Anda di halaman 1dari 45

# Problems

## Section 7-2: Capacitors

P7.2-1
1 t
v (t ) = v ( 0) + i (τ ) dτ
C ∫0
and q = Cv

∫ i (τ ) dτ .
t
In our case, the current is constant so
0

∴ Cv ( t ) = Cv ( 0 ) + i t
q −Cv( 0 ) 150×10 −(15×10 )( 5 )
−6 −6

∴ t= = = 3 ms
i 25×10−3

P7.2-2
12 cos ( 2t + 30° ) = (12 )( −2 ) sin ( 2t + 30° ) = 3cos ( 2t + 120° ) A
d 1d 1
i (t ) = C v (t ) =
dt 8 dt 8

P7.2-3
( 3×10 ) cos ( 500t + 45 ) = C dtd
−3 °
12 cos ( 500t − 45° ) = C (12 )( −500 ) sin ( 500t − 45° )

## = C ( 6000 ) cos ( 500t + 45° )

3×10−3 1 1
so C= = ×10−6 = μ F
6×10 3
2 2
P7.2-4
1 t 1
v (t ) = i (τ ) dτ + v ( 0 ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ − 10
t

−3

C 0 2 × 10−12 0

0 < t < 2 × 10 −9 1
is ( t ) = 0 ⇒ v ( t ) =
t
∫ 0 dτ − 10
−3
= −10−3
2 × 10−12 0

## 2 × 10−9 < t < 3 × 10−9 is ( t ) = 4 × 10−6 A

−12 ∫2ns (
4 × 10−6 ) dτ − 10−3 = −5 × 10−3 + ( 2 × 106 ) t
1
⇒ v (t ) =
t

2 ×10
In particular, v ( 3 × 10−9 ) = −5 × 10 −3 + ( 2 × 106 ) ( 3 × 10 −9 ) = 10−3
3 × 10 −9 < t < 5 × 10 −9 is ( t ) = −2 × 10−6 A

−12 ∫3ns (
−2 × 10−6 ) dτ + 10−3 = 4 × 10−3 − (106 ) t
1
⇒ v (t ) =
t

2 ×10
In particular, v ( 5 × 10 −9 ) = 4 × 10 −3 − (106 ) ( 5 × 10 −9 ) = −10 −3 V
5 × 10 −9 < t 1
is ( t ) = 0 ⇒ v ( t ) =
t

2 × 10−12 ∫
5ns
0 dτ − 10−3 = −10−3 V

P7.2-5
(b) ⎧ 0 0 < t <1

d ⎪ 4 1< t < 2
i (t ) = C v(t ) = ⎨
dt ⎪ −4 2 < t < 3
⎪⎩ 0 3<t
(a) 1 t
v ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ + v ( 0 ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ
t

C 0 0

v ( t ) = ∫ 0 dτ + 0 = 0 V
t
For 0 < t < 1, i(t) = 0 A so
0

## For 1 < t < 2, i(t) = (4t − 4) A so

( ) 1=2 t
t
v ( t ) = ∫ ( 4τ − 4 ) dτ + 0 = 2τ 2 − 4τ
t
2
− 4t + 2 V
1

( )
v(2) = 2 22 − 4 ( 2 ) + 2 = 2 V . For 2 < t < 3, i(t) = (−4t + 12) A so

( ) 1+2= ( −2 t )
t
v ( t ) = ∫ ( −4τ + 12 ) dτ + 2 = −2τ 2 + 12τ
t
2
+ 12 t − 14 V
2

( )
v (3) = −2 32 + 12 ( 3) − 14 = 4 V

## For 3 < t, i(t) = 0 A so v ( t ) = ∫ 0 dτ + 4 = 4 V

t

0
P7.2-6
(a) ⎧ 0 0<t <2
d ⎪
i (t ) = C v(t ) = ⎨0.1 2 < t < 6
dt ⎪0
⎩ 6<t
(b) 1 t
v ( t ) = ∫ i (τ ) dτ + v ( 0 ) = 2 ∫ i (τ ) dτ
t

C 0 0

t

## For 2 < t < 6, i(t) = 0.2 t − 0.4 V so

( ) 2 =0.2 t
t
v ( t ) = 2∫ ( 0.2τ − 0.4 ) dτ + 0 = 0.2τ 2 − 0.8τ
t
2
− 0.8 t + 0.8 V
1

( )
v (6) = 0.2 62 − 0.8 ( 6 ) + 0.8 = 3.2 V . For 6 < t, i(t) = 0.8 A so

## v ( t ) = 2 ∫ 0.8 dτ + 3.2 = 1.6 t − 6.4 V

t

P7.2-7
v (t ) = v ( 0) +
1 t
C ∫ 0
i (τ ) dτ = 25 + 2.5 × 10 ∫
4 t
0
( 6×10−3 ) e−6τ dτ

= 25 + 150∫ 0 e −6τ dτ
t

t
⎡ 1 ⎤
= 2 5 + 150 ⎢ − e −6τ ⎥ = 50 − 25e −6t V
⎣ 6 ⎦0

P7.2-8
= (1− 2e−2t ) × 10−3 = 25 (1− 2e−2t ) μ A
v 1
iR =
200×10 3
40
iC = C
dv
dt ( )
= 10×10−6 ( −2 ) ( −10 e−2t ) = 200 e−2 t μ A

## i = iR + i C = 200 e−2t + 25 − 50 e −2t

= 25 + 150e−2t μA
P7.2-9
v ( t ) = 2∫ i ( t ) dt + 1
t

=1 for 0≤t ≤2
= 2∫ 2 dt + 1 = 4 ( t − 2 ) + 1 = 4t − 7
t
for 2≤t ≤3
2

= 2∫ 2 dt + 2∫ −2 dt + 1 = 4 − 4 ( t − 3) + 1 = −4t + 17
3 t
for 3≤t ≤ 4
2 3
3 4
= 2∫ 2 dt + 2∫ −2 dt + 1 = 1 for t≥4
2 3

