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DC Microorils

DC Loads

/DC /DC /DC /DC


DC DC DC DC

DC
AC/

Distributed generation

Industrial/PhD course on DC Microgrids


in Theory and Practice

Lecturers
Josep M. Guerrero Professor - Aalborg University, Denmark
Juan C. Vasquez Associate Professor - Aalborg University, Denmark
Sanjay K. Chaudhary Associate Professor - Aalborg University, Denmark

Lab Responsible
Zheming Jin Ph.D student-Aalborg University, Denmark

www.et.aau.dk
List of participants for Industrial/Ph.D. Course in Microgrids

7th Edition: May 1st-May 2nd, 2017

Course Participants

Nr. Name e-mail


1 Ji Wu jiwu@et.aau.dk
2 Zhaoxia Xiao zhx@et.aau.dk
3 Mingshen Li msh@et.aau.dk
4 Babak Yousefi Khanghah byk@et.aau.dk
5 Ismail El Kafazi eki@et.aau.dk
6 Faicel El Aamri fea@et.aau.dk
7 Kerui Li kli@et.aau.dk
8 Yahya Naderi yna@et.aau.dk
9 Ying Meng yim@et.aau.dk
10 Gibran Agundis gat@et.aau.dk
11 Mohamed Al-Hasheem mah@et.aau.dk
12 Bahram Shakerighadi bas@et.aau.dk
13 Nils van der Blij N.H.vanderBlij@tudelft.nl
14 Guoling Wang guw@et.aau.dk
15 Wattala Fernando w.fernando@napier.ac.uk
16 Xing Xiaowen xix@et.aau.dk
17 Nor Baizura Binti Ahamad nbb@et.aau.dk
WhoisJosepM.Guerrero

Received the B.S. degree in telecommunications engineering, the M.S. degree in


electronics engineering, and the Ph.D. degree in power electronics from the Technical
University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. He was an Associate Professor at the same
university, where he teaches courses on digital signal processing, control theory, and
renewable energy systems. Since 2004, he has been responsible for the Renewable
Energy Lab, Escola Industrial de Barcelona. His research interests include photovoltaics,
wind energy conversion, uninterruptible power supplies, storage energy systems, and
microgrids. He has been a visiting Professor at Zhejiang University (China).
April 11 April 13, 2016 From 2011 he became a full Professor in Microgrids at Aalborg University.
Lecturers
Josep M. Guerrero, Professor - Aalborg University, Denmark
Dr. Guerrero is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial
Juan C. Vasquez, Associate Professor -Aalborg University, Denmark Electronics, the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, the IEEE
Industrial Electronics Magazine, and the EditorinChief of the
Sanjay K. Chaudhary Associate Professor- Aalborg University, Denmark
International Journal of Integrated Energy Systems. He is involved on
several IEEE IES Committees, and he usually chairs and organizes
sessions in IES and PELS conferences. Currently, he is the Chair of the
Lab Responsible IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Technical Committee on Renewable
Zheming Jin Ph.D student - Aalborg University, Denmark Energy Systems.

www.et.aau.dk

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 1 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 2

WhoisJuanC.Vasquez WhoisSanjayChaudhary

He has received B.S degree and M.S in Electronics Engineering from the
Universidad Autonoma de Manizales (UAM), Colombia with specialization in control
He obtained his B. Tech. (Electrical Engg.) in 2000 from
and industrial automation, where he has been teaching courses on digital circuits,
servo systems, and systems of flexible manufacturing. Aligarh M. University, India and M. Tech. (Electrical Engg.) in
Since 2008, he is involved with the Power Electronic and Control Systems (SEPIC) 2002 from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, with
Research Team, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Technical specialization in Power Systems. From 2002 he worked with
University of Catalonia, where he got a grant by the Spanish Ministry of Education
and Science.
ABB Ltd. in India for three years. In 2005, he joined
Honeywell Technology Solutions Lab, Bangalore.

In December 2010 he got the Ph.D. degree in Automatic He started his Ph.D. research on Control and Protection of
Control, Robotics, and Artificial Vision from the Technical Wind Power Plants with VSCHVDC Connection at Aalborg
University of Catalonia, Barcelona where was teaching
courses on Renewable Energy Systems. Recently, He is
University in 2008 and he received his Ph. D. degree in 2011.
working at Aalborg University as an Assistant Professor in Currently he is an Associate Professor at the same University.
Microgrids.
His research interests include system modeling, simulation, His main interests are on grid connection of renewable
hierarchical control and power management applied to energy, power systems, HVDC and FACTS, and other power
distributed power generation systems in AC/DC Microgrids. electronic applications in power systems.

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 3 11Apr16 IntroductiontoHVDCandFACTSCourseOctober2225,2013


WhoisZheming Jin CourseSchedule
PHD COURSE ON DC - MICROGRIDS

DAY1: DAY2:
8:30 LECTURE P101-19 LECTURE P101-19
He received the B.S. and the M.S. degree in electrical
Registration
engineering, in Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China in Course Overview
L4 - DC Collection Grids:
Presentation of Speakers
2013 and 2015, respectively. He is currently working towards Wind Power Plants
L1 - DC Distribution
his Ph.D. degree in the Department of Energy Technology at Microgrids
10:00 COFFEEBREAK
Aalborg University, Aalborg East, Denmark. 10:30 LuNCH BREAK LECTURE P101-19
L2 - Control of Power
His research interests include power electronics, modeling, Electronics Converters for
DC Microgrids L5 - Hierarchical Control of
control and integration of energy storages in DC Microgrids L3 - Paralel Control
DC Microgrids

and electrified transportation. Schemes for DC Microgrids


12:00 LUNCHBREAK
13:00 LABORATORY LABORATORY
Lab I- Design of Control
Parameters for DC
Microgrids Lab V- Control design of a
Lab II - Simulation standalone voltage-droop
Evaluation of Stand-alone regulated DC MicroGrid
Converter with DC Voltage
Control
14:30 COFFEEBREAK
15:00 LABORATORY LABORATORY

Lab III - Design of the Lab VI- Distributed ESS


hierarchical control for DC Balancing by Using a Fuzzy
microgrids Inference System
Lab IV - Simulation
16:30 Evaluation of a DC Clossing session
microgrid

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Outline

Currentwar
DCMicrogridsconfigurations
DCMicrogridsathome
DC Microgridsfacilities
Conclusions
DC Distribution Microgrids References

JosepM.Guerrero,Professor
DepartmentofEnergyTechnology
joz@et.aau.dk
http://www.et.aau.dk
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


AdvantageofDCtransmissionsystems
noreactivepowerloadingofthetransmissionline
completecontrolofenergyflow
noreactivepowerloadingofthetransmissionline
reducedlosses

WhyBacktoBacklinks?
Differentsystemfrequencies
Noadditionalshortcircuitpowercontributiontoconnected
networks
Fullycontrollablepowerflow

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
500kVHVDCTransmissionLine
ProblemsinACmicrogrids:
Synchronizationofdistributedgenerators
Inrushcurrent(transformers,Inductionmotors,Inductiongenerators)
ThreePhaseUnbalance(singlephaseloads,singlephasegeneratorssuch
asphotovoltaic)

RecentTrends
IntroductionofmanyInverterloads(AC/DCandDC/ACconversionsare
EuropeHVDCprojectswith
AsiaHVDClinestransferpowerfromruralareastourbancenters
included)
submarinecables IntroductionofdistributedgenerationswithDCoutput(photovoltaic,fuel
cell,variablespeed typewindturbine,microturbine,gasengine)
Needsforhigherqualitypower

DCCoupledMicrogrids
DCmicrogrids/nanogrids
DCdistributedpowersystems(DPS)
Applications:VRM,48Vtelecomsystems,DClinkforUPSsystems
Isolatedsystems:avionic,automotive,marine
Source:ABB

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


Demonstrationsof300400VDCMicroGrids intheworld

DCMicrogrids:

Distributedschemeofloadsideconvertersprovideahighqualitypower.
Variousformsofelectricpower(e.g 1100V,3200V,DC100V)canbeobtained
withouttransformers.
Hierarchicaldisconnectionofloadpoints.
Whenatemporaryoverloadoccursatoneload,electricpowercanbesharedby
usingadditionalelectricpowerlinesbetweenloadsideconverters.
Synchronizationofdistributedgeneratorsarenotnecessary.
Fluctuationofgeneratedpowerofdistributedgeneratorsandloadpowercanbe
compensatedinthedclinebyusingenergystoragedevices.
Loadsarenotaffectedbyvoltagesag,voltageswell,threephasevoltage
unbalance,andvoltageharmonics.
PowerqualityisnotaffectedbyInrushcurrent,singlephaseloadsandsingle
phasegenerators.
HigherefficiencythanACmicrogrid.

