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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 1 General Page 1

1. GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2

1.1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................... 2


1.1.1 Scope 2
1.1.2 References 2
1.1.3 System Description 2
1.2 DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................ 2
1.2.1 General 2
1.2.2 Connection Design 2
1.2.3 Design Calculations 2
1.2.4 Design Drawings 2
1.2.5 Erection Drawings 2
1.2.6 Fabrication Data 3

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1.2.7 Fabrication Drawings 3
1.2.8 Fittings 3
1.2.9 Foundation Plan Drawings 3
1.2.10 Shop Drawings 3
1.2.11 Inspection Authority 3
1.2.12 Ordinary Bolts 3
1.2.13 Production Test Plate 3
1.2.14 Quality Assurance 3
1.2.15 Fillet Weld 3
1.2.16 Full Penetration Weld 3
1.2.17 Partial Penetration Weld 3
1.2.18 Full Strength Weld 3

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 1 General Page 2

1. GENERAL
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 Scope

1 This Section specifies the requirements associated with all aspects of structural steelwork
including materials, drawings, workmanship and protective treatment.

2 Related Sections and parts are as follows:

This Section All Parts

1.1.2 References

1 The following standards are referred to in this Part:

BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building

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Eurocode 3: Part 1.1 (DD ENV1993-l.l), General rules and rules for buildings

1.1.3 System Description

1 This Section deals with structural steelwork designed in accordance with the following:

(a) BS 5950: Part 1,Code of practice for design in simple and continuous construction: hot
rolled sections

(b) Eurocode 3: Part 1.1 (DD ENV1993-l.l), General rules and rules for buildings,
where the references to BS 5950 in the National Application Document are taken into
account.

1.2 DEFINITIONS
1.2.1 General

1 Terms which are defined in this section are treated as Proper Nouns throughout the text of
the Specification. The following definitions apply for the purposes of this Specification:

1.2.2 Connection Design

1 The design of bolts, welds, cleats, plates and fittings required to provide an adequate load
path between the end of a member and the component it connects to.

1.2.3 Design Calculations

1 Calculations, prepared by the Engineer, showing the design and analysis of the structure,
including computer data sheets.

1.2.4 Design Drawings

1 Fully dimensioned drawings prepared by the Engineer showing all members with their size
and material grades, the forces to be developed in their connections, any cambers and
eccentricities and other information necessary for the design of the connections and
completion of Fabrication and Erection Drawings.

1.2.5 Erection Drawings

1 Drawings, prepared when necessary by the Contractor, showing details to amplify the
information given in the Contractor's erection method statement and showing details of any
temporary steelwork (see Part 8 of this Section).

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 1 General Page 3

1.2.6 Fabrication Data

1 Numerical control tapes, computer discs, data bases or other electronic means of
communication for automatic methods of fabrication.

1.2.7 Fabrication Drawings

1 Drawings, prepared by the Contractor, showing all necessary information required to fabricate
the structural steelwork.

1.2.8 Fittings

1 Plates, flats or rolled sections which are welded or bolted to structural steel components.

1.2.9 Foundation Plan Drawings

1 Drawings, prepared by the Contractor or the Engineer, indicating location of column bases
and details of foundation connections to the steelwork.

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1.2.10 Shop Drawings

1 Drawings, prepared by the Contractor, showing plans, cross sections and elevations, main
dimensions and the erection marks of components.

1.2.11 Inspection Authority

1 A qualified independent body or association which verifies compliance with the Project
Documentation.

1.2.12 Ordinary Bolts

1 A bolt used in a non-preloaded bolt assembly which is designed to carry forces in shear,
bearing or tension.

1.2.13 Production Test Plate

1 A plate used for testing purposes, which is made of the same material and using the same
procedures as the joint in a component.

1.2.14 Quality Assurance

1 Activities concerned with the provision of systems, equipment and personnel necessary to
achieve the required level of quality.

1.2.15 Fillet Weld

1 A weld, other than a butt or edge weld, which is approximately triangular in transverse cross
section and which is generally made without preparation of the parent material.

1.2.16 Full Penetration Weld

1 A weld between elements which may be in-line, in the form of a tee, or a corner in which the
weld metal achieves full penetration throughout the joint thickness.

