macauley brackets. By making the weak-

obscuration zone Zobs ( p). This probability increment

est link assumption, a two-parameter Weibull model in

is written by using a Poisson point process of inten-

which m is the Weibull modulus and 0m /0 the scale

sity dt /dp. These independent events can be used to

parameter (Gulino & Phoenix 1991; Jeulin 1991) can

obtain an expression for Pobs

be used to find the failure probability. In this setting,

the material microstructure is modeled by the Weibull

parameters.

Of all the defects, potential crack propagation sites,

only a fraction will actually propagate. When the local

stress intensity factor K > KIC , it is assumed that a At the beginning of loading, no interaction occurs and

crack will start to propagate. When a crack is initi- b ( p) = t ( p) and as more and more cracks nucleate,

ated in mode I, the local stress state is modified in b ( p) t ( p). It is expected that the crack density

its vicinity. To understand why a crack nucleates, one saturates when p + even though the total defect

has to model the interaction of the zone (i.e. volume, density may approach infinity.

surface or length) affected by the stress decrease and One can define a characteristic density c and a

other defects that would nucleate. The behavior of a characteristic pressure pc as follows

flaw around a nucleated crack can be described by two

different cases:

the flaw is far from the nucleated crack and the

microscopic stress state is not affected, and

the flaw is in the relaxation zone and the microscopic

tensile stress is less than the applied stress, i.e. no

crack is emanating from this potential initiation site.

103

probability change as the considered pressure becomes

greater than the characteristic pressure. The density of

cracks at saturation can be derived from Equation (20)

and is only dependent on the Weibull modulus m and

the space dimension n when normalized by c .

Figure 8 shows the effect of the Weibull modulus

on the cracking density. With a high Weibull modulus

m, the density of cracks will increase significantly in a

small stress step when the stress becomes greater than

c . Because of the stress dependence of the saturation

mechanism, many cracks nucleate before any signifi-

cant interaction and the material will be fully cracked.

If m is small, there is much more time between two

crack initiations. The first nucleated crack obscures

others before their own nucleation and only few defects

eventually nucleate cracks.

4 CONCLUSION

Figure 7. Obscuration probability and normalized crack

density as functions of the normalized applied pressure By using a study on the propagation of single cracks,

(m = 10). the possibility of the formation of crack networks

around a gas injection well or in the caprock is studied.

A probabilistic method based on a random distribu-

tion of defects considered as potential initiation sites

is proposed to describe different aspects of the forma-

tion of crack networks in rocks under CO2 injection

conditions. The total defect distribution is modeled by

a Poisson point process and the interaction between

cracks is accounted for by considering obscuration

zones. A closed-form solution was presented to cal-

culate the obscuration probability and the density of

the formed cracks in a network.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

gramme.

REFERENCES

Freudenthal,A. M., 1968. StatisticalApproach to Brittle Frac-

Figure 8. Effect of the Weibull modulus on the cracking ture. Fracture. H. Liebowitz (Eds.). New York (USA),

density. Academic Press. 2: 591619.

Gulino, R. & Phoenix, S. L., 1991. Weibull Strength Statistics

from the condition for Graphite Fibres Measured from the Break Progres-

sion in a Model Graphite/Glass/Epoxy Microcomposite.

J. Mater. Sci. 26(11): 31073118.

Jeulin, D., 1991. Modles morphologiques de structures ala-

Using these characteristic quantities, an analytical toires et changement dchelle. Thse dtat. Universit

solution is given for the differential equation (15) de Caen.

Mushtaq, A., 2005. Probabilistic model for formation and

propagation of crack networks in rock mass. MSc. thesis.

Ecole Normale Suprieure de Cachan.

Oh, H. L. & Finnie, I., 1970. On the Location of Fracture in

Brittle Solids-I Due to Static Loading. Int. J. Fract. Mech.

where is the incomplete gamma function and the 6(3): 287300.

subscript c denotes characteristic quantities. Figure 7 Weibull, W., 1939. A Statistical Theory of the Strength of

shows the saturation phenomenon and the obscuration Materials, 151, Roy. Swed. Inst. Eng. Res.

104

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

deformations of rock specimen in plane strain compression

X.B. Wang

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin, PR China

ABSTRACT: FISH functions were written and embedded in FLAC to calculate the axial, lateral and volumetric

strains as well as the ratio of negative lateral strain to axial strain (called the calculated Poissons ratio in plane

strain compression, which is different from Poissons ratio in elastic stage) of rock specimen in plane strain

compression. The influence of pore pressure on pattern of shear band and entire deformational characteristics

was numerically investigated. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation of rock was linear elastic. Beyond

the peak stress, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off was used and the post-peak constitutive

relation was linear softening. Numerical results show that higher pore pressure leads to larger failure zone, steeper

shear bands inclination closer to Arthurs predictions, lower peak stress, lower absolute values of axial, lateral

and volumetric strains corresponding to the peak stress. Lower pore pressure has not an influence on the slopes

of stress-axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain curve beyond the peak stress since the failure mode of the

specimen is independent of pore pressure. However, for higher pore pressure, the number of failed elements is

greatly increased, leading to less steep post-peak stress-axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain curve. For higher

pore pressure, higher lateral deformation and higher calculated Poissons ratio as well as negative volumetric

strain can be reached at the same axial strain. No apparent difference in precursors to unstable failure of rock

specimen is observed with an increase of pore pressure. In strain-softening stage, the slopes of lateral strain-axial

strain curve, Poissons ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial strain curve are not influenced by pore

pressure; owing to the apparent lateral expansion, the calculated Poissons ratio can exceed 0.5, as is consistent

with some experimental measurements.

1 INTRODUCTION coal specimens (Yao & Zhou 1992, Liang et al. 1995,

Lu et al. 2001). However, usually only stress-axial

Fluids play an important role in some seriously natural strain curves for different pore pressures are measured.

hazards, such as reservoir-induced earthquake, land- Moreover, since experimental tests are carried out in

slide, liquefaction and gas outburst. In areas where a pressure chamber, it is difficult to monitor the pro-

potentially active faults are already close to failure, cesses of deformation and failure within the specimen.

the increased pore pressure resulting from fluid injec- Numerical simulation can overcome the shortcomings

tion or, alternatively, the massive extraction of fluid or of experimental tests.

gas, can induce sufficient stress and/or strain changes FLAC is an explicit finite-difference code that

that, with time, can lead to sudden catastrophic failure can effectively model the behaviors of geomaterials,

in a major earthquake (Nicholson & Wesson 1992). undergoing plastic flow as their yield limits are

Injection-induced earthquakes typically result from reached. Compared with the conventional finite-

the reduction in frictional strength along preexisting element methods, FLAC has some marked advan-

faults. For overconsolidated clays, earthquake loading tages: the plastic flow is accurately modeled because

can generate significant excess pore water pressures at mixed discretization scheme is adopted; the phys-

depth, which can bring the slope to a state of instabil- ically unstable processes and strain localization are

ity during the event or at a later time as a result of simulated without numerical distress partly due to

pore pressure redistribution within the soil profile the use of full dynamic equations of motion; and

(Biscontin et al. 2004). Liquefaction is a result of the arbitrary nonlinearity in constitutive relations are

increased pore pressure which decreases effective solved numerically using an explicit finite difference

stress. approach so that no any matrices needs to be saved.

Some researchers have investigated the effect of To obtain a further understanding of the local-

pore pressure on mechanical properties of rock and ized failure of a rectangular specimen composed of

105

isotropic strain-softening material beyond the peak v0

stress in plane strain compression with or without

material imperfections, Wang et al. (2001 ab, 2002

ac, 2003 a) and Wang & Li (2005) numerically

investigated the effects of height and width of rock

specimen, strain rate, shear dilatancy, pore pressure

and end-constraint on pattern of shear bands, fields of

velocity and displacement, macroscopically mechan-

ical behaviors and distribution of plastic zone. Wang

et al. (2002 d, 2004 a) numerically investigated shear

bands of borehole and seismic model composed of

blocks. The numerical results (Wang 2005 a) in biax-

ial plane strain and dynamic compression reveal a

few seismic phenomena, such as shear localization,

anomaly in shear strain rate and its evolution, gap,

migration and periodicity in earthquake activities,

field precursor and source precursor. In addition, the

Material

lateral deformational characteristics of rock specimen

imperfection

with a material imperfection (Wang 2005 b), the end-

restraint effect of three-dimensional rock specimen

(Wang 2005 c), the deformation and failure processes

for shear band-elastic body system (Wang 2004 c)

and the effect of dilation angle on deformation, failure

and stability of the system (Wang 2004 b) have been

Figure 1. Model geometry and boundary conditions.

modeled.

Wang et al. (2001 a) studied the effect of pore pres-

sure on stress-strain curve and pattern of shear bands with the same area of 0.00125 m 0.00125 m. To trig-

of rock specimen in plane strain compression. The ger the asymmetrical deformational modes, no any

following conclusions were drawn: (1) higher pore material property is provided for the four elements

pressure leads to steeper shear band (increase of incli- near the lower-left corner of the specimen.

nation angle of shear band); (2) two conjugate shear In elastic stage, the constitutive relation is lin-

bands become less apparent with an increase of pore ear elasticity. Shear and bulk moduli are 11 GPa and

pressure; (3) for higher pore pressure, the tensile fail- 15 GPa, respectively. The adopted failure criterion is

ure occurs within the specimen so that no shear band a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension

is observed; and (4) pore pressure decreases the peak cut-off and the tension strength is 0.2 MPa. Beyond

stress. However, the modeled specimen is loaded at the the yield strength, a linear strain-softening relation

top and base of the specimen. Only the axial stress of is selected and the variation of cohesion and friction

an element at the top of the specimen is monitored. angle with plastic strain is shown in Fig. 2.

In addition, the specimen is intact and no material Five schemes for calculation are adopted in the

imperfection is prescribed. present paper. From scheme 1 to 5, pore pressure is

In the paper, the effect of pore pressure on fail- 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.175 MPa, respectively. Rock

ure process and mode, axial, lateral and volumetric generally appears weaker when the pore spaces con-

strains of rock specimen with a material imperfection tain a pore fluid under pressure. This is represented in

in plane strain compression were numerically investi- FLAC by the incorporation of an effective stress that

gated. Some FISH functions were written and embed- accounts for the presence of pore pressure in a zone.

ded in FLAC to calculate the entire characteristics of The pore pressures in FLAC are taken to be positive in

deformations. compression. Thus, the effective stress (negative in

compression) is related to the total stress and pore

2 CONSTITUTIVE RELATION AND MODEL pressure p by

L = 0.1 m and B = 0.05 m, respectively. The specimen

in plane strain condition is loaded at a constant veloc- In each scheme, all elements have the same pore pres-

ity of v0 = 4 1010 m/timestep at the top. At the base, sure remaining a constant. Moreover, the fluid does not

the vertical displacement boundary fixes the vertical flow. That is to say, the present numerical predictions

freedom. At the top and base no horizontal friction are more applicable to rapid or dynamic compressive

exists. The specimen is divided into square elements test.

106

0.3

0.25

Cohesion/MPa

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Plastic strain/10-3

(a)

46

Friction angle /Degree

44

42

40

38

36

0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 3. Effect of pore pressure on failure process and pat-

Plastic strain/10-3

tern of rock specimen (ab) 0 MPa; (cd) 0.05 MPa; (ef )

(b) 0.1 MPa; (gh) 0.15 MPa; (ij) 0.175 MPa.

between plastic strain, friction angle and cohesion.

displacement. Using the total displacement and n, we

can get the average displacement. Next, the average

lateral strain l can be obtained if the average dis-

3 FISH FUNCTIONS CALCULATING AXIAL, placement is divided by the width of the specimen.

LATERAL AND VOLUMETRIC STRAINS AS In Equation 3, l is negative for lateral expansion.

WELL AS POISSONS RATIO Volumetric strain v is calculated as

strains as well as Poissons ratio are calculated in

FLAC are not provided, leading to inconvenience in

investigating the deformation, failure and instability. The Poissons ratio v in plane strain compression is

Herein, FISH functions are written and then embed- expressed as

ded into FLAC to calculate the entire deformational

characteristics of rock specimen.

Axial strain a of rock specimen is defined as

where L is the length of the specimen; and a is positive

for axial contraction. 4.1 Effect of pore pressure on pattern of failure

Experiments show that lateral deformation of rock Figs. 3(aj) show the influence of pore pressure on

specimen in compression is nonuniform. Herein, the failure process and pattern of rock specimen. Black

average lateral strain l is elements mean that these elements have yielded, while

white elements always remain elastic state.

Timesteps of each picture are also given in Fig. 3.

For example, the timesteps t of Fig. 3(a) are 10000.

According to the timesteps, we can calculate the axial

where B is the width of the specimen; and n is the strain (a ). For example, in Fig. 3(a), a = v0 t/L =

number of nodes at one lateral edge of plane spec- 4 1010 104 /101 = 4 105 .

imen. Parameters ui and vi are displacements at the The yielded elements always initiate in the vicinity

same height at left and right edges of the specimen, of material imperfection. For lower pore pressure, see

respectively. ui vi is the relative horizontal displace- Figs. 3(b) and (d), the yielded elements from a narrow

ment. Summing the displacement leads to the total and inclined shear band intersecting the specimen. In

107

other words, for lower pore pressure, the observed fail-

ure mode of the specimen is a single shear failure and

the influence of pore pressure is negligible.The present

numerical predictions agree with the previously exper-

imental results (Liao 1983) showing that the effect of

water on failure formation is less apparent for lower

porosity and higher strength rock.

For higher pore pressure, see Figs. 3(f ), (h) and ( j),

the failure patterns are complex. Many elements yield

so that larger area of plastic zone is expected. Not

only some elements within rock specimen yield, but

also some elements at the two edges of the specimen

enter the stage of plastic deformation. Since a number

of yielded elements appear for higher pore pressure,

much energy will be absorbed or dissipated by the

specimen.

According to Coulombs, Roscoes andArthurs incli-

nations (Ord et al. 1991, Vardoulakis 1980, Vermeer Figure 4. Stress-axial strain curves for different pore

1990), shear bands inclination depends on the initial pressures.

friction angle and dilation angle of rock. Herein, they

are 44 and 0 , respectively. The predicted inclinations

by the three theoretical expressions are 67 , 45 and

56 , respectively. Apparently, shear bands inclination

of 62 is closer to Arthurs inclination that is believed

to be closer to the experimental data.

Figs. 46 show the effect of pore pressure on stress-

axial strain curve, stress-lateral strain curve and lateral

strain-axial strain curve, respectively. The black point

corresponds to the onset of strain-softening behavior

of stress-axial strain curve.

The peak stress and the corresponding axial strain

decrease with an increase of pore pressure. The abso-

lute value of lateral strain corresponding to the peak

stress also decreases with pore pressure. These pre- Figure 5. Stress-lateral strain curve for different pore

pressures.

dicted results are consistent with many experimental

measurements.

Prior to the peak stress, the stress-axial strain curve

and the stress-lateral strain curve exhibit a certain fluc-

tuation; no obvious difference in the slopes of the two

curves is observed for different pore pressures.

For lower pore pressure (0 p 0.1 MPa), the

slopes of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve and

stress-lateral strain curve are independent of pore

pressure. For higher pore pressure (0.15 MPa p

0.175 MPa), the post-peak slopes of the two curves

become less steep with an increase of pore pressure.

The reasonableness of the obtained numerical

results can be explained by the previously analytical

solutions of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve and

stress-lateral strain curve for rock specimen in uniaxial

compression subjected to shear failure (Wang & Pan

2003, Wang et al. 2003 b, 2004 b). The two solutions

show that the post-peak slopes of the two curves are Figure 6. Lateral strain-axial strain curves for different

influenced by constitutive parameters of rock (elastic pore pressures.

108

modulus, softening modulus, shear bands number and lateral expansion will be underestimated according to

thickness dependent on characteristic length of rock), Equation 3 before a certain timesteps.

geometrical size of rock specimen (height and width) In the second stage, Poissons ratio remains a con-

and orientation of shear band. stant, reflecting the uniform deformation within the

As mentioned before, for lower pore pressure the specimen.

failure mode of the specimen is not influenced by pore In the third stage, Poissons ratio rapidly increases

pressure. That is to say, the width and the orientation of owing to the apparent lateral expansion of the speci-

shear band are independent of pore pressure. Hence, men; the slope of the Poissons ratio-axial strain curve

for lower pore pressure the post-peak slopes of stress- does not depend on pore pressure. For higher pore pres-

axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain curve are not sure, rock specimen can obtain higher Poissons ratio at

concerned with pore pressure. the same axial strain. Poissons ratio beyond the black

For higher pore pressure, see Figs. 3(h) and ( j), the point can be called the post-peak Poissons ratio that

plastic zone becomes wider as pore pressure increases, can exceed 0.5. Some researchers have reported the

leading to much dissipated energy. Moreover, lower unusual experimental phenomenon (Zhu et al. 2001).

peak stress is reached for higher pore pressure, see Wang (2004 a) derived an analytical solution of the

Figs. 4 and 5. Consequently, the softening branches post-peak Poissons ratio for rock specimen in uniax-

of stress-axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain ial compression subjected to shear failure in the form

curve will become less steep. Thus, a great deal of shear band. The solution shows that the post-peak

of energy consumed by many elements undergoing Poissons ratio can exceed 0.5.

plastic deformations can be provided.

See Fig. 6, the pre-peak and post-peak slopes of

lateral strain-axial strain curve are not influenced by 4.4 Characteristics of volumetric strain

pore pressure. For higher pore pressure, the value of

lateral strain corresponding to the peak stress is higher. Figure 8 depicts the effect of pore pressure on volumet-

ric strain-axial strain curve. Black point corresponds

to the onset of strain-softening stage. With an increase

4.3 Pre-peak and post-peak Poissons ratios of pore pressure, the peak of volumetric strain and

Fig.7 shows the influence of pore pressure on Poissons the corresponding axial strain decrease. Therefore, dry

ratio-axial strain curve. The black point corresponds rock specimen ( p = 0) can reach the minimum volume.

to the peak of stress-axial strain curve. Rock specimen under higher pore pressure dilates

The Poissons ratio-axial strain curve can be clas- earlier than that subjected to lower pore pressure. The

sified into three stages. The first stage corresponds present numerical results are consistent with the pre-

to the initial loading stage. For lower axial strain, the vious experiments (Wu 1981) showing that saturated

deformed region within the specimen is near the top of rock expands earlier than dry rock. At pre-peak and

the specimen. Undeformed part progressively dimin- post-peak, the effect of pore pressure on the slope of

ishes with an increase of axial strain until it vanishes. volumetric strain-axial strain curve is less apparent.

At the two edges of the undeformed region, no lat- For lower pore pressure, the volumetric strain is

eral expansion can be monitored. Thus, the average always positive. That is to say, the deformed rock

specimen is smaller than the undeformed specimen.

However, for higher pore pressure, the deformed rock

specimen finally can exceed the initial volume so that

the volumetric strain is negative. That is to say, the

shear dilatancy is more apparent for the specimen

subjected to higher pore pressure. The present results

agree with the previously experimental observations

(Wu 1981).

As we know, the unstable failure of rock specimen

takes place in strain-softening stage of stress-axial

strain curve once the post-peak stiffness of testing

machine is lower than that of rock specimen. As men-

tioned before, stress fluctuates prior to the peak stress

so that it is difficult to identify the precursors to

Figure 7. Possions ratio-axial strain curves for different the unstable failure from stress-axial strain curve and

pore pressures. stress-lateral strain curve.

109

expected and the deformed volume of the specimen

can exceed the initial volume.

Beyond the peak stress, the slopes of lateral strain-

axial strain curve, Poissons ratio-axial strain curve and

volumetric strain-axial strain curve are not influenced

by pore pressure. No apparent difference in precursors

to unstable failure of rock specimen is observed with

an increase of pore pressure.