300400VDCOperationalandDemoSitesWorldwide(Europe,USAandJapan)
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
ConverterinterfacesforDCMicrogrids
GridSideconverter(GSC):linkstheacgridanddcmicrogrid system.Dependingon
DCMicrogrid topology microgrid powerrating,GSCcouldbeeitherasingleorthreephaseac/dcconverter.
ImportantfeatureofGSCisunitypowerfactor(UPF)operation.

LoadSideConverter(LSC):isthefamilyofconvertersconnectedbetweenthedcline
andendloads.Forinstance,connectedbetweenthedclineandhighbrightness(HB)
LEDisadcdcconverter.Currently,mostofthepowerelectronicinterfacesforloadsare
designedtooperateonacvoltage.Thus,itisamajorchallengetoshiftfromacsystem
todcsystem.
ACResidentialsystem
RenewableSideConverter(RSC):comprisesofthepowerelectronicsinterfacebetween
thedcbusandrenewablesourcessuchassolarphotovoltaic(PV),windturbine,fuelcell
etc.

StorageSideConverter(SSC): includesinterfacedevicesbetweendcbusandstorage
elements.DifferentSSCsarerequiredfordifferenttechnologiessuchasbattery,
ACcommercialsystem flywheel,supercapacitoretc.SSCdesignmustensurelongoperationlifeofthestorage
elements.

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


DCMicrogrid VoltageLevel:

ExistingACsystemis400Vand230V
DCMicrogrid VoltageLevel:
DCMicrogrid voltagelevels
Efficiency:Systemefficiencydependsonthepowerconversionstagesbetweenthe
sourcesandloads.Asthepowerconversionstageanditsefficiencydependsonvoltage
400V:Thisvoltagelevelhasbeenusedindcdatacenters.Thisisrelatively
levels,systemefficiencyalsodependsondcbusvoltagelevel.
highvoltageandhencehighlyeffectivegroundingandprotection
techniquesarerequired.
Cost:ThecostofGSC,LSC,SSCandRSCtopologiesdependsonthevoltagelevels.Cabling
325V:Itisequaltothepeakoftheacphasevoltage.Standardsingle
sizeisdecidedbythecurrenttobecarried,whichinturndependsonthesystempower
phasepowersupplieswithdiodebridgeinputstagehavedclinkvoltageof
andvoltagelevel.Convertersandcablingconstitutethesecondlargestshareinthe
325V.Hence,existingsuppliesarecompatiblewiththisdcvoltagelevel.
systemcost,aftertherenewablesources.Typically,converterandcablingcostsincrease
230V:Ithasthesamerootmeansquarevalueasthatoftheexistingac
withthereductioninvoltagelevel.Thislimitstheuseoflowdcvoltageforhighpower
system.Hence,theresistiveloads(mostlyheating)ratedtooperatewith
application.
theexistingacsystemneednotbemodified,ifthisvoltagelevelisused.
120V:Itisanintermediatelevelbetweenverylowvoltageandtheexisting
Safety: Verylowvoltage(lessthan50V)isconsideredsafeforhumansupto3secondsof
acsystemvoltage.
directcontact.However,evenforthisvoltagerange,groundingpracticeisnecessaryfor
48V:Itisusedinthetelecomsector,hencesupportingdevicesforthis
theprotectionofdevices/equipments.
voltagelevelareavailable.

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
Comparisonofdcandacsystemsforresidential application Comparisonofdcandacsystemsforcommercial application

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


Microgrid toMacrogrid interconnection Newmicrogrid distributiontopologiesinbuildings

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
DC24V Infrastructure
Thekeyapplicationareasfor EMerge Alliancedcstandardasimplementedforbuildinginteriors
standardizationofdcpowerusein
buildingsinclude: 24VDC 380VDC

Interiorsandoccupiedspaceswhere
lightingandcontrolloadsdominate
theneedfordcelectricity
Datacenters andtelecomcentral
officeswiththeirdcpowered
informationandcommunications
technology(ICT)equipment
Outdoor electricaluses,including
electricvehiclechargingandoutdoor
lightemittingdiode(LED)lighting
Buildingservices,utilities,andHVAC
withvariablespeeddrive(VSD)and 380VDC 24 &380VDC
electronicdcmotorized
equipment.

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids

EAsdcstandardsasimplementedinadatacenter
LightingandcontrolsonasolarpowereddcMicrogrid atUniversityof
CaliforniaSanDiego.

(Source:ArmstrongWorldIndustries)

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
DCMicrogrid atXiamenUniversity,China
Barriers:TheChallengesofIncreasedDCUseinBuildings
150 kWp PV
System
Theuseofdcpowerisnotwithoutitchallenges.Thesefallinto5majorcategories: DC Lighting
1)lackofapplicationandequipmentstandardsfordcpowerdistribution Energy Storage
2)lackofcommonunderstandingandbasicapplicationknowledgeofbuildingdistribution Air Conditioning
Electric Vehicle
leveldc Charge Station
3)differencesinsafetyandpowerprotectiondeviceapplication Data Center
4)lackofarobustecosystemtosupporttheuseofdcinbuildinglevelelectrification Home
And Office
5)unclearpathwayformovingfromaccentricpowerdistributiontodcinclusivedistribution Appliances
schemes.
Cloudbased energy monitor,
Thefirst3challengesarebeingaddressedwithincreasingresourcesbysuchstandardsand management, and control system
Optimal equipment choice and
tradeorganizationsas: operation of directcurrent
MicroGrids
EA,theEuropeanTelecommunicationsStandardsInstitute(ETSI),theInternational EfficiencyComparison:
DCvs.AC
Electrotechnical Commission(IEC),IEEE,NEMA,NFPA,thePowerSourcesManufacturers Lighting:92%vs.78%
Association(PSMA),theSmartGridInteroperabilityPanel(SGIP)oftheNationalInstituteof AC:93%vs.87%
StandardsandTechnology(NIST),UL,andothers. DataCenter:78%vs.64%
EVCharger:94%vs.76%

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


DCBuilding(EPARC,Taiwan)DC380V
DCBuilding(EPARC,Taiwan)DC380V
150 kWp PV
System
DC Lighting
Energy Storage
Air Conditioning
Electric Vehicle
Charge Station
Data Center
Home
And Office
Appliances

Cloudbased energy monitor,


management, and control system
Optimal equipment choice and
operation of directcurrent
microgrids
EfficiencyComparison:
DCvs.AC
Lighting:92%vs.78%
AC:93%vs.87%
DataCenter:78%vs.64%
EVCharger:94%vs.76%

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
GreenHome(Korea)DC380V FukuokaSmartHouseDC380V(Japan)

LVDC380V
HomeEnergyManagementSystems
MVDistributionlevel22.9kV BidirectionalMeters

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


DCmicrorids fordatacenters &servers DCmicrorids fordatacenters &servers
Supplyingdigitalloads.Aclassicalsolution:

Dataserver
PDU .PowerDistributionUnit.
Fourpowerconversionscanresultinapoorefficiencyofthesystem PSU .PowerSupply Unit
OnlineUPSsystemiseasilyavailableinthemarket

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
TypicalUPSsystemfordatacenter Differenttypesofcentralizedpowersupplysystemwithbatterybackup

380VDCdistributionbusatfacility

Centralizedsupplysystem (b)Multilocation*centralizedsupplysystem
*theDC/DCconverterswerephysicallylocatedindifferentplaces,thusrequiringsafety
IftoreplaceACuninterruptabledistributionpowerlineatfacilitylevelbytheDCline,asitisshownlater,morethan7% shieldingbecauseofthepresenceofthehighvoltage bus.
overallefficiencyimprovementand10%to30%savingincostofoperationcanbeachieved.
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


Exampleofdistributedpowerarchitecture TypicalACdistributionarchitecture
(dottedcomponentsareoptional)

IBC

CommercialUPSsystemsolution
PIBC TwoACbuses(ACmain&criticalACbus)
PBUS PPOL Highnumberofconversions(until5)
Source:LeonardoEnergy
Source:Intechopen

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
TypicalDCdistributionarchitecture DCdistributionarchitecturewithintermediatebus

Frontendsareused
HighvoltageDCbus
Lownumberofconversions Intermediatelowvoltagebus
Source:LeonardoEnergy Source:LeonardoEnergy

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


IntelDCmicrogrids forservers IntelDCmicrogrids forservers
Conventional480VacdistributionintheUnitedStates
Specialized(Deltaconversion)ACUPS;withtransformerinPDUinUS(480Vacinput)
andwithouttransformerinEurope(400Vacinput)

400Vac:ConventionalinEuropewith400Vacinput;proposedforUSwith480Vacinput

RacklevelDC

OnlineUPSsystem

SeriesparallelUPSsystem
APratt,etal.Evaluationof400VDCDistributioninTelcoandDataCenters toImproveEnergyEfficiency

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
IntelDCmicrogrids forservers IntelDCmicrogrids forservers

Facilitylevel48Vdc
Facilitylevel400Vdc

Facilitylevel550V/48VDC

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


Frontends
DC ACDemonstrationFacility
IsolatedDCoutputUPSwithwiderangeoutput

NonisolatedDCoutputUPSwithsplitbusandnarrowrangeoutput

SmallscaledemonstrationcomparingconventionalahighefficiencyACarchitecture (on
right)with380VDCfacilityleveldistribution (onleft).
Overheadlightsoperatedon380Vdcaswell.