In summary
⎧ 1 0≤t ≤2
⎪ 4t − 7 2 ≤ t ≤ 3

v (t ) = ⎨
⎪−4t + 17 3 ≤ t ≤ 4
⎪⎩ 1 4≤t

P7.2-10
1 t
v (t ) = v ( 0) + i s ( t ) dt = −4 + 10 ∫ i s ( t ) dt
t

C 0 0

## For 0 ≤ t ≤ 0.25 ( i s ( t ) = 8t for 0 ≤ t ≤ 0.25 )

t
⎛τ 2 ⎞
v ( t ) = −4 + 10 ∫ 8τ dτ = −4 + 80 ⎜ ⎟ = −4 + 40t 2
t

0
⎝ 2 ⎠0
⎛1⎞ ⎛1⎞
For example v ( 0 ) = −4, v ⎜ ⎟ = −3.375, v ⎜ ⎟ = −1.5
⎝8⎠ ⎝4⎠
For 0.25 ≤ t ≤ 0.5
v ( t ) = −1.5 + 10 ∫ 2 dτ = −1.5 + 20 ( t − 0.25 ) = 20t − 6.5
t

0.25

## For example v ( 0.25) = −1.5, v ( 0.5) = 3.5

For 0.5 ≤ t
v ( t ) = 3.5 + 10 ∫ 0 dτ = 3.5
t

0.5

In summary
⎧−4 + 40t 2 0 ≤ t ≤ 0.25 s

v ( t ) = ⎨ 20t − 6.5 0.25 ≤ t ≤ 0.5 s
⎪ 3.5 t ≥ 0.5 s

P7.2-11
Representing vs(t) using equations of the straight line segments gives

⎧ 0 t ≤ 0.5
⎪ 40t − 20 0.5 ≤ t ≤ 1.0

vs (t ) = ⎨
⎪−20t + 40 1.0 ≤ t ≤ 2.0
⎪⎩ 0 2.0 ≤ t
Use KCL to get
⎧ 0 t ≤ 0.5

⎪ 20 + 40t − 20 0.5 ≤ t ≤ 1.0
1 d vs (t ) ⎪
i (t ) = vs (t ) +
5
=⎨
2 dt 5 ⎪ −10 + 40 − 20t 1.0 ≤ t ≤ 2.0
⎪ 5
⎪ t ≥ 2.0
⎩ 0

⎧ 0 t ≤ 0.5
⎪ 8t − 16 0.5 ≤ t ≤ 1.0

i (t ) = ⎨
⎪−4t − 2 1.0 ≤ t ≤ 2.0
⎪⎩ 0 t ≥ 2.0

P7.2-12

1 d
iC (t ) = v (t )
20 dt
= ( +20e−2t )
1
20
= e−2t A for t > 0
Apply KCL to get

P7.2-13

## We’ll write and solve a node equation. Label

the node voltages as shown. Apply KCL at
node a to get

v (t ) − v a va v a − 12 20v ( t ) + 12
= + ⇒ va =
20 100 400 25
so
v a = 2.4 + 4.48e−5t V for t > 0
Then
va
i (t ) = = 24 + 44.8e−5t mA for t > 0
100
(checked: LNAP 6/25/04)

P7.2-14
Apply KCL to get
v (t ) d
i (t ) + + 0.020 v ( t ) = 0
60 dt
−5t
10 − 8e
− 0.020 (10 − 8e −5t ) = − − e −5t A for t > 0
d 1 2
i (t ) = −
60 dt 6 3

## (checked: LNAP 6/25/04)

P7.2-15
1 t 1 t
( ) i (τ ) dτ − 12
C ∫t 0 1 ∫0 s
v(t ) = i s τ d τ + v (t 0 ) =

3
t
v(t ) = 3∫ 4 dτ − 12 = 12 t − 12 for 0 < t < 4 In particular, v(4) = 36 V.
0

## v(t ) = 3∫ ( −2 ) dτ + 36 = 60 − 6 t for 4 < t < 10

t
In particular, v(10) = 0 V.
4

t
v(t ) = 3∫ 0 dτ + 0 = 0 for 10 < t
10
Section 7-3: Energy Storage in a Capacitor

P7.3-1
Given
⎧ 0 t<2

i ( t ) = ⎨0.2 ( t − 2 ) 2 < t < 6
⎪ 0.8 t >6

The capacitor voltage is given by

1 t
v (t ) = i (τ ) dτ + v ( 0 ) = 2 ∫ i (τ ) dτ + v ( 0 )
t

0.5 0 0

For t < 2
v ( t ) = 2 ∫ 0 dτ + 0 = 0
t

t t

2 2

t t
6 2

## Now the power and energy are calculated as

⎧ 0 t<2

p ( t ) = v ( t ) i ( t ) = ⎨0.04 ( t − 2 ) 2<t <6
2

⎪ 1.28 ( t − 4 ) 6<t

and
⎧ 0 t<2
⎪⎪
W (t ) = ∫ p (τ ) dτ = ⎨ 0.01( t − 2 )
t
2<t<6
4

0

⎪⎩0.8 ( t − 4 ) − 0.64
2
6<t
These plots were produced using three MATLAB scripts:

## capvol.m function v = CapVol(t)

if t<2
v = 0;
elseif t<6
v = 0.2*t*t - .8*t +.8;
else
v = 1.6*t - 6.4;
end

## capcur.m function i = CapCur(t)

if t<2
i=0;
elseif t<6
i=.2*t - .4;
else
i =.8;
end

c7s4p1.m t=0:1:8;
for k=1:1:length(t)
i(k)=CapCur(k-1);
v(k)=CapVol(k-1);
p(k)=i(k)*v(k);
w(k)=0.5*v(k)*v(k);
end

plot(t,i,t,v,t,p)
text(5,3.6,'v(t), V')
text(6,1.2,'i(t), A')
text(6.9,3.4,'p(t), W')
title('Capacitor Current, Voltage and Power')
xlabel('time, s')

% plot(t,w)
% title('Energy Stored in the Capacitor, J')
% xlabel('time, s')
P7.3-2
⎧⎪ ic ( 0 ) = 0.2 A
= (10×10−6 ) ( −5 )( −4000 ) e −4000t = 0.2e−4000t A ⇒ ⎨
dv
ic = C
⎪⎩ ic (10ms ) = 8.5×10 A
−19
dt
1
W ( t ) = Cv 2 ( t ) and v ( 0 ) = 5 − 5e0 = 0 ⇒ W ( 0 ) = 0
2
v (10×10 ) = 5 − 5 e −40 = 5 − 21.2 × 10−18 ≅ 5 ⇒ W (10 ) = 1.25×10−4 J
−3

P7.3-3

dvc
i (t ) = C so read off slope of vc (t ) to get i (t )
dt
p (t ) = vc (t ) i (t ) so multiply vc (t ) & i (t ) curves to get p(t )