The present numerical predictions confirm the fol-

lowing experimental phenomena concerned with pore

pressure: higher pore pressure leads to lower peak

stress; saturated rock specimen dilates earlier than dry

specimen; saturated rock specimen has more apparent

shear dilatancy; and failure mode of higher strength

rock is not influenced by pore pressure.

pore pressures. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It is found from Figs. 68 that before the peak stress Foundation of China (50309004).

is reached, lateral strain-axial strain curve, Poissons

ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial

strain curve obviously deviate from linear states. The REFERENCES

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111

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

deformations of rock specimen in plane strain compression

X.B. Wang

Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin, PR China

ABSTRACT: FISH functions were written and embedded in FLAC to calculate the axial, lateral and volumetric

strains as well as the ratio of negative lateral strain to axial strain (called the calculated Poissons ratio in plane

strain compression, which is different from Poissons ratio in elastic stage) of rock specimen in plane strain

compression. The influence of pore pressure on pattern of shear band and entire deformational characteristics

was numerically investigated. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation of rock was linear elastic. Beyond

the peak stress, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off was used and the post-peak constitutive

relation was linear softening. Numerical results show that higher pore pressure leads to larger failure zone, steeper

shear bands inclination closer to Arthurs predictions, lower peak stress, lower absolute values of axial, lateral

and volumetric strains corresponding to the peak stress. Lower pore pressure has not an influence on the slopes

of stress-axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain curve beyond the peak stress since the failure mode of the

specimen is independent of pore pressure. However, for higher pore pressure, the number of failed elements is

greatly increased, leading to less steep post-peak stress-axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain curve. For higher

pore pressure, higher lateral deformation and higher calculated Poissons ratio as well as negative volumetric

strain can be reached at the same axial strain. No apparent difference in precursors to unstable failure of rock

specimen is observed with an increase of pore pressure. In strain-softening stage, the slopes of lateral strain-axial

strain curve, Poissons ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial strain curve are not influenced by pore

pressure; owing to the apparent lateral expansion, the calculated Poissons ratio can exceed 0.5, as is consistent

with some experimental measurements.

1 INTRODUCTION coal specimens (Yao & Zhou 1992, Liang et al. 1995,

Lu et al. 2001). However, usually only stress-axial

Fluids play an important role in some seriously natural strain curves for different pore pressures are measured.

hazards, such as reservoir-induced earthquake, land- Moreover, since experimental tests are carried out in

slide, liquefaction and gas outburst. In areas where a pressure chamber, it is difficult to monitor the pro-

potentially active faults are already close to failure, cesses of deformation and failure within the specimen.

the increased pore pressure resulting from fluid injec- Numerical simulation can overcome the shortcomings

tion or, alternatively, the massive extraction of fluid or of experimental tests.

gas, can induce sufficient stress and/or strain changes FLAC is an explicit finite-difference code that

that, with time, can lead to sudden catastrophic failure can effectively model the behaviors of geomaterials,

in a major earthquake (Nicholson & Wesson 1992). undergoing plastic flow as their yield limits are

Injection-induced earthquakes typically result from reached. Compared with the conventional finite-

the reduction in frictional strength along preexisting element methods, FLAC has some marked advan-

faults. For overconsolidated clays, earthquake loading tages: the plastic flow is accurately modeled because

can generate significant excess pore water pressures at mixed discretization scheme is adopted; the phys-

depth, which can bring the slope to a state of instabil- ically unstable processes and strain localization are

ity during the event or at a later time as a result of simulated without numerical distress partly due to

pore pressure redistribution within the soil profile the use of full dynamic equations of motion; and

(Biscontin et al. 2004). Liquefaction is a result of the arbitrary nonlinearity in constitutive relations are

increased pore pressure which decreases effective solved numerically using an explicit finite difference

stress. approach so that no any matrices needs to be saved.

Some researchers have investigated the effect of To obtain a further understanding of the local-

pore pressure on mechanical properties of rock and ized failure of a rectangular specimen composed of

105

isotropic strain-softening material beyond the peak v0

stress in plane strain compression with or without

material imperfections, Wang et al. (2001 ab, 2002

ac, 2003 a) and Wang & Li (2005) numerically

investigated the effects of height and width of rock

specimen, strain rate, shear dilatancy, pore pressure

and end-constraint on pattern of shear bands, fields of

velocity and displacement, macroscopically mechan-

ical behaviors and distribution of plastic zone. Wang

et al. (2002 d, 2004 a) numerically investigated shear

bands of borehole and seismic model composed of

blocks. The numerical results (Wang 2005 a) in biax-

ial plane strain and dynamic compression reveal a

few seismic phenomena, such as shear localization,

anomaly in shear strain rate and its evolution, gap,

migration and periodicity in earthquake activities,

field precursor and source precursor. In addition, the

Material

lateral deformational characteristics of rock specimen

imperfection

with a material imperfection (Wang 2005 b), the end-

restraint effect of three-dimensional rock specimen

(Wang 2005 c), the deformation and failure processes

for shear band-elastic body system (Wang 2004 c)

and the effect of dilation angle on deformation, failure

and stability of the system (Wang 2004 b) have been

Figure 1. Model geometry and boundary conditions.

modeled.

Wang et al. (2001 a) studied the effect of pore pres-

sure on stress-strain curve and pattern of shear bands with the same area of 0.00125 m 0.00125 m. To trig-

of rock specimen in plane strain compression. The ger the asymmetrical deformational modes, no any

following conclusions were drawn: (1) higher pore material property is provided for the four elements

pressure leads to steeper shear band (increase of incli- near the lower-left corner of the specimen.

nation angle of shear band); (2) two conjugate shear In elastic stage, the constitutive relation is lin-

bands become less apparent with an increase of pore ear elasticity. Shear and bulk moduli are 11 GPa and

pressure; (3) for higher pore pressure, the tensile fail- 15 GPa, respectively. The adopted failure criterion is

ure occurs within the specimen so that no shear band a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension

is observed; and (4) pore pressure decreases the peak cut-off and the tension strength is 0.2 MPa. Beyond

stress. However, the modeled specimen is loaded at the the yield strength, a linear strain-softening relation

top and base of the specimen. Only the axial stress of is selected and the variation of cohesion and friction

an element at the top of the specimen is monitored. angle with plastic strain is shown in Fig. 2.

In addition, the specimen is intact and no material Five schemes for calculation are adopted in the

imperfection is prescribed. present paper. From scheme 1 to 5, pore pressure is

In the paper, the effect of pore pressure on fail- 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.175 MPa, respectively. Rock

ure process and mode, axial, lateral and volumetric generally appears weaker when the pore spaces con-

strains of rock specimen with a material imperfection tain a pore fluid under pressure. This is represented in

in plane strain compression were numerically investi- FLAC by the incorporation of an effective stress that

gated. Some FISH functions were written and embed- accounts for the presence of pore pressure in a zone.

ded in FLAC to calculate the entire characteristics of The pore pressures in FLAC are taken to be positive in

deformations. compression. Thus, the effective stress (negative in

compression) is related to the total stress and pore

2 CONSTITUTIVE RELATION AND MODEL pressure p by

L = 0.1 m and B = 0.05 m, respectively. The specimen

in plane strain condition is loaded at a constant veloc- In each scheme, all elements have the same pore pres-

ity of v0 = 4 1010 m/timestep at the top. At the base, sure remaining a constant. Moreover, the fluid does not

the vertical displacement boundary fixes the vertical flow. That is to say, the present numerical predictions

freedom. At the top and base no horizontal friction are more applicable to rapid or dynamic compressive

exists. The specimen is divided into square elements test.

106

0.3

0.25

Cohesion/MPa

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Plastic strain/10-3

(a)

46

Friction angle /Degree

44

42

40

38

36

0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 3. Effect of pore pressure on failure process and pat-

Plastic strain/10-3

tern of rock specimen (ab) 0 MPa; (cd) 0.05 MPa; (ef )

(b) 0.1 MPa; (gh) 0.15 MPa; (ij) 0.175 MPa.

between plastic strain, friction angle and cohesion.

displacement. Using the total displacement and n, we

can get the average displacement. Next, the average

lateral strain l can be obtained if the average dis-

3 FISH FUNCTIONS CALCULATING AXIAL, placement is divided by the width of the specimen.

LATERAL AND VOLUMETRIC STRAINS AS In Equation 3, l is negative for lateral expansion.

WELL AS POISSONS RATIO Volumetric strain v is calculated as

strains as well as Poissons ratio are calculated in

FLAC are not provided, leading to inconvenience in

investigating the deformation, failure and instability. The Poissons ratio v in plane strain compression is

Herein, FISH functions are written and then embed- expressed as

ded into FLAC to calculate the entire deformational

characteristics of rock specimen.

Axial strain a of rock specimen is defined as

where L is the length of the specimen; and a is positive

for axial contraction. 4.1 Effect of pore pressure on pattern of failure

Experiments show that lateral deformation of rock Figs. 3(aj) show the influence of pore pressure on

specimen in compression is nonuniform. Herein, the failure process and pattern of rock specimen. Black

average lateral strain l is elements mean that these elements have yielded, while

white elements always remain elastic state.

Timesteps of each picture are also given in Fig. 3.

For example, the timesteps t of Fig. 3(a) are 10000.

According to the timesteps, we can calculate the axial

where B is the width of the specimen; and n is the strain (a ). For example, in Fig. 3(a), a = v0 t/L =

number of nodes at one lateral edge of plane spec- 4 1010 104 /101 = 4 105 .

imen. Parameters ui and vi are displacements at the The yielded elements always initiate in the vicinity

same height at left and right edges of the specimen, of material imperfection. For lower pore pressure, see

respectively. ui vi is the relative horizontal displace- Figs. 3(b) and (d), the yielded elements from a narrow

ment. Summing the displacement leads to the total and inclined shear band intersecting the specimen. In

107

other words, for lower pore pressure, the observed fail-

ure mode of the specimen is a single shear failure and

the influence of pore pressure is negligible.The present

numerical predictions agree with the previously exper-

imental results (Liao 1983) showing that the effect of

water on failure formation is less apparent for lower

porosity and higher strength rock.

For higher pore pressure, see Figs. 3(f ), (h) and ( j),

the failure patterns are complex. Many elements yield

so that larger area of plastic zone is expected. Not

only some elements within rock specimen yield, but

also some elements at the two edges of the specimen

enter the stage of plastic deformation. Since a number

of yielded elements appear for higher pore pressure,

much energy will be absorbed or dissipated by the

specimen.

According to Coulombs, Roscoes andArthurs incli-

nations (Ord et al. 1991, Vardoulakis 1980, Vermeer Figure 4. Stress-axial strain curves for different pore

1990), shear bands inclination depends on the initial pressures.

friction angle and dilation angle of rock. Herein, they

are 44 and 0 , respectively. The predicted inclinations

by the three theoretical expressions are 67 , 45 and

56 , respectively. Apparently, shear bands inclination

of 62 is closer to Arthurs inclination that is believed

to be closer to the experimental data.

Figs. 46 show the effect of pore pressure on stress-

axial strain curve, stress-lateral strain curve and lateral

strain-axial strain curve, respectively. The black point

corresponds to the onset of strain-softening behavior

of stress-axial strain curve.

The peak stress and the corresponding axial strain

decrease with an increase of pore pressure. The abso-

lute value of lateral strain corresponding to the peak

stress also decreases with pore pressure. These pre- Figure 5. Stress-lateral strain curve for different pore

pressures.

dicted results are consistent with many experimental

measurements.

Prior to the peak stress, the stress-axial strain curve

and the stress-lateral strain curve exhibit a certain fluc-

tuation; no obvious difference in the slopes of the two

curves is observed for different pore pressures.

For lower pore pressure (0 p 0.1 MPa), the

slopes of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve and

stress-lateral strain curve are independent of pore

pressure. For higher pore pressure (0.15 MPa p

0.175 MPa), the post-peak slopes of the two curves

become less steep with an increase of pore pressure.

The reasonableness of the obtained numerical

results can be explained by the previously analytical

solutions of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve and

stress-lateral strain curve for rock specimen in uniaxial

compression subjected to shear failure (Wang & Pan

2003, Wang et al. 2003 b, 2004 b). The two solutions

show that the post-peak slopes of the two curves are Figure 6. Lateral strain-axial strain curves for different

influenced by constitutive parameters of rock (elastic pore pressures.

108

modulus, softening modulus, shear bands number and lateral expansion will be underestimated according to

thickness dependent on characteristic length of rock), Equation 3 before a certain timesteps.

geometrical size of rock specimen (height and width) In the second stage, Poissons ratio remains a con-

and orientation of shear band. stant, reflecting the uniform deformation within the

As mentioned before, for lower pore pressure the specimen.

failure mode of the specimen is not influenced by pore In the third stage, Poissons ratio rapidly increases

pressure. That is to say, the width and the orientation of owing to the apparent lateral expansion of the speci-

shear band are independent of pore pressure. Hence, men; the slope of the Poissons ratio-axial strain curve

for lower pore pressure the post-peak slopes of stress- does not depend on pore pressure. For higher pore pres-

axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain curve are not sure, rock specimen can obtain higher Poissons ratio at

concerned with pore pressure. the same axial strain. Poissons ratio beyond the black

For higher pore pressure, see Figs. 3(h) and ( j), the point can be called the post-peak Poissons ratio that

plastic zone becomes wider as pore pressure increases, can exceed 0.5. Some researchers have reported the

leading to much dissipated energy. Moreover, lower unusual experimental phenomenon (Zhu et al. 2001).

peak stress is reached for higher pore pressure, see Wang (2004 a) derived an analytical solution of the

Figs. 4 and 5. Consequently, the softening branches post-peak Poissons ratio for rock specimen in uniax-

of stress-axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain ial compression subjected to shear failure in the form

curve will become less steep. Thus, a great deal of shear band. The solution shows that the post-peak

of energy consumed by many elements undergoing Poissons ratio can exceed 0.5.

plastic deformations can be provided.

See Fig. 6, the pre-peak and post-peak slopes of

lateral strain-axial strain curve are not influenced by 4.4 Characteristics of volumetric strain

pore pressure. For higher pore pressure, the value of

lateral strain corresponding to the peak stress is higher. Figure 8 depicts the effect of pore pressure on volumet-

ric strain-axial strain curve. Black point corresponds

to the onset of strain-softening stage. With an increase

4.3 Pre-peak and post-peak Poissons ratios of pore pressure, the peak of volumetric strain and

Fig.7 shows the influence of pore pressure on Poissons the corresponding axial strain decrease. Therefore, dry

ratio-axial strain curve. The black point corresponds rock specimen ( p = 0) can reach the minimum volume.

to the peak of stress-axial strain curve. Rock specimen under higher pore pressure dilates

The Poissons ratio-axial strain curve can be clas- earlier than that subjected to lower pore pressure. The

sified into three stages. The first stage corresponds present numerical results are consistent with the pre-

to the initial loading stage. For lower axial strain, the vious experiments (Wu 1981) showing that saturated

deformed region within the specimen is near the top of rock expands earlier than dry rock. At pre-peak and

the specimen. Undeformed part progressively dimin- post-peak, the effect of pore pressure on the slope of

ishes with an increase of axial strain until it vanishes. volumetric strain-axial strain curve is less apparent.

At the two edges of the undeformed region, no lat- For lower pore pressure, the volumetric strain is

eral expansion can be monitored. Thus, the average always positive. That is to say, the deformed rock

specimen is smaller than the undeformed specimen.

However, for higher pore pressure, the deformed rock

specimen finally can exceed the initial volume so that

the volumetric strain is negative. That is to say, the

shear dilatancy is more apparent for the specimen

subjected to higher pore pressure. The present results

agree with the previously experimental observations

(Wu 1981).

As we know, the unstable failure of rock specimen

takes place in strain-softening stage of stress-axial

strain curve once the post-peak stiffness of testing

machine is lower than that of rock specimen. As men-

tioned before, stress fluctuates prior to the peak stress

so that it is difficult to identify the precursors to

Figure 7. Possions ratio-axial strain curves for different the unstable failure from stress-axial strain curve and

pore pressures. stress-lateral strain curve.

109

expected and the deformed volume of the specimen

can exceed the initial volume.

Beyond the peak stress, the slopes of lateral strain-

axial strain curve, Poissons ratio-axial strain curve and

volumetric strain-axial strain curve are not influenced

by pore pressure. No apparent difference in precursors

to unstable failure of rock specimen is observed with

an increase of pore pressure.

The present numerical predictions confirm the fol-

lowing experimental phenomena concerned with pore

pressure: higher pore pressure leads to lower peak

stress; saturated rock specimen dilates earlier than dry

specimen; saturated rock specimen has more apparent

shear dilatancy; and failure mode of higher strength

rock is not influenced by pore pressure.

pore pressures. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It is found from Figs. 68 that before the peak stress Foundation of China (50309004).

is reached, lateral strain-axial strain curve, Poissons

ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial

strain curve obviously deviate from linear states. The REFERENCES

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cursors. Figs. 68 show that that no apparent difference gering of submarine slides in soft cohesive soil deposits.

in the precursors is observed with an increase of pore Marine Geology 203(34): 341354.

pressure. Ord, A., Vardoulakis, I. & Kajewski, R. 1991. Shear band

formation in Gosford sandstone. International Journal of

Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 28(5): 397409.

Liao, Y.Q. 1983. Strength and behaviors of granite under

5 CONCLUSIONS different degrees of saturation. South China Journal of

Seismology 3(3): 8793. (in Chinese)

Liang, B., Zhang, M.T., Pan, Y.S. & Wang, Y.J. 1995. The

The increased pore pressure leads to the transition of experimental research on the effect of gas on mechani-

failure modes from a single shear fracture to complex cal properties and mechanical response of coal. Chinese

shear failure. The number of yielded elements also Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 17(5): 1218. (in

increases with an increase of pore pressure. For differ- Chinese)

ent pore pressures, shear bands inclinations are closer Lu, P., Shen, Z.W., Zhu, W.G. & Fang, E.C. 2001.The effective

to Arthurs theory. stress and mechanical deformation and damage charac-

For lower pore pressure, the post-peak slopes of teristics of gas-filled coal. Journal of China University of

stress-axial strain curve and stress-lateral strain curve Science and Technology 31(6): 686693. (in Chinese)

are not concerned with pore pressure. According to Nicholson, C. & Wesson, R.L. 1992. Triggered earthquakes

and deep-well activities. Pure and Applied Geophysics

the previously analytical solutions, this is due to the 139(34): 561578.

failure mode independent of pore pressure. Vardoulakis, I. 1980. Shear band inclination and shear mod-

For higher pore pressure, many elements within ulus of sand in biaxial tests. International Journal for

rock specimen and at the two edges of the specimen Numerical andAnalytical Methods in Geomechanics 4(2):

yield; lower peak stress is expected. The numer- 103119.

ically predicted post-peak stress-axial strain curve Vermeer, P.A. 1990. The orientation of shear bands in biaxial

and stress-lateral strain curve exhibit slightly ductile tests. Gotechnique 40(2): 223236.

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and the absolute value of lateral strain corresponding Wang, X.B., Pan, Y.S., Sheng, Q. & Ding, X.L. 2001 b.

to the peak stress decrease. For higher pore pressure, Simulation of triaxial compression and localization of

rock specimen can reach larger lateral expansion at the deformation. Rock & Soil Mechanics 22(3): 323326.

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Wang, X.B., Pan, Y.S., Ding, X.L. & Sheng, Q. 2002 a. Sim- International Symposium on Safety Science and Technol-

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Wang, X.B., Pan, Y.S., Sheng, Q. & Ding, X.L. 2002 b. Numerical simulation of conjugate shear fracture bands

Numerical simulation of development of dynamic strain for seismic block model. Journal of Disaster Prevention

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Wang, X.B., Pan, Y.S., Sheng, Q. & Ding, X.L. 2002 c. sis of lateral deformation of rock specimen based on

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111

1.2 Laboratory experiments

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Lakeview borehole

L.C. Areias

Ghent University, Laboratory of Geotechnics, Ghent, Belgium

K.Y. Lo

Professor Emeritus, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

ABSTRACT: This paper presents laboratory test methods for measuring hydraulic conductivity (k) of low

permeability rocks. The methods described include tests for vertical (kv ) and radial (kr ) flow measurements

under both convergent and divergent flow conditions. Experimental tests performed on rock samples from a deep

borehole drilled in Southern Ontario, Canada using these methods indicate that they performed satisfactorily in

measuring k values ranging from 1.1 1012 to 3.8 109 cm/s in reasonably short periods of 3 to 5 days. The

results further suggest that the limits of these tests approach 1012 cm/s.

a constant head of water at the upper surface permeates

1.1 Deep borehole vertically through a column of sand of thickness l and

This paper presents results of laboratory hydraulic con- cross-sectional area A, the quantity of water q flowing

ductivity tests performed on rock cores from a 390 m through the soil in time t can be expressed in terms of

deep borehole drilled at the Lakeview Power Gener- a permeability constant k, by:

ating Station in Port Credit, Ontario. Areias (1988)

presents additional test results including compressive

and tensile strength, and compressive wave velocity;

and Lee (1988) gives swelling potential test results for Equation 1 may be written in the more familiar form:

these rocks.