1.2.17 Partial Penetration Weld

1 A weld formed using a technique which ensures a specified penetration which is less than the
depth of the joint.

1.2.18 Full Strength Weld

1 Any of the above welds designed to develop the full strength of the element which it connects.

END OF PART

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 10 Protective Treatment Page 1

10. PROTECTIVE TREATMENT ......................................................................... 2

10.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


10.1.1 Scope 2
10.1.2 References 2
10.1.3 Method Statement 2
10.1.4 Working Conditions 2
10.1.5 Storage of Materials 2
10.1.6 Application Procedures 2
10.1.7 Handling and Storage 2
10.2 SURFACE PREPARATION ........................................................................... 2
10.2.1 General 2
10.2.2 Wire Brushing 3

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10.2.3 Blast Cleaning 3
10.2.4 Surface Defects 3
10.3 SPRAYED METAL COATINGS ..................................................................... 3
10.3.1 Method 3
10.3.2 Storage and Handling 3
10.3.3 Repair of Extensively Damaged Areas 3
10.3.4 Repair of Minimally Damaged Areas 3
10.3.5 Sealing Before Painting 3
10.4 GALVANIZING ............................................................................................... 3
10.4.1 Procedures 3
10.4.2 Touch-up of Galvanized Surfaces 4
10.4.3 Vent Holes 4
10.5 SURFACE COATINGS (PAINT) .................................................................... 4
10.5.1 Surface Condition Prior to Painting 4
10.5.2 Surfaces to be Embedded in Concrete 4
10.5.3 Coatings 4
10.5.4 Application Life 4
10.5.5 Multiple Coats 4
10.5.6 Stripe Coats 4
10.5.7 Storage and Handling 4
10.5.8 Painting on Site 4
10.5.9 Painting of Site Fixed Bolts and Welding 5

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 10 Protective Treatment Page 2

10. PROTECTIVE TREATMENT


10.1 GENERAL

10.1.1 Scope

1 This Part specifies the requirements for protective treatment for structural steelwork.

2 Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 2 Materials

10.1.2 References

1 The following standards are referred to in this Part:

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BS 729 Hot dip galvanized coatings on iron and steel articles.
BS 5493 Code of practice for protective coating of iron and steel structures against
corrosion.
BS 7079 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related
products.

BS EN 22063 Metallic and other inorganic coatings Thermal spraying-zinc aluminium and
their alloys.

10.1.3 Method Statement

1 The Contractor shall prepare a written method statement giving sequential details of the
surface preparation and protective treatment procedure (including touching-in procedures) to
be used in achieving the Employer's specification.

10.1.4 Working Conditions

1 Work shall he carried out in accordance with the recommendations given in BS 5493.

10.1.5 Storage of Materials

1 Protective treatment materials shall he stored in a clean, dry area which is protected from
extreme temperatures, and used in order of delivery, in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations and within the advised shelf life.

10.1.6 Application Procedures

1 Materials shall be prepared, and coatings applied to surfaces, in accordance with the
manufacturer's recommendations.

10.1.7 Handling and Storage

1 The procedures for handling and storage shall be so arranged that the protected surface is
unlikely to be damaged.

10.2 SURFACE PREPARATION

10.2.1 General

1 Unless it has been specifically approved by the Engineer all steelwork surfaces which are to
be painted shall be blast cleaned.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 10 Protective Treatment Page 3

10.2.2 Wire Brushing

1 Surfaces which are not to be blast cleaned, but are to be coated, shall be wire brushed to
remove loose mill scale, and cleaned to remove dust, oil and grease.

10.2.3 Blast Cleaning

1 The standard of blast cleaning specified shall be in accordance with BS 7079 Part Al.

2 The methods used shall be capable of cleaning all surfaces of the component. The surface
roughness shall be compatible with that recommended for the coating to be applied but shall
not be to a lesser quality than Sa 2 as defined in BS 7079

3 The cleanliness levels specified shall be those existing at the time of the application of
coating.

4 When abrasives are recycled in the blast cleaning system, the equipment shall be fitted with a

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dust removal system to remove fines and contaminants.

10.2.4 Surface Defects

1 Surface defects revealed during surface preparation shall be dealt with in accordance with
Clause 2.2.1-2 and 2.2.1-3 of this Section.

10.3 SPRAYED METAL COATINGS

10.3.1 Method

1 Sprayed metal coatings may consist of either zinc or aluminium applied to the surface as a
molten dispersed spray in accordance with BS EN 22063 to a level given in the Protective
Treatment Specification.