P7.3-4
1 t 1 t ⎛ π⎞ ⎡ 5 π⎤ 5 ⎛ π⎞
vc ( t ) = vc ( 0 ) +
∫ i dτ = vc ( 0 ) + ∫0 50 cos⎜10t + ⎟ dτ = ⎢⎣ vc ( 0 ) − 2 sin 6 ⎦⎥ + 2 s in ⎝⎜10t + 6 ⎠⎟
C 0 2 ⎝ 6⎠
5 π 5 ⎛ π⎞
Now since vc ( t )ave = 0 ⇒ vc ( 0 ) − sin = 0 ⇒ vc ( t ) = sin ⎜ 10t + ⎟ V
2 6 2 ⎝ 6⎠

∴ Wmax
1
= C v2 =
( 2×10 ) ( 2.5) = 6.25 μ J
−6 2

2 c max 2
π π π
First non-negative t for max energy occurs when: 10t + = ⇒t = = 0.1047 s
6 2 30
P7.3-5
Max. charge on capacitor = C v = (10×10−6 ) ( 6 ) = 60 μ C
Δq 60×10−6
Δt = = = 6 sec to charge
i 10×10−6
stored energy = W = C v 2 = (10×10−6 ) ( 6 ) =180 μ J
1 1 2

2 2

P7.3-6
We have v(0+ ) = v(0 − ) = 3 V

## 3 e5t dt + 3 = 3 ( e5t −1)+ 3 = 3 e5t V, 0<t <1

1 t
vc ( t ) = ∫ ∫
t
i (t ) dt + vc (0) = 5
C 0 0

## a) v(t ) = vR ( t ) + vc ( t ) = 5 i ( t ) + vc ( t ) = 15 e5t + 3 e5t = 18 e5t V, 0 < t < 1

⎪⎧ W (t ) t =0.2 s = 6.65 J
W ( t ) = 1 Cvc2 ( t ) = 1 × 0.2 ( 3e5t ) = 0.9e10t J ⇒ ⎨
2
b)
2 2 ⎪⎩W ( t ) t =0.8 s = 2.68 kJ
Section 7-4: Series and Parallel Capacitors

P7.4-1
2 μ F 4 μ F = 6μ F
6μ F⋅3μ F
6μ F in series with 3μ F = = 2μ F
6μ F+3μ F
d
i (t ) = 2 μ F (6 cos100t ) = (2×10 −6 ) (6) (100) (− sin100t ) A = −1.2 sin100t mA
dt

P7.4-2
4 μ F×4 μ F
4 μ F in series with 4 μ F = = 2 μF
4 μ F+4 μ F
2 μF 2 μF = 4 μF
4 μ F in series with 4 μ F = 2 μ F
d
i (t ) =(2×10−6 ) (5+ 3 e −250t ) = (2×10−6 ) (0+ 3(−250) e −250t ) A = −1.5 e −250t mA
dt

P7.4-3
C ⋅C C
C in series with C = =
C +C 2
C 5
C C = C
2 2

5 C⋅ 5 C 5
C in series with C = 2 = C
2 C+ 5 C 7
2
⎛5 ⎞ d ⎛5 ⎞
(25×10−3 ) cos 250t = ⎜ C ⎟ (14sin 250t ) = ⎜ C ⎟(14)(250) cos 250t
⎝ 7 ⎠ dt ⎝7 ⎠
so 25×10−3 = 2500 C ⇒ C = 10×10−6 = 10 μF
P7.4-4
Replacing series and parallel capacitors by equivalent capacitors, the circuit can be reduced as
follows:

Then
8C d 8C d 8 ×1 32
i (t ) = v (t ) = 4 cos ( 3 t ) = ⎡⎣ −12sin ( 3 t ) ⎤⎦ = − sin ( 3 t ) V
21 d t 21 d t 21 7

## (Checked using LNAP 6/25/04)

P7.4-5
The 16 F capacitor is in series with a parallel combination of 4 F and 12 F capacitors. The
capacitance of the equivalent capacitor is

16 ( 4 + 12 )
=8 F
16 + ( 4 + 12 )

The 30 F capacitor is in parallel with a short circuit, which is equivalent to a short circuit. After
making these simplifications, we have

Then
10 (12 + C + 8 )
8 = C eq = ⇒ C = 20 F
10 + (12 + C + 8 )

## (Checked using LNAP 6/26/04)

P7.4-6
1
C eq = = 10 F
1 1 1 1
+ + +
60 15 + 10 30 40 + 60

## (Checked using LNAP 6/26/04)

P7.4-7
First Then

1
50 = C eq = ⇒ C = 90 mF
1 2 2
+ +
C 5C 5C

## (Checked using LNAP 6/26/04)

P7.4-8
1
(a) The energy stored in the 60 mF capacitor is w1 = ( 0.060 ) 3.62 = 0.3888 W and the
2
1
energy stored in the 20 mF capacitor is w 2 =( 0.020 ) 3.62 = 0.1296 J .
2
(b) One second after the switch opens, the voltage across the capacitors is
3.6e −2.5 = 0.2955 V . Then w1 = 2.620 mJ and w 2 = 0.873 mJ.

## Next C eq = 0.06 + 0.02 = 80 mF.

1
(c) w eq = ( 0.08 ) 3.62 = 0.5184 J = w1 + w 2
2
1
(d) w eq = ( 0.08 )( 0.2955 ) = 3.493 mJ = w1 + w 2
2

2
P7.4-9
(a) v1 ( t ) =
1 t
0.01 ∫ 0
2.4e −30τ dτ + 0 =
−30
( e − 1) = +8 (1 − e −30τ ) V for t ≥ 0
240 −30t

## 2.4e −30τ dτ + 0 = 2 (1 − e −30t ) V for t ≥ 0

1 t
v 2 (t ) = ∫
0.04 0

(b) When t = 20 ms, v1 ( 0.02 ) = 8 (1 − e −0.6 ) = 3.610 V and v 2 ( 0.02 ) = 2 (1 − e −0.6 ) = 0.902 V so
1
the energy stored by the 10 mF capacitor is w1 = ( 0.01) 3.6102 = 65.2 mJ and the energy stored
2
1
by the 40 mF capacitor is w 2 = ( 0.04 ) 0.9022 = 16.3 mJ .
2
10 × 40
Next C eq = = 8 mF
10 + 40