In total, 25.9 m of rock cores were selected for test-

ing. These rock cores were collected immediately after where Q = flow rate (also known as volumetric flux)

drilling, wrapped in protective plastic foil and placed through the sand (L3T1 ), k = hydraulic conductiv-

in tubes with end caps to preserve moisture and reduce ity or coefficient of permeability (L/T), i = hydraulic

rate of deterioration. They were placed in a control gradient (h1 + l h2 )/l (L/L), and A = cross-sectional

room kept at 100% moisture and 21 C until ready for area at right angles to the direction of flow (L2 ).

testing. Table 1 gives the geological column and sam- The flow of water through a permeable material may

ple locations of hydraulic conductivity tests performed also be expressed in terms of discharge velocity (v) by:

for this study.

1.2 Test description in a unit of time across a unit of area. It is also called

Permeability may be defined as an expression of the specific discharge or Darcy velocity.

freedom of movement of a fluid through or within a Since the volumetric flux Q in Equation 2 is divided

medium. In a rock mass, permeability is controlled by the total cross-sectional area (including both voids

mainly by discontinuities such as fractures, fissures and solid material), the discharge velocity defined

and joints present in the rock. Laboratory samples by Equation 3 applies to the macroscopic contin-

of intact rock cores are usually too small to con- uum approach (Freeze & Cherry 1979). The discharge

tain any such discontinuities and, for these tests, the velocity given in Equation 3 is not to be confused with

laws of flow in porous media originally defined by seepage velocity vs , which refers to the average linear

Darcy (1856) apply. velocity at which water percolates through the voids

115

Table 1. Geological column and sample locations.

Gray 1973).

C T /20

10 1.3

15 1.1

20 1.0

25 0.9

30 0.8

where and are the fluid viscosity and density, and

g is the gravitational acceleration.

The value of hydraulic conductivity k depends on

of the material divided by the porosity n, i.e. vs = v/n. the temperature at which the test is performed because

This vs , however, is not the average velocity through k is a function of fluid density and viscosity (Eq. 4).

the pore spaces. These microscopic velocities are gen- Both of these quantities vary with temperature.Assum-

erally larger than vs because the water particles must ing negligible variation of density in comparison with

travel along irregular paths that are longer than the viscosity, the value of k for a given temperature (kT )

linearized path assumed by vs . may be computed as:

It is useful to distinguish between permeability and

hydraulic conductivity. Permeability (K) is a prop-

erty of the porous media and is independent of the

properties of the permeating fluid, i.e. viscosity and

density. Hydraulic conductivity (k), on the other hand, where k1 is the measured value of k corresponding

expresses the interaction between the permeating fluid to the test temperature and 1 is the corresponding

and the media. It is given by the proportionality viscosity. It is customary to express k at a standard

constant k in Darcys Equations 1 and 2 and has dimen- temperature of 20 C. Table 2 gives values of T /20

sions of velocity (LT1 ). The relationship between k for a range in temperature between 10 C and 30 C.

and K is given by: Three methods are commonly used to measure

hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory. They are:

(a) constant head permeation, (b) variable head per-

meation and (c) transient pulse testing.

116

The first two methods make use of the techniques

first developed to measure permeability in soils. In

these tests, a fluid, usually water, is allowed to per-

meate through the interconnected pores and cracks

in a rock core. When steady state flow is established

through the specimen the permeability is calculated,

using Darcys equation, from the measured flow rate

and hydraulic gradient. With the constant head test,

the level of the water on the upstream (high pressure)

side is kept constant, whereas in the variable head test

its level is monitored as it is allowed to fall. The most

widely used laboratory test method, and the one used in

this study, is the constant head test. This method is suit-

able to measure hydraulic conductivity values of the

order of 1012 cm/s in a reasonable (3 to 5 days) time.

When testing nearly impermeable rocks, the tran-

sient pulse method is sometimes used (see for example

Hsieh et al. 1981 and Brace et al. 1968). The arrange- Figure 2. 1-D permeability test setup.

ment consists of a cylindrical rock sample connected

to two fluid reservoirs, namely an upstream and a diameter) is placed over the assembly using a cylin-

downstream reservoir. The rock specimen in this test is drical stretcher and a second layer of silicone grease

equivalent to a resistor in an electric circuit whereas the is applied over the surface of the rubber membrane.

reservoirs behave like capacitors. Before starting the A second rubber sleeve is placed over the first sleeve

test, the pressure in both reservoirs is the same. At and, finally, the whole assembly is sealed at the top and

the start of the test the fluid pressure in the upstream bottom with four rubber O-rings. This method of seal-

reservoir is suddenly increased by a small amount. ing worked well in preventing any water from leaking

As fluid flows from the upstream reservoir, across along the surface of the rock specimen.

the sample, to the downstream reservoir, the pressure The triaxial cell is filled with de-aired tap water

decay in the upstream reservoir is monitored. and pressurized to 350 kPa. At the same time, a back

The procedure for calculating permeability with the pressure of 350 kPa is applied and maintained constant

transient pulse method is given by Brace et al. (1968) throughout the test. The back pressure helps speed up

and Hsieh et al. (1981). This test requires measur- the initial saturation process in the specimen.

ing compressive storage of the upstream and down- At the start of the test, the upstream or cell pres-

stream reservoirs, the specific storage of the specimen sure is increased to 1350 kPa (or another desired value

and maintaining constant temperature during testing. depending on the type of test) and maintained constant

These parameters, however, are difficult to measure thereafter. A compensating mercury column system is

and control accurately. used to maintain the back and cell pressures constant.

Two types of radial permeability tests were performed:

2.1 One-dimensional axial flow tests

(a) convergent tests, where all stresses are compressive

A schematic diagram showing the experimental and flow takes place from the outer walls into the inner

arrangement of one-dimensional (1-D) axial flow tests cavity of the specimen and (b) divergent tests in which

is presented in Figure 2. The setup consists of a tri- the sample is subjected to tensile stresses while water

axial cell with an aluminium base and reinforced is injected into the inner cavity of the specimen and

plexiglas cylinder designed for a maximum working forced to flow radially outward. A schematic of the

cell pressure of 1700 kPa. Cylindrical rock specimens, experimental setup used for the radial permeability

measuring between 15 and 20 mm in thickness and tests is presented in Figure 3. The tests were carried

45 mm in diameter, were cut and their surfaces ground out in a triaxial cell similar to that used for the 1-D

smoothly and parallel. tests except that the height of the cell is greater to

The sample is placed between two fully-saturated accommodate the larger samples.

porous stones as shown in Figure 2. A thin coating of Rock specimens measuring 45 mm in diameter and

high vacuum silicone grease is applied over the whole 112 mm in length are cut and their ends ground smooth

length of the sample, pedestal and porous stones to and parallel. An axial hole 11.2 mm in diameter is

ensure good contact between the rubber sleeve and drilled from one end of the specimen to a depth of

the specimen. A rubber sleeve (0.7 mm and 46 mm 92 mm, leaving the bottom 20 mm as a solid cylinder.

117

Figure 4. Typical results of leakage control test.

central hole is kept higher than the cell pressure.

Figure 3. Radial flow test setup.

3 CONTROL TESTS

The top 17 mm and the bottom 20 mm outer cylin-

drical sections of the sample are sealed with three 3.1 Leakage

coatings of acrylic (Gagekote no. 8) compound over The experimental setups in Figures 2 & 3 were checked

their circumferential surfaces. This leaves a central for leakage to determine their suitability for usage in

hole with 75 mm in length; this is here referred to the laboratory measurements. The procedure was sim-

as the effective length, over which water will be able ilar to the 1-D test described earlier except that a brass

to permeate during testing. The reason for creating dummy specimen was used in place of a rock spec-

these dead flow zones at the ends of the specimen is imen. The objective of these tests was to determine

to achieve a condition of axi-symmetric radial flow the effectiveness of the rubber sleeves at preventing

by eliminating the influence of conditions as much as leakage along the walls of the specimens.

possible. The results of one of the tests are presented in

The pedestal is first coated with a layer of high vac- Figure 4 for a dummy sample and a sample from the

uum silicone grease. Two rubber sleeves (0.7 mm and Georgian Bay shale. The results show no detectable

0.3 mm thick and 46 mm in diameter) with grease in flow over a test period of 6 days. The initial small

between are fitted over the pedestal and their bottoms (0.006 cc) outflow that was observed in the first 20 to

secured to the pedestal with 2 O-rings as shown in 30 hours of testing for the dummy test is due to the

Figure 3. The sleeves are cut so that their tops rise initial compression of the system. The outflow curve

20 mm above the pedestal. The bottom 20 mm of the becomes essentially flat thereafter.

sample (previously coated with acrylic compound) is

greased and the sample inserted into the protruding

rubber sleeves and tightly seated on the pedestal. The 3.2 Temperature

sleeves are fastened to the specimen by placing an Besides its effects on viscosity and density of the

O-ring at the top of the sleeves. permeating fluid mentioned earlier, which can be eas-

The top of the specimen is sealed tightly using three ily corrected, temperature changes can also affect

rubber O-rings with diameters 20.6 mm, 28.6 mm and measurement readings by causing expansion and con-

38.1 mm and a brass outer ring measuring 42.9 mm in traction of the test equipment, which are much more

diameter. A plexiglas cap fitted with a connecting tube difficult to correct for. To determine the effects of

is placed on top of the seal rings and a small load of temperature on measurement readings, tests were per-

approximately 500 N (314 kPa) is applied to the cap to formed on rock specimens following the 1-D proce-

provide an effective seal and to keep the cap in place dure described earlier. The tests were carried out with

during the remainder of the assembling process. Filling an initial back pressure of 350 kPa and a cell pressure

and pressurizing of the cell are performed following of 1350 kPa. During the tests, the cell pressure was

the same procedure described earlier for the 1-D tests. kept constant while the back pressure had been closed

In the convergent flow test, the cell pressure is kept off. A pressure transducer was installed to monitor the

higher than the pressure in the central hole that con- downstream pressure.

nects to the back pressure, and which is maintained The results of a typical test are presented in

constant throughout the test. In this case, all internal Figure 5. They show that pressure is sensitive to tem-

stresses are compressive and the flow is said to be perature changes, increasing when temperature rises

118

Figure 7. Typical outflow versus time curve (1D-2).

Pressure * Q (cc/hr)

Sample difference (kPa) 103 kv (cm/s)

1D-2 1000 5.9 2.0 1011

1D-3 1000 3.8 1.1 1011

1D-4 1000 1.8 6.2 1012

1D-5 1000 15.7 4.7 1011

1D-6 1000 13.4 3.5 1011

1D-7 1000 5.9 2.0 1011

1D-8 1350 2.9 7.0 1012

1D-9 1000 1.7 5.0 1012

1D-9a 1000 0.4 1.1 1012

Figure 6. Creep measurements of volume change device. 1D-10 1000 0 0

1D-10a 100 135.0 3.6 109

and decreasing when it falls. Temperature fluctuations 1D-10a 1000 1417.0 3.8 109

have no effect on pressure readings in the 1-D tests 1D-11 1000 21.4 5.4 1011

performed in this study because both cell and back 1D-12 1000 0 0

pressures are kept constant throughout the tests by 1D-13 1000 63.0 1.6 1010

a self adjusting pressure system. They will, however, 1D-14 1000 29.0 7.9 1011

1D-15 1000 16.4 4.3 1011

affect the general performance of the test equipment.

1D-16 1000 156.0 2.8 1010

For this reason, tests should be carried out in con-

trolled temperature environments where temperature * Back pressure = 350 kPa in all tests.

fluctuations are limited to less than 2 C.

4 RESULTS

The volume change device used to measure flow in this Figure 7 shows typical results of flow as a function of

study consists of plexiglas and nylon tubing. Under time for 1-dimensional vertical flow tests. In general,

sustained pressures, this system undergoes creep. A the results show that outflow conditions become lin-

test was performed to measure the amount of creep ear after approximately 20 hours of permeation. This

in the system and its effect on flow readings. The test period represents the time required to establish full sat-

consisted of closing the inflow line at the bottom of uration and Darcy flow conditions.Values of kv are cal-

the device and applying different pressures to the sys- culated using the linear portion of the outflow curve.

tem to simulate back pressures applied during testing. Table 3 presents a summary of the results of vertical

The results, shown in Figure 6, indicate two creep fac- 1-D tests performed for this study. The results indicate

tors: (a) 3 104 cc/hr for increasing pressure and kv values between 1.1 1012 cm/s for sample P-1D-

(b) 2 104 cc/hr for decreasing pressures. They 9a in the Lindsay limestone to 3.8 109 cm/s for

compare with typical readings of greater than 2 P-1D-10a in the Verulam limestone. Two samples (P-

103 cc/hr for most of the tests, which is equivalent 1D-10 and P-1D-12) yielded no flow after 5 and 7 days

to an effect on k values of less than 15%. of testing and were stopped.

119

Table 4. Radial convergent test results. Table 5. Radial divergent flow test results.

Sample difference (kPa) 103 (cm/s) Sample difference (kPa) i 103 (cm/s)

RD-1 1000 8.5 6.8 1012 RD-3 25 150 3.3 1.1 1010

RD-2a 1000 58.9 4.6 1011 50 300 7.6 1.2 1010

RD-2 1000 7.1 5.8 1012 100 600 14.0 1.1 1010

RD-3 1000 98.3 8.0 1011 250 1500 32.9 1.1 1010

RD-4 1000 1.9 1.9 1012 400 2400 55.3 1.1 1010

RD-5 1000 1000 7.7 1010 RD-6 25 150 18.0 5.8 1010

100 77.5 6.0 1010 50 300 26.0 4.2 1010

10 7.9 6.3 1010 100 660 47.0 3.8 1010

RD-6 1000 1020 8.2 1010 250 1500 114.0 3.6 1010

RD-7 1000 150.0 1.2 1010

100 11.4 9.3 1011 * Back pressure = 350 kPa in all tests.

RD-8 1000 375.0 3.1 1010

100 38.5 3.1 1010 5 CONCLUSIONS

* Back pressure = 350 kPa in all tests. This paper describes test setup and methods to mea-

sure hydraulic conductivity in rocks with low perme-

4.2 Convergent radial tests ability values. Tests described include 1-dimensional

Radial permeability (kr ) is computed using the expres- test for vertical permeability and two types of radial

sion given by Bernaix (1967) for flow across a coaxial permeability tests to measure horizontal flow under

cylinder of radius r: different stress conditions. Results of permeability

measurements obtained with these tests are also pre-

sented. The values of hydraulic conductivity obtained

with these tests ranged between 3.8 109 cm/s to

1.1 1012 cm/s. It is concluded that the test meth-

where Q is the flow rate, L the effective length of ods presented can be used to provide satisfactory k

the specimen, hw the difference in hydraulic head, and measurements in rock to as low as 1012 cm/s in a

R1 and R2 the respective inner and outer radii of the reasonable time period of 3 to 5 days.

specimen.

Table 4 contains the summary of the radial perme-

ability test results. Most of the tests were performed on REFERENCES

samples taken as close as possible to those used in the Areias, L. 1988. The laboratory measurement of hydraulic

1-D tests (see Table 1) so that the results of the two tests conductivities of rocks Lakeview deep borehole. M.E.Sc.

could be compared to indicate possible anisotropy. thesis. The University of Western Ontario. London,

In general, the results of the two tests show similar Canada.

values of hydraulic conductivity and so do not sug- Bernaix, J. 1969. New laboratory methods for studying the

gest the presence of anisotropy. Only samples 1D-14 mechanical properties of rocks. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min.

and nearby RD-6, with respective permeability values Sci., Vol. 6, pp. 4390.

kv = 7.9 1011 cm/s and kr = 82 1011 cm/s, sug- Brace W.F., Walsh, J.B. & Frangos, W.T. 1968. Permeability

gest possible anisotropy. Finally, changes in i in tests of granite under high pressure. J. Geophysical Research,

Vol. 73, No. 6, pp. 22252236.

RD-5, -7 and -8 did not have significant influence on Darcy, H. 1856. Les fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon.

measured kr values. Paris.

Freeze, R. A. & Cherry, J. A. 1979. Groundwater. Englewood

4.3 Divergent radial tests Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Gray, D.M. 1973. Handbook on the principles of hydrology.

Two divergent tests RD-3 and RD-6, respectively from Port Washington, N.Y.: Water Information Center, Inc.

Bobcaygeon limestone and granite gneiss, were per- Hsieh, P.A., Tracy, J.V., Neuzil, C.E., Bredehoeft, J.D. &

formed under various i levels ranging from 150 to Silliman, S.E. 1981. A transient laboratory method for

2400. The results are summarized in Table 5. determining the hydraulic properties of tight rocks-I.

Theory. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr.,

The results show practically no influence of i on

Vol. 18, pp. 245252.

permeability, which suggests that the samples tested Lee, Y.N. 1988. Stress-strain-time relationship of Queenston

do not possess micro cracks or fissures. This may be shale. PhD thesis. The University of Western Ontario.

attributed to the geometry of the flow conduits in the London, Canada.

specimens, which being spherical would not deform Terzaghi, K. & Peck, R.B. 1967. Soil Mechanics in Engineer-

when stressed. ing Practice, 2nd edition. New York: Wiley.

120

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

evidences and modeling

Laboratoire Environnement Gomecanique & Ouvrages, LaEGO-ENSG Rue du doyen Marcel Roubault,

Vandoeuvre-ls-Nancy Cedex, France

K. Su

Agence Nationale pour la gestion des dchets radioactifs, ANDRA, Parc de la Croix Blanche,

rue Jean Monnet, Chtenay Malabry Cedex, France

ABSTRACT: New laboratory results on Callovo-Oxfordian argillite are presented and modelling of porome-

chanic behaviour of this rock in saturated and partially-saturated conditions is proposed. This rock is extensively

being studied in the context of the underground research laboratory in Bure (France). The laboratory results

show a clear dependency of the strength of this rock on the saturation state. The modelling of the behaviour of

this rock is proposed using an effective stress approach. For the saturated rock the effective stress coincides with

Biots effective stress. The extension of the model in unsaturated field is made assuming an evolution of Biots

coefficient with the capillary pressure.

a poromechanic framework by considering the sat-

The behaviour of Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone, known urated behaviour of this rock. There is however no

also as Meuse-Haute Marne (M/HM) argillite, con- indications on this model on how to deal with unsat-

tinue to be in center of much researches from the urated behaviour. In the model proposed by Hoxha

scientific community in relation with concepts of deep et al. (2004) the mechanical behaviour of the M/HM

geological repository for radioactive wastes. Labora- argillite is described by two elastic-plastic mecha-

tory test on samples from this rock have shown its nisms. Furthermore, these authors have proposed the

very low permeability (k 1020 m2 ) that is in good modelling of unsaturated behaviour of this rock by

accordance with the concepts of a geological bar- using the Coussys effective stress as an extension of

rier. Various aspects of complex thermal, hydraulic Biots theory for unsaturated porous media. Experi-

and mechanical behaviour of this rock have been mental results on other geomaterials show however

subjects of many studies up to now (Chiarelli et al. that such an extension would be of limited validity

2003, Escoffier 2002, Ozanam et al. 2002, Zhang and (Grgic et al. 2005).

Rothfuchs 2004, Bemer et al. 2004).These results have In this paper we present some new experimental

shown an undrained response of this rock under tri- evidences on partially saturated behaviour of this

axial compression conditions being a function of the rock. Then an effective stress based model is pro-

carbonates and water contents (Chiarelli et al. 2003), posed to describe both saturated and partially saturated

with poromechanic coupling parameters being func- behaviour of this rock.

tion of loading conditions. The long-term behaviour

of this rock also has been studied under drained and

undrained conditions. But many question about the 2 PRINCIPAL FEATURES OF MECHANICAL

behaviour are yet to be solved. BEHAVIOUR AND NEW EXPERIMENTAL

On the other hand many works have been great work EVIDENCES

is performed to elaborate the constitutive model of

this rock (Su 2002). Chiarelli et al. (2003) have pro- The behaviour of M/HM is that of an elastic-plastic-

posed to use an elastic-plastic-damage behaviour of damaged material with high irreversible strains and

this rock by means of the coupling between plasticity reduction of elastic modulus during loading. Typical

and anisotropic induced damage in a pure mechanic stress-strain curves from recently triaxial compression

context.A similar approach has been followed by Conil tests are shown in fig. 1.

121

20 30 EST 205 (470.34-470.55 m)

1-3 (MPa)

1- 3

16 25 (MPa)

volumetric volumetric

strain axial 20 strain

12 lateral

lateral strain

strain 15 axial

strain

8 strain

10

4 5

strains (10-6) strains (10-6)

0 0

-5000 0 5000 10000 15000 -10000 -5000 0 5000 10000 15000

Figure 1. Stress-strain curves from a triaxial compres- Figure 2. Stressstrain curves from a triaxial compres-

sion test on a saturated M/HM argillite sample (confining sion test on a saturated M/HM argillite sample (confining

pressure 5 MPa). pressure 5 MPa, suction = 21.74 MPa).