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
SendaiMicrogrid Project
DC ACDemonstrationFacility

SmallscaledemonstrationsetupforAC(top)andDC(bottom)
7%improvedefficiencyand6%savingswithDC

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


SendaiMicrogrid Project SendaiMicrogrid Project

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
SendaiMicrogrid Project SendaiMicrogrid Project

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


SendaiMicrogrid Project SendaiMicrogrid Project

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
SendaiMicrogrid Project SendaiMicrogrid Project

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


SendaiMicrogrid Project SendaiMicrogrid Project

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
SendaiMicrogrid Project Fukushima

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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


Fukushima SendaiMicrogrid Project
Eventstimelineforamicrogrid inSendai,Japan,aftertheMarch11,2011earthquake.

K.Hirose,PerformanceoftheSendaiMicrogrid Duringthe2011EarthquakeandTsunami
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
JapanresidentialDCmicrogrid
DCMicrogrid Ring(Japan)

Kakigano,H.;Miura,Y.;Ise,T.;,"LowVoltageBipolarTypeDCMicrogrid forSuperHighQuality
Distribution,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson,vol.25,no.12,pp.30663075,Dec.2010
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


Comercial DCMicrogrid Comercial DCmicrogrid
REbus isanopenstandardforDCelectricitydistribution. PrimarySourceUnits(PSU)

REbusmicrogrid isaflexibleenergynetworkthatletsyoumakeanduseclean
renewableenergyforhome,business,school,orneighbourhood.(400V)

LoadUnits(LU)
Powerline Communication
RobustnarrowbandFSKmodulation
Programmabletransmissiondatarateupto30kbps
Programmablecommunicationfrequencyfrom
50kHzto500kHz
CompleteMediaAccessControl(MAC)logic
CSMA/CDtypecollisiondetectionandresolution
Programmableautomaticpreamblegeneration
Programmableautomaticpacketpriority
managementwithfourlevels
Errordetection(CRC16) REbus
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
Residencial DCmicrogrid ConfigurationsofPVgenerationsystems

PVMicrogrid configuration

KaiSun;LiZhang;YanXing;Guerrero,J.M.;,"ADistributedControlStrategyBasedonDCBusSignaling forModular
PhotovoltaicGenerationSystemsWithBatteryEnergyStorage,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson,vol.26,no.10,
pp.30323045,Oct.2011
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids


PVmicrogrid operation PVmicrogrid operation

ModeI ModeII

ModeIII ModeIV
KaiSun;LiZhang;YanXing;Guerrero,J.M.;,"ADistributedControlStrategyBasedonDCBusSignaling forModularPhotovoltaic KaiSun;LiZhang;YanXing;Guerrero,J.M.;,"ADistributedControlStrategyBasedonDCBusSignaling forModular
GenerationSystemsWithBatteryEnergyStorage,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson,vol.26,no.10,pp.30323045,Oct.2011 PhotovoltaicGenerationSystemsWithBatteryEnergyStorage,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson,Oct.2011
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DC Distribution Microgrids DC Distribution Microgrids
Conclusions References
[1] Kojima, Y. Koshio, M. Nakamura, S. Maejima, H. Fujioka, Y. Goda, T.A,
DCmicrogrids aregainingpopularityinresidential Demonstration Project in Hachinohe: Microgrid with Private Distribution Line,
System of Systems Engineering, 2007. SoSE '07. IEEE International Conference
applications. on, April 2007, page(s): 16.
DCmicrogrids areagoodsolutionforautonomous [2] Barnes, M. Kondoh, J. Asano, H. Oyarzabal, J. Ventakaramanan, G. Lasseter, R.
Hatziargyriou, N. Green, T. RealWorld MicroGrids: An Overview, System of Systems
systemswhentryingtocombine:PVsystemswith Engineering, 2007. SoSE '07. IEEE International Conference on, 1618 April 2007,
batteries. page(s): 18.
[3] S.Morozumi, "Technology Development For GridConnection Issues", International
DCmicrogrids cannaturallyinterface: Telecommunications Energy Conference, Renewable Energy 2006, Chiba, Japan, Oct. 2006
o DCsources:PV,fuelcells. [4] Morozumi, "Overview of Microgrid Research and Perspektive", 2005 Yearly Report of the
Institute for Solar Development Activities in Japan", International Energy Technology,
o DCstorage:supercapacitors,batteries. Kassel, Germany. Symposium on Microgrids, Montreal, June 2006.
o DCloads:LEDs,electronicloads. [5] J.M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, et Al., Hierarchical Control of DroopControlled DC and AC
Microgrids A General Approach Towards Standardization, IEEE Transactions
Ingeneral,DCmicrogrids aremoreefficientthanAC on Industrial Electronics, 2011
microgrids. [6] Kai Sun; Li Zhang; Yan Xing; Guerrero, J.M.; , "A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC
Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy
Storage," Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, Oct. 2011

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Outline

Feedbacklinearizationcontrol
Onecycle control
Buckconverter
Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers
Control of Power Converters for DC Halfbridgecurrentdoublerrectifier
Microgrids Conclusions
References
JosepM.Guerrero,Professor
DepartmentofEnergyTechnology
joz@et.aau.dk
http://www.et.aau.dk
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 1 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 2

Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Feedbacklinearizationcontrol Feedbacklinearizationcontrol

Openloop
dynamics
m(x):nonlinearterm

Controlsynthesis
Systemdynamics Relativedegree

Closedloopdynamics

Relativedegreer isthenumberoftimesthatyoucanderivatetheoutput
functiony untilthecontrolvariableu appears

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Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Feedbacklinearizationcontrol Feedbacklinearizationcontrol
Example:Buckconverter
Regulationcontrolobjective

Openloopdynamics: Equivalentcircuit Bilinearmodel

Generalizedcontrolsynthesis

Openloopdynamics

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Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Feedbacklinearizationcontrol Feedbacklinearizationcontrol
Averageopenloopoutputvoltagedynamics
Controllerwithintegrator

Closedloopdynamics
Controlsynthesis

Closedloopdynamics

Nosteadystateerror,sincenolosseshasbeenconsidered
Nonlinearcontrol

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 7 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 8


Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Feedbacklinearizationcontrol Feedbacklinearizationcontrol
Onecyclecontrol aparticularcase
Averagingfilter

Closedloopdynamics

Withacutoff frequencyhigherenoughthedynamicsarebarelyaffected

ControlArtofSwitchingConverters,Keyue MaSmedley,1991,PhDThesis
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 9 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 10

Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
One Cycle Control Onecyclecontrol

Closedloopdynamics

Steadystateoutputvoltage

Dynamicstakingintoaccountlosses:

Thecontrollercannotavoidthesteadystateerror
ControlArtofSwitchingConverters,Keyue MaSmedley,1991,PhDThesis
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 11 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 12
Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Onecyclecontrol Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers
OCCwithfeedbacklinearizationcontrol

Complementarycontrol Simmetrical control

Poleplacementandsteadystateerrorelimination

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 13 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 14

Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers

Bilinearmodel Steadystate

Regulationcurve EquivalentCircuit

L.GarciadeVicuna,J.M.Guerrero,J.Matas,M.Castilla,J.Miret,Simplenonlinearcontrollertoreducelineandload
disturbancesinHBCCconverter,ElectronicsLettersVolume:38,Issue:25,2002,pp.17511752.

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 15 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 16


Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers
Openloopoutputvoltagedynamics Zerodynamics

Relativedegree(2)islowerthatthesystemdynamics(4) system
partlylinearized:
Internaldynamics(nonlinearized)
Externaldynamics(linearized)
Controlsynthesis

Closedloopdynamics(externaldynamics)

L.GarciadeVicuna,J.M.Guerrero,J.Matas,M.Castilla,J.Miret,Simplenonlinearcontrollertoreducelineandload Smallsignaldynamicstostudytheinternaldynamics
disturbancesinHBCCconverter,ElectronicsLettersVolume:38,Issue:25,2002,pp.17511752.

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 17 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 18

Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers
Addinganintegralterm orderofthesystemsincreasesinone Eigenvaluesanalysis:
newstatevariable:
Smallsignal5th orderdynamics

Systemisstableif E>2Vc2 0<u<0.5

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 19 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogrids Course,AalborgUniversity 20


Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers
Closedloopeigenvaluesanalysis: Controlimplementation

Coincideswiththeimposedexternaldynamics

Robustnessconditions Externaldynamicstabilitycondition
(Routh)

Variablefrequencysolution

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 21 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 22

Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers Halfbridgewithsynchronousrectifiers
Oncecyclecontrol
LargesignalmodelVs switchingmodel

Largesignaldynamicsimposed.Internalandexternaldynamicsstability
guaranteed.