10.3.2 Storage and Handling

1 Storage and handling procedures shall be so arranged that the sprayed metal surface is
unlikely to be damaged.

10.3.3 Repair of Extensively Damaged Areas

1 The area shall be cleaned using a needle gun or abrasive papers or cloths. After washing
down and drying, the area shall be resprayed overlapping the undamaged area by 20mm.

10.3.4 Repair of Minimally Damaged Areas


2
1 An area less than 10 cm may be repaired after cleaning, as described in Clause 10.4.3 of
this Part, by applying a paint which is compatible and has similar properties to the metal
spray.

10.3.5 Sealing Before Painting

1 Sprayed metal coating shall be sealed before the application of paint coats in accordance
with BS 5493 Table 4C Part 2.

10.4 GALVANIZING

10.4.1 Procedures

1 Galvanizing shall be performed in accordance with BS 729.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 10 Protective Treatment Page 4

10.4.2 Touch-up of Galvanized Surfaces

1 Small areas which are within 10mm of intact galvanized coating may be touched up in
accordance with Appendix D of BS 729.

2 Preparation for touching up is to be as required by the manufacturer of the touch-up product.

10.4.3 Vent Holes

1 If so required by the Engineer, vent holes in hollow members, necessary during the
galvanizing process, shall be sealed after galvanizing with a plug of approved material.

10.5 SURFACE COATINGS (PAINT)

10.5.1 Surface Condition Prior to Painting

1 Steelwork shall be dry and cleaned to the surface cleanliness specified in Clause 10.2 of this

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Part.

10.5.2 Surfaces to be Embedded in Concrete

1 Steel surfaces to be embedded in concrete shall be left unpainted and need not be blast
cleaned unless required by the Project Documentation.

10.5.3 Coatings

1 Where steelwork is to be finished with a paint coating system it shall be carried out in
accordance with the requirements of BS 5493 and to the requirements of the Project
Documentation.

10.5.4 Application Life

1 All paint products shall be used within the manufacturer's recommended pot life.

10.5.5 Multiple Coats

1 Where two or more coats of a product are to be applied, a different colour shade shall be
used for each coat.

10.5.6 Stripe Coats

1 Additional stripe coats of primer or undercoat shall be applied in the following circumstances:
(a) welded surfaces where a weld-through primer has been used
(b) steelwork which will be exposed externally in the finished works
(c) all edges and corners
(d) seal gaps between adjacent components such as shop and site bolted connections.
10.5.7 Storage and Handling

1 Storage and handling procedures shall ensure that damage to the protective system is
minimised.

10.5.8 Painting on Site

1 Work shall not proceed when the steel surfaces are wet or the ambient temperature, or dew
point, is below that recommended by the paint manufacturers. (See Clause 10.1.4 of this
Part).

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 10 Protective Treatment Page 5

10.5.9 Painting of Site Fixed Bolts and Welding

1 All protruding portions of bolt assemblies and site weld surfaces shall be cleaned to remove
traces of oil, dust, welding flux etc. to the levels specified in 10.5.1.

2 The paint system specified in the Project Documentation shall be applied to ensure similar
properties and compatibility with the surface treatment system being used on the surrounding
surfaces.

3 Bolt assemblies which are supplied with a protective treatment need not be painted except
when the Employer's specification requires it.

END OF PART

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QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 2 Materials Page 1

2. MATERIALS................................................................................................... 2

2.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


2.1.1 Scope 2
2.1.2 References 2
2.1.3 Material Qualities 3
2.1.4 Material Testing 3
2.1.5 Test Certificates 3
2.1.6 Dimensions and Tolerances 3
2.2 SURFACE CONDITION ................................................................................. 4
2.2.1 General 4
2.3 SUBSTITUTION OF MATERIAL OR FORM .................................................. 4

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2.3.1 General 4
2.4 WELDING CONSUMABLES.......................................................................... 4
2.4.1 Standards 4
2.4.2 Storage 4
2.5 STRUCTURAL FASTENERS ........................................................................ 4
2.5.1 Ordinary Bolt Assemblies 4
2.5.2 High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) Bolt Assemblies 4
2.5.3 Foundation Bolts. 4
2.5.4 Cup and Countersunk Bolts 5
2.5.5 Washers 5
2.5.6 Lock Nuts 5
2.5.7 Fastener Coatings 5
2.6 SHEAR STUDS ............................................................................................. 5
2.6.1 General 5
2.7 PROTECTIVE TREATMENT MATERIALS .................................................... 5
2.7.1 Metallic Blast Cleaning Abrasives 5
2.7.2 Surface Coatings 5
2.7.3 Sherardized Coatings 5
2.7.4 Galvanizing Materials 5
2.7.5 Proprietary Items 5