Some authors have reported the evolution of the same characteristics during triaxial loading as the sat-

plastic dilatancy during the triaxial compression tests urated samples, except a tendency of a dilatancy in the

(Chiarelli et al. 2003). In our new laboratory results vicinity of the peak (Fig. 2).

however this feature is not very clear and seems to be

limited in a little range of low confining pressure tests. 3 PORO-ELASTO-PLASTIC MODELLING

The failure mode seems also to be a function of the

confining pressure. Hoxha et al. (2004) have reported 3.1 Poromechanical saturated behaviour

a quasi-brittle failure for low-confining-pressure tri-

axial compression tests that becomes more and more 3.1.1 General assumptions and poroelastic

ductile as the confining pressure increases. These behaviour

results are in good agreement with those reported by The mechanical behaviour of the M/HM argillite is

Chiarelli et al. (2003). studied here under the hypotheses of small deforma-

During isotropic compression tests (1 = 2 = 3 ) tions and small perturbations, which imply the validity

on M/HM argillite samples stress-strain curves remain of the additive decomposition of strains:

linear up to the end of the test (60 MPa). This is a

remarkable result indicating the impossibility to iden-

tify a consolidation stress and the absence of an

with el = elastic strain tensor, pl = plastic strain

isotropic plastic behaviour that are common features

tensor.

for soils. In turn, that means that in the stress space,

Furthermore the initial behaviour of the rock is con-

the yield function of any plastic model candidate for

sidered to be isotropic. Not only this assumption

the behaviour of the M/HM argillite, must not cut the

simplifies the modelling, but also the anisotropy of the

isotropic stress axis in the compressive side. Particu-

mechanical behaviour observed during triaxial com-

larly, Cam-Clay type models seem to be not adapted

pression tests in laboratory, seems to be negligible

for this rock.

in situ.

The unsaturated behaviour of M/HM argillite is yet

We follow the poromechanical Biots theory of sat-

not well known. Recently we performed a set of tri-

urated porous media. The principles of this framework

axial compression tests at constant suction using a

are detailed in a number of references (for exam-

special device constructed for that purpose. The device

ple, Biot 1955, Coussy 1995) and are not discussed

uses the method of salt solution to control the rel-

here in details. Only the final results are mentioned

ative humidity (so the suction) inside a cell where

below. Within this framework, and by supposing the

the sample is put. For each imposed suction, a set

isothermal transformation, the mixed thermodynamic

of three triaxial compression tests at different confin-

potential of an isotropic elastic-plastic material is

ing pressure is carried out. The strength of the rock

written (Coussy 1995):

increases when the suction increases. Moreover the

peak surfaces obtained at various suction levels are

quasi parallel. In the same time the elastic properties

seems to be higher when the suction increases but the

experimental results at this point are quite dispersed.

Qualitatively, the partially saturated samples show the

122

where: C 0 = the fourth order, elastic drained stiffness by a plastic effective stress, usually different from the

tensor, M = Biots modulus, B = second order Biots elastic one:

tensor, p = pore pressure, Vk = the set of hardening

parameters P (Vk ) = locked energy because of the

hardening. In the case of an isotropic porous media the

Biots tensor and the Biots modulus are defined as: It is important to note at this point that the effective

stresses defined by equations (5.a) to (5.c) is simply

a rheological concept. Using either of these effective

stresses for writing yield function or plastic potential,

is just a simplification, usually known as the principle

of stress equivalence (Shao & Giraud 2002)

plastic strains

In the models for M/HM argillite cited in 1 some

In these last expressions K0 is the drained bulk modu- modified Drucker-Prager models are used for the yield

lus of the rock, Ks is the bulk modulus of rock grains, function. In order to better describe the behaviour of

is the porosity and Kfl is the bulk modulus of saturating the M/HM argillite in tension-stress paths a parabolic

liquid. surface is proposed:

The derivation of the eq. (2) in respect with state

variables ( and p) leads to the state equations:

m = first invariant of equivalent stress tensor, , and

are parameters of the model (see below), is the

Lodes angle and g() is defined by:

urated porous medium is governed by Biots effective

stress, since one could write: The function g() control the shape of the yield func-

tion in the plan (Fig. 3). For Rs = 1 the function

g() is constant and equal to 1 and the shape of the

yield function in p plan becomes a circle. For Rs

greater then a critique value (about 0.77) the equa-

tion (7) describes always a convex shape. In saturated

conditions the equivalent stress m , due to the stress-

The set of equations (1) to (5) is sufficient to describe equivalent assumption accepted here, coincides with

the behaviour of an elastic-plastic material if the laws Biots effective stress. The physical meaning of

evolution of the plastic strain and plastic porosity are parameter is recovered by considering (6) when J2 = 0,

known. Traditionally these evolutions are described by which leads to m , = 1/. So, the parameter repre-

a flow potential gp (, p, . . .) and very often the effec- sents the inverse of the triaxial tension strength. It is

tive stress is used to write both yield function and clear that when the rock runs to the failure the tri-

plastic flow potential. However, as pointed out by many axial tension strength runs towards a small (close to

authors (Coussy 1995, Buhan and Dormieux 1996), zero) value. In the same time the parameter must

there is no fundamental reason for the yield criterion increase to a finite value. Based upon experimental

to be expressed as a function of the sole effective stress results this function is adopted for the evolution of the

and not of the stress and pressure as independent vari- parameter :

ables. Moreover, some micromechanical-based analy-

ses have shown that generally speaking, the equivalent

stress governing the plastic criteria (yield function)

is a function of the microscopic behaviour of the

rock matrix (Dormieux 2005). These analyses however We describe the post-peak behaviour of the rock by

need to be verified experimentally. evolution of the friction part of the rock-strength,

In some cases, (see for more details Coussy 1995), i.e., by the evolution of the parameter . In fact, in

the plastic strains of a porous medium is governed the vicinity of the peak, the continuum modelling is

123

Peak 3.J2 (MPa)

stress 60

surface m 0

plastic 50

dilatancy

Negative 40

Onset of

plastic

plasticity 30

dilatancy

20

10

plastic

potential

-40 -30 -20 -10

m (MPa)

Figure 3. Representation of the model in plane.

Figure 4. Presentation of yield locus, onset of plasticity,

not more valid since the strain localisation phenom- plastic potential and critical state line in the space of invariants

ena take place accompanied often by macro-fractures of the stress tensor.

apparition. The plastic softening could only be con-

sidered as a first approach and all precautions must be 3.1.3 Implicit modelling of damage

taken in practice to deal with results mesh-dependency. The decrease of the elastic modules during loading of

In present model the post peak behaviour is M/HM samples is a manifestation of the damage that

described by: this rock under stress. For the sake of the simplicity this

damage is considered to be isotropic and driven by the

plasticity. In that case the crack density parameter is

written as a function of the plastic distortion:

principal laboratory observations be satisfied:

D is the induced crack density parameter as defined

by Bristow (1960), Budiansky and OConnell (1976)

and Kachanov (1992):

This potential defined a closed elliptical-like surface.

The vector normal to that surface defines the plas-

tic flow direction. Then the plastic strains is defined

by multiplying this vector with the so-called plastic with l (i) being the radius of the ith induced penny-shape

multiplier d: crack and the sum in (14) is taken over all cracks in

the volume V . A simple micromechanical reasoning

shows that for small induced-crack density the evo-

lution of elastic modules could be written as linear

functions of induced crack-density:

The critical state line, defined as the set of points in

the stress space for which the volumetric plastic strains

p

increment is equal to zero (dv = 0), is easily defined

by (10) and (11):

intact rock, and k1 and k2 some constants depending

on the geometry of considered cracks and on elastic

In these expression d is a parameter of the model. parameters of the rock skeleton. By taking into account

Since h is a function of the plastic distortion g, then (13) it is possible to write the evolution of the elastic

the equation (12) defines a family of critical state lines, parameters as functions of the plastic distortion:

all situated between 0 and m curves (Fig. 4). For

all stress-paths at left of m only plastic contraction is

possible, while for all those at right of 0 only plastic

dilatancy is possible

124

with Slq = liquid(=water) saturation, pc = pg plq

capillary pressure, pg = gas pressure, plq = liquid

(=water) pressure, m = mean total stress.

The extension of the Biots theory of saturated

The functions K0 ( p ) and ( p ) could be identified porous medium in partially saturated field by Coussy

by experimental results. Our data show that these (1995) leads to an incremental form of the effective

functions could be approximated quite well by the stress:

following relations:

curve, which for simplicity is considered to be a func-

tion of the capillary pressure only, i.e., Slq = Slq (pc ).

With this assumption the integrated form of (20)

gives:

to the evolution of other poromechanical coupling

parameters. For example, by neglecting the induced

porosity the evolution of the Biots coefficient could When an independent stress state variables approach

be written as a function of the undamaged material and is followed, the stress and the suction are supposed

crack density: to influence the porous medium independently. The

Barcelonas model (BBM model) is the most known

among the models using this approach (Alonso et al.,

1990). We have remarked in 2 the fact that the yield

locus of any plastic model used for M/HM argillite

must be opened on the compressive side of stresses.

Similar expression could be obtained for the Biots From the BBM model the consequence of this state-

modulus. Moreover, using equations (17.a) or (17.b) ment is that the collapsed line (LC) is not defined and

the evolution of the poromechanical parameters could the influence of the suction on the behaviour of the

be written as a function of the plastic distortion. When M/HM argillite is limited on its elastic behaviour and

the information about the geometry of cracks is avail- in an increasing of its triaxial extension strength. In fact

able, it is possible to calculate the porosity of induced it is easy to show that the elastic behaviour predicted

cracks from the crack density parameter. by BBM model could be described by an effective

The equation (17.a) and (17.b) show that the shear stress since:

modulus and bulk modulus, in generally case, does

not evolve in the same way unless k1 = k2 . From

that point of view the damage model presented here

is different from traditional isotropic damage mod-

els where usually only shear modulus decreases with

damage.

3.2 Poromechanical partially saturated behaviour tion of symbols entering these two equations).

The question of the approach to follow while mod- The comparison of our laboratory data with pre-

elling the partially saturated behaviour of a porous dictions of the above-mentioned theories shows great

material has not yet a unique response. Traditionally discrepancies both in elastic field and in description

two kinds of approaches are followed: (1) effective of the peak stress. Similar discrepancies are shown

stress based approaches and (2) independent stress by other authors on other porous materials (Loret &

state variables. The primary idea in dealing with con- Khalili, 2002). These authors have proposed to resolve

stitutive relations of the partially saturated porous soils the problem by using an effective-stress approach.

was to use an effective stress approach by referring to Likewise, we propose here, the modelling of the

the saturated situation for which the concept is firmly partially saturated behaviour in the framework of an

founded (Bishop 1959, Coussy 1995). The generalised effective-stress approach. For the elastic behaviour of

effective stress proposed by Bishop (1959) can be unsaturated rock we use a similar expression to (22.a):

written as:

125

1 coefficient as a function of capillary pressure. This

(pc)

last function has been identified by using laboratory

0.8

data.

0.6

Experimental data REFERENCES

0.4 Model

Alonso E., Gens A., Josa A. (1990) A constitutive model for

0.2 partially saturated soils. Gotechnique; 40, pp. 405430

pc (MPa)

Bemer E., Longuemare P., Vinck O. (2004) Poroelastic

0 parameters of Meuse/Haute Marne argillites : effect of

0 50 100 150 200 loading and saturation states, Applied Clay Science, 26,

pp. 369366.

Figure 5. Function (pc ) as defined by laboratory results. Bishop A. W. (1959) The principle of effective stress.

Teknisk Ukeblad 39, 859863

The difference between (22.a) and (23) is in the fact Bristow J. R. (1960) Microcracks and the static and dynamic

that bl (pc ) is only a function of the capillary pressure. elastic constants of annealed and heavily cold-worked

The identification of the bl (pc ) function could be made metals. Br. J. Apll. Phys. 11, pp. 8185

Budiansky B., and OConnell R. J. (1976) Elastic moduli

from a constant volume swelling test. During such a

of a cracked solid. Int. J. Solids Structures, 12, pp. 8197

test the stress generated on the walls of a rigid cell Dormieux L. (2005) Non linear poromechanical coupling,

are measured during the re-saturation of a partially Colloque Microstructure et Proprits des Matriaux,

saturated sample. Using (23) for an increment of the ENPC, in french. pp.209215, ISBN 2-85978-412-8

stress during this test we obtain: Chiarelli A. S., Shao J.F., Hoteit N. (2003) Modelling of

elastic-plastic damage behaviour of a claystone, Interna-

tional Journal of Plasticity, 19, pp. 2345

Conil N., Djeran-Maigre I., Cabrillac R., Su K. (2004)

Thermodynamics modelling of plasticity and damage of

The equivalent stress, used in the writing of the yield argillite, C. R. Mecanique 332, pp. 841848

locus and plastic potential; is supposed in a similar Coussy O. (1995) Mechanics of Porous Continua (Wiley

form: Ltd. edn). Wiley: New York, 455p

Escoffier S. (2002) Caractrisation expriementale du com-

portement hydromcanique des argillites de Meuse/Haute

Marne, PhD thesis, INPL Nancy, France.

The function (pc ) could be identified using peak de Buhan P., Dormieux L. (1996) On the validity of the effec-

stress surfaces. Indeed, supposing the validity of (25) tive stress concept for assessing the strength of saturated

the yield locus (6) is written: porous materials: a homogenization approach. Journal of

the Mechanics and Physics of Solids; 44, pp. 16491677

Grgic D., Giot R., Homand F., Giraud A. (2005) Effect of

suction on the mechanical behaviour of iron ore rock, Int.

J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech., 29, pp. 789827

Hoxha D., Giraud A., Blaisonneau A., Homand F., Chavant

If the retention curve is known, then the equation (26) C. (2004) Poroplastic modelling of the excavation and-

allows to identify the function (pc ). From recent labo- ventilation of a deep cavity. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth.

ratory results on M/HM argillite (Fig. 5) the following Geomech; 28(4), pp.339364

expression is accepted for that function: Kachanov M. (1992) Effective elastic properties of cracked

solids : critical review of some basic concepts.Appl. Mech.

Rev. 46(8), pp. 304335

Loret and Khalili (2002) An effective stress elastic-

plastic model for unsaturated porous media, Mechanics

The hypothesis of equivalent stress allows then to of Materials, 34, pp. 97116

think that a similar expression could be used for bl (pc ) Ozanam O., Hoteit N., Bemer E., Heitz J.-F. (2002) Experi-

(eq.24). ment determination of poroelastic parameters of a clayey

rock. In : Auriault J.-L et al. (Ed), Second Biot Conference

on Poromechanics, Grenoble, France, 228 August 2002.

4 CONCLUSIONS Zwets & Zeitlinger, Lisse, Netherlands, pp. 275280

Shao J.F., Giraud A. (2002) Comportement poromcanique

A poromechanical model for saturated and unsaturated des roches satures. In : Hicher P.Y, Shao J.F. (Ed) Lois

incrmentales viscoplasticit endommagement, Modles

behaviour of M/MH argillite was proposed.This model de comportement des sols et des roches 2, Paris Herms

is based upon the recent laboratory results on samples Science, Chap. 5, pp.175201.

of this rock. The model follows an effective stress Zhang C., Rothfuchs T. (2004) Experimental study of

approach. Its generalization in partially saturated field the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian

is realized by considering an evolution of the Biots argillite. Applied Clay Science, 26, pp. 325336

126

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

using a hollow cylindrical rock specimen

Yamaguchi University, Ube, Japan

K. Amemiya

Hazama Corporation, Tokyo, Japan

Y. Mizuta

Sojo University, Kumamoto, Japan

ABSTRACT: The authors found to measure intrinsic permeability by an air permeability test using a hollow

cylindrical rock specimen. In this test, permeability under tensile stress condition can be measured, because

the tangential normal stress of the specimen becomes tensile when the inner pressure is higher than the outer

pressure. The tests were conducted for the specimens of Kurokami-jima granite and Kimachi sandstone, under

the condition that the inner and the outer pressures were set at 0.3 and 0.1 MPa respectively and the condition

that they were set in the opposite. Although it is expected that intrinsic permeability obtained in the former case

is larger than that in the latter case, the tendency is not clear within the results of the test. On the other hand, it

was found that the intrinsic permeability strongly depends on the porosity.

this test can clarify dependency of the intrinsic

In underground disposal projects of the high level permeability under stress conditions from small

radioactive waste, it is apprehensive that stress- compression to small tension, and provide infor-

released region around the drifts would be paths mation on necessary magnitude of the expansive

of water contaminated with radioactive substances. pressure of the bentonite based backfill material.

Although bentonite based backfill material in the drift (2) By using air instead of water as fluid, the intrin-

would apply expansive pressure to the wall, the mag- sic permeability of a low permeable rock can be

nitude is very small. Thus, it is important to measure measured with high reliability in a relatively short

the rock permeability under a low confining pres- time.

sure; however, it is difficult by conventional water

In this paper, preliminary measuring results of the

permeability test, because a certain magnitude of con-

air permeability tests are reported for hollow cylindri-

fining pressure is needed to prevent water from leaking

cal specimens of Kimachi sandstone and Kurokami-

between a sleeve and a specimen in the test. In addition

jima granite, conducted at 0.3 and 0.1 MPa of the inner

to this, to understand water flow over the long term,

and the outer pressures and at the opposite case.

it is also important to measure permeability of a low

permeable rock with high reliability.

In the background, the authors have developed an

air permeability test using a hollow cylindrical rock 2 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

specimen with an analytical method established by

Kuriyama & Mizuta (2002) following the transient 2.1 Specimen

method by Brace et al. (1968). The test has the follow-

ing advantages in contrast to the conventional water Hollow cylindrical rock specimens of which inside and

permeability tests. outside radius, Ri and Ro , are 1.5 and 2.2 cm respec-

tively, as shown in Figure 1, were used for the measure-

(1) Since the tangential normal stress of the speci- ment. The length, L, was 4.7 cm for Kimachi sandstone

men becomes tensile when the inner pressure is and 5.0 cm for Kurokami-jima granite respectively. To

higher than the outer pressure, permeability under prevent air from leaking at the ends of the specimen,

127

R0 pressure cell. To make the inside volume almost equal

to the outside volume, a supplementary tank was set

in the circuit of the inner pressure. Pressure gauges to

Ri

measure the inner and the outer pressure were set at

the pipes close to the plugs shut the respective circuits.

These pressures were measured every second with the

pressure gauges (Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co.,

Ltd., Type PGM-10KH) having the maximum capacity

of 1 MPa, and recorded in a personal computer through

a sensor interface (Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co.,

L Ltd., Type PCD-300A). Although strain of the speci-

men, temperature and others can be measured through

the outlets of wires on the top of the outer pressure

cell, they were not measured in this experiment.

Figure 1. Shape of specimen

At the first, compressed air was pumped into both of

the inside and the outside circuit. While the circuit for

Outlets of strain gauge wires the lower pressure was shut when the pressure reached

to 0.1 MPa, the compressed air kept to be pumped into

the circuit for the higher pressure. When the higher

Outer pressure cell

pressure reached to 0.3 MPa, the circuit for the higher

Specimen pressure was also shut and the pressure changes started

Pressure gauges to be measured. After the start of the measurement,

the higher pressure decreased, while the lower pres-

sure increased. The measurement was stopped when

Air compressor

governor

Presser

Inner

Plugs supplementary

tank 3 RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT

Figure 2. Rock specimen set in the apparatus for the air Figure 3 shows pressure change with time for the

permeability test. Kimachi sandstone. Figure 3(a) shows a case that the

outer pressure was larger than the inner pressure, while

Figure 3(b) shows the opposite case that the inner pres-

the both ends were flattened and glued with a silicon sure was larger than the outer pressure. In the case

resin to steel plates of 50 mm diameter and 2 mm thick- of the Figure 3(b), since tangential normal stress in

ness having a 20 mm diametrical center hole. From the specimen was tensile, it was expected that air per-

the outside of the plates at the both ends, other steel meates more easily than in the case of Figure 3(a)

plates of 80 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness hav- where the tangential normal stress was compressive.

ing a 3 mm diametrical center hole was tightened to However, this result indicates that there was not large

them with screws sandwiching an O-ring in a groove difference between the two cases.

between the two plates at the each ends. Thus, with Figure 4 shows pressure change with time for the

these four plates and the two O-rings, the specimen Kurokami-jima granite. This result also indicates that

was attached to an outer pressure cell. there was not large difference between the two cases.