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 23 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 24


Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier

Largesignalnonlinearmodel Steadystate

Equivalentcircuit

Parabolicregulationcurve

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 25 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 26

Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier
ParabolicRegulationCurve
Outputvoltageopenloopdynamics

Regulationlimit

Inductorsdesign

Controllersynthesis

Outputvoltageclosedloopdynamics

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 27 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 28


Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier
Variablefrequencyimplementation
Controllerexpression

Physicalexplanation

Steadystatecurrentcondition
Sensingofbothvoltagerectifiers

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 29 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 30

Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier
Controllerexpression

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 31 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 32


Control of Power Converters for DCMG Control of Power Converters for DCMG
Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier Halfbridgewithdoublecurrentrectifier

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 33 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 34

Control of Power Converters for DCMG DC Distribution Microgrids


Conclusions References
[1] L Garcia de Vicuna, JM Guerrero, J Matas, M Castilla, J Miret, Simple nonlinear
controller to reduce line and load disturbances in HBCC converter Electronics
Letters 38 (25), 17511752
[2] JM Guerrero, LG de Vicua, J Miret, J Matas, M Castilla, A Nonlinear Feed
forward Control for the HalfBridge Converter with CurrentDoubler Rectifier
IEEE IECON 2003.
[3] J Matas, LG de Vicuna, JM Guerrero, J Miret, M Castilla, Nonlinear control of a
paralleled halfbridge complementarycontrol converter system with a single
wire current sharing Industrial Electronics Society, 2003. IECON'03.
[4] JM Guerrero, LG de Vicuna, J Matas, J Cruz, J Miret, Parallel operation of half
bridge converters with currentdoubler rectifier using feedback linearization
control, Industrial Electronics, 2004 IEEE International Symposium on 2, 1159
1164
[5] JM Guerrero, LG de Vicuna, N Berbel, J Sosa, M Castilla, Simple feedback
linearizing controller to reduce audiosusceptibility and load disturbance in the
fullbridge current doubler synchronous rectifier, Applied Power Electronics
Conference and Exposition, 2005

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 35 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 36


Outline

Parallelcontrolschemes
Centralizedcontrol
Masterslavecontrol
Averagedcontrol
Droopcontrol
Parallel Control Schemes for DC
Virtualimpedance
Microgrids
Adaptivevoltagepositioning(AVP)
JosepM.Guerrero,Professor Conclusions
DepartmentofEnergyTechnology References
joz@et.aau.dk
http://www.et.aau.dk
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 1 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 2

Parallel control schemes for DCMG Parallel control schemes for DCMG
Classification:
Droopmethods:outputvoltagedroopswhenloadincreases. 1)Activeloadsharingcontrollers
Activeloadsharingmethods:combineacontrolmodewithaprocessing A.Controlstructures
currentloaderrorscheme. InnerCSloop
OuterCSloop
Externalcontroller

B.Balancingcurrentschemes
Methodsofaveragecurrentsharing
Masterslavemethods

2)Droopmethods
Advantages:
Easytoimplementandexpandtheparalleledsystem
Dontneedanyinterconnectionbetweenthecontrollers
Highmodularityandreliability

Maindisadvantage:
Tradeoffbetweenregulationandloadsharing

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 3 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 4


Parallel control schemes for DCMG Parallel control schemes for DCMG
ActiveLoadsharingcontrollers ActiveLoadsharingcontrollers

1.InnerCSloops 2.OuterCSloop
Theinnercurrentsharingloops. Useerrorcurrentsignalstoadjustthevoltagereference
Voltageloopscanbecommonordistributed.
InCMCtheloadsharingisdonebygivingeachcontrollerthereferencecurrent. Advantages:
Goodmodularityandstandardizationforproduction
Advantages: Flexibilityinthesystemconfiguration,easytoexpandandtomaintain.
Stableoutputcurrentsharing Excellentfaulttolerantincaseofasinglemodulefailure
Tightoutputvoltageregulation
Limitations:
Limitations: Possibleinstabilitiesduring
Degradesystemmodularity: thetransient
Controlasymmetry Problemswithparametric
Poorfaulttolerance: differencebetweenmodules:
Centralizedvoltageregulator pureintegratorsmustbeavoided.

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 5 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 6

Parallel control schemes for DCMG Parallel control schemes for DCMG

4.OuterControlLoop
3.Externalcontroller
Distributeloadcurrentsharingsignalstothecontrollers
Anexternalcontrollercompareallthesignalsofthecommonloadwiththe
modulessignals

Advantages:
Easytoimplementactivemethodsofinterleaving
Goodcurrentsharingandoutputvoltageregulation
Easytoimplementfaultmonitors

Disadvantages:
Moreinterconnectionsbetween
themodulesandtheexternal
controllerdegradereliability
Modularitydegradation

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 7 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 8


Parallel control schemes for DCMG Parallel control schemes for DCMG
5.Averagemethods

Everymodulegeneratesignalproportionaltoitsaverageoutput
currenttogeneratethecurrentsharingreferenceaIref.

1=...=n=1

Wi(s):gainproportionaltothenominalcurrentofthemodulei.

M(s)(iref io)usedtoadjustoutputvoltage.

Intersil HIP6301controlIC

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 9 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 10

Parallel control schemes for DCMG Parallel control schemes for DCMG
6.Masterslavemethods
ClassificationaccordingtotheMasterrole:
Advantages:
DedicatedMaster.
Currentsharingsignalsstablesandprecise RotateMaster
AutomaticMaster(democratic)
Oneinterconnection:loadsharingbus

Noiseimmunity RotateMaster
Improvesystemreliability:everymoduleisabletobethemaster,accordingto
Disadvantages:
aspecificlogiccontrol
Reliabilitynotveryhigh in
Disadvantage:Thevoltagecanfluctuateduetothecontinuouschangeof
Poorfaulttolerance
master
Practical:Complicateimplementation.

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 11 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 12


Parallel control schemes for DCMG Parallel control schemes for DCMG
Automaticmaster
1,2,,nareconnectedtoanidealdiode
Thisschemeautomaticallyselectsasamasterthemodulewithmoreoutput
current.Similarthanaveragemethod,butsubstitutingRbyD.
Unitrode UC3907&UC3902

Advantages:
Onlyonewireinterconnection
Goodfaulttolerance(automaticdisconnection)
Easytoexpandandmodifytheparallelsystem

Limitations:
Poortransientcurrentsharing.Needforsoftstart
Possiblefaultinthesharingcontrol
Noisesensitivity.UC3907givessmalloffsettomaster
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 13 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 14

Droop control and Virtual Impedance Droop control and Virtual Impedance
Droopcontrol DroopcontrolinDC
Parallelconnectedvoltagesources
Seriesconnected(stacked)currentsources Equivalentcircuit Droopcontrol staticperformances
V V
R1 R2 V1 V1
I1 I2 V2 V2
Vp
V1 V2
Vp Vp

i2 i1 I is i2 i1 I
a) b)
V1 V2
V V
V1
I1 I2
V2 V1
Is V2
c) is i2 i1 I d) is i2 i1 I
Currentsharingvs virtualimpedance
OutputPlaneAnalysisofLoadSharinginMultipleModuleConverter Systems andvoltagesettingerrors
JohnS.GlaserandArthurF.Witulski
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 15 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 16
Droop control and Virtual Impedance Droop control and Virtual Impedance
DroopcontrolinDC DroopcontrolinDC
Virtualimpedance
Currentforeachconverterj

Consideringequalvirtualresistancesandvoltagesettings

Consideringvoltagesettingerror

Voltagedeviation
Maxcurrenterror

Currentforeachconverterj

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 17 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 18

Droop control and Virtual Impedance Droop control and Virtual Impedance
DroopcontrolinDC

ForN=2converters

Outputvoltage

Currentdeviation

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 19 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 20


Droop control and Virtual Impedance Droop control and Virtual Impedance
Adaptivevoltagepositioning AVP Load transient response for different closed-loop output
impedance profiles
Waysofimplementation
a)Nonresistiveimpedance

b)Resistiveimpedance

CalculateVc =f(Vdroop,Vo)
c)Quasiresistiveimpedance

M.Lee,Modeling andDesignforaNovelAdaptive Castilla,M.;Guerrero,J.M.;Matas,J.;Miret,J.;Sosa,J.;,"Comparativestudyofhystereticcontrollersfor


VoltagePositioning(AVP)SchemeforMultiphaseVRMs singlephasevoltageregulators,"PowerElectronics,IET,vol.1,no.1,pp.132143,March2008
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 21 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 22

Droop control and Virtual Impedance Droop control and Virtual Impedance
Generalized block diagram of the hysteretic regulator

(a)Powerstagecircuit.Synchronousbuckconverter.

(b)Controlconfiguration.