## 2.4e −30τ dτ = 10 (1 − e −30t ) V

1
(c) v (t ) = ∫ for t ≥ 0
0.08

(d) When t = 20 ms, v ( 0.02 ) = 10 (1 − e −0.6 ) = 4.512 V so the energy stored by the equivalent
1
capacitor is w = ( 0.008 ) 4.5122 = 81.4 mJ = w1 + w 2 .
2

P7.4-10
dv1 dv2 i i C
v1 = v2 ⇒ = ⇒ 1 = 2 ⇒ i1 = 1 i2
dt dt C1 C2 C2
⎛C ⎞ C2
KCL: i = i1 + i2 = ⎜ 1 + 1⎟ i2 ⇒ i2 = i
⎝ C2 ⎠ C1 + C2
P7.4-11

1 1 1 10
(a) to (b) : = mF , (b) to (c) : 1+ = mF ,
1 1 1 9 9 9
+ +
1 1 1
3 3 3

1 1 1 1 10
(c) to (d) : = + + ⇒ Ceq = mF
Ceq 2 2 10 19
9
Section 7-5: Inductors

P7.5-1
di
F in d m a x . v o lta g e a c ro s s c o il: v (t ) = L = 2 0 0 [1 0 0 ( 4 0 0 ) c o s 4 0 0 t ] V
dt
8 ×1 0 6 V
∴ v m a x = 8 ×1 0 6 V th u s h a v e a fie ld o f = 4 ×1 0 6 V
2 m m
w h ic h e x c e e d s d ie le c tric stre n g th in a ir o f 3 ×1 0 6 V /m
∴ W e g e t a d isc h a rg e a s th e a ir is io n iz e d .

P7.5-2

di
v=L + R i = (.1) (4e − t − 4te − t ) + 10(4te − t ) = 0.4 e − t + 39.6t e − t V
dt

P7.5-3
(a) ⎧ 0 0 < t <1

d ⎪ 4 1< t < 2
v(t ) = L i (t ) = ⎨
dt ⎪ −4 2 < t < 3
⎪⎩ 0 3<t

(b) 1 t
i (t ) = v (τ ) dτ + i ( 0 ) = ∫ v (τ ) dτ
t

L 0 0

i ( t ) = ∫ 0 dτ + 0 = 0 A
t
For 0 < t < 1, v(t) = 0 V so
0

## For 1 < t < 2, v(t) = (4t − 4) V so

( )
t
i ( t ) = ∫ ( 4τ − 4 ) dτ + 0 = 2τ 2 − 4τ =2 t 2 − 4 t + 2 A
t

0 1
( )
i (2) = 4 22 − 4 ( 2 ) + 2 = 2 A

## For 2 < t < 3, v(t) = −4t + 12 V so

( ) 2 +2= ( −2 t )
t
i ( t ) = ∫ ( −4τ + 12 ) dτ + 2 = −2τ 2 + 12τ
t
2
+ 12 t − 14 A
2

( )
i (3) = −2 32 + 12 ( 3 ) − 14 = 4 A

## For 3 < t, v(t) = 0 V so i ( t ) = ∫ 0 dτ + 4 = 4 A

t

3
P7.5-4
d
v (t ) = (250 × 10 −3 ) (120 × 10 −3 ) sin(500t − 30° ) = (0.25)(0.12)(500) cos(500 t − 30° )
dt
= 15 cos(500t − 30° )

P7.5-5
1
∫ v (τ ) dτ
t
iL (t ) = − 2 ×10−6
5 ×10−3 0 s

## for 0< t < 1 μ s vs (t ) = 4 mV

1 ⎛ 4×10−3 ⎞
∫0
t
iL (t ) = 4 ×10 −3
dτ − 2×10 −6
= ⎜ −3 ⎟
t − 2×10−6 = 0.8− 2×10−6 A
5×10−3 ⎝ 5× 10 ⎠
⎛ 4×10 −3

−3 (
1×10−6 ) ⎟ − 2×10−6 = − ×10−6 A =−1.2 A
6
iL (1μs) = ⎜
⎝ 5×10 ⎠ 5
for 1μ s <t < 3 μ s vs (t ) = −1 mV
1×10−3
−3 ∫1μ s ( ) (t −1×10−6 ) − ×10−6 =( −0.2 t −10−6 ) A
1 t 6 6
iL (t ) = − 1×10 −3
dτ − ×10 −6
=− −3
5×10 5 5×10 5
⎛ 1×10−3 ⎞
iL ( 3μ s ) = ⎜ − −3
+3×10−6 ⎟ − 1×10−6 = −1.6 μA
⎝ 5×10 ⎠
for 3μ s < t vs (t ) = 0 so iL (t ) remains − 1.6 μA

P7.5-6
In general
v (t ) = ( 2 ×10 ) i
3
s (t ) + ( 4 ×10 ) dtd
−3
is (t )

⎛ 1×10−3 ⎞ d
For 0<t <1 μ s is (t ) = (1) ⎜ −6 ⎟
t = 103 t ⇒ is (t ) = 1× 103 . Consequently
⎝ 1×10 ⎠ dt

## v (t ) = (2 × 103 ) (1×103 ) t + 4 × 10 −3 (1×103 ) = ( 2×10 6

t + 4) V

d
For 1μ s <t < 3μ s is (t ) = 1 mA ⇒ is (t ) = 0 . Consequently
dt

## v (t ) = (2 × 103 ) (1×10−3 ) + ( 4×10−3 ) × 0 = 2 V

⎛ 1×10−3 ⎞ d 1×10−3
For 3μ s< t < 5μ s is (t ) = 4 ×10−3 − ⎜ −6 ⎟
t ⇒ is (t ) = − −6
= −103 . Consequently
⎝ 1×10 ⎠ dt 1×10
v (t ) = ( 2×103 )( 4×10−3 −103 t )+ 4×10 −3 ( −103 ) = 4 − ( 2×10 6 ) t

d
When 5μ s <t < 7μ s is (t ) = − 1×10 −3 and is (t ) = 0 . Consequently
dt

v (t ) = ( 2×103 )(10−3 ) = − 2 V

⎛ 1×10−3 ⎞ d
When 7μ s< t < 8μ s is (t ) = ⎜ −6 ⎟
t − 8 × 10−3 ⇒ is (t ) = 1× 103
⎝ 1×10 ⎠ dt