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 2 Materials Page 2

2. MATERIALS
2.1 GENERAL

2.1.1 Scope

1 This Part specifies the materials requirements for structural steelwork.

2 Related Sections and parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 6 Bolting

Section 1 General

2.1.2 References

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1 The following standards are referred to in this Part:
BS 4 Structural steel sections, Part 1 1993, Hot-rolled sections.
BS 639 Covered carbon and carbon manganese steel electrodes for manual metal-
arc welding
BS 729 Hot dip galvanised coatings on iron and steel articles.
BS 2901 Filler rods and wires for gas-shielded arc welding.
BS 2989 Continuously hot-dip zinc coated and iron-zinc alloy coated steel flat
products.
BS 3692 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screw and nuts.
BS 4165 Electrode wires and fluxes for the submerged arc welding of carbon steel
and medium-tensile steel.
BS 4190 ISO metric black hexagon bolts, screw and nuts.
BS 4320 Metal washers for general engineering purposes.
BS 4395 High strength friction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for
structural engineering.
BS 4929 Steel hexagon prevailing-torque type nuts
BS 4933 ISO metric black cup and countersunk head bolts and screws with hexagon
nuts.
BS 4848 Hot rolled structural steel sections
BS 4921 Sherardized coatings on iron and steel
BS 5950 Structural use of steel work in building
BS 6363 Welded cold formed steel structural hollow sections
BS 7079 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related
products.
BS 5135 Process of arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels
BS 7084 Carbon and carbon-manganese steel tubular cored welding electrodes
BS 7419 Holding down bolts

BS EN 10025 Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels-Technical delivery


conditions.
BS EN 10029 Tolerances on dimensions, shape and mass for hot rolled steel plates 3mm
thick or above.
BS EN 10034 Structural steel I and H sections-Tolerances on shape and dimensions.
BS EN 10051 Continuously hot-rolled uncoated plate, sheet and strip of non-alloy and alloy
steels-Tolerances on dimensions and shape
BS EN 10147 Continuously hot-dip zinc coated structural steel sheet and strip-Technical
delivery conditions.
BS EN 10163 Delivery requirements for surface conditions of hot rolled steel plates wide
flats and sections.
BS EN 10210 Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grains structural
steels.
BS EN 102101 Technical delivery conditions

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 2 Materials Page 3

EN 10051 Specification for continuously hot-rolled uncoated plate, sheet and strip of
non-alloy steels. Tolerances on dimension and shape
EN 10113 Hot rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels.
EN 10155 Structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance. Technical
delivery conditions.
2.1.3 Material Qualities

1 Material shall be steel in rolled sections, structural hollow sections, plates and bars and shall
comply with the appropriate standard shown in Table 2.1.

2 The steel designations used in this publication are those given in BS 5950.

2.1.4 Material Testing

1 All steel shall have been specifically tested in accordance with the appropriate material
quality standard shown in Table 2.1.

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2.1.5 Test Certificates

1 The Contractor shall obtain the manufacturer's test certificates and submit them to the
Engineer for review.

2.1.6 Dimensions and Tolerances

1 Dimensions and Tolerances shall comply with the appropriate standard shown in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1

Material and Dimension Standards

Form Material Quality Dimensions Dimension


Tolerances
U.B. and U.C. BS 4 : Part 1 BS EN 10034
Joists BS 4 : Part 1 BS 4 : Part 1
1
Channels BS EN 10025 BS 4 : Part 1 BS 4 : Part 1
Angles BS 4848 : Part 4 BS 4848 : Part 4
3
Plate and Flats Not Applicable BS EN 10029
2
Structural BS EN 10210-I BS 4848 : Part 2 BS 4848 : Part 2
Hollow Sections
Hot Finished
Hollow Sections BS 6363 BS 6363 BS 6363
Cold Formed
Galvanised BS EN 10147 Not Applicable BS 2989
Open Sections
and Strip

Notes:

1 Material quality requirements for Fine Grain Steels are given in EN 10113 Material
quality requirements for Weather resistant grades are given in EN 10155.