Castilla,M.;Guerrero,J.M.;Matas,J.;Miret,J.;Sosa,J.;,"Comparativestudyofhystereticcontrollersfor Castilla,M.;Guerrero,J.M.;Matas,J.;Miret,J.;Sosa,J.;,"Comparativestudyofhystereticcontrollersfor
singlephasevoltageregulators,"PowerElectronics,IET,vol.1,no.1,pp.132143,March2008 singlephasevoltageregulators,"PowerElectronics,IET,vol.1,no.1,pp.132143,March2008
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 23 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 24
Droop control and Virtual Impedance Droop control and Virtual Impedance

Thevenin equivalentcircuit Outputimpedancedesign

AVPdesign

Voltageatnoload

Castilla,M.;Guerrero,J.M.;Matas,J.;Miret,J.;Sosa,J.;,"Comparativestudyofhystereticcontrollersfor Castilla,M.;Guerrero,J.M.;Matas,J.;Miret,J.;Sosa,J.;,"Comparativestudyofhystereticcontrollersfor
singlephasevoltageregulators,"PowerElectronics,IET,vol.1,no.1,pp.132143,March2008 singlephasevoltageregulators,"PowerElectronics,IET,vol.1,no.1,pp.132143,March2008
11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 25 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 26

Droop control and Virtual Impedance Droop control and Virtual Impedance

Adaptive voltage positioning Conclusions

ParallelcontrolschemescanbeusedandcombinedinDC
microgrids:
o Master/slave Unitrode approach
o Averagecurrentsharing Intersil approach
o Droopcontrol

DroopcontrolhavebeendevelopedforDC/DCconverters.
DroopcontrolandvirtualimpedancearesimilarconceptsinDC.
Inlowvoltage/highcurrentapplicationsforVRM/POLconverters
itiscalledAVP:adaptivevoltagepositioning.
Droopcontrolcanbedesignedtomaketheclosedloop
impedancetobepureresistiveinordertohavebestdynamics.

AdditionalAVPcontrolloop

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 27 11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 28


References
[1] Guerrero,J.M.;Vasquez,J.C.;Matas,J.;deVicuna,L.G.;Castilla,M.;,"HierarchicalControlofDroopControlledAC
andDCMicrogridsAGeneralApproachTowardStandardization,"IndustrialElectronics,IEEETransactionson,
vol.58,no.1,pp.158172,Jan.2011doi:10.1109/TIE.2010.2066534URL:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5546958&isnumber=5662271
[2] XiaonanLu;Guerrero,J.;Teodorescu,R.;Kerekes,T.;KaiSun;Lipei Huang;,"Controlofparallelconnected
bidirectionalACDCconvertersinstationaryframeformicrogrid application,"EnergyConversionCongressand
Exposition(ECCE),2011IEEE,vol.,no.,pp.41534160,1722Sept.2011doi:10.1109/ECCE.2011.6064335URL:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6064335&isnumber=6063732
[3] KaiSun;LiZhang;YanXing;Guerrero,J.M.;,"ADistributedControlStrategyBasedonDCBusSignaling forModular
PhotovoltaicGenerationSystemsWithBatteryEnergyStorage,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson,vol.26,
no.10,pp.30323045,Oct.2011doi:10.1109/TPEL.2011.2127488URL:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5730500&isnumber=6030134
[4] XiaonanLu;KaiSun;Guerrero,J.M.;Vasquez,J.C.;Lipei Huang;Teodorescu,R.;,"SoCbaseddroopmethodfor
distributedenergystorageinDCmicrogrid applications,"Industrial Electronics(ISIE),2012IEEEInternational
Symposiumon,vol.,no.,pp.16401645,2831May2012doi:10.1109/ISIE.2012.6237336URL:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6237336&isnumber=6237048
[5] Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.;Guerrero,J.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson,vol.PP,no.99,pp.1,0
doi:10.1109/TPEL.2012.2215055URL:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6287047&isnumber=4359240
[6] Guerrero,J.;Chandorkar,M.;Lee,T.;Loh,P.;,"AdvancedControlArchitecturesforIntelligentMicrogrids PartII:
PowerQuality,EnergyStorage,andAC/DCMicroGrids,"IndustrialElectronics,IEEETransactionson,vol.PP,no.99,
pp.1,0doi:10.1109/TIE.2012.2196889URL:
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6191321&isnumber=4387790

11Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 29
Outline

Motivation
ACvs.DCCollector Grid
DCcollector grid topologies
DCDCconverters
References
DCCollector GridforOffshoreWind
PowerPlants
Sanjay K Chaudhary, Associate Prof
Department of Energy Technology
skc@et.aau.dk
http://www.et.aau.dk
13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 1 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 2

Offshore Wind Power Plant Typical offshore wind power plant layout
1
GSC
LCL
Filter
CB & CT
MV feeder #1
Twoacdcconversionstages
Chopper

36 kV Coll.
Resistor

WTG#1
Bus#1
150 kV Coll
Bus #1
Threetransformerstages!
GSC
MV feeder #2

3
WTG#2
4
36 kV Coll.
Bus#2
HV
feeder #1
B1 150 kV

B2
HV
feeder #2
GSC MV feeder #3 36 kV Coll.
Bus#3
150 kV Coll
Bus #2
WTG#3

GSC MV feeder #4 A4

Feeder circuit breaker (CB)


WTG#4
o/c relay current transformer (CT)

33kV Coll. Bus#4


400MW offshore WPP

OFFSHORE ONSHORE
5 2 Verylongmediumvoltageaccablenetwork
Vg 400 kV

170 kV kV, 1400A, 200km DC Cable


170 kV
Vf2

Xph1 Xph2 Xt2 P+ jQ CableXsection Length Diameter Weight


Vc2
Vc1

Vdc2
Vdc1

150 kV
VSC1 VSC2 150mm2 54km 9.2cm 16kg/m
Anholt Windpowerplantlayout
VSC based HVDC Transmission 240mm2 28km 10.1cm 20kg/m

500mm2 69km 12.1cm 32kg/m http://www.dongenergy.com/

13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 3 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 4


WPP with dc collector grid Ac vs, DC Power Equations
1 2or3dcdcconversion
Dc/dc MVdc feeder #1 2 stagesfordctransformer
HV Coll Bus
WTG#1 Dc/dc
#1
actiondependingupon
Dc/dc MVdc feeder #2
gridlayoutdesign.
HV
feeder #1
WTG#2

HV
Dc/dc feeder #2
MVdc feeder #3

HV Coll Bus
WTG#3 Dc/dc #2

Dc/dc MVdc feeder #4 3


cos 2
WTG#4 2
800MW offshore WPP

Assumingsamerms currents,i.e. ,peaklinetogroundvoltages,


OFFSHORE ONSHORE

kV, 1300A, 100 km HVDC Cable andpowerfactor,cos 0.94,theacpowercarriedbythethree


3
Xph2 Xt2 P+ jQ
corecableisequivalenttothedcpowercarriedbythetwocorecable.
3 , 3
cos 1 _
ACtransformersaremore VSC1 VSC2
2 2 , 2
efficientthandcdc VSC based HVDC Transmission
Powerlossesinaccablesareover50%higherthanthatindcforthesamerms current.
converters!
Moreover,acresistanceishigherthandcresistanceduetoscreenandproximityeffects.
13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 5 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 6

Ac- vs. DC Collector Grid DC collector grid

DC System:
DC system is free from reactive power management issues.
Reactive power management is moved to the connection point with the
ac system.
Cable capacitance charging current:
AC cable reduces the active power rating, thus, longer distances cannot
be covered by AC cables.
DC transmission is not affected by cable charging current, so that VAR
compensators are not required.
Fewer Cables
Fewer cable are required for DC system
DC resistance is lower than ac resistance
Medium frequency transformer SABhaspoortransformerutilization!
Heavy line frequency transformer is replaced with medium-voltage high-
frequency DC/DC converters DCDCCollectorgridwithsingleactivebridge(SAB)DCDCconverter
Redcued footprint size and weight. Ref.[6]C.Meyer,M.Hoing,A.Peterson,andR.W.DeDoncker,ControlandDesignofDCGridsforOffshoreWindFarms,IEEETrans.Ind.Appl.,vol.43,no.
6,pp.14751482,2007.

13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 7 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 8


DC Collector Grid Topologies DC-DC Converter Topologies

WTGdcoutputconvertedto
MVdc,andthenthecollected AC transformers allow the voltage to be stepped up for
powerisconvertedtoHVdc. transmission and stepped down for distribution and
consumption.
Technically dc transformer is impossible. Dc-dc converters can
WTGdcoutputdirectly provide such a functionality.
collectedandconvertedto
HVdc. Isolated Topologies
Single Active Bridge
Double Active Bridge
Resonant converters (series and parallel)
Non-isolated Topologies
LCL dc-dc converter

WTGdcoutputdirectly
collectedandconvertedto
HVdc.
Ref.[2]F.Deng,DesignandControlofADCGridforOffshoreWindFarms,PhDThesis,AAU2012.