## v (t ) = ( 2 × 103 )(103 t − 8 × 10−3 ) + ( 4 × 10−3 )(103 ) = −12 + ( 2 × 106 ) t

d
When 8μ s < t , then is (t ) = 0 ⇒ is (t ) = 0 . Consequently
dt

v(t ) = 0

P7.5-7
(a) ⎧ 0 0<t <2
d ⎪
v(t ) = L i (t ) = ⎨0.1 2 < t < 6
dt ⎪0
⎩ 6<t
(b) 1 t
i ( t ) = ∫ v (τ ) dτ + i ( 0 ) = 2 ∫ v (τ ) dτ
t

L 0 0

t

## For 2 < t < 6, v(t) = 0.2 t − 0.4 V so

i ( t ) = 2∫ ( 0.2τ − 0.4 ) dτ + 0 = ( 0.2τ 2 − 0.8τ ) =0.2 t 2 − 0.8 t + 0.8 A
t t
2 2
( )
i (6) = 0.2 62 − 0.8 ( 6 ) + 0.8 = 3.2 A .
For 6 < t, v(t) = 0.8 V so
i ( t ) = 2 ∫ 0.8 dτ + 3.2 = (1.6 t − 6.4 ) A
t

P7.5-8
1 t
i (t ) =
100 ∫ 0
0 dt + 0.025 = 0.025 for 0 < t <1

so i (1) = 0.025
1 t −4 ( t − 1)
i (t ) = ∫ −4 dτ + 0.025 = for 1< t < 3
100 1 100
so i ( 3) = −0.055

1 t 2 ( t − 3)
i (t ) = ∫ 2 dτ − 0.055 = − 0.055 for 3<t < 9
100 3 100
so i ( 9 ) = 0.065

1 t
i (t ) =
100 ∫ 9
0 dτ + 0.065 = 0.065 for t >9

P7.5-9
1 t 1 t
i (t ) = i ( 0) + ∫ v s (τ ) dτ = −2 + ∫ v s (τ ) dτ
L 0 5 0
For 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 s
1 t 4 t 4
i ( t ) = −2 +
∫ 4 dτ = − 2 + τ ∫ = −2 + t
5 0 5 0 5
6 ⎛1⎞ 8
For example i ( 0 ) = −2, i (1) = − and i ⎜ ⎟ = −
5 ⎝2⎠ 5

For 1 ≤ t ≤ 3 s
1 1 1 t 4 1 6 1 t
i ( t ) = −2 +
∫ + ∫ −1 dτ = −2 + − τ = − − ( t − 1) = −1 −
t
4 dt 0
5 0 5 1 5 5 5 5 5
6 7 8
For example i (1) = − , i ( 2 ) = − , i ( 3) = −
5 5 5

1 t 6 1 t
Notice that i ( t ) = i (1) + ∫ −1 dτ = − − ( t − 1) = −1 −
5 1 5 5 5
For 3 ≤ t
1 1 1 3 1 t 8
i (t ) = i ( 0) + ∫ 4 dτ + ∫ − 1 dτ + ∫ 0 dτ = −
5 0 5 1 5 3 5

In summary
⎧−2 + 0.8t 0 ≤ t ≤1

i ( t ) = ⎨ −1 − 0.2t 1≤ t ≤ 3

⎩ −1.6 3≤t
P7.5-10
⎧ 1 t≤2
⎪ t
⎪ ∫ 2 dτ + 1 = ( t − 2 ) + 1 = t − 1 2≤t ≤4
1 t ⎪
i ( t ) = ∫ v ( t ) dt + 1 = ⎨
1 t 1

2 0 ⎪ dτ + 3 = − t + 5 4≤t≤6
⎪ 2 4 2
⎪⎩ 2 6≤t

P7.5-11
1 t −t
i (t ) = ∫ − dτ + 0.025 = + 0.025 for 0 < t <1
200 0 200

1 t −2 ( t − 1)
i (t ) = ∫ −2 dτ + 0.02 = + 0.02 for 1< t < 4
200 1 200

1 t t−4
i (t ) = ∫ dτ − 0.01 = − 0.01 for 4<t<9
200 4 200

i ( t ) = 0.015 = 15 mA t<9

P7.5-12

d
v L ( t ) = 0.2 i (t )
dt
= −6.4e−8t V for t > 0

## Use KVL to get

v ( t ) = 12 − ( −6.4e −8t ) = 12 + 6.4e −8t V for t > 0

## (checked: LNAP 6/25/04)

P7.5-13
We’ll write and solve a mesh equation. Label the meshes as shown. Apply KVL to the center
mesh to get
i ( t ) + 10
24i a + 24 ( i a − i ( t ) ) + 24 ( i a − 10 ) = 0 ⇒ ia = = 5 − e − 4t A for t > 0
3
Then
v ( t ) = 24i a = 120 − 24e−4t V for t > 0

## (checked: LNAP 6/25/04)

P7.5-14
Apply KVL to get
i ( t ) = 6 ( 3 + 2e −3t ) + 5 ( 3 + 2e −3t ) = 18 (1 − e −3t ) V
d d
v ( t ) = 6i ( t ) + 5 for t > 0
dt dt

## (checked: LNAP 6/25/04)

P7.5-15
After the switch opens, apply KVL to get

d
v (t ) = 2 i ( t ) + 20 i ( t ) for t > 0
dt

## i ( t ) = ( −6.25 ) e −6.25 t ( −0.04 cos ( 9.27 t ) + 0.188sin ( 9.27 t ) )

d
dt
+ ( 9.27 ) e−3t ( 0.04sin ( 9.27 t ) + 0.188cos ( 9.27 t ) )
= e−3t (1.993cos ( 9.27 t ) − 0.8042sin ( 9.27 t ) )

## v ( t ) = 2 e −6.25 t (1.993cos ( 9.27 t ) − 0.8042sin ( 9.27 t ) )

(
+ 20 0.240 + e −3t ( −0.04 cos ( 9.27 t ) + 0.188sin ( 9.27 t ) ) )
= 4.8 + e −6.25 t ( 3.186 cos ( 9.27 t ) + 2.1516sin ( 9.27 t ) )
= 4.8 + 3.84 e −6.25 t cos ( 9.27 t − 34° ) V for t > 0