2 BS EN 10210-1 contains material quality requirements for Non-alloy and Fine Grain
Steels.

3 Tolerances for plates cut from wide strip produced on continuous mills are given in BS
EN 10051.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 2 Materials Page 4

2.2 SURFACE CONDITION

2.2.1 General

1 Steel surfaces when used shall not be more heavily pitted or rusted than Grade C of BS
7079 Part Al.

2 Surface defects in hot rolled sections, plates and wide flats revealed during surface
preparation which are not in accordance with the requirements of BS EN 10163 shall be
rectified accordingly.

3 Surface defects in hot rolled hollow sections revealed during surface preparation which are
not in accordance with the requirements of BS EN 10210-1 shall be rectified accordingly.

2.3 SUBSTITUTION OF MATERIAL OR FORM

2.3.1 General

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1 Material quality or section form of components may, with the agreement of the Engineer be
substituted where it can be demonstrated that the structural properties are not less suitable
than the designed component.

2.4 WELDING CONSUMABLES

2.4.1 Standards

1 Consumables for use in metal arc welding shall comply with BS 639, BS 2901, Part 1, BS
4165 or BS 7084 as appropriate.

2.4.2 Storage

1 Consumables to be stored in the Contractor's works and on the Site, shall be kept in a
controlled atmosphere, in accordance with BS 5135. Any drying or baking of consumables
before issue shall be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

2.5 STRUCTURAL FASTENERS

2.5.1 Ordinary Bolt Assemblies

1 Shop and site bolts and nuts shall be to one the following grades:
(a) Grade 4.6 in accordance with BS 4190
(b) Grade 8.8 or 10.9 in accordance with BS 3692.

2 Dimensions, tolerance and threaded length to BS 4190.

3 Refer to Clause 6.2.1 of this Section for bolt/nut combinations.

2.5.2 High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) Bolt Assemblies

1 HSFG bolt assemblies shall be in accordance with BS 4395.

2 Refer to Clause 6.4.1 of this Section for bolt/nut combinations.

2.5.3 Foundation Bolts.

1 Holding down bolts shall be in accordance with BS 7419.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 2 Materials Page 5

2.5.4 Cup and Countersunk Bolts

1 Cup and countersunk bolts shall be in accordance with BS 4933.

2.5.5 Washers

1 Metal washers shall be made in accordance with BS 4320 Section 2. Unless otherwise
specified, black steel washers to Form E shall be used.

2 Refer to Clause 3.4.6 for washers for holding down bolts.

2.5.6 Lock Nuts

1 Lock nuts shall be in accordance with BS 4929: Part 1.

2.5.7 Fastener Coatings

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1 Where specific coatings are required, they shall be provided by the fastener manufacturer.

2.6 SHEAR STUDS

2.6.1 General

1 Proprietary studs used in composite construction shall be the headed type with the following
properties after being formed:
2
(a) minimum yield strength - 350 N/mm
2
(b) minimum ultimate tensile strength -450 N/mm
(c) elongation of 15% on a gauge length of 5.65 A, where A is the area of the test
specimen.

2.7 PROTECTIVE TREATMENT MATERIALS

2.7.1 Metallic Blast Cleaning Abrasives

1 Chilled iron grit shall be in accordance with BS 7079 Part E2, and cast steel grit shall be in
accordance with BS 7079 Part E3.

2.7.2 Surface Coatings

1 Paint materials and other coatings supplied shall be in accordance with the appropriate British
Standard or European Standard for the materials.

2.7.3 Sherardized Coatings

1 Sherardized coatings shall be in accordance with BS 4921.

2.7.4 Galvanizing Materials

1 The composition of zinc in galvanizing baths shall be in accordance with BS 729.

2.7.5 Proprietary Items

1 All proprietary items shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations
and instructions.

END OF PART

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 3 Drawings Page 1

3. DRAWINGS ................................................................................................... 2

3.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


3.1.1 Scope 2
3.1.2 References 2
3.1.3 General Requirements 2
3.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS .................................................... 2
3.2.1 Marking System 2
3.2.2 General Arrangement Drawings (Marking Plans) 2
3.3 FOUNDATION PLAN DRAWINGS ................................................................ 3
3.3.1 General Requirements 3
3.4 FABRICATION DRAWINGS .......................................................................... 3