13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 9 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 10

DC-DC Converter: Active Bridge Series connection of DAB dcdc converters

Inputsideinparallelconnection
Transformerwithunityturnsratio,toprovideisolation
SingleactiveBridge
OutputsideinseriesconnectiontoreachMVlevels.

DoubleactiveBridge

V 2
0
3 2 3

Seriesconnectionofthedc/dcconverterstoobtaintheMVdclevel
[12]
13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 11 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 12
Resonant dc-dc converter Non-isolated LCL resonant dc-dcconverter

Fundamentalfrequencyrms
lineneutralacvoltageare:
4
2 sin 1
2
4
Seies resonantconverter 2 sin 1
2 Twophasedc/dcconvertertopology
Seriesresonantcircuitbetweenthecapacitorandtheleakageinductance
GCTbasedinverter,withsoftswitching ThecurrentsintheLCL
Mediumfrequencytransformerwithamorphousmetalalloycore circuitarerelatedby,
Bydefaultunidirectionalpowerflow;
Over99%efficiencyisclaimedat1kHzswitchingfrequency.

Thyristors andanauxiliaryswitch
areaddedtoallowsomereverse
powerflow capability. 1.8%lossisclaimedfor100MW,40
kV/600kV,LCLresonantconverter.

[11] [2]
13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 13 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 14

Switched capacitor based resonant converter DC Grid Simulation model in PSCAD

Modularresonantswitched
capacitor(RSC) Cell:
6

ahighefficiency
NonisolatedRSCstepup
converter Thedynamicsofthe
softswitchingforallswitches dcgridcanbestudied
anddiodes throughsimulationin
Nomagneticcomponent PSCAD/EMTDCor
Modularstructure PLECS.

[3,5]
13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 15 13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 16
Summary References

1) F.Deng,DesignandControlofADCGridforOffshoreWindFarms,PhDThesis,AAU2012.
2) D.Jovcic andL.Zhang,LCLDC/DCConverterforDCGrids,IEEETrans.PowerDeliv.,vol.28,no.4,pp.20712079,Oct.2013.
A good deal of research is focussed on developing DC collector 3) A.Parastar andJ.K.Seok,HighGainResonantSwitchedCapacitorCellBasedDC/DCConverterforOffshoreWindEnergy
Systems,IEEETrans.PowerElectron.,vol.8993,no.c,pp.11,2014.
grid for wind power plants. 4) S.Kenzelmann,Modular DC/DCConverter forDCDistributionandCollectionNetworksPAR,colePolytechniqueFdrale
deLausanne(EPFL),2012.
Savings in cables transformer costs are significant for offshore 5) W.Chen,A.Q.Huang,C.Li,G.Wang,andW.Gu,AnalysisandComparisonofMediumVoltageHighPowerDC/DCConverters
forOffshoreWindEnergySystems,IEEETrans.PowerElectron.,vol.28,no.4,pp.20142023,Apr.2013.
wind power applications. 6) C.Meyer,M.Hoing,A.Peterson,andR.W.DeDoncker,ControlandDesignofDCGridsforOffshoreWindFarms,IEEETrans.
Ind.Appl.,vol.43,no.6,pp.14751482,2007.
Various configurations of dc-dc converters and dc grid layout 7) N.Holtsmark,H.J.Bahirat,M.Molinas,B.A.Mork,andH.K.Hoidalen,AnAllDCOffshoreWindFarmWithSeriesConnected
Turbines:AnAlternativetotheClassicalParallelACModel?,IEEETrans.Ind.Electron.,vol.60,no.6,pp.24202428,Jun.
have been proposed. 2013.
8) D.M.Larruskain,I.Zamora,O.Abarrategui,andZ.Aginako,ConversionofACdistributionlinesintoDClinestoupgrade
Medium frequency transformer design has been proposed to transmissioncapacity,Electr.PowerSyst.Res.,vol.81,no.7,pp.13411348,Jul.2011.
9) C.S.Schifreen andW.C.Marble,ChargingCurrentLimitationsinOperationorHighVoltageCableLines[includes
reduce the transformer weight. discussion],Trans.Am.Inst.Electr.Eng.PartIIIPowerAppar.Syst.,vol.75,no.3,Jan.1956.
10) M.Stieneker,B.J.Mortimer,N.R.Averous,H.Stagge,andR.W.DeDoncker,OptimumdesignofmediumvoltageDC
DC collector grid design is a hot topic for research and collectorgridsdependingontheoffshorewindparkpower,in2014IEEESymposiumonPowerElectronicsandMachinesfor
WindandWaterApplications,2014.
development! 11) C.MeyerandR.W.DeDoncker,DesignofaThreePhaseSeriesResonantConverterforOffshoreDCGrids,2007IEEEInd.
Appl.Annu.Meet.,pp.216223,Sep.2007.
12) M.Stieneker,J.Riedel,N.Soltau,H.Stagge,andR.W.DeDoncker,Designofseriesconnecteddualactivebridgesfor
integrationofwindparkclusterintoMVDCgrids,EPE2014.
13) N.Denniston,A.M.Massoud,S.Ahmed,andP.N.Enjeti,MultipleModuleHighGainHighVoltageDCDCTransformersfor
OffshoreWindEnergySystems,IEEETrans.Ind.Electron.,vol.58,no.5,pp.18771886,May2011.

13Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 17 24Apr15 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 18


Outline

Voltagedroop:Primary control
Secondary control
Secondary controlforDCmicrogrids
TertiarycontrolforDCmicrogrids
ClustersofDCMicrogrids
Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids Conclusions
References
JosepM.Guerrero,Professor
DepartmentofEnergyTechnology
joz@et.aau.dk
http://www.et.aau.dk
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 1 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 2

Hierarchical control of DC microgrids Hierarchical control of DC microgrids


Genericdcmicrogrid Conceptionofdcmicrogrids

Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900
1913,April2013 H. El Fadil, F. Giri, Josep M. Guerrero, Adaptive sliding mode control of interleaved parallel boost converter for fuel cell energy generation system,
Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Available online 7 August 2012, ISSN 0378-4754, 10.1016/j.matcom.2012.07.011.

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 3 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 4


Hierarchical control strategy Design of control loops

Other Control layers are separated with bandwidths


Microgrid Speed of inner current control loop bounded by physical
equipment
Measurements Every other layer programmed to be an order of
magnitude slower

_ Primary
control Dgunits
References Secondary
+ control

LowBandwidthCommunications
Energy
Tertiary
Management
control
System(EMS)
Primary Dgunits
control

12Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 5 12Apr16 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 6

Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids


Droopcontrol
Gridconnectedconverters
MPPT(PVandWT)converters Droopcontrol
Energystorageconverters EnergyControlCenter(ECC)

Solarconverter
V [V ]
Converter rating

A
B
C

D
Actual
MPPT

0 I gA I gB I gC I gD Ig

FutureElectronicPowerDistributionSystems Acontemplative view FutureElectronicPowerDistributionSystems Acontemplative view


Dushan Boroyevich,IgorCvetkovi,Dong Dong,RolandoBurgos,Fei Wang,FredLee Dushan Boroyevich,IgorCvetkovi,Dong Dong,RolandoBurgos,Fei Wang,FredLee
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 7 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 8
Hierarchical control of DC microgrids Hierarchical control of DC microgrids
HierarchicalControlofdcMicrogrids Centralizedsecondarycontrol

Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900 VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900
1913,April2013 1913,April2013
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 9 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 10

Hierarchical control of DC microgrids Hierarchical control of DC microgrids


Independentcontrol Unequalloadsharingduetoerrorinnominalvoltagesoftwo
parallelconnecteddcconverters

Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900 Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
1913,April2013 VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900
1913,April2013
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 11 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 12
Hierarchical control of DC microgrids Hierarchical control of DC microgrids
Distributedsecondarycontrol Averagecurrentsharing

Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900
VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900
1913,April2013
1913,April2013
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 13 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 14

Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids


Distributedsecondarycontrol DistributedSecondaryControl

Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImprove
VoltageRegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.1900 Anand,S.;Fernandes,B.G.;Guerrero,J.M.;,"DistributedControltoEnsureProportionalLoadSharingandImproveVoltage
1913,April2013 RegulationinLowVoltageDCMicrogrids,"PowerElectronics,IEEETransactionson ,vol.28,no.4,pp.19001913,April2013

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 15 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 16


HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids
Droopcontrol.AdaptiveVoltagePositioning(AVP)

DCBusSignaling:ADistributedControlStrategyfor aHybrid Renewable Nanogrid


JohnSchnberger
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 17 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 18

HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids DroopcontrolforDCMGs
Droopcontrol
DCsignaling:usingDCvoltagemicrogrid
Regions:
ConstantVoltage Droopcontrol
ConstantPower
and
Average
Sharing

DCBusSignaling:ADistributedControlStrategyfor aHybrid Renewable


PracticaI DesignConsiderationsofCurrentSharingControlfor Parallel VRMApplications
Nanogrid JohnSchnberger Weihong Qiu,Zhixiang Liang,IntersilCorporation
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 19 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 20
DroopcontrolforDCMGs DroopcontrolforDCMGs
Droopcontrol Droopcontrol
Setpointserrorinfluence(duetosensorerrorsandpowermismatch)

Virtualimpedanceimplementation
io V * / Rdroop
Vo V * Rdroop io
Ohmslaw!