## (checked: LNAP 7/19/04)

P7.5-16
1 t 1 t
( ) v (τ ) dτ − 12
L ∫t 0 1 ∫0 s
i (t ) = v s τ d τ + i (t 0 ) =

3
t
i (t ) = 3∫ 4 dτ − 12 = 12 t − 12 for 0 < t < 4 In particular, i(4) = 36 A.
0

## i (t ) = 3∫ ( −2 ) dτ + 36 = 60 − 6 t for 4 < t < 10

t
In particular, i(10) = 0 A.
4

t
i (t ) = 3∫ 0 dτ + 0 = 0 for 10 < t
10
Section 7-6: Energy Storage in an Inductor

P7.6-1

⎧0 t<0
d ⎪
v( t ) =100×10−3 i ( t ) = ⎨0.4 0≤ t ≤1
dt ⎪0
⎩ t>1
⎧0 t <0

p( t ) =v( t ) i( t ) = ⎨1.6t 0≤t ≤1
⎪0 t >1

⎧ 0 t <0

W (t ) = ∫ p (τ ) dτ = ⎨0.8t 2
t
0<t <1
⎪ 0.8
0

⎩ t >1

P7.6-2
⎡ d ⎤
p (t ) = v (t ) i (t ) = ⎢5 (4sin 2t ) ⎥ (4sin 2t )
⎣ dt ⎦
= 5 (8cos 2t ) (4sin 2t )
= 80 [2 cos 2t sin 2t ]
= 80 [sin(2t + 2t ) + sin(2t − 2t )] = 80 sin 4t W
t t 80
W (t ) = ∫ p(τ ) dτ = 80∫ sin4τ dτ = − [cos 4τ |t0 ] = 20 (1 − cos 4t )
0 0 4

P7.6-3
1 t

25×10−3 ∫ 0
i(t ) = 6 cos 100τ dτ + 0

6
= −3
[sin 100τ | 0t ] = 2.4sin100 t
(25×10 )(100)
p(t ) = v(t ) i(t ) = (6 cos100 t )(2.4 sin100t )
= 7.2 [ 2(cos100 t )(sin100 t ) ]
= 7.2 [sin 200 t + sin 0] = 7.2 sin 200 t
W (t ) = ∫0 p (τ ) dτ = 7.2 ∫0 sin 200τ dτ
t t

7.2
=− ⎡⎣ cos 200τ |t0 ⎤⎦
200
= 0.036[1 − cos 200t ] J = 36 [1 − cos 200t ] mJ
P7.6-4
⎛1⎞ d
v = L
di
dt
= ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
4 dt
( 4 t e − t ) = (1−t ) e− t V

## P = vi = ⎡⎣ (1−t ) e − t ⎤⎦ ( 4 t e− t ) = 4 t (1−t ) e−2t W

1⎛1⎞
W = Li 2 = ⎜ ⎟ ( 4 t e − t ) = 2 t 2 e − 2t J
1 2

2 2⎝ 4⎠

P7.6-5
⎧ 0 t <0 ⎧ 0 t <0
⎪ 2t 0<t <1 ⎪
di 1 di ⎪ ⎪ 1 0<t <1
v (t ) = L = and i ( t ) = ⎨ ⇒ v( t ) = ⎨
dt 2 dt ⎪−2( t − 2 ) 1<t < 2 ⎪ −1 1<t < 2
⎪ 0 t >2 ⎪⎩ 0 t >2

⎧ 0 t <0
⎪2t 0<t <1

p (t ) = v (t ) i (t ) = ⎨
⎪2( t − 2 ) 1<t < 2
⎪ 0 t >2

W ( t ) = W ( t0 ) + ∫ t0 p( t ) dt
t

## i (t ) = 0 for t < 0 ⇒ p ( t ) = 0 for t < 0 ⇒ W ( t0 ) = 0

0 < t < 1: W ( t ) = ∫ 2 t dt = t
t 2
0

## 1<t < 2 : W ( t ) = W (1)+ ∫ 2 ( t − 2 ) dt = t

t

1
2
− 4t + 4
t >2 : W (t ) = W ( 2) = 0
Section 7-7: Series and Parallel Inductors

P7.7-1
6×3
6H 3H = = 2 H and 2 H + 2 H = 4 H
6+3
1 t 6
i (t ) = ∫ 0 6 cos100τ dτ = ⎡⎣sin100τ | t0 ⎤⎦ = 0.015sin100 t A = 15sin100 t mA
4 4×100

P7.7-2

4 mH + 4 mH = 8 mH , 8mH 8mH =
(8×10 )×(8×10 )
−3 −3

= 4 mH
8×10−3 +8×10−3
and 4 mH + 4 mH = 8 mH
d
v(t ) = (8×10−3 ) (5+ 3e −250t ) = (8×10−3 ) (0+ 3(−250) e −250t ) =−6 e −250t V
dt

P7.7-3
L⋅ L L L 5
L L = = and L + L + = L
L+ L 2 2 2
⎛5 ⎞ d
25cos 250 t = ⎜ L ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ dt
( ( ⎛5 ⎞
)
14×10−3 ) sin 250 t = ⎜ L ⎟(14×10−3 )(250) cos 250 t
⎝2 ⎠
25
so L = = 2.86 H
5 −3
(14×10 ) (250)
2

P7.7-4
⎛ L×2 L ⎞
⎜ + L⎟× L
The equivalent inductance is: ⎝ L+2L ⎠ 21
+2L = L
⎛ L×2 L ⎞ 8
⎜ + L⎟ + L
⎝ L+2L ⎠

1 8 4
i (t ) = ∫ −∞ 4 cos ( 3τ ) dτ = 21× 4 × 3 sin ( 3t ) = 127 sin ( 3t )
t
Then mA
21
L
8

## (Checked using LNAP 6/26/04)

P7.7-5
The 25 H inductor is in series with a parallel combination of 20 H and 60 H inductors. The
inductance of the equivalent inductor is

60 × 20
25 + = 40 H
60 + 20

The 30 H inductor is in parallel with a short circuit, which is equivalent to a short circuit. After
making these simplifications, we have

Then
1 1 1 1 1
18 = L eq = 10 + ⇒ + + = ⇒ L = 20 H
1 1 1 20 L 40 8
+ +
20 L 40

## (Checked using LNAP 6/26/04)

P7.7-6
15 × 10 40 × 60
L eq = 60 + + 30 + = 60 + 6 + 30 + 24 = 120 H
15 + 10 40 + 60