However, a comparison between Figure 3 and Figure 4

clearly indicates that permeability of the granite is

2.2 Apparatus of experiment much lower than that of the sandstone.

An apparatus of the experiment was illustrated in Fig-

ure 2. An air compressor was connected to the bottom

3.2 Calculation of intrinsic permeability

of the outer pressure cell through a regulator. Another

pipe from the regulator was connected to the inside After the method shown by Kuriyama & Mizuta

of the specimen through the lower part of the outer (2002), we calculated an intrinsic permeability from

128

0.4 0.4

(a) (a)

Outer pressure

0.3 0.3

Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (MPa)

Outer pressure

0.2 0.2

Inner pressure

0.1 0.1

Inner pressure

0

0 0 1 2 3 4

0 1 2 3 4 Elapsed time (h)

Elapsed time (h)

0.4

(b)

0.4 Inner pressure

(b) 0.3

Pressure (MPa)

0.3

Inner pressure

Pressure (MPa)

0.2

0.2

Outer pressure 0.1

Outer pressure

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4

0 Elapsed time (h)

0 1 2 3 4

Elapsed time (h) Figure 4. Pressure change with time for Kurokami-jima

granite. (a) The case when the outer pressure is larger than

Figure 3. Pressure change with time for Kimachi sandstone. the inner. (b) The case when the inner pressure is larger than

(a) The case when the outer pressure is larger than the inner. the outer.

(b) The case when the inner pressure is larger than the outer.

Table 1. Sizes of parts for the permeability test.

the measured pressure changes using the following

formula. Kimachi

Name of rock Sandstone Kurokami-jima

Inner radius, Ri (cm) 1.5 1.5

Length, L (cm) 4.7 5.0

Initial outer pressure, 0.1 or 0.3

P10 (Mpa)

In this formula, P10 and P20 indicate initial magnitudes Initial inner pressure, 0.3 or 0.1

of the outer and the inner pressure, V1 and V2 indicate P20 (Mpa)

volumes of the outer and the inner pressure circuit, Volume of outer cell, V1 (1) 1.14

Volume of inner cell, V2 (1) 1.26

and indicate a compressibility and a coefficient

Compressibility of 3.33 106

of viscosity of air, and k is an intrinsic permeability air, (Pa1 )

to be obtained as an unknown. Addition to these, L, Coefficient of viscosity of 1.82 105

Ro and Ri are the length, the inside and the outside air, (Pas)

radius of the specimen, and P1 is the outer pressure Coefficient of viscosity of 8.90 104

that is a function of time, t. These numbers are shown water, w (Pas)

in Table 1.

At the first, by substituting the numbers shown in

Table 1 and the outer pressure, P1 , measured at the axis indicates natural logarithm of A, where A is the

elapsed time, t, the formula (1) is plotted in a graph. anti-logarithm in the parentheses of the left side of the

Figure 5 shows an example of the case that the outer formula (1) as shown in the formula (2),

pressure was larger than the inner pressure for the sand-

stone, shown in Figure 3(a). In Figure 5, the lateral

axis indicates the elapsed time and the longitudinal

129

At the second, when the coefficient excluding the -2

intrinsic permeability, k, of the second term in the right lnA = -9.9010-4t - 2.29

-3

side of the formula (1) is denoted by as shown in the

-4

following;

lnA

-5

-6

-7

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

and by substituting the numbers shown in Table 1 into elapsed time (h)

it, the following number was obtained;

Figure 5. Change of the number, lnA, with the elapsed time.

In addition to this, when the first term in the right

side of the formula (1) is denoted by C, and by substi- Intrinsic permeability (m2 )

tuting the magnitudes of the initial pressures and the Cell to be kept at

numbers shown in Table 1, the following number was the larger pressure Outer Inner

obtained:

Kimachi Sandstone 3.48 1017 5.14 1017

Kurokami-jima granite 9.69 1019 8.59 1019

By substituting the formulas from (2) to (5) into the Table 3. Effective porosities of the specimens.

formula (1), the following relation is obtained;

Effective porosity (%)

Thus, when the numbers, A, obtained from the mea- Kimachi Sandstone 20.6

Kurokami-jima granite 0.84

sured pressures are plotted in a semi-logarithmic graph

for the respective elapsed time like Figure 5, they make

a line having a gradient, k, where k is an intrinsic

the procedure described above. As described previ-

permeability to be sought.

ously, since the tangential normal stress in the speci-

By getting a regression line for a linear part of the

men becomes tensile when the inner pressure is larger

plotted data shown in Figure 5, the following relation

than the outer pressure, it is expected that intrinsic

was obtained:

permeability obtained in the case is larger than that in

the opposite case. However, the tendency is not clear

within the results of the test, as shown in Table 2.

By comparing the formula (6) and (7), the following Effective porosities of Kimachi sandstone and

relation was obtained: Kurokami-jima granite were measured, to check a

relation between the measured intrinsic permeabili-

ties and them. As shown in Table 3, effective porosity

of Kimachi sandstone is 25 times larger than that of

By substituting the number of shown in the for- Kurokami-jima granite. Thus, the intrinsic permeabil-

mula (4) into (8), the intrinsic permeability, k, has been ities seem to strongly depend on the porosities.

finally obtained as shown below: It is interesting to compare the obtained intrin-

sic permeabilities to hydraulic conductivities. So,

hydraulic conductivities, Kw were calculated from the

obtained intrinsic permeabilities using the following

As shown above, using the formula (1), the intrinsic formula;

permeability was obtained only from the outer pres-

sure, P1 . Alternatively, by replacing the outer pressure,

P1 , with the inner pressure, P2 , in the formula (1), the

intrinsic permeability can be obtained only from the

inner pressure, P2 . where g is the gravity acceleration, w is density of

water and is a coefficient of viscosity of water.

Table 4 indicates that the hydraulic conductivities cal-

3.3 Results and discussion culated from the intrinsic permeabilities obtained in

Table 2 shows the intrinsic permeability of the Kimachi our tests are within the extent of the numbers shown

sandstone and the Kurokami-jima granite obtained by in the literature (Vutukuri & Katsuyama 1994).

130

Table 4. Comparison between hydraulic conductivities We will also conduct water permeability test, and

calculated from the obtained intrinsic permeabilities and compare the obtained intrinsic permeability to that

those for intact rocks shown in the literature (Butukuri & obtained in the air permeability test. Furthermore, we

Katsuyama 1994). have a plan to apply this test to various problems for

underground sequestration projects of carbon dioxide.

Hydraulic conductivity (m/s)

pressure ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Kimachi Sandstone 3.81 1010 5.63 1010

Sandstone shown in the 1010 105 We would like to thank very much Prof. Ken Kuriyama,

literature Yamaguchi University, for his kind help and sugges-

Kurokami-jima granite 9.69 1012 8.60 1012 tions for us to understand theoretical background of the

Granite shown in the 1012 108 procedure to obtain an intrinsic permeability from the

literature measured pressure change in the test. We would like

to also thank Ms. Yuri Itami, an undergraduate stu-

dent at Yamaguchi University, for her help and effort

to conduct the test.

4 CONCLUSIONS

becomes tensile when the inner pressure is larger than

the outer pressure, it is expected that intrinsic per- Brace, W. F., Walsh, J. B. & Frangos, W. T. 1968, Permeability

meability obtained in the case is larger than that in of granite under high pressure, Journal of Geophysical

the opposite case. However, the tendency is not clear Research 73: 22252236.

within the results of the test. On the other hand, the Kuriyama, K. & Mizuta, Y. 2002, The mathematical prin-

ciples of permeability measurement by transient pulse

intrinsic permeabilities seem to strongly depend on

method for cylindrical specimen made of low-permeability

the porosities. rock, Proc. of the Second International Symposium on

We will make sure the difference of the intrinsic New Development in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineer-

permeability between the case that the inner pressure ing, 4043.

is larger than the outer pressure and the opposite case, Vutukuri, V. S. & Katsuyama, K. 1994, Introduction to Rock

by making the test for various kinds of rocks. Mechanics, Industrial Publishing & Consulting, Inc.

131

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

chalk at high Temperature

University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway

ABSTRACT: Fractured chalk oil reservoirs in the North Sea are very successfully flooded with seawater

to improve the oil recovery due to the ability of seawater to increase spontaneous imbibition of water. The

mechanical properties of chalk are decreased when oil is displaced by water, and the phenomenon is referred to

as the water weakening effect, which will cause compaction of the reservoir rock. The ion composition of the

water also appeared to have influence on the mechanical properties. The mechanical behavior of high porosity

outcrop chalk was studied when flooding the cores at 130 C with artificial seawater, modified seawater, and

distilled water. Increased compaction, by a factor of 2.7, was observed for cores flooded with 9 pore volumes

(PV) of seawater containing sulfate. Without sulfate present in seawater, the compaction was comparable to

distilled water. The decrease in permeability due to compaction of the high porosity chalk was not affected by

the type of flooding fluid during the creep tests. The impact of potential determining ions (Ca2+ , Mg2+ and

SO24 ) on the mechanism of enhanced compaction of chalk flooded with seawater at 130 C was discussed in

terms of the chemistry of the thin water film close to the inter-granular contacts.

an early breakthrough. This may be the reason why the

Chalk is an important reservoir rock in the southern average oil recovery from carbonates is less than 30%.

part of the North Sea, and it is characterized as low Even though the injection of large amounts of

permeable (13 mD) with high porosity (4050%). seawater has repressurized the reservoir well above

The high porosity was preserved due to early inva- the bubble point of the fluid, compaction is still

sion of hydrocarbons and creation of overpressure. The observed in water flooded areas, and the phenomenon

absence of normal diagenetic processes has resulted is described as water weakening of chalk (Madland,

in a very small degree of cementation. During the 2005). A drastic change in the mechanical strength

primary production phase with pressure depletion, of the chalk occurred instantly when oil was dis-

compaction of the chalk is a very important drive placed by water (Korsnes et al. 2006). The water

mechanism for oil displacement with a contribution weakening mechanisms is not fully understood, and

of about 45%. The Ekofisk field is a typical exam- several physico-chemical models have been suggested,

ple. In order to keep the reservoir pressure above the i.e. change in capillary forces (Delage et al. 1996),

bubble point of the reservoir fluid, the injection of increased stress solution (Hellmann et al. 1996),

seawater has been a success both regarding pressure increased pressure on chalk grains caused by attrac-

support and oil displacement. The wetting condition tion of water molecules to the calk surface (Risnes

of a fractured chalk reservoir is crucial for the effi- et al. 2005), and chemical dissolution (Newman, 1983;

ciency of oil displacement when water is injected. Heggheim et al. 2005).

Carbonates wetting conditions are dictated by several As the water saturation in the matrix blocks of a

parameters; pH of the equilibrium brine, temperature chalk reservoir increases due to spontaneous imbibi-

of the reservoir, crude oil properties (acid- and base tion of water from the fractures, the relative permeabil-

numbers), and composition of the equilibrium brine, ity of water increases, and it is reasonable to believe

e.g. potential determining ions like Ca2+ , Mg2+ and that a small fraction of the injected seawater will flow

SO2

4 (Austad et al. 2005). About 90% of the carbonate through the chalk matrix. Thus, as long as the water

reservoirs are characterized as neutral to slightly oil- injection occurs, the time to reach chemical equilib-

wet, which prevents spontaneous imbibition of water rium between the chalk surface and the pore fluid will

from the fractures into the matrix blocks (Downs et al. be long because the pore water is displaced by fresh

1989). Then the injected water will follow the fracture seawater continuously.

133

Besides this fast weakening of chalk by water, Table 1. Molar concentration of components in the

slower processes related to chalk dissolution and brines used.

chemical reactions at the chalk surface, may have

SSW SSW-U SSW-U2 SSW2

impact on the mechanical strength. The ionic compo- Ions [mol/l] [mol/l] [mol/l] [mol/l]

sition of the water and the temperature are key factors

(Heggheim et al. 2005; Newman, 1983). The biogenic HCO 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002

3

chalk has a high surface area, about 2 m2 /g, and we Cl 0.525 0.583 0.567 0.467

have recently described a surface substitution reac- SO42

0.024 0.000 0.000 0.048

tion between Mg2+ from seawater and Ca2+ from Mg2+ 0.045 0.045 0.000 0.045

the rock surface. This substitution reaction, which Ca2+ 0.013 0.013 0.013 0.013

in some cases has been described as dolomitization Na+ 0.450 0.460 0.533 0.440

(Petrovich et al. 1998; Mackay et al. 2003), increases K+ 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010

as the temperature is increased. Due to the unexpected TDS [g/l] 33.39 33.39 33.39 33.39

great difference in the strain value for chalk under

stress, which was exposed to seawater and distilled

water, we proposed a hypothesis that the substitute

reaction between Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions may cause After shaping, the samples were again dried before

increased water weakening effects at high tempera- being saturated with the actual fluid under vacuum,

tures (Korsnes et al. 2006). If the chemical reaction 45 Pa. The samples for the dynamic tests were satu-

at the chalk surface was only related to chalk disso- rated one day before testing and stored in the saturating

lution, the strength of the chalk should increase as fluid until the next day.

the temperature increased due to the decrease in chalk

dissolution. It has also been observed that the wet-

ting conditions of the chalk have impact on the water 2.2 Flooding fluids

weakening of the chalk (Strand et al. 2005). The following flooding fluids were used: Artificial

In this paper, chalk cores under hydrostatic stress seawater (SSW), modified seawater without SO2 4

are flooded with seawater, modified seawater and dis- (SSW-U), modified seawater without SO2 4 and Mg

2+

tilled water at 130 C to detect long-term creep effects, (SSW-U2), modified seawater with 2 SO4 ion con-

2

and the objectives were: centration (SSW2), and distilled water (DW). For the

Quantification of additional strain caused by the modified seawaters, the salinity was kept constant by

substitution of Ca2+ from the chalk surface by Mg2+ adjusting the NaCl concentration. The compositions

present in the injected seawater. are listed in Table 1.

Study, which effect additional strain has on the

decrease in chalk permeability.

Propose a chemical mechanism for the water weak-

2.3 Dynamic test cell

ening of chalk, which is in line with experimental The cell used for the dynamic tests was a hydrauli-

facts. cally operated cell with heating elements mounted on

the outside. 3 high-pressure pumps (0.1 MPa) are

used to operate the cell (confining pressure, axial pres-

sure and fluid circulation). The cell was not equipped

2 EXPERIMENTAL

for measuring lateral displacement. The axial dis-

placement was measured by an outside linear voltage

2.1 Core materials and preparation

displacement transducer (0.05 mm) that followed the

Outcrop chalk from Stevns Klint near Copenhagen movement of the piston. The piston system of the cell is

in Denmark, termed SK-chalk, was used. The main compensated so that the confining pressure is applied

characteristics of this chalk are: Maastrichtian age; also in the axial direction. The pump in the axial circuit

porosity between 45 to 50%; permeability 12 mD will thus provide only the additional axial pressure. An

(1 2 1015 m2 ). The SK-chalk is mainly composed inconvenience of this set-up is that the axial displace-

of fine graded matrix (96 wt%), whereas larger bio- ment cannot be measured in pure hydrostatic tests. To

clasts (mostly uncemented foraminifera) constitute the keep the piston in contact with the sample, some pres-

remaining part of the rock (Milter, 1996). sure must be applied in the axial circuit. Thus, the axial

The cores were drilled from the same chalk block stress will always be slightly higher than the confin-

with an oversized bit, with circulating water as cool- ing stress as an alternative to pure hydrostatic tests in

ing. After drilling, the cores were dried in an oven the cell. Quasi-hydrostatic tests with a small additional

at approximately 110 C. There after, the cores were axial stress were performed with this test cell.

shaped in a lathe and cut to the right size, L 70 and The heating system of the cell consisted of 6 heat-

D = 37 mm. ing elements, which was controlled by an external

134

regulating system. The temperature inside the cell 12

SSW

was measured by a resistivity Pt-100 element. During SSW

10

the experiments, the temperature was kept constant, SSW2

0.2 C. 8 SSW2

SSW-U

6

SSW-U

2.4 Dynamic tests SSW-U2

4

The SK-samples were saturated with the chosen injec- SSW-U2

2 DW

tion fluid and stored in the fluid until the next day.

DW

During the entire test, the flooding rate was about 2 0

pore volumes per day (PV/D) with a pore pressure of 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Axial strain [%]

0.8 MPa.

All tests were started by increasing the effective Figure 1. Axial stress vs. axial strain for all dynamic tests,

stress up to 0.8 MPa, and then the cell was heated at 130 C.

to 130 C. Flooding of the core started when the set

temperature was reached. Hydrostatic loading beyond 10

yield was performed to a stress level between 9.8 9

strain rate for the hydrostatic tests was approximately Hydrostatic yield [MPa]

7

6

0.1%/hour, and the strain were logged continuously

5

during the hydrostatic test and creep phase. After 4 SSW SSW2 SSW-U SSW-U2 DW

flooding approximately 9 PV in the creep phase, the 3

6.6 MPa 6.3 MPa 8.5 MPa 8.4 MPa 9.1 MPa

actual flooding fluid was exchanged with distilled 2

water.About 5.2 PV of distilled water was then injected 1

before the fluid was changed back to the original. 0

22 PVs during the creep phase. Test R1 ended after Figure 2. Average yield points for dynamic tests flooded

8.5 PVs, and for core R10 and R11 the flooding with five different fluids at 130 C.

stopped after 6 and 9 PVs because of blockage on the

outlet side of the core due to precipitation of CaSO4 . Mg2+ from the seawater. Finally, a mechanism is sug-

gested based on the chemistry in the thin water film

between the chalk grains.

2.5 Permeability studies

Permeability measurements were conducted during

the dynamic tests to observe changes in chalk per- 3.1 Dynamic tests

meability at constant stress conditions with different The hydrostatic tests were performed with SK-cores

fluids during the creep phase. The differential pressure at 130 C. In order to document the reproducibility of

over the core was determined by a pressure transducer the experiments, two different cores were tested for

with pressure limit of 249 kPa and accuracy of 0.075% each of the saturating fluids used, SSW, SSW2, SSW-

of full span. The permeability was then calculated U, SSW-U2 and DW, Table 1. The day before the start

using Darcys law: of the hydrostatic tests, the cores were flooded with

about 1.5 PV of the actual fluid at 130 C. An injection

rate of 0.05 ml/min was used, which corresponded to

about 2 PV/D. Therefore, the observed difference in

chalk strength, as measured by the yield point, when

where q is the volume rate, A is the cross section loading the cores to the stress level for the creep study,

area of the core, is the fluid viscosity and P is should be related to the fluidrock interaction during

the pressure drop over the core with length L. this period. The axial stress-strain correlation for all

the tests is presented in Fig. 1. The average values

of the hydrostatic yield point for the different fluids

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION are presented in Fig. 2 and Table 2. After one day

of flooding, distinct differences in yield point were

In this section, the results from the dynamic long-term observed. Cores flooded with brines containing SO2 4 ,

creep tests will be presented followed by the perme- SSW and SSW2, showed the lowest values of the yield

ability tests. The effect of the ionic composition of point, 6.3 and 6.6 MPa, respectively. Cores flooded

the flooding fluid, regarding compaction, will be dis- with fluids without SO24 , SSW-U, SSW-U2 and DW,

cussed in terms of chemical substitution of Ca2+ by had the highest yield point values 8.5, 8.4 and 9.1 MPa,

135

Table 2. Average yield points and K-modulus for cores flooded with five different fluids

at 130 C.

h [MPa] 6.6 0.3 6.3 0.2 8.5 0.5 8.4 0.1 9.1 0.1

K [GPa] 0.62 0.06 0.44 0.09 0.64 0.35 0.61 0.01 0.64 0.11

1.8 1.6

SSW

1.6 Flooding of

distilled water SSW 1.4

1.4

SSW 2 1.2

Axial creep strain [%]

1.2

SSW 2

1.0

1.0 DW

0.8 DW 0.8

SSW2

0.6 SSW -U2

0.6

0.4 SSW -U2 SSW2

0.4

SSW -U

0.2

SSW -U 0.2

0.0

0 5 10 15 20 25

0.0

Pore volume

0 5 10 15 20 25

Pore volume

Figure 3. Axial creep strain vs. pore volume for all flooding

fluids at 130 C. Figure 4. Axial creep strain vs. pore volume for SSW2 at

130 C.

respectively. Within the limit of experimental data, the 1.8

difference in the average yield point value between 1.6

Flooding of

samples saturated with brines containing SO2 4 (SSW 1.4

distilled water

SSW

and SSW2) and samples saturated with water without

Axial creep strain [%]

1.2 SSW

SO24 (SSW-U, SSW and DW) appeared to be signif- 1.0 SSW-U

icant. The samples flooded with water without SO2 4 0.8 SSW-U

2

brines containing SO4 . Based on the yield point val- 0.4

without SO2 4 .