Vo V1 Rdroop io1
Vo V2 Rdroop io 2

Rdroop V * / io Virtualimpedanceinfluence io V * / Rdroop


for no load , io means io1 io / 2
and io 2 io / 2 0!

Forlightloads,highIo meansthatoneconvertercouldabsorberpower!

Analysis,Design,andPerformanceEvaluationofDroopCurrentSharingMethod
BrianT.IrvingandMilanM.JovanoviC,DeltaProducts Corporation Analysis,Design,andPerformanceEvaluationofDroopCurrentSharingMethod
BrianT.IrvingandMilanM.JovanoviC,DeltaProducts Corporation
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 21 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 22

SecondaryControlforMicrogrids TertiaryControlforMicrogrids

SecondarycontrolforDCmicrogrids TertiarycontrolforDCmicrogrids
Tertiary controlexpressionandimplementation
Primarycontrol Droopcontrol:
vo k p ' iG* iG ki ' iG* iG dt
vref vo
vo* vref vo RD io

vref
VoltageRestorer:

vo k p vMG
*
vMG ki vMG
*
vMG dt

InaDCmicrogrid,the voltage sources can use avirtualresistance.


Thevoltage reference canbereadjusted by the secondary control,avoiding voltage
deviations.Adeadband also canbeperformed. Before the DCMGisconnected tothe DCstiff grid,the secondary control
can make both voltages equal.
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 23 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 24
HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids
PrimaryControl SecondaryControl

Guerrero,J.M.;Vasquez,J.C.;Matas,J.;deVicuna,L.G.;Castilla,M.;,"HierarchicalControlofDroopControlledAC
andDCMicrogridsAGeneralApproachTowardStandardization,"IndustrialElectronics,IEEETransactionson,vol.58,
no.1,pp.158172,Jan.2011

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 25 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 26

HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids DroopcontrolforAC/DCMGs
Tertiarycontrol
Typical AC/DC hybrid microgrid system

Bidirectional power flow

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 27 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 28


DroopcontrolforAC/DCMGs DroopcontrolforAC/DCMGs
Modeling of Single-Phase Bridge
ModelingofaDCmicrogrid
i
i ua1 Lgrid Lconv iaconv1

udc ub1 Lgrid Lconv ibconv1


d vdc d i udc uN1
Lgrid Lconv icconv1
uc1
d a1udc d b1udc d c1udc d a1iaconv1 d b1ibconv1 d c1icconv1

Switching model of single-phase bridge C udc RL


C
Average model of single-phase bridge C
RL1 1 1 ua2 Lgrid Lconv iaconv2
L L L
1 1 1 Lgrid Lconv ibconv2
i1 RL1 i
1 1 v
1 d 1 uN2
ub2
i v d
d i1 L1
1
L1

L1
1 vdc Lgrid Lconv icconv2
uc2
dt i2 RL2 i2 1 v 1 d 2
d a2udc d b2udc d c2udc d a2iaconv2 d b2ibconv2 d c2icconv2
i2 L2 i2 L2 v L2 d2 C
RL2 1 1
C
L2 L2 L2 C
dvdc 1 i1 i2 vdc
([d 1 d1 ] [d 2 d2 ] ) Averagemodelofthreephaseparallel
dt C i1 i2 RC rectifiersinabcframe
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 29 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 30

Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids


AC/DCMicrogrid interfaces
AC/DCMicrogrid interfaces Rectifiermode

XiaonanLu;Guerrero,J.;Teodorescu,R.;Kerekes,T.;KaiSun;Lipei Huang;,"Controlofparallelconnectedbidirectional XiaonanLu;Guerrero,J.;Teodorescu,R.;Kerekes,T.;KaiSun;Lipei Huang;,"Controlofparallelconnectedbidirectional


ACDCconvertersinstationaryframeformicrogrid application,"EnergyConversionCongressandExposition(ECCE), ACDCconvertersinstationaryframeformicrogrid application,"EnergyConversionCongressandExposition(ECCE),
2011IEEE,vol.,no.,pp.41534160,1722Sept.2011 2011IEEE,vol.,no.,pp.41534160,1722Sept.2011

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 31 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 32


Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids
RootlocusofACcurrentcontroller
AC/DCMicrogrid interfaces Invertermode

RootlocusofDCvoltagecontroller

XiaonanLu;Guerrero,J.;Teodorescu,R.;Kerekes,T.;KaiSun;Lipei Huang;,"ControlofparallelconnectedbidirectionalACDCconvertersinstationary XiaonanLu;Guerrero,J.;Teodorescu,R.;Kerekes,T.;KaiSun;Lipei Huang;,"ControlofparallelconnectedbidirectionalACDCconvertersinstationary


frameformicrogrid application,"EnergyConversionCongressandExposition(ECCE),2011IEEE,vol.,no.,pp.41534160,1722Sept.2011 frameformicrogrid application,"EnergyConversionCongressandExposition(ECCE),2011IEEE,vol.,no.,pp.41534160,1722Sept.2011

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 33 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 34

Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids SecondaryControlforMicrogrids

RootlocusofACvoltagecontroller SecondarycontrolforDCmicrogrids

udc

udc V
+- PI
To Rectifier II

DC Voltage Secondary
Controller
Secondary Control Level

cos i1 HC

i1 -
+

udc udc PR udc


PWM
idc
Rd -+ ++ +- PI
i1 +
PR -abc Generator
-
DC Droop DC Voltage sin i1 HC
Controller Controller
Current Ref. AC Current
Generator Controller
Primary Control Level

HierarchicalcontroldiagramofaparallelPWMrectifiersystem
XiaonanLu;Guerrero,J.;Teodorescu,R.;Kerekes,T.;KaiSun;Lipei Huang;,"ControlofparallelconnectedbidirectionalACDCconvertersinstationary
frameformicrogrid application,"EnergyConversionCongressandExposition(ECCE),2011IEEE,vol.,no.,pp.41534160,1722Sept.2011

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 35 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 36


SecondaryControlforMicrogrids SecondaryControlforMicrogrids

SecondarycontrolforDCmicrogrids SecondarycontrolforDCmicrogrids
i


udc
Controldiagramofinnercurrentloopand

udc parallelHarmonicCompensation
1
1 s 5
x 10
4
x 10
4 6e+004 2
0.13 0.09 0.065 0.038 0.018

5e+004
3 0.19 1.5
4e+004

2 0.28 3e+004 1
2e+004

1 0.5
0.5
1e+004

Controldiagramofthesecondarycontrollerincludingadelayunit 0 0
1e+004
-1 0.5
-0.5
2e+004

-2 0.28 3e+004
-1
4e+004

-3 0.19
-1.5
5e+004

0.13 0.09 0.065 0.038 0.018


6e+004
-4
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 -2
4
-200 -150 -100 -50 0
x 10

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 37 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 38

SecondaryControlforMicrogrids HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids
ImplementationofsecondarycontrolforDCmicrogrids Electricalschemeoftheexperimentalsystem

Virtual
resistance
Theprimary andsecondary controllevels can beimplemented similarly asinan ACMG.
Inthis case,the BWcan behigher since the virtualresistance acts instantaneously.
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 39 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 40
HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids HierarchicalControlofDCMicrogrids
ExperimentalresultsforhierarchicalcontrolofDC
microgrids PMG PG1

DCvoltagestepresponse DCvoltagedeviationcausedbydroopcontroller
PS1 PG2

PS2 PG3

ACcurrentinConverterIwhenstep DCvoltagerobustnesstestwith Source:DistributionVoltageControlfor


DCvoltagereferencevalueemployed secondarycontrolwith63Hzbandwidth DCMicrogrid withFuzzyControlandGainSchedulingControl,H.Kakigano etAl.