## (Checked using LNAP 6/26/04)

P7.7-7
First
Then

⎛2 ⎞ ⎛2 ⎞
⎜ L ⎟ × ⎜ L + 2 L ⎟ 12
=⎝
5 ⎠ ⎝5 ⎠ = L ⇒ L = 35 mH
12 = L eq
⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ 35
⎜ L⎟ + ⎜ L + 2 L⎟
⎝5 ⎠ ⎝5 ⎠

## (Checked using LNAP 6/26/04)

P7.7-8
(a) i1 (t ) =
1 t −5τ

8 0
4e dτ + 0 =
1
−10
( e−5t − 1) = 0.1(1 − e−5t ) A for t ≥ 0

## 4e dτ = 0.4 (1 − e −5t ) A for t ≥ 0

1 t −5τ
i 2 (t ) = ∫
2 0

(b) When t = 0.25, i1 ( 0.2 ) = 0.1(1 − e −1 ) = 63.2 mA and i 2 ( 0.2 ) = 0.4 (1 − e −1 ) = 252.8 mA so
1
the energy stored by the 8 H inductor is w1 = ( 8 ) 0.06322 = 16.0 mJ and the energy stored by
2
the 2 H indictor is w 2 = 63.9 mJ .

8.2
(c) L eq = = 1.6 H
8+2

## 4e dτ = 0.5 (1 − e −5t ) A for t ≥ 0

1 t −5τ
i (t ) = ∫
1.6 0

(d) When t = 0.2 s, i ( 0.2 ) = 0.5 (1 − e −1 ) = 316 mA so the energy stored by the equivalent
1
inductor is w = (1.6 ) 0.3162 = 79.9 mJ = w1 + w 2 .
2

P7.7-9
( 0.5 ) ( 0.82 ) = 0.16 J and the energy stored
1
(a) The energy stored by the 0.5 H inductor is w1 =
2
( 2 ) ( 0.82 ) = 0.64 J .
1
by the 2 H inductor is w 2 =
2
(b) 200 ms after the switch opens the current in the inductors is 0.8e −0.4 = 0.536 A . Then
w1 = ( 0.5 ) ( 0.5362 ) = 71.8 mJ and w 2 = ( 2 ) ( 0.5352 ) = 287.3 mJ.
1 1
2 2

## ( 2.5 ) ( 0.82 ) = 0.8 J = w1 + w 2

1
(c) w eq =
2
(d) w eq = ( 2.5 ) ( 0.5362 ) = 359.12 mJ = w1 + w 2
1
2
P7.7-10
1 t 1 t
i1 = ∫ v dt + i1 ( t0 ) , i2 = ∫ v dt + i 2 ( t0 ) but i1 ( t0 ) = 0 and i 2 ( t0 ) = 0
L1 t 0 L 2 t0
1 t ⎛1 1 ⎞ t 1 t
i = i1 + i2 =
∫ t v dt + ∫ t v dt = ⎜ + ⎟ ∫ t v dt =
t
∫ v dt
L1 0 0 ⎝ L1 L2 ⎠ 0 LP t 0
1 t 1
∫ t v dt
i L 0 L1 L2
∴1 = 1 = =
i 1 t 1 1 L1 + L2
∫ t v dt +
LP 0 L1 L2
Section 7-8: Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits

P7.8-1

Then
i L ( 0+ ) = i L ( 0 − ) = 0 and v C ( 0+ ) = v C ( 0 − ) = 12 V
Next

P7.8-2

Then
i L ( 0 + ) = i L ( 0− ) = 1 mA and v C ( 0+ ) = v C ( 0 − ) = 6 V
Next
P7.8-3

Then
i L ( 0 + ) = i L ( 0− ) = 0 and v C ( 0+ ) = v C ( 0− ) = 0 V
Next

P7.8-4
at t = 0−

## KVL: − vc (0− ) + 32 − 15 = 0 ⇒ vc (0− ) = vc (0+ ) =17 V

at t = 0+
Apply KCL to supernode shown above:
−15 − 9 15
ic ( 0+ ) + − + 0.003 = 0 ⇒ ic ( 0+ ) = 6 mA
4000 5000
Then
dvc ic ( 0+ ) 6 × 10−3 V
= = −6
= 3000
dt t =0+ C 2 ×10 s

P7.8-5

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current

don’t change instantaneously and so are the
keys to solving this problem.

## Label the capacitor voltage and inductor

current as shown.

## Before t = 0, with the switch open and the

circuit at steady state, the inductor acts like a
short circuit and the capacitor acts like an open
circuit.
24
i (0 − ) = = 0. 24 A
100

i 2 (0 −) = 0

v 1 ( 0 − ) = v ( 0 − ) = 80 i ( 0 − ) = 19.2 V
The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t change instantaneously so

## v ( 0 + ) = v ( 0 − ) = 19.2 V and i ( 0 + ) = i ( 0 − ) = 0.24 A

After the switch closes the circuit looks like this:

From KCL:
v1 ( t )
i 2 (t ) + i (t ) =
80

From KVL:
24 = 80 i 2 ( t ) + v 1 ( t )

At t = 0 +
v1 ( t ) ⎫
i 2 (t ) + i (t ) = ⎪
80 ⎬ ⇒ v1 ( 0 + ) = 21.6 V and i 2 ( 0 + ) = 0.03 A
24 = 80 i 2 ( t ) + v1 ( t ) ⎪⎭

P7.8-6

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t

change instantaneously and so are the keys to
solving this problem.

shown.

## Before t = 0, with the switch closed and the circuit at

steady state, the inductor acts like a short circuit and
the capacitor acts like an open circuit.

12
i3 (0 −) = i (0 −) = = 1.33 A
9

v 4 (0 −) = v (0 −) = 6 i (0 −) = 8 V

v1 ( 0 − ) = 0 V and i 2 ( 0 − ) = 0 A

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t change instantaneously so

v ( 0 + ) = v ( 0 − ) = 8 V and i ( 0 + ) = i ( 0 − ) = 1.33 A

## After the switch opens the circuit looks like this:

From KCL:
i 3 ( t ) = 0 A and i 2 ( t ) = −i ( t )
From KVL:
v1 ( t ) + 6 i ( t ) = v ( t )
From Ohm’s Law:
v 4 (t ) = 6 i (t )

At t = 0 +
i 3 ( 0 + ) = 0 A and i 2 ( 0 + ) = −i ( 0 + ) = −1.33 A

v 1 ( 0 + ) = v ( 0 + ) − 6 i ( 0 + ) = 8 − 6 (1.333) = 0 V

v 4 (0 +) = 6 i (0 +) = 8 V

P7.8-7

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current

don’t change instantaneously and so are the
keys to solving this problem.