0 5 10

Pore volume

15 20 25

observed, Table 2. All saturating fluids except SSW2 Figure 5. Axial creep strain vs. pore volume for SSW and

resulted in more or less the same K-modulus. A rea- SSW-U at 130 C.

son for this can be, that this cell is not equipped to

measure radial displacement, which leads to uncer- After flooding 6 and 9 PV, the flowing pressure

tainties regarding determining the volumetric strain, of samples containing SSW2, i.e. two times sulphate

which is used to calculate the K-modulus. A second compared to SSW, increased drastically, probably due

reason, and probably the main reason, is of course the to precipitation of CaSO4 . It is difficult to certify

small number of samples tested, i. e. only two samples whether this precipitation took place inside the chalk

per fluid. matrix or in the outlet tubing, or if it is a combination

After reaching an axial stress level of about 10 MPa, of the two. Even though no flooding took place after 6

additional creep tests at constant stress level and flow and 9 PV with SSW2, the cores continued to compact,

rate were conducted. All the results are summarized and the slope of the creep curve is more or less lin-

in Fig. 3. Also during this creep phase, the samples ear, Fig. 4. The slope started to deviate from the linear

flooded with brines containing SO2 4 had much greater trend after a time corresponding to 16 PV, i.e. 8 days

compaction compared to cores containing water with- of creep.

out SO2 4 . After a flooding period of 9 PV, the average After flooding 9 PV, the injection fluids were

difference in the axial strain corresponded to a fac- changed to DW, in order to check possible changes

tor of about 2.7. This is of course a very large effect. in the cores creep behaviour. Samples flooded with

When disregarding the flooding period with distilled SSW2 were not included in this test because of the

water, the difference in compaction between the SO2 4 pressure build up. The compaction for cores flooded

containing cores and those without SO2 4 became even with SSW and SSW-U increased when switched to

larger as the number of PV increased. This is evident DW, Fig. 5. The response was, however, different. The

from the slope of the respective curves. sulphate containing cores responded immediately in a

136

Normalised permeability hydrostatic test

1.0

1.2

Flooding of SSW-U2

0.9

distilled water SSW-U2 1.0 DW

0.8

SSW-U2

Axial creep strain [%]

0.7 0.8

SSW-U

0.6

SSW-U

0.6

0.5 SSW

0.4 0.4 SSW

0.3 SSW2

0.2

0.2 SSW2

0.1 0.0

0.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12

0 5 10 15 20 25 Axial stress [MPa]

Pore volume

Figure 6. Axial creep strain vs. pore volume for SSW-U2 at vs. axial stress for all flooding fluids at 130 C.

130 C.

linear way, while the cores without sulphate responded The decrease in normalized permeability versus

more slowly. The average increase in compaction was axial stress during the hydrostatic load period is shown

highest with samples flooded with SSW, 28%, and in Fig. 7. Also in this case, the trends in the decrease in

lowest for samples flooded with SSW-U, 19%. When permeability fall into two different groups. For sam-

switching back to the original injection fluids, the ples containing SO2 4 , the sharp permeability reduc-

cores responded also differently to creep. For the SSW- tion starts at a lower stress level (6 MPa), and the

U samples, the creep became very small compared to permeability reduction is larger (60%). Without SO2 4

the creep observed for the SSW-saturated cores. It must present, the sharp permeability reduction starts at a

be kept in mind that the only difference between the higher stress level (7.8 MPa), and the permeability

two brines was the content of SO2 reduction is smaller (40%). It appeared that the yield

4 .

It is also interesting to note that for the cores point of the different tests corresponded quite well

without SO2 2+ with the stress level where the normalized permeabil-

4 and Mg , i.e. the SSW-U2 brine, no

increased compaction was observed when switching ity curve deviated from a linear trend. It is suggested

to DW, Fig. 6. Thus, Mg2+ must be present in the that the open structure of the chalk matrix leads to

original flooding fluid in order to promote enhanced pore collapse as failure mechanism for hydrostatic

compaction when turned to DW. As a conclusion, the tests (Blanton 1981; Fjr et al. 1991). Chalk grains

order of increased compaction when switched to DW filling the pores and partly blocking the throats are

is: SSW>SSW-U>SSW-2U. causing a large decrease in permeability (David et al.

Even though only two different samples for each 1994). The permeability was in total reduced by a fac-

of the fluids were tested, the repeatability of the tests tor of 2.5 for the samples containing SO2 4 , while the

was very good, and therefore, the results presented are reduction was 1.7 for the samples flooded with fluids

believed to be significant. without SO2 4 .

Axial strains, and thereby volumetric strains, for

the hydrostatic tests were a factor of 2 larger for sam-

ples flooded with SO2 4 compared with those without

3.2 Permeability studies

SO24 . If all the tests were plotted as normalized perme-

Since the hydrostatic cell was not equipped to measure ability versus axial strain, as shown in Fig. 8, then the

radial strain, volumetric strain could not be calcu- permeability reduction can be defined as axial strain

lated and used to determine the porosity decrease with dependent, and also volumetric strain dependent, since

increasing stresses. Volumetric strain can be deter- the test is hydrostatic. Thus, the composition of the

mined by assuming axial strain equal radial strain, fluid determined mechanical strength, while the per-

since the tests were hydrostatically. This assumption meability evolution in hydrostatic tests is related to the

is, however, not entirely correct since chalk is not a strain.

completely homogeneous material. Anyway, perme- Normalized permeability data versus injected PV

ability studies were performed at 130 C during the from the creep phase are presented in Fig. 9. Only the

hydrostatic loading from 0.8 to 10 MPa effective stress cores exposed to SSW2 deviated from the nearly lin-

and also during the long term creep phase. In the for- ear trend. The reason is that the concentration of Ca2+

mer case, the permeability was normalized according is increased during the flooding due to the substitu-

to the respective values observed at 0.8 MPa, and in tion reaction with Mg2+ , and therefore the solubility

the latter case, it was normalized to the permeabil- limit of CaSO4 was exceeded (Korsnes et al. 2006). It

ity value observed at the start of the respective creep should be noted, that during the short hydrostatic load-

phases. This was done in order to make the comparison ing phase, no specific reduction in permeability of the

between the different fluids easier. cores flooded with SSW2 was detected, Figs. 7 and 8,

137

1.2 1.1

Normalised permeability before creep

1.0

1.0

0.9

0.8 0.8

0.7

0.6 DW

0.6

SSW-U2

0.5

0.4 SSW-U

0.4 SSW-U

0.3 SSW

0.2

SSW

0.2

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Axial creep strain [%]

Axial strain [%]

SSW SSW2 SSW-U SSW-U2 Figure 10. Normalized creep permeability vs. axial creep

SSW SSW2 SSW-U DW strain for all flooding fluids at 130 C.

vs. axial strain for all flooding fluids at 130 C. 0.050

0.045

0.040

1.1 0.035

1.0 0.030

[mol/l]

Normalised creep permeability

0.025

0.9

0.020

0.8 0.015

Sulfate

0.7 0.010

DW Calcium

0.005

0.6 SSW-U Magnesium

SSW-U 0.000

0.5 SSW-U2 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

SSW Pore volume

0.4

SSW

0.3 SSW2

SSW2 Figure 11. SO24 , Ca

2+

and Mg2+ concentration in seawater

0.2

0 5 10 15 20 25 vs. pore volumes at 130 C.

Pore volume

Figure 9. Normalized creep permeability vs. pore volumes and MgCO3 (s) is formed. The concentration of Mg2+

for all flooding fluids at 130 C. decreased, and at the same time the concentration of

Ca2+ increased in the effluent fluid when flooding sea-

which also points to a more complex process than just water slowly through the core at 130 C. Knowing that

precipitation. Mg2+ is a much smaller ion compared to Ca2+ , struc-

The axial creep strain is a factor 23 higher for the tural changes on the chalk surface must take place. It is

samples flooded with SSW at the end of the test, but also noticed that the concentration of SO2 4 decreased

the reduction in normalized permeability is the same due to enhanced adsorption onto the chalk surface

as the other samples, Fig. 10. Thus, the correlation at high temperatures (Strand et al. 2005). The great

between normalized permeability versus axial creep is increase in compaction by a factor of about 2.7 after

different for the hydrostatic test, Fig. 8, which was per- 9 PV, when flooded with seawater containing SO2 4 ,

formed with increasing stresses during a short period must be related to chemical reactions at the chalk sur-

of 78 hours, compared to the long term creep test, at face rather than pure chemical dissolution of chalk. If

constant stress, lasting 512 days, Fig. 10. The most only dissolution of chalk is the main mechanism for

important result from the creep test was, however, that chalk weakening, distilled water is expected to weaken

the normalized permeability reduction was more or the chalk mostly due to the lack of common ions like

less unaffected by the flooding fluid and axial creep Ca2+ , but this is not the case.

strain, even though the axial creep strain was a factor The mechanical strength of chalk is linked to the sta-

2-3 higher for samples flooded with SSW compared bility of the inter-granular contacts, which is known to

to the other injection fluids. be very weakly cemented (Risnes et al. 1999). Substi-

tution reactions between Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the chalk

surface in the pore bodies will not affect the mechani-

3.3 Water weakening mechanism with SSW

cal strength of the chalk significantly. If, however, the

Besides the well-known fast weakening of chalk, when substitution takes place at the inter-granular contacts,

oil is substituted by water (Korsnes et al. 2006; Rhett, it is reasonable to believe that the strength of the chalk

1990), also the composition of water plays an impor- would be affected. Thus, the chemistry linked to the

tant role, Fig. 3. It is evident from Fig. 11, that Mg2+ thin water film at the inter-granular contacts is the key

from seawater substitutes Ca2+ on the solid surface, to understand why seawater has such a great effect

138

8 SSW without SO42, 130C

Smoluchowski potential [mV]

7 0.050

0.045

6

0.040

5 0.035

Magnesium

4 0.030

[mol/l]

0.025 Calcium

3

0.020

2 0.015

1 0.010

0.005

0

6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 0.000

pH 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5

Pore volume

seawater vs. pH at 25 C. Figure 13. Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration in seawater with-

out SO2

4 vs. pore volumes at 130 C.

ture. In the presence of seawater, the surface charge on

chalk is positive in the actual pH range of carbonate

reservoirs, i. e. 7.09.5, Fig. 12. Without strong poten-

tial determining ions (Ca2+ , Mg2+ , SO2 4 ) present in

the aqueous phase, the surface charge on chalk usually

decreases as the pH increases (Nystrm et al. 2001),

but this is not the case for seawater. When making a

charge balance of ions in the very thin water film close

to the grain contacts, the surface charge of the chalk

must be taken into account. Therefore, due to electro-

static repulsion, positively charged ions are prevented

to react with the chalk surface at the inter-granular

contacts. The electrostatic repulsion experienced by

the cations in the thin film and the chalk surface can

be decreased by the adsorption of negatively charged Figure 14. Suggested mechanism of enhanced water weak-

potential determining ions like SO2 4 . Thus, SO4

2

ening in chalk.

decreases the positive charge on the chalk surface at

the inter-granular contacts, which promotes substitu-

tion reactions between Mg2+ and Ca2+ . This explains In light of these new results, oil companies must

why SO2 4 must be present in the seawater to cause take into account the special effect that seawater has

enhanced weakening of the chalk at high temperatures. on the mechanical strength of chalk when evaluating

It must be noticed that Mg2+ can substitute Ca2+ at the the contribution of compaction regarding oil recov-

surface in the pore bodies without SO2 4 present. This ery. Standard commercial compaction models must be

is evident from Fig. 13 where the core was flooded with updated. The temperature is a very important parame-

SSW-U, but in this case, no enhanced weakening of the ter, and this effect will be studied in the next paper in

chalk took place, Fig. 3. Thus, the mechanical weak- this series.

ening of chalk is mostly linked to the chemical activity

at the grain contacts. The suggested mechanism of

enhanced water weakening associated to the chemistry

4 CONCLUSION

of the thin water film is schematically illustrated in

Fig. 14.

New experimental results dealing with the effects of

Further experimental evidence for the suggested

seawater on the mechanical strength of chalk have been

mechanism is obtained by changing the flooding fluid

presented. The results are important when using sea-

from seawater to distilled water at about 9 PV. The

water as EOR-fluid in chalky oil reservoirs at high tem-

sudden increase in axial strain, when seawater was

peratures. The main conclusions are shortly listed as:

changed to distilled water, is explained by dissolution

of MgCO3 (s) formed at the inter-granular contact, Fig. Seawater contains potential determining ions

5. It is well known that the solubility of MgCO3 (s) is toward the chalk surface, which have great impact

much higher than the solubility of CaCO3 (s). Thus, in on the chalk properties.

the presence of SO2 4 , the chalk is first weakened by

At high temperature, Mg2+ present in seawater

the substitution of Ca2+ by Mg2+ at the granular con- will substitute Ca2+ at the chalk surface to form

tact point, and the dissolution of the formed MgCO3 MgCO3 (s), which will affect the mechanical stabil-

will weaken the chalk even more. ity of chalk.

139

Chalk cores under stress, when flooded with sea- Heggheim, T., Madland, M.V., Risnes, R. & Austad, T., 2005.

water, showed an increased axial strain (factor of A chemical induced enhanced weakening of chalk by

2.7) compared to chalk cores flooded with seawater seawater. J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 46, 171184.

without sulphate or distilled water. Hellmann, R., Gratier, J.P. & Renders, P., 1996. Deforma-

tion of chalk by pressure solution. V.M. Goldschmidt

Even though cores, exposed to flooding fluids con-

Conference. Heidelberg, Germany, 1, 248.

taining sulphate, showed increased compaction, no Korsnes, R.I., Strand, S., Hoff, ., Pedersen, T.,

significant difference in the normalized permeabil- Madland, M.V. & Austad, T., 2005. Does the chemical

ity was observed during the creep phase. interaction between seawater and chalk affect the mechan-

The impact of potential determining ions on the ical properties of chalk? Paper in preparation. Presented

mechanism of enhanced compaction of chalk at EUROCK06 European Regional ISRM Symposium,

flooded with seawater at 130 C was discussed in Liege, Belgium, 912 May, 2006.

terms of the chemistry of the thin water film close Mackay, E.J. & Jordan, M.M., 2003. Natural Sulphate Ion

to the inter-granular contacts. Stripping during Seawater Flooding in Chalk Reservoirs.

Presented at the 8th International Chemistry in the Oil

Industry Symposium, Manchester, UK, November 35.

Madland, M.V., 2005. Water weakening of chalk. A mecha-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS nistic study. PhD thesis, Department of Petroleum Engi-

neering, University of Stavanger, Norway.

The authors acknowledge ConocoPhillips and the Milter, J., 1996. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. PhD thesis,

Ekofisk Coventurers, including TOTAL, ENI, Hydro, Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Norway.

Statoil and Petoro, for financing the work and for the Newman, G.H., 1983. The effect of water chemistry on the

permission to publish this paper from the research cen- laboratory compression and permeability characteristics

ter COREC. Thanks also to the Norwegian Research of some North Sea Chalks. J. pet. Techn., 35, 976980.

Nystrm, R., Linden, M. & Rosenholm, J.B., 2001. The influ-

Council, NFR, for financial support. ence of Na+ , Ca2+ , Ba2+ , and La3+ on the potential and

the yield stress of calcite dispersions. J. Colloid Interface

Sci. 242, 259263.

REFERENCES Petrovich, R. & Hamouda, A.A., 1998. Dolomitization of

Ekofisk Oil Field Reservoir Chalk by Injected Seawater.

Austad, T., Strand, S., Hgnesen, E.J. & Zhang, P., 2005. Sea- Presented at 9th International Symposium on Water-Rock

water as IOR Fluid in Fractured Chalk, SPE Paper 93000, Interactions, Taupo, New Zealand, March 30th April 3rd

presented at the Oilfield Chemistry Symposium, Houston, 1998.

TX, 24 February. Risnes, R. & Flaageng, O., 1999. Mechanical Properties of

Blanton, T.L., 1981. Deformation of Chalk Under Confining Chalk with Emphasis on Chalk-Fluid Interactions and

Pressure and Pore Pressure. SPEJ, February 1981. Micromechanical Aspects. Oil & Gas Science and Tech-

David, C., Wong, T.F., Zhu, W. & Zhang, J., 1994. Labora- nology Rev. IFP, Vol. 54, No. 6, 751758. Editions

tory Measurement of Compaction-induced Permeability Technip.

Change in Porous Rocks: Implications for the Generation Risnes, R., Madland, M.V., Hole, M. & Kwabiah, N.K., 2005.

and Maintenance of Pore Pressure Excess in the Crust. Water weakening of chalk Mechanical effects of glycol

PAGEOPH, Vol, 143, 425456. and water, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 48, 2136.

Delage, P., Cui, Y.J. & Schroeder, C., 1996. Subsidence and Rhett, D.W., 1990. Long term effects of water injection

capillary effects in chalks. Eurock 96, ISRM International on strain in North Sea chalks. Third North Sea Chalk

Symposium, Torino, Italy, 1291-1298. Symposium, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1112 June.

Downs, H.H. & Hoover, P.D., 1989. Enhanced Oil Recov- Strand, S., Hgnesen, E.J. & Austad, T., 2005. Wettability

ery by Wettability Alteration, In: Oil-Field Chemistry, Alteration of Carbonates Effects of Potential Determin-

Enhanced Recovery and Production Simulation. Eds. ing Ions (Ca2+ and SO2 4 ) and Temperature. Accepted

Borchardt, J. K. and Yen, T. F. ACS Symposium Series for publication in Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem.

396, Washington D. C. Eng. Aspects

Fjr, E., Holt, R.M., Horsrud, P., Raaen, A.M. & Risnes, R.,

1991. Petroleum related rock mechanics. ISBN 0-444-

88913-2.

140

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

P. Lopez

LAEGO, Nancy, France

3S, Grenoble, France

A. Thoraval

INERIS, Nancy, France

M. Escuredo-Rodriguez

ENSMN, Nancy, France

ABSTRACT: Results from laboratory experiments on natural fracture samples from the medium (roughly 20 m

by 20 m by 20 m) sized superficial limestone bedrock reservoir, namely Coaraze natural site, France, is presented

here. The BCR3D (3D direct shear box) with its hydraulic sectorized device, and its portable laser beam from

3S (Soils, Solids, Structures) Laboratory, France, was used. The interpretation of the cyclic hydro mechanical

compression tests shows an apparent residual intrinsic transmissivity of Tr = 3 1015 m3 , the evolution of

the intrinsic transmissivity versus the normal stress is anisotropic. The comparison of the fracture void spaces

with hydro mechanical factors show that: the back computed method to obtain the void spaces is verified for

low normal stress values, and the anisotropy of the outflow is explained by the modeled evolution of the void

spaces with the normal stress. The Dunat (1996) law that depends on the contact surface could integrate a spatial

distribution and damage factor and/or a plastic parameter.

There has been conflicting laboratory evidence about

When normal stress is applied on joints, the normal the cubic law and the effects of contact areas. A wide

deformation is typically non linear. Goodman (1974) study has been presented in details in the Rutqvist and

and Barton et al. (1985) proposed two different hyper- Stephansson (2003) bibliographical paper. The fric-

bolic models, widely used nowadays. Evans et al. tion factor has been introduced in a lot of different

(1992) proposed a logarithmic model to explain the laws, with or without an exponent. The point is that

non linear normal closure behavior of rock joints. This it is not representing a clear roughness measurement.

three major works indicates that the fracture stiffness Dunat (1996) derived an analytical form that links the

increases as normal stress increases. effective stress (eff ), the total normal stress (n ); the

For hydraulic behavior, a commonly used equation interstitial pressure (Pi ) and the contact surface (Sc ):

is the cubic law. It is derived from the fundamen-

tal principle of dynamic and applied to a particular

geometry such as a parallel plate fracture. It gives an

analytical expression where the flow rate is depend-

ing on the pressure gradient and the cubic fracture The aim is to perform an indirect measurement of the

aperture. contact surface of two joint walls, interpret the hydro

Since the sixties, the hydro mechanical behav- mechanical tests with this information, and then con-

ior under normal closure has been widely studied. firm or modify the Dunat (1996) law or else propose

Londe and Sabarly (1966), using experimental results, a new law. This paper is presenting the results from a

showed a decrease in fracture transmissivity with nor- part of the hydro mechanical tests.

mal stress. Witherspoon et al. (1980) proposed a A series of laboratory tests and a monitoring of the

modified cubic law, introducing a factor that accounts evolution of the morphology have been performed, on

for the roughness of the fracture surface. Barton et al. fracture samples of limestone.

141

Figure 2. BCR3D device scheme.

drilled into the limestone of the Coaraze site, close

to Nice, France. The site is a medium (roughly 20 m

by 20 m by 20 m) sized superficial limestone bedrock

reservoir; with faults and bedding planes, Cappa et al.