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 41 18Apr17 42

Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids Hierarchical Control of DC Microgrids


SoC balancingcontrol SoC balancingcontrol
SoC: WaveformsofSoC1andSoC2withdifferentpowerexponentn.
Controldiagramforeachconverter

SoC Adaptivedroopcontrollers: n=6


n=3

XiaonanLu;KaiSun;Guerrero,J.M.;Vasquez,J.C.;Lipei Huang;Teodorescu,R.;,"SoCbaseddroopmethodfordistributedenergy
storageinDCmicrogrid applications,"IndustrialElectronics(ISIE),2012IEEEInternationalSymposiumon,vol.,no.,pp.16401645,
2831May2012
18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 43 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 44
TertiaryControlforMicrogrids TertiaryControlforMicrogrids
ImplementationofTertiarycontrolforDCmicrogrids ImplementationofTertiarycontrolforDCmicrogrids

StiffDCsource

TertiaryControl

Theprimary,secondaryandTertiarycontrollevelscanbeimplementedsimilarlyasinanACMG

18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 45 18Apr17 Industrial/PhDMicrogridsCourse,AalborgUniversity 46

DC Microgrid Clusters Consensus-based distributed control for dc Microgrid clusters

Objective I: To regulate the voltage within an acceptable range around the reference.
Objective II: To regulate the power flow between DC Microgrids according to SOC of batteries.
MicrogridClusters:
Voltageregulator

viavg
Increasing reliability

SOCi ,
Centralized for each dc MG;
No need for expansion of energy sources and storage capacity in terms of increasing load vi
smooth connection of MGs. vMGs j
Power flow between the MGs requires to be managed
Distributed over the MG cluster viavg
Gi ( s)
vi1
vi io _ j
Regulates the voltage inside each v avg
j

MG-i MG to the nominal value.


Question: How to regulate vMGi Source-j Maintains the bus voltages
Droop
vMG within an acceptable range. SOCi vi io _ m
the voltage and control the i control
Voltage control DC-DC Hi ( s)
vref and converter
SOC j vi2 mj
power flow for dc MG current control
Voltage secondary control Powerflowregulator SOCi
clusters simultaneously? idc
Averaging
Gsec (s)
vs Rd j Regulates power flow according
Problem: Power flow method
to SOC of batteries.

vMG
control is achieved at the i
Changes the level of voltage Average voltage estimator (dynamic consensus protocol)
expense of having voltage among MGs
Source-m
differences between MGs. Slow dynamic
Cybernetwork
Solution: Distributed SOC comparator
voltage control over the Spars communication
MGs.
vMGn
MG-n
Spanned across the cluster
Data exchange ( v avg, SOC )
[Q.Shafiee,T.Dragicevic,J. C. Vasquez, and J.M.Guerrero,IEEETransactions
EnergyConversion,EarlyAccess.2014]
Small signal modeling of DC Microgrid clusters Real-time simulation results
Closeloopeigenvaluesofthesystemwith
Small signal model of two interconnected dc MGs with all control loops Casestudy: Study1:evaluationofthecontroller
(red)andwithout(blue)SOCdynamics
ThreeinterconnecteddcMGs Bus voltages Current flow between the MGs
0.02
SOC1 (0) 15
50
1 1 0.01
PV DC
DC LCfilter Tieline1,2 LCfilter DC PV
DC

Imaginary
Cb1 Z1,2 0.1 j 0.00018 49
s

Tie-line Currents (A)


SOC1 iL1 0
i 1,2 10

MGs Voltages (V)


600 DC LCfilter DC
WT 1 2 LCfilter WT
-0.01 DC DC 48

Load2
SOC2 v21 Rd1 400 Communication 5
b12 F1 ( s )
-0.02
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 Battery1 DC
DC
LCfilter Network LCfilter DC Battery1 47
Real -4 DC
200 x 10

Imaginary
i 2,3

Load1
3 DC
46 0
DC Battery2
k p1 s k i 1 1 RL1 0 Battery2 DC
LCfilter LCfilter DC
45

Tieline2,3

vMG 1s 1 RL1C1s 1

Z 2,3 Z1,2
v1avg s -200
MG1 MG2 -5
44
v2avg 1 -400
a12 G1 ( s ) MG3
v11 vMG v1 43 -10
s -600 Load3 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
v1
Time (s) Time (s)
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0
1 Real

LCfilter

LCfilter

LCfilter

LCfilter
Lt s Rt MGs currents injections SOC of dc MGs
30 100

DC
DC

DC
DC
v2

DC
DC

DC
DC
v1avg 1 v12 v v2 25
a21 G2 ( s ) MG

SOCs of MGs (%)


MGs Currents (A)
Battery1
80

Battery2
s

WT
PV
v2avg
vMG k p 2 s ki 2 1 RL2 Lt
Impactoflineinductance()onthe 20

s 2s 1 RL2C2 s 1 stabilityofsystem 15 60
SOC1
b21 F2 ( s ) 10
v22
R2
d 1000 L=4 mH Realtime simulation 5
40

SOC2 iL2 L=0.5 mH


1 2
dSPACE DS1006
500 0 20
Cb 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
s

Imaginary
SOC2 (0) Time (s) Time (s)
0
Each dc MG consists of four units. MG1 units current
One droopcontrolled unit; it can represents groups of droopcontrolled units. -500

RL combination of electronic loads and CPLs -1000 Rated voltage of the system is 48 V. 5
4

MG1 Currents (A)


Fast dynamic of duty ratio is virtually absorbed by the slow SOC integrator. -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 PV & WT work in MPPT, batteries 3

Real 2
Constant duty ratio work in droopcontrolled mode 1
0
Impact of different parameters on the system stability Neighboring communication -1
-2
2 4 6 8 10 12
Time (s)

Real-time simulation results Conclusions

Study2:Impactofcommunicationdelay Study3:Loadchangeeffect Multifunctional distributed secondary control strategies for ac Microgrids


49 normal averaging method
200msdelay MG1 49.5 MG1
DPFCactivated MG2
MG2 local controller, alltoall communication, finely tuned parameters needed
MGs Voltages (V)

48.5 MG3
MGs Voltages (V)

49 MG3
gossipbased method
48 48.5
token ring manner, synchronization & transmission scheduling
48
47.5
Consensusbased method
47.5
47
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 fully distributed, spars communication
Time (s) 47
49 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Three control functions
400msdelay Time (s)
frequency/active power regulation
MGs Voltages (V)

48.5

Results show proper control of dc bus voltage regulation: restoration to the nominal value or maintaining within an acceptable
48
voltages and power flow. range
47.5
Control of power flow is achieved at reactive power regulation: line impedance effect, different parameters
47 the expense of having small voltage
1 2 3 4 5 6
Time (s)
7 8 9 10 11 12

deviations.
disturbance rejecting, communication impairments, resiliency to
Experimental validation:
link/inverter failure, plug n play capability
The proposed methodology is able to
49
500msdelay
Hierarchical control of dc Microgrids and dc Microgrids clusters
MGs Voltages (V)

48.5
eliminate load disturbances properly.
48 Central voltage controller inside the SOCbased adaptive droop method: small signal modeling
47.5
MGs ensures smooth connection of voltage regulator: centralized for each Microgrid, distributed over the cluster, smooth connection
MGs.
47
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Cooperative power flow regulator: SOCbased regulation, spars communication
Time (s)
Realtime simulations
Conclusions References

DC conversion, generation, storage, and distribution are becoming important again


[1] Xiaonan Lu; Kai Sun; Guerrero, J.M.; Vasquez, J.C.; Lipei Huang; Teodorescu, R.; , "SoCbased
HVDC systems allows the integration of large onshore and offshore wind farms droop method for distributed energy storage in DC microgrid applications," Industrial
Electronics (ISIE), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.16401645, 2831
Backtoback conversion is one example of DCcoupling between different AC networks May 2012
DCcoupling microgrids are attractive due to: [2] Anand, S.; Fernandes, B. G.; Guerrero, J. M.; , "Distributed Control to Ensure Proportional
Inexistent reactive power problem Load Sharing and Improve Voltage Regulation in LowVoltage DC Microgrids," Power
Total active power control Electronics, IEEE Transactions on , vol.28, no.4, pp.19001913, April 2013
No synchronization problems (phase, frequency) [3]Xiaonan Lu; Guerrero, J.; Teodorescu, R.; Kerekes, T.; Kai Sun; Lipei Huang; , "Control of
No skin effect, reduction of losses parallelconnected bidirectional ACDC converters in stationary frame for microgrid
Integration of natural DC sources. Renewable energy sources: PV, H2. application," Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2011 IEEE , vol., no.,
Avoid the double AC/DCDC/AC conversion for WT and other turbinesbased sources. pp.41534160, 1722 Sept. 2011
Easy connection to storage energy systems like batteries. [4]H. El Fadil, F. Giri, Josep M. Guerrero, Adaptive sliding mode control of interleaved parallel
boost converter for fuel cell energy generation system, Mathematics and
The hierarchical control is required for a DCcoupled microgrid: Computers in Simulation, Available online 7 August 2012, ISSN 03784754,
Primary control is based on the droop method allowing the connection of different DC 10.1016/j.matcom.2012.07.011.
sources without any intercommunication. [5]J. M. Guerrero, J. C. Vasquez, J. Matas, L. G. de Vicuna, and M. Castilla, Hierarchical control
Secondary control avoids the voltage deviation produced by the primary control. Only of droopcontrolled AC and DC microgridsA general approach toward standardization,
low bandwidth communications are needed to perform this control level. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 158172, Jan. 2011.
Tertiary control allows to import/export energy to a external stiff DC source.

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