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3.4.1 Fabrication Shop Drawings 3
3.4.2 Attachments to Facilitate Erection 3
3.4.3 Welding 3
3.4.4 Packings, Clearances and Camber 3
3.4.5 Hole Sizes 3
3.4.6 Holding Down Bolt Covers 3
3.4.7 Connections to allow Movement 4
3.4.8 Machining Note 4
3.4.9 Drilling Note 4
3.4.10 HSFG Faying Surfaces 4
3.5 ERECTION DRAWINGS................................................................................ 4
3.5.1 Erection Method Statement 4
3.5.2 Temporary Steelwork 4
3.6 DRAWING ACCEPTANCE ............................................................................ 4
3.6.1 Acceptance by the Engineer 4
3.6.2 Meaning of Acceptance 4
3.6.3 Acceptance Classification 5
3.7 AS ERECTED DRAWINGS ........................................................................... 5
3.7.1 General Requirements 5

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 3 Drawings Page 2

3. DRAWINGS
3.1 GENERAL

3.1.1 Scope

1 This Part specifies the requirements for drawings associated with structural steelwork.

2 Related Parts and Sections are as follows:


This Section
Part 5 Welding
Part 6 Bolting
Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication
Part 8 Erection
Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork

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Section 1 General

3.1.2 References

1 The following standards are referred to in this Part:


BS 499 Welding terms and symbols
BS 1192 Construction and drawing practice
BS 4640 Classification of metal working machine tools by types

3.1.3 General Requirements

1 All design, fabrication and erection drawings shall be made in accordance with BS 1192
Parts 1 and 2.

2 All welding symbols shall conform to BS 499 Part 2.

3.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS

3.2.1 Marking System

1 Every component which is to be individually assembled or erected shall be allocated an


erection mark.

2 Members which are identical in all respects may have the same erection mark.

3.2.2 General Arrangement Drawings (Marking Plans)

1 Drawings shall be prepared by the Contractor showing plans and elevations at a scale such
that the erection marks for all members can be shown on them. Preferred scales are 1:100 or
larger.

2 The drawings shall show the grid locations as indicated on the design drawings, main
dimensions, member levels and centre lines. Details at an enlarged scale should also be
made if these are necessary to show the assembly of members.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 3 Drawings Page 3

3.3 FOUNDATION PLAN DRAWINGS

3.3.1 General Requirements

1 Foundation Plan Drawings shall show the base location, position and orientation of columns,
the marks of all columns, any other members in direct contact with the foundations, their
base location and level, and the datum level.

2 The drawings shall show complete details of fixing steel or bolts to the foundations, method
of adjustment and packing space.

3.4 FABRICATION DRAWINGS

3.4.1 Fabrication Shop Drawings

1 Fabrication Drawings shall show all necessary details and dimensions to enable fabrication
of components to proceed.

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3.4.2 Attachments to Facilitate Erection

1 The Fabrication Drawings shall show details of holes and fittings necessary to provide for
lifting and erection of components (see Clause 8.2.1 of this Section).

2 Unless specifically agreed otherwise, such holes and fittings may remain on the permanent
structure. Account shall be taken of Clause 5.4.5 of this Section when detailing the welding of
temporary attachments.

3.4.3 Welding

1 Any requirements for edge preparations for welds shall be indicated on the Fabrication
Drawings. Welding inspection requirements which differ from those specified in Clause 5.5.5
of this Section shall be indicated on the drawings.

3.4.4 Packings, Clearances and Camber

1 When preparing Fabrication Drawings, the Contractor shall make provision for the following:
(a) packings which may be necessary to ensure proper fit-up of joints (see Clauses 6.3.1
and 6.5.1 of this Section)
(b) the need for clearances between the fabricated components so that the permitted
deviations in fabrication and erection are not exceeded (see Parts 7 and 9 of this
Section)
(c) the Engineer's requirements for pre-set or cambers.

3.4.5 Hole Sizes

1 Holes shall be shown on the Fabrication Drawings to the following sizes:


(a) for ordinary bolts and HSFG bolts:
(i) not exceeding 24mm diameter - 2 mm greater than the bolt diameter
(ii) greater than 24mm diameter - 3 mm greater than the bolt diameter
(b) For holding down bolts:
(i) 6mm greater than the bolt diameter, but with sufficient clearance to ensure
that a bolt, whose adjustment may cause it to be out of perpendicular, can be
accommodated through the base plate (see Table 9.1 Item 3 of this Section).
(c) For fitted bolts:
(I) in accordance with Clause 6.2.8 of this Section.
3.4.6 Holding Down Bolt Covers

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 3 Drawings Page 4

1 Holding down bolt details shall include provision of loose cover plates or washers with holes
3 mm greater than the holding down bolts.