## Label the capacitor voltage and inductor

current as shown.
Before t = 0, with the switch open and the
circuit at steady state, the inductor acts like a
short circuit and the capacitor acts like an open
circuit.
24
i (0 − ) = = 0. 24 A
100

i 2 (0 −) = 0

v 1 ( 0 − ) = v ( 0 − ) = 80 i ( 0 − ) = 19.2 V
The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t change instantaneously so

## After the switch closes the circuit looks like this:

From KCL:

v1 ( t )
i 2 (t ) + i (t ) =
80

From KVL:
24 = 80 i 2 ( t ) + v 1 ( t )

At t = 0 +
v1 ( t ) ⎫
i 2 (t ) + i (t ) = ⎪
80 ⎬ ⇒ v1 ( 0 + ) = 21.6 V and i 2 ( 0 + ) = 0.03 A
24 = 80 i 2 ( t ) + v1 ( t ) ⎪⎭

P7.8-8

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t

change instantaneously and so are the keys to
solving this problem.

## Label the capacitor voltage and inductor current as

shown.
Before t = 0, with the switch closed and the circuit at
steady state, the inductor acts like a short circuit and
the capacitor acts like an open circuit.

12
i3 (0 −) = i (0 −) = = 1.33 A
9

v 4 (0 −) = v (0 −) = 6 i (0 −) = 8 V

v1 ( 0 − ) = 0 V and i 2 ( 0 − ) = 0 A
The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t change instantaneously so

v ( 0 + ) = v ( 0 − ) = 8 V and i ( 0 + ) = i ( 0 − ) = 1.33 A

## After the switch opens the circuit looks like this:

From KCL:
i 3 ( t ) = 0 A and i 2 ( t ) = −i ( t )
From KVL:
v1 ( t ) + 6 i ( t ) = v ( t )
From Ohm’s Law:
v 4 (t ) = 6 i (t )

At t = 0 +
i 3 ( 0 + ) = 0 A and i 2 ( 0 + ) = −i ( 0 + ) = −1.33 A

v 1 ( 0 + ) = v ( 0 + ) − 6 i ( 0 + ) = 8 − 6 (1.333) = 0 V

v 4 (0 +) = 6 i (0 +) = 8 V
P7.8-9

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t

change instantaneously and so are the keys to
solving this problem.

shown.

## Before t = 0, with the switch closed and the circuit at

steady state, the inductor acts like a short circuit and
the capacitor acts like an open circuit.

i 2 (0 −) = 0

12
i (0 −) = = 1.333 A
9

v1 ( 0 − ) = 0 V

v (0 −) = 6 i (0 −) = 8 V

## After the switch opens we model the open switch as

a large resistance, R.

From KVL:

( )
12 = 3 i ( t ) + i 2 ( t ) + v 1 ( t ) + ( R + 6 ) i ( t )
and
v1 ( t ) + ( R + 6 ) i ( t ) = 6 i 2 ( t ) + v ( t )

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t

change instantaneously so

v (0 +) = v (0 −) = 8 V
and
i ( 0 + ) = i ( 0 − ) = 1.333 A

At t = 0 +

( )
12 = 3 i ( 0 + ) + i 2 ( 0 + ) + v 1 ( 0 + ) + ( R + 6 ) i ( 0 + ) ⎫⎪ 4
⎬ ⇒ v 1 ( 0 + ) = R and i 2 ( 0 + ) = 0
v 1 ( 0 + ) + ( R + 6 ) i ( 0 + ) = 6 i 2 ( 0 + ) + v ( 0 + ) ⎪⎭ 3

As expected lim v 1 ( 0 + ) = ∞ .
R →∞

P7.8-10

## The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t

change instantaneously and so are the keys to
solving this problem.

shown.

## Before t = 0, with the switch open and the circuit at

steady state, the inductor acts like a short circuit and
the capacitor acts like an open circuit.

24
i 2 (0 −) = i (0 −) = = −0.4 A
60

v1 ( 0 − ) = 0 V

v ( 0 − ) − 15 i ( 0 − ) = v1 ( 0 − ) ⇒ v ( 0 − ) = −6 V

v 3 ( 0 − ) = 15 i ( 0 − ) = −6 V
The capacitor voltage and inductor current don’t change instantaneously so

v ( 0 + ) = v ( 0 − ) = −6 V and i ( 0 + ) = i ( 0 − ) = −0.4 A
After the switch closes the circuit looks like this:

## From Ohm’s Law:

v (t )
i 2 (t ) = −
30
From KVL:
v 1 ( t ) = v 3 ( t ) + 24
From KCL:
v1 ( t ) v 3 (t )
+ = i (t )
10 15
At t = 0 +
v (0 +)
i 2 (0 +) = − = 0.2 A
30

v1 ( 0 + ) = v 3 ( 0 + ) + 24 ⎫

v1 ( 0 + ) v 3 ( 0 + ) ⎬ ⇒ v 1 ( 0 + ) = 7.2 V and v 3 ( 0 + ) = −16.8 V
+ = i ( 0 + )⎪
10 15 ⎭
Section 7-9: Operational amplifier Circuits and Linear Differential Equations

P7.9-1

P7.9-2
P7.9-3

P7.9-4
Section 7.11 How Can We Check…?

P7.11-1
We need to check the values of the inductor current at the ends of the intervals.
at t = 1 0.025 = ? − 1 + 0.065 = 0.025 ( Yes!)
25
3 3
at t = 3 − + 0.065 =? − 0.115
25 50
−0.055 = −0.055 ( Yes!)
9
at t = 9 − 0.115 =? 0.065
50
0.065 = 0.065 ( Yes!)
The given equations for the inductor current describe a current that is continuous, as
must be the case since the given inductor voltage is bounded.

P7.11-2
We need to check the values of the inductor current at the ends of the intervals.
1 ? − 1 + 0.03 ( Yes!)
at t = 1 − + 0.025 =
200 100
4 ? 4 − 0.03 ( No!)
at t = 4 − + 0.03 =
100 100
The equation for the inductor current indicates that this current changes
instantaneously at t = 4s. This equation cannot be correct.