(2005). The geometry of the site, the faults and bed-

ding planes has been precisely measured. This natural

reservoir is made of carbonate rocks and presents a

regular stratification; The discontinuity network has

been characterized from surface and boring scanline

data: twenty six decametric discontinuities. Three sets

have been identified: Figure 3. Hydraulic part of the BCR3D device.

Three faults with a N50/N70 trend dipping and opening the box, the sample is not unmounted. The

70 90 NW, with a 2 to 3 meter spacing, hydro mechanical test can continue after a morphol-

Eleven Faults with a N120/N140 trend dipping

ogy measurement. This procedure permit the two joint

75 90 NE, with a 2 meter spacing, walls to stay aligned, so prevent from the matching

Twelve bedding planes with a N40 trend dipping

problems of the beginning of each part of tests.

45 SE, with a 0.5 to 1 meter spacing. The physical values measured during a test are at

A lot of sensors (mechanical, hydraulic and seismic least the normal relative displacement, the normal

ones, Cappa et al. 2005) have been introduced in the stress. During a hydro mechanical test, additional val-

site. Some experiments have been analyzed and results ues are recorded. The involved recorded parameters

can be found in Cappa et al. 2005. During these exper- are: applied fluid pressure, input flow, and five output

iments, quite a lot of drillings have been performed; flows.

rock and joint samples (faults and bedding planes) can The tests are performed according to the ISRM rec-

be used for laboratory experiments. ommendations. Further details can be obtained from

The measurement of anisotropic hydro mechanical Boulon (1995).

properties of natural or artificial fractures is possible

at the laboratory 3S (Soils, Solids, Structures), using a

2 ROCK CHARACTERIZATION

prototype device called BCR3D (3D Direct Shear Box

for Rock Joints), Boulon (1995), Figure 1 and Figure 2.

The main results from rock matrix characterization and

The anisotropic hydraulic transmissivity of a joint is

cyclic mechanical tests are:

investigated, during shearing or not, using a radial flow

(a radial gradient) with a central pressurized input and So far, seven samples have been tested to deter-

5 independent external outputs at atmospheric pres- minate the rock matrix parameter (strength, Young

sure (Figure 3). modulus and Poisson coefficient), they show that the

The morphology (x,y,z) of the two joint walls can be Poisson coefficient values are quite stable over the

measured by a laser beam (diameter: 0.25 mm, sam- bedrock, the strength and the Young modulus scat-

pling step: 0.15 mm/128 128, vertical resolution: tered values are not explained by the orientation of

0.01 mm) at any stage of the loading.After stopping the the drilling against the stratigraphical layers. Their

test in progress (the normal stress goes down to zero), petrographical origin has to be studied.

142

Initial normal stiffness value, kni = 17.3 MPa/mm, 3.5 Pressure (MPa) Normal stress (MPa) 70

Normal stiffness value of kn = 223 MPa/mm, is

reached at n = 0.7 mm of normal displacement. 3.0 60

63 MPa

The two different fault samples F1 and F2 are tested 2.5 P 43 MPa 50

and the results from the void space back calculation 2.0 40

are compared to the hydro mechanical parameters.

1.5 30

21 MPa

1.0 20

3 HYDRO MECHANICAL RESULTS 0.5 10

0 MPa Temps (s)

The morphology monitoring is performed on the tested 0.0 0

joints at different steps. The morphology is measured 5 564 1120 1676 2232

with the laser beam before testing and after the joint

Figure 4. Imposed normal stress and pressure during F1

normal stress has reached different values. For exam- test.

ple, the F1 test different steps are (Figure 4): morphol-

ogy measurement (both walls), the two joint walls are Pressure (MPa) Normal stress (MPa)

4.5 140

joined together, the input pressure goes up to 0.1 MPa,

input pressure goes down to 0 MPa, normal stress goes 4.0 P 113 MPa 120

up to 21 MPa, input flow goes up to 0.2 MPa, etc. When 3.5

93 MPa 100

the normal stress reaches 43 MPa, both normal stress 3.0

and input pressure goes down to zero, the two joint 2.5 80

walls are separated but stay in the device, and a mor- 2.0 60

phology measurement is performed. Then the test goes 62 MPa

1.5

on with the values showed on Figure 4. Figure 5 shows 40

the different steps for F2 test. The F1 sample has a 1.0

0.5 20

40 mm in diameter. Because of the BCR3D device nor- Temps (s)

mal load limit, the diameter has been reduced down to 0.0 0

30 mm, for F2 test, to be able to reach the 113 MPa 5 564 1120 3249 3805 4361

level in normal stress.

Finally, the morphology monitoring gives four mea- Figure 5. Imposed normal stress and pressure during F2

test.

surements for F1 test 0 MPa (Original), 21 MPa,

43 MPa, 63 MPa and four measurements for test F2

0 MPa (Original), 62 MPa, 93 MPa and 113 MPa. For 3.0E-14 Intrinsic transmissivity F2 up to 90 MPa

(m3)

each one of them two series of points (x,y,z) is known,

2.5E-14

one for the upper wall and one for the lower wall. F1 up to 70 MPa

After the upper wall has been flipped upside down 2.0E-14

and the joint walls aligned like they are when tested, it

is possible to compute on each point of the sample the 1.5E-14

void space, also called openings. To compute the void

space for a point (, n ) we assume that the deforma- 1.0E-14

tions of an asperity does not influence the surrounding 5.0E-15

asperities, and that the average displacement is also the Normal stress

(MPa)

displacement for each point of the joint walls: first the 0.0E+00

higher wall heights (z values) are virtually decreased of 0 20 40 60 80 100

millimeters, then for each point the space in between

the upper wall and the lower wall is computed, for some Figure 6. Intrinsic transmissivity versus normal stress

points this space is negative, these negative spaces are (F1, F2).

all changed for zeros. This procedure gives the void

space at (, n ) point. Intrinsic values, like intrinsic viscosity w = 103 kg.m1 .s1 (kinetic viscosity

transmissivity, are used here to prevent the results from w = 106 m2 .s1 ),

being particular to the actual fluid. It is assumed that: Flow is permanent, radial and laminar (available for

the used parts of the tests).

Rock matrix is non porous or with a low enough

permeability to provide flow. The flow rates are fast F1 and F2 show the classical behavior, Londe and

enough for this assumption to be verified, Sabarly (1966), a decrease in fracture transmissivity,

Water is an uncompressible fluid (w value nei- equation 2, Hans and Boulon (2003), with normal

ther depend on the position nor the time), dynamic stress (Figure 6). When the fracture is mechanically

143

Table 1. Apparent residual intrinsic transmissivity.

F1 F2

3.0E-14 Intrinsic transmissivity (m3) showed Figure 7. The value of the intrinsic transmis-

sivity has been computed (from the analytical model

sector 1

equation 2) for different values of n 0 MPa; 21 MPa;

2.5E-14 43 MPa and 63 MPa. Regarding these three different

phases, the value of intrinsic transmissivity of sector

2.0E-14 4 5 1 is raising, the one of sector 5 is decreasing, and the

one of sector 4 is stable. The BCR3D device applies

sector 5

a constant normal closure all around the sample. So,

1.5E-14

the evolution of the intrinsic transmissivity versus the

3 1 normal stress is anisotropic.

1.0E-14 As we can back calculate the void space for each

step of a test, we can study the interaction between

2

morpho and hydro mechanical parameters.

5.0E-15 sector 4 Normal stress The idea here is: as the morphology is measured at

(MPa) the beginning of the test, the relative position of the two

0.0E+00 joint walls is known by the normal relative displace-

0 20 40 60 80 ment of the point (, n ). The surface is supposed

to be in contact if the void space value is less than

Figure 7. Intrinsic transmissivity (F1 up to 70 MPa).

0.001 mm.

For each sector, the average, standard deviation, and

compressed (at high stress), the tests show an appar- the coefficient of variation (standard deviation divided

ent residual intrinsic transmissivity, Tr, (Figure 6 and by the average) of fracture openings is computed, and

Table 1), Rutqvist and Stephansson (2003). The value compared to the outflow rate, Figure 8. The compari-

is quite the same for F1 and F2 samples, roughly son of the back calculated openings with the outflow

3 1015 m3 . rate are made when the flow is quasi permanent. The

mean values of the openings do not follow the output

flow (Figure 8 and Figure 9 mean compared to Qout ).

On F2 sample (higher values of the normal stress) the

coefficient of variation of the openings explains the

where T is the joint transmissivity (m2 /s), Ti is the joint outflow rate evolution with the normal stress, when

intrinsic transmissivity (m3 ), Q is the input flow rate it is not the case for F1 sample (lower values of nor-

(m3 /s), P is the pressure across the joint (Pa), re is mal stress, Figure 10 and Figure 11). Figure 12 and

the joint outside radius (m; h (re) = 0), ri is the joint Figure 13 show that for F1 and F2 samples the propor-

inside radius (m; h (ri) = P), is the fluid viscosity tion of the outflow for each sector does not depend on

(Pa/s) and w is volumic weight (N/m3 ). the normal stress level, except for the 113 MPa level

For F2 test, the last pressure raise, up to 110 MPa, where the outflow rate values all reach the same value

was applied with a dynamical effect (too fast). In Table (roughly 20%). After 90 MPa, the samples undergo

1, the Tr value for F2 at 110 MPa is not the one directly degradation, and the sector outflow values are charac-

obtain from the test, but the one obtain at a stable stage. teristic of a flow between two parallel plans. Anyhow,

This value has a low precision. the representations of the openings of the 93 and

The anisotropic intrinsic transmissivity is investi- 113 MPa levels for F2 sample, Figure 9, show the two

gated as the flow is radial (a radial gradient) with a joint walls closed, when the outflow rates values show

central pressurized input and five independent external a continuing flow. We can assume three reasons to

outputs at atmospheric pressure (Figure 7). explain the difference between the evolution of the

An intrinsic transmissivity for each external output outflow and the evolution of back calculated openings

is computed. In equation 2, the input flow is replaced with normal stress:

by the output flow of a sector, one of the five (Fig-

ure 7). The evolution of the intrinsic transmissivity Tortuosity of the flow: it is not sectorized when the

of the three sectors for F1 sample, up to 70 MPa, is openings are sectorized, the flow is not only radial.

144

Figure 8. F1 comparison (21, 43, 63 MPa). Figure 9. F2 comparison (62, 93, 113 MPa).

145

All At high normal stress, starting around 60 MPa, the

1.0 cv Sector 1 hypothesis of independence between too contiguous

Sector 2

0.8 Sector 3 asperities is no longer acceptable, the damaging of

Sector 4 the two joint walls can no longer be neglected,

0.6 Sector 5 The behavior, e.g. elasto-plastic, can no longer be

0.4 ignored to back calculate the openings.

0.2

4 CONCLUSION

0.0

0 20 40 60 (MPa) 80

The BCR3D device associate with the portable laser

beam permits to characterize precisely the faults from

Figure 10. F1 coef. of variation of the openings versus .

the Coaraze Site, Nice, France.

The cyclic hydro mechanical compression tests F1

50.0 cv All and F2 show a classical behavior:

40.0 Sector 1 A decrease in fracture transmissivity with normal

Sector 2 stress,

30.0

Sector 3 When the fracture is mechanically compressed (at

20.0 Sector 4 high stress), the tests show an apparent residual

Sector 5 intrinsic transmissivity, Tr = 3 1015 m3 .

10.0 The evolution of the intrinsic transmissivity versus

(MPa)

0.0 normal stress is anisotropic. Three sectors show dif-

0 50 100 150 ferent evolution of the intrinsic transmissivity with

the evolution of the normal stress.

Figure 11. F2 coef. of variation of the openings versus . This anisotropy is explained by the morpho hydro

mechanical interactions:

1.0

Outflow rate (%) Method used for back calculated the void space on

0.8 each point of the joint is verified,

The channeling or tortuosity of the flow modifies

0.6 the radial flow,

All Sector 1 Sector 2 The spatial distribution of the void space,

0.4

Sector 3 Sector 4 Sector 5 At high normal stress (more than 60 MPa):

0.2 The outflow rate is isotropic, so the samples

behave like parallel planes,

0.0

0 20 40 60 (MPa) 80

The simple back calculate void space method

show is limitation,

Figure 12. F1 outflow rate versus normal stress. The damaging of the two joint walls can no longer

be neglected,

The plastic part of the behavior can no longer be

1.0 Outflow rate (%) ignored to calculate the openings.

All

0.8 The tortuosity of the flow is a quite complicated pro-

Sector 1

0.6

cess, the spatial distribution of the asperities seem to

Sector 2

be an important issue. The later show that the con-

Sector 3 tact surface, Sc , of Dunat equation (equation 1), has

0.4

Sector 4 to closely follow the evolution of the normal stress,

0.2 Sector 5 and could depend on a spatial distribution and damage

(MPa)

0.0 factor and/or a plastic parameter.

0 50 100 150

The different channels that we could imagine on tested shortly. The procedure applied to the fault sam-

Figure 8, can drag a part of the flow towards sectors ples (F1 and F2) will also be applied to these samples.

that does not have the maximum average opening, The two different kinds of discontinuities (faults and

e.g. sector 1. bedding planes) seem to have a different behavior on

146

the site, Cappa et al. (2005). Is it possible to reach and mechanical measurements, in International Journal of

measured these differences at the laboratory scale?The Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 42, 287306.

next steps of this study are: Dunat X., 1996, Modlisation du couplage hydromcanique

de joints rocheux, Master (D.E.A.) Thesis of Lille 1

Find 3D morphological factors that values depends University, 30p.

on the spatial distribution of the void space. Geo- Evans K.F., Kohl T. Hopkirk R.J., Rybach L., 1992, Mod-

statistical analysis can bring such factors (see Roko eling of energy production from hot dry rock systems,

et al. (1997), Proj Rep Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule (ETH),

The void space is known without before testing the Zrich, Switzerland.

Goodman R.E., 1974, The mechanical properties of joints.

joint, we could simulate the behavior, as the radial in Proc 3rd Int Congr International Society of Rock

flow, with 3D morphological factors, Mechanics, 17 September 1974, Denver, Colorado.

Modify the Dunat (1996) relation with a 3D mor- National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, vol I,

phological factor and/or damage factor and/or a 127140.

plastic factor, Hans J., Boulon M., 2003, A new device for investigat-

Implement this relation in codes like UDEC/3DEC ing the hydro-mechanical properties of rock joints, in

(ITASCA), International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Meth-

Test prediction calculus of the new model. ods in Geomechanics, 27 (6), 513548, DOI: 10.1002/

nag.285.

Londe P., Sabarly F., 1966, La distribution des permabil-

its dans la fondation des barrages vots en fonction du

REFERENCES champ de contrainte, in Proc 1st Congr Rock Mechanics,

25 septembre-1 Octobre 1966, Lisbon. Lab Nac Eng Civil,

Barton N.R., Bandis S., Bakhtar K., 1985, Strength, defor- Lisbon, vol II, 517522.

mation and conductivity coupling of rock joints, in Inter- Roko R.O., Daemen J.J.K., Myers D.E., 1997, Variogram

national Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences characterization of joint surface morphology and asper-

& Geomechanics Abstracts 22, 121140. ity deformation during shearing, in International Journal

Boulon M., 1995, A 3-D direct shear device for testing the of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 34, 7184.

mechanical behaviour and the hydraulic conductivity of Rutqvist J, Stephansson O., 2003, The role of hydromechani-

rock joint, Proc. of the MJFR-2 conf., Vienne, Autriche, cal coupling in fractured rock engineering, in Hydrogeol-

407413, Rossmanith ed., Balkema. ogy Journal 11, Springer-Verlag (Ed.), 740.

Cappa F., Guglielmi Y., Fnart P., Merrien-Soukatchoff V., Witherspoon P.A., Wang J.S.Y, Iwai K., Gale J.E., 1980,

Thoraval A., 2005, Hydromechanical interactions in a Validity of cubic law for fluid flow in a deformable rock

fractured carbonate reservoir inferred from hydraulic and fracture, Water Resour Res 16, 10161024.

147

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

Schmidt hammer rebound number from P-wave velocity

Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to develop statistical relationship between P-wave velocity and other

properties like impact strength index, slake durability index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. These are

important properties to characterize a rock mass and are being used in geological and geo-technical engineering.

P-wave velocity is one of the most important properties for the determination of other properties like impact

strength index; slake durability index and Schmidt hammer rebound number. In this study, these properties

were determined in the laboratory and each property was correlated with P-wave velocity. High correlations

were observed, and empirical equations have been developed to predict Impact strength index, slake durability

index and rebound values. The statistical analysis of data set by students t-test confirms the dependency and

interrelation among these parameters.

These empirical relations will be useful to determine the important geotechnical parameters for safe design,

smooth and stable excavation.

specimen free from fractures and joints. Tests were

Seismic methods are oftenly used to characterize and performed with an N-type hammer having impact

determine the dynamic properties of rocks. Since, energy of 2.207 Nm. All tests were performed with

these techniques are non-destructive and relatively the hammer held vertically downwards and at right

easy to apply, they are increasingly being used in angles to the horizontal rock faces to avoid any cor-

geological and geotechnical engineering. rection factor while converting to UCS. The three most

Attempts have been made by various researchers to accepted methods among the different Schmidt ham-

assess grouting, rock bolt re-inforcement and blasting mer rebound techniques were selected and applied for

efficiencies in the rock mass by the seismic velocity each rock type. To get Schmidt hammer rebound num-

(Knill, 1970; Price et al., 1970; Young et al., 1985). ber, initially ten readings were taken and then the mean

The prediction of rock mass deformation and stress of five higher vales was found out.

and the extent of fracture zones developed around

underground openings are other applications of the

seismic techniques (Onodera, 1963; Hudson et al., 3 LABORATORY INVESTIGATION

1980; Gladwin, 1982). Various researchers have stud-

ied the relations between rock properties and sound 3.1 Ultrasonic testing of the rock specimens

velocity and found that sound velocity is closely

related with rock properties (Deere and Miller, 1966; The P-wave velocity traveling in a solid material

DAndrea, 1965; Saito et al., 1974; Gardner et al., depends on the density and elastic properties of that

1974; Youash, 1970; Lama and Vutukuri, 1978; Inoue material. The quality of some materials is sometimes

and Ohomi, 1981; Gaviglio, 1989). related to their elastic stiffness so that measurement of

ultrasonic pulse velocity in such materials can often be

used to indicate their quality as well as to determine

elastic properties. To determine the P-wave velocity

2 DATA COLLECTION of different rocks, rock blocks were cored in lab-

oratory for NX size core recovery. The instrument

The rebound numbers were determined by-Schmidt used in this study was PUNDIT (Portable Ultrasonic

hammer on large rock blocks on site and rock blocks Nondestructive Digital Indicating Tester).

were collected to carry out other tests in the laboratory. The results of P-wave velocity of different rocks are

During sample collection, each block was inspected given in table 1.

149

Table 1. Different properties of rocks. Table 2. Students t-test.

Schmidt t-test

P-wave Impact Slake hammer

velocity strength durability rebound Rock Tests Calculated value Tabulated value

Rock type (m/s) index index number

P-wave velocity and 12.203 2.02

Sandstone A-1 2129.1 79.1 96.28 28 impact-strength index

Sandstone A-2 2132.7 80.8 97.22 27 P-wave velocity and 12.173 2.02

Sandstone A-3 2152.7 82.6 96.23 29 slake durability index

Sandstone A-4 2120 80.1 97.35 30 P-wave velocity and 12.513 2.02

Sandstone A-5 2053.5 82.4 97.33 27 Rebound number

Sandstone B-1 2296.9 85.2 97.59 30

Sandstone B-2 2278.8 83.8 97.51 33

Sandstone B-3 2345.9 85.3 97.42 30 3.3 Slake durability test

Sandstone B-4 2190.2 82.2 97.56 32

Sandstone B-5 2183.4 85.9 97.03 34 Slake durability of rocks is an important property of

Sandstone B-6 2142.8 84.9 97.56 31 rock-mass. The slake durability of rocks is closely

Sandstone B-7 2240.1 86.4 97.65 34 related to their mineralogical composition. This test

Sandstone C-1 2465.3 86.3 97.12 34 measures the resistance of a rock sample to weakening

Sandstone C-2 2212.1 84.9 97.42 37 and disintegration resulting from a standard cycle of

Sandstone C-3 2428.8 87.5 97.41 39

drying and wetting. The main purpose of this slake-

Sandstone C-4 2517.6 90.5 97.36 41

Sandstone C-5 2554.7 89.2 97.51 42 durability test is to evaluate the water resistance of

Quartzite-1 3798.07 93.5 98.36 56 rock samples.