3.4.7 Connections to allow Movement

1 Where the connection is designed to allow movement, the bolt assembly used shall remain
secure without impeding the movement.

3.4.8 Machining Note

1 Any machining requirements shall be clearly noted on the Fabrication Drawings.

3.4.9 Drilling Note

1 The Fabrication Drawings shall indicate those locations where holes shall be drilled in
accordance with the situations noted below (see also Clause 4.7.3 of this Section):
(a) in non-slip connections for HSFG bolts

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(b) at locations where plastic hinges are assumed in the design analysis
(c) in elements of rigid connections where yield lines are assumed;
(d) where repetition of loading makes fatigue critical to the member design
(e) where the design code of practice does not permit punched holes.

3.4.10 HSFG Faying Surfaces

1 When considering the coefficient of friction to use in the design of high strength friction grip
bolted connections, the following values are to be used:
(a) unless the Engineer advises otherwise, untreated surfaces which are in accordance
with BS 4604 may be considered as having a slip factor of 0.45; masking shall be
used to keep the surfaces free of protective treatments.
(b) surfaces which have been machined, or given any type of treatment, shall have the
slip factor determined by tests carried out in accordance with BS4604 Part1.

3.5 ERECTION DRAWINGS

3.5.1 Erection Method Statement

1 When necessary to amplify the information given in his erection method statement, the
Contractor shall prepare Erection Drawings.

3.5.2 Temporary Steelwork

1 Details and arrangements of temporary steelwork necessary for erection purposes shall be
shown on the Erection Drawings.

3.6 DRAWING ACCEPTANCE

3.6.1 Acceptance by the Engineer

1 Drawings made by the Contractor shall be submitted to the Engineer for acceptance in the
period designated by the Employer.

3.6.2 Meaning of Acceptance

1 Acceptance by the Engineer of drawings prepared by the Contractor means that the
Contractor has correctly interpreted the design requirements and that the Engineer accepts
the Connection Design.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 3 Drawings Page 5

2 Acceptance does not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility for accuracy of his
calculations, detail dimensions on the drawings, nor the general fit-up of parts to be
assembled on site.

3.6.3 Acceptance Classification

1 The designations given in Table 3.1 shall be used by the Engineer when accepting drawings:

Table 3.1

Acceptance Classification of Drawings

Ref. Classification Meaning


1 Accepted or Reviewed or Approved or Drawing is accepted and may be
No Comment released for construction

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Accepted subject to comments Drawing must be amended in line with
2
the comments, and re -submitted for
acceptance.
3 Not Accepted Drawing must be amended in the way
indicated and re-submitted for
acceptance.

3.7 AS ERECTED DRAWINGS

3.7.1 General Requirements

1 On completion of the contract, the Contractor shall provide the Engineer with one set of
paper prints of "As Erected" drawings comprising:
(a) general Arrangement Drawings
(b) fabrication Drawings
(c) drawings made after fabrication showing revisions
(d) the fabrication drawing register.

END OF PART

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 4 Fabrication Page 1

4. FABRICATION ............................................................................................... 2

4.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


4.1.1 Scope 2
4.2 IDENTIFICATION .......................................................................................... 2
4.2.1 Traceability of Steel 2
4.2.2 Material Grade Identification 2
4.2.3 Marking Steelwork 2
4.3 HANDLING .................................................................................................... 2
4.3.1 General Requirements 2
4.4 CUTTING AND SHAPING ............................................................................. 2

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4.4.1 Cutting Operations 2
4.4.2 Flame-cut Edges 3
4.4.3 Columns 3
4.5 MACHINING .................................................................................................. 3
4.5.1 Thickness of Machined Parts 3
4.6 DRESSING .................................................................................................... 3
4.6.1 Removal of Burrs 3
4.6.2 Dressing of Edges 3
4.7 HOLING ......................................................................................................... 3
4.7.1 Matching 3
4.7.2 Drilling Through More Than One Thickness 3
4.7.3 Punching Full Size 3
4.7.4 Punching and Reaming 4
4.7.5 Slotted Holes 4
4.8 ASSEMBLY.................................................................................................... 4
4.8.1 General Requirements 4
4.9 CURVING AND STRAIGHTENING ............................................................... 4
4.9.1 General Requirements 4
4.10 INSPECTION ................................................................................................. 4
4.10.1 General Requirements 4
4.11 STORAGE ..................................................................................................... 5
4.11.1 Stacking 5
4.11.2 Visible Markings 5

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 4 Fabrication Page 2

4. FABRICATION
4.1 GENERAL

4.1.1 Scope

1 This Part specifies the general requirements for the fabrication of structural steelwork
components.

2 Related Sections and Parts are as follows:


This Section
Part 2 Materials
Part 6 Bolting
Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication
Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork

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4.2 IDENTIFICATION

4.2.1 Traceability of Steel

1 All steel to be used in the Works shall have a test certificate (see Clause 2.1.5 of this
Section).

4.2.2 Material Grade Identification

1 The material grades of all steel shall be identifiable except for design grades 43A and 43B,
and in the case of structural hollow sections, 43D.

4.2.3 Marking Steelwork

1 Individual pieces shall be capable of positive identification at all stages of fabrication.

2 Completed components shall be marked with a durable and distinguish erection mark in
such a way as not to damage the material. Hard stamping may be used, except where
otherwise specified by the Engineer.

3 Where areas of steelwork are indicated on the drawings as being unmarked, they shall be
left free of all markings and hard stamping.

4.3 HANDLING

4.3.1 General Requirements

1 Steelwork shall be bundled, packed, handled and transported in a safe manner so that
permanent distortion does not occur and surface damage is minimised.

4.4 CUTTING AND SHAPING

4.4.1 Cutting Operations

1 Cutting and shaping of steel may be carried out by shearing, cropping, sawing, nibbling, laser
cutting or machine flame cutting, except that where machine flame cutting is impractical,
hand flame cutting may be used.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 4 Fabrication Page 3

4.4.2 Flame-cut Edges

1 Flame-cut edges which are free from significant irregularities shall be accepted without
further treatment except for the removal of dross, otherwise cut edges shall be dressed to
remove irregularities.

4.4.3 Columns

1 Columns with ends not in direct bearing or intended to be erected on packs or shims, shall
be fabricated to the accuracy given in Item 2 of Table 7.1 of this Section.

2 Columns intended to be in direct bearing shall be fabricated to the accuracy given Item 3 of
Table 7.1 of this Section..

3 Column sections which are one metre and over in width or depth and are intended to be in
direct bearing, shall be specially prepared at the butting ends so that the erection tolerances
in Items 4 and 5 of Table 9.2 of this Section can be achieved.

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4.5 MACHINING

4.5.1 Thickness of Machined Parts

1 The thickness of elements shown on the drawings as requiring machining shall mean the
minimum thickness after the machining operations.

4.6 DRESSING

4.6.1 Removal of Burrs

1 Cut edges shall be dressed to remove dross, burrs, and irregularities. Holes shall be dressed
as required to remove burrs and protruding edges.

4.6.2 Dressing of Edges

1 Sharp edges shall be dressed, but a 90 rolled, cut, sheared or machined edge is acceptable
without further treatment.

4.7 HOLING

4.7.1 Matching

1 All matching holes for fasteners or pins shall register with each other so that fasteners can
be inserted without undue force through the assembled members in a direction at right
angles to the faces in contact. Drifts may be used but holes shall not be distorted.

4.7.2 Drilling Through More Than One Thickness

1 Drilling shall be permitted through more than one thickness where the separate parts are
tightly clamped together before drilling. The parts shall be separated after drilling and any
burrs removed.

4.7.3 Punching Full Size

1 Full size punching of holes shall be permitted when:


(a) the tolerance on distortion of the punched hole does not exceed that shown in
Item 3 of Table 7.2 of this Section.
(b) the holes are free of burrs which would prevent solid seating of the parts when
tightened

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 4 Fabrication Page 4

(c) the thickness of the material is not greater than the hole diameter
(d) the maximum thickness for all steel grades used from the standards listed in Table 2.1
of this Section is:
(i) 2 mm for sub-grade A
(ii) l6 mm for sub-grade B
(iii) 20 mm for sub-grade C or higher sub-grade; in spliced connections when the
holes in mating surfaces are punched in the same direction.
4.7.4 Punching and Reaming

1 Punching is permitted without the conditions in Clause 4.7.3 of this Part, provided that the