Quartzite-2 3595.05 94.1 98.25 53 Test was carried out according to standards sug-

Quartzite-3 3550 93.8 98.21 57 gested by International Society for Rock Mechan-

Quartzite-4 3594.4 92.1 98.17 55 ics (ISRM, 1972). A sample comprising of nine

Granite-1 4964 98.9 98.35 62 rock lumps of particular rock roughly spherical in

Granite-2 4980.2 97.8 98.42 60 shape, each weighing 50 10 g for a total weight of

Basalt-1 5753 98.6 98.92 65 500 50 g had been taken and placed in a drum to

Basalt-2 5530.2 96.9 98.98 63

dry until a constant weight was obtained in an oven

Basalt-3 5421.6 95.9 98.78 65

Basalt-4 5426.2 96.9 98.67 62 at 105 C for a duration of 4 to 5 hours. For the slake

durability test the drum was mounted on the trough and

was coupled to the motor. The trough was then filled

with water to a level of 20 mm below the drum axis

3.2 Impact strength test and to maintain the temperature at 25 C. The drum

had been rotated at 20 rpm for a period of 10 minutes

The impact strength test was first developed by and the drum was removed from the trough and placed

Protodyakonov, and then it was used by Evans and in an oven and dried out at a temperature of 105 C for

Pomeroy (1966) for the classification of coal seams in 4 hours to drain out the remaining moisture in the sam-

the former USSR and UK. The test was then modified ples. During the test, the finer products of slaking pass

by Paone et al. (1969), Rabia and Brook (1980). Rabia through the mesh and into the water bath. The slake-

and Brook (1980) used the modified test apparatus to durability index Id is the percentage ratio of final to ini-

determine the rock impact hardness number and devel- tial dry weights of rock in the drum (Singh et al. 2004).

oped an empirical equation for predicting drilling rates Slake durability index (Id) = (C E)/(A E)

for both DTH and drifter drills. 100%

Hobbs (1964) applied this test to various rocks and Where,

established the following equation: A = Initial weight of sample + drum (k.g)

C = Weight of sample + drum after second cycle of

rotation (k.g), and

E = Weight of empty drum.

Where qu is the UCS (kgf/cm2 ) and ISI is the impact The results of Slake durability test of different rocks

strength index. are given in table 1.

To carry out this test, fragments of rocks were

impacted 20 times by a 41b (1.81 kg) plunger falling

12in. (305 mm). The amount of fines below 1/8 in. 4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

(3.18 mm) is used as the strength index.

The results of impact strength test of different rocks Regression analysis has been made to find out the rela-

are given in table 2. tionship between P-wave velocities with other tests

150

100 y = 0.0044x + 74.916 A strong correlation (r = 0.8415) was found between

Impact strength index (%)

R2 = 0.8415 p-wave velocity and the impact strength index for all

95 rock types. The equation of this relation is as follows:

90

85

Where Vp and ISI are P-wave velocity and impact

80 strength index respectively.

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Similarly linear relationship has been observed

P-wave velocity (m/s) between P-wave velocities and slakes durability for all

tested rocks. Correlation coefficient was found 0.7705

Figure 1. P-wave velocity vs. impact strength index. (Fig. 2). The equation of this relation is as follows:

99.5

Slake durability index (%)

y = 0.0005x + 96.211

99 R2 = 0.7705

98.5

Where Id is slake durability index.

98 For P-wave and Schmidt hammer rebound number,

97.5 also shows a linear and strong correlation (r = 0.9011).

97

96.5

96

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

P-wave velocity (m/s) Where RR is Schmidt hammer rebound number.

The significance of r-values can be determined by

Figure 2. P-wave velocity vs. Slake durability index. the t-test, assuming that both variables are normally

distributes and the observations are chosen randomly.

The t-test compares computed t-value with tabulated

Schmidt hammer rebound number

80 y = 0.0102x + 10.712 t-value using the null hypothesis. In this test, a 95%

R2 = 0.9011

70 confidence level was chosen. If the computed t-value

60

is greater than tabulated t-value, the null hypothesis is

rejected. This means that r is significant. If the com-

50 puted t-value is less than the tabulated t-value, the

40 null hypothesis is applicable. It means r is not signifi-

cant. Since, a 95% confidence level was chosen in this

30 case, a corresponding critical t-value 2.02 is obtained

20 from the related tables. As, it is seen in table 2, all the

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 computed t-values are greater than tabulated t-values,

P-wave velocity (m/s) so, it can be concluded that there is real correlation

of P-wave velocity with impact strength index, slake

Figure 3. P-wave velocity vs. Schmidt hammer rebound durability index and rebound values.

number. The empirical methods used in this study were eval-

uated by comparing their results with each other. Data

like impact strength index, slake durability index and from each test were used in the respective empirical

rebound number values of the tested rocks. The equa- equation to calculate the other property. The predicted

tion of the best fit line, the 95% confidence level, and values of impact strength index, slake durability index

the correlation coefficient (r) were determined for each and rebound number values were then plotted against

test results. the measured values for all tested rocks, respectively

The best fit line and its regression analysis for each (Figs. 46). The error in the predicted value is repre-

data set is illustrated in Figs. 13. It can be inferred sented by the distance that each data point plots from

from the figures that the best fitted relation were found the 1:1 slope line. Point lying on the slope line indicates

to be best represented by linear regression curves. an exact estimation. As, it is clear from the figure 46

The plot of the P-wave velocity as a function that P-wave velocity is the reliable method for estimat-

of impact strength index represents linear relation ing impact strength index, slake durability index and

between P-wave velocity and impact strength index rebound number values to avoid cumbersome and time

for all rock types (Fig. 1). consuming test methods.

151

R2 = 0.8415

The test results were interpreted statistically and

Predicted impact strength index

105

significant linear relationships were found with P-

100 wave velocity to impact strength index, slake durability

95 index and rebound values. It can be infer that P-wave

90

velocity shows good statistical relation with the impact

strength index, slake durability index and rebound val-

85

ues. This study reveals that impact strength index,

80 slake durability index and rebound values can be esti-

75 mated by determining P-wave velocity with the given

70

empirical equations in the similar type of rock mass.

70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 The empirical relations can be improved with the

Observed impact strength index availability of ore number of such data set.

strength index.

REFERENCES

DAndrea, D.V., Fischer, R.L., Fogelson, D.E. 1965. Predic-

tion of compressive strength from other rock properties.

U.S. B. M Report of Investigations 6702.

100.5 R2 = 0.7705

predicted slake durability index

100

index properties for intact rock. Air Force Weapons Lab.

99.5

Tech. Report, AFWL-TR 65116, Kirtland Base, New

99 Mexico.

98.5 Evans, C.D., Pomeroy. 1966. The strength, fracture and

98 workability of coal, Pergamon Press, London.

97.5 Gardner, G.H.F., Gardner, L.W., Gregory, A.R. 1974. Forma-

97 tion velocity and density: the diagnostic basis for strati-

96.5 graphic. Geophysics, 39, 77080.

96 Gaviglio, P. 1989. Longitudinal waves propagation in a lime-

96 97 98 99 100 101 stone:The relationship between velocity and density. Rock

Observed slake durability index Mech Rock Eng, 22, 299306.

Gladwin, M.T. 1982. Ultrasonic stress monitoring in under-

Figure 5. Observed slake durability vs. predicted slake ground mining. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, 19, 2218.

durability index. Hobbs, D.W. 1964. Rock compressive strength. Colliery Eng,

41, 287292.

Hudson, J.A., Jones, E.J.W., New, B.M. 1980. P-wave velocity

measurements in a machine bored chalk tunnel. Q J Eng

110 R2 = 0.9011 Geol, 13, 3343.

Inoue, M., Ohomi, M. 1981. Relation between uniaxial com-

predicted rebound number

100

pressive strength and elastic wave velocity of soft rock.

90

In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Weak

80 Rock, Tokyo, 913.

70 ISRM 1972. Suggested method for deter mining water con-

60 tent, porosity, density, absorption and related properties

50 and swelling and slake durability index properties.

40 Knill, J.L. 1970. The application of seismic methods in the

30 interpretation of grout takes in rock. In: Proceedings of

20 the Conference on in situ Investigation in Soils and Rocks,

20 40 60 80 100 120 No. 8. British Geotechnical Society, 93100.

Observed rebound number Lama, R.D., Vutukuri, V.S. 1978. Handbook on mechani-

cal properties of rocks. 2nd ed. Switzerland: Trans Tech

Figure 6. Observed rebound number vs. predicted rebound Publications.

number. Onodera, T.F. 1963. Dynamic investigation of foundation

rocks, in situ. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium on

Rock Mechanics, Minnesota. New York: Pergamon Press,

51733.

Paone, J., Madson, D., Bruce, W.E. 1969. Drillability studies:

5 CONCLUSIONS

laboratory percussive drilling. USBM RI 7300.

Price, D.G., Malone, A.W., Knill, T.L. 1970. The applica-

In this study, P-wave velocity, impact strength index, tion of seismic methods in the design of rock bolt sys-

slake durability index and Schmidt hammer rebound tem. In: Proceedings of the First International Congress,

number for all rock types were determined in the vol. 2. International Association of Engineering Geology,

laboratory. 74052.

152

Rabia, H., Brook, W. 1980. An empirical equation for drill Youash, Y. 1970. Dynamic physical properties of rocks: Part

performance prediction. In: Proceedings of the 21st US 2, experimental result. In: Proceedings of the Second

Symposium on Rock Mechanics. Univ. Missouri-Rolla, Congress of the International Society on Rock Mechanics,

10311. Beograd, 1, 18595.

Saito, T., Mamoru, A.B.E., Kundri, S. 1974. Study on Young, R.P., Hill, T.T., Bryan, I.R., Middleton, R. 1985.

weathering of igneous rocks. Rock Mech Japan, 2, 2830. Seismic spectroscopy in fracture characterization. Q J Eng

Singh, T.N., Verma, A.K., Singh, V., Sahu, A. 2004. Slake Geol, 18, 45979.

durability study of shaly rock and its predictions, Envi-

ronmental Geology, 47, 246252.

153

EUROCK 2006 Multiphysics Coupling and Long Term Behaviour in Rock Mechanics

Van Cotthem, Charlier, Thimus & Tshibangu (eds)

2006 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 0 415 41001 0

deformation and its relation to inner structural change

M. Takahashi

Research Center for Deep Geological Environments, AIST, Tsukuba, Japan

K. Tanaka

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Science, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba, Japan

X. Li

Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan, China

M. Kwasniewski

Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

ABSTRACT: In confined triaxial compression tests, most sedimentary rocks change their behavior from a

brittle to a ductile regime with increasing confining pressure. With effective increasing confining pressure,

the differential axial stress increases and axial differential stressstrain curves show a transition from strain

softening to strain hardening, and volumetric strains show a transition from dilatancy to persistent compaction.

To investigate precisely the inner structural changes in stressed Shirahama sandstone with increasing axial strain

and confining pressure, we measured porosity changes by means of mercury injection porosimetry and a gas

adsorption method. Shirahama sandstone samples were deformed under various confining pressures and pore

pressures. Under low confining pressures, the specimen is characterized by the existence of a main fault and the

deformation shows dominant dilatancy. Under higher confining pressure experiments, the specimen behaves with

fully ductile deformation, and volumetric strains measured by displacement transducers and measured by a pore

volume apparatus show persistent compaction throughout the experiment. The porosity data obtained by mercury

injection porosimetry and the gas adsorption method support the porosity increase behavior. Macroscopically,

the specimens show persistent compaction, but microscopically the total porosity increases with increasing

confining pressure. This phenomenon is attributed to micro-cracks caused by grain crushing and to the small

open spaces around the rock fragments caused by high degrees of compaction.

identified with damage processes, including intra- and

The mechanical and hydraulic properties of porous inter-granular micro-cracking, frictional slip on the

rocks are a major and common concern in various sci- grain, and pore collapse.

entific and engineering fields. The permeability and In addition, of the hydraulic properties, perme-

specific storage for rocks and sedimentary layers deep ability evolution has been correlated with mechan-

underground are very important parameters for prob- ical deformation and failure mode. Zhu & Wong

lems related to the buried evaluation of natural gas and (1997) measured the permeability as a function of

oil, CO2 aquifer storage, various kind of waste storage various stress states from the brittle-ductile transi-

and so on. Of the mechanical properties, the transi- tion in five kinds of sandstones. They compiled all

tion from a brittle to a ductile regime has already been the triaxial compression data for permeability ver-

clarified for various sandstones. sus effective pressure, differential stress, porosity, and

Wong et al. (1997) conducted triaxial compression axial strain. They discussed permeability evolution in

tests to investigate the inelastic and failure behavior various porous sandstones with a correlation of the

of six sandstones with porosities ranging from 15% to mechanical deformation and failure mode.

35%. They observed that the onset of shear-induced However, aspects of micro-structural changes under

dilation and shear-enhanced compaction were both highly stressed conditions have not been studied suf-

marked by surges in acoustic emission (AE) activity. ficiently to yield definite conclusions. We measured

155

porosity changes by means of mercury injection specimen was jacketed with 0.5 mm thick heat shrink-

porosimetry and a gas adsorption method. Shirahama able tube. The specimen was positioned between two

sandstones were deformed under various confining hardened steel end plugs, each of which had a concen-

pressures and pore pressures. The brittle and fully tric small hole at the center for pore fluid access to the

ductile deformation regimes are associated with dis- upstream or down stream pore pressure line.

tinct patterns of volumetric strain changes measured 2) Permeability Apparatus: The permeability was

by displacement transducers and pore volume change measured by a Transient Pulse method, originally

evaluated by the pore fluid volume flowing out or developed by Brace et al. (1968). After the pore pres-

extracted from the specimen. sure equilibrated in the specimen, the pore pressure

We focused on the correlation of inner struc- was raised instantaneously by 50 kPa on the upstream

tural changes, especially on a microscopic scale, side of the specimen. The upstream side pressure was

with mechanical deformation using the data from then decreased, while the downstream side pressure

permeability, total porosity and Bet surface area was increased with time as the fluid flowed through

measurements. the specimen. Permeability could be calculated from

the upstream pressure decay or the differential pressure

decay. This permeability apparatus is designed appro-

2 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES priately to apply Braces equation to the question of

specimen permeability at various deformation stages.

The experimental system consisted of a Conventional 3) Pore Volume apparatus: When the pore pres-

Triaxial Compressional Apparatus, a Permeability sure was constant during the deformation process of

Apparatus and a Pore Volume Apparatus, as shown in the specimen, the volume change of the pore water

Figure 1. that flowed out, or was extracted from the specimen,

1) Conventional Triaxial Compressional Apparatus: was measured by a micro metering valve in which

The maximum axial loading capacity was 1000 KN the inner piston could be moved forward or backward

and the pressure vessel had a maximum capacity to maintain constant pore pressure. The pore volume

of 100 MPa and 12 feedthroughs for strain mea- change could be calculated based on the diameter of

surement. Cylindrical specimens were placed in the the metering valve piston and the rotation degree of

pressure vessel and connected to a pore pressure line. the valve handle. The sensitivity of this system was

Figure 2 shows the specimen assemblage and displace- about 2.7 104 cm3 corresponding to a 6.36 micro

ment transducers for axial and radial directions. The strain in volumetric strain.

156

Figure 3. Optical microscope photograph of intact

Shirahama sandstone. Dotted lines indicate the intact pore

space.

30

Figure 2. View of sample assemblage and displacement Intact

transducers for axial and radial directions. 25

Volumetric Ratio (%)

Porosity = 13.37%

20

3 SAMPLE DESCRIPTION

15

The Shirahama sandstone came from the Wakayama

10

prefecture, Kii peninsular in central Japan. This sand-

stone consists mainly of quartz grains with no cracks 5

or rock fragments that are aggregations of various

kind of minerals. The quartz grains have an average 0

size of about 150 micron. Figure 3 shows an optical -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

microscope photograph taken from a blue colored thin Log Radius (m)

section of Shirahama sandstone. In this, the blue areas

indicate the intact pore space region. Figure 4 shows Figure 4. Pore size distribution by mercury intrusion porosi-

metry of intact Shirahama sandstone.

pore size distributions in intact specimens measured

by mercury intrusion porosimetry. The pre-existing

pore sizes distributed dominantly at approximately 1

micron, and the total porosity was about 13%. All the

specimens were ground to a cylindrical shape with

length 60 mm.

4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

deformation and permeability tests for Shirahama

sandstone.

1) Dry condition: At first, we investigated the

mechanical characteristics under confining pressures

up to 90 MPa. The complete set of mechanical data for

Shirahama sandstone is shown in Figure 5 The graph

shows the differential stress versus the axial, lateral,

and volumetric strain for six confined triaxial com-

pression tests with confining pressures maintained at

0, 30, 50, 70 and 90 MPa. The samples that deformed Figure 5. Axial differential stress vs axial, lateral and vol-

at a confining pressure of 0 MPa were representative of umetric strain curves of Shirahama sandstone under dry

the brittle fracture regime. After the axial differential condition.

157

stress attained a maximum value, the axial differen- confining pressures beyond 60 MPa, multiple shear

tial stress suddenly dropped because the stiffness of fracture or conjugated shear fracture occurred in the

this machine was insufficient. The volumetric strain specimen. The volumetric strain showed consistent

showed apparent dilatancy behavior. Under confining compaction.

pressures of 30 and 50 MPa, the specimens deformed 3) Permeability change: Four specimens were

as in a brittle-ductile transition regime. The maximum deformed under various confining pressures up to

axial differential stress increased with increasing con- 100 MPa and constant pore pressure of 20 MPa to

fining pressure and the dilatant strain defined as the investigate the relationship between the volumetric

inelastic volumetric strain was limited. Beyond the strain and permeability (Fig. 7). With increasing

confining pressure of 70 MPa, the volumetric strain effective confining pressure, a transition from strain

showed persistent compaction. softening to strain hardening can be observed. The

2) Wet condition: To investigate the volumet- volumetric strain shows distinct dilatancy and persis-

ric strain behavior under wet conditions and wide tent compaction with increasing axial strain. In the

range of confining pressures, eight specimens were brittle regime, the permeability decreases with elastic

deformed under confining pressures up to 100 MPa deformation range, and shows a remarkable increase

and pore pressures up to 40 MPa (Fig. 6). The differen- at the same stress level starting dilatancy behavior.

tial axial stress-axial strain curves showed a transition Its distinctive feature is that the permeability after

from strain softening to strain hardening, and the unique shear fracture occurring in the specimen is

volumetric strain showed a transition from apparent higher than the initial permeability corresponding to

dilatancy to persistent compaction with increasing the onset of the axial loading. On the other hand, in

confining pressure. Under effective confining pres-

sures below 60 MPa, the axial differential stress sud-

denly dropped after peak stress, and a unique shear

fracture occurred in the specimen. As a result, the vol-

umetric strain showed compaction at first and then

continuous dilation with increasing axial strain. At the

end of each experiment, the final volumetric strain

showed dilation. On the other hand, under effective

Figure 6. Series of the axial differential stress and volumet- permeability change as a function of axial strain during a

ric strain as a function of axial strain under various confining conventional triaxial compression test under four confining

and pore pressures. pressures and a constant pore pressure of 20 MPa.

158

the brittle ductile and fully ductile regimes, although 5 MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION BY

the permeability increases within the inelastic defor- MERCURY INTRUSION METHOD AND

mation range, the increasing ratio is weakened with GAS ADSORPTION METHOD

increasing confining pressure. It should be noted that

the permeability at end of the loading is never higher To investigate precisely the inner structural changes

than the maximum value during the experiment. In the in the stressed sandstone with increasing axial strain

unloading process, the permeability at four confining and confining pressure, we measured the stress

pressures decreases with advanced unloading beyond induced volume change by means of mercury intrusion

the minimum value under the loading process. porosimetry and a gas adsorption method. In addition,

30 30

Volumetric Ratio (%)

Pc=90MPa

25 Pc=0MPa 25

Porosity = 16.39 %

20 Porosity = 14.47 % 20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Log Radius (m)

Log Radius (m)

30 30

Volumetric Ratio (%)

20 Porosity = 14.77 % 20 Porosity = 12.59 %

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Log Radius (m) Log Radius (m)

30 30

Volumetric Ratio (%)

Volumetric Ratio (%)

Porosity= 16.14 % 20 Porosity = 13.52 %

20

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Log Radius (m) Log Radius (m)

30 30

Volumetric Ratio (%)

20 Porosity= 16.35 % 20 Porosity = 16.24 %

15 15

10 10

5 5

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Log Radius (m) Log Radius (m)

Figure 8. Pore size distribution for intact and deformed specimens under various confining pressures.

159

an optical microscope and scanning electronic micro- and so on. We used the deformed and stressed speci-

scope (SEM) were adopted to confirm directly the men after each experiment.

existence of grain cracking, fragment compaction, 1) Principle and equipment for each measuring

deformation of the grain contact with rock fragments methods

Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry: This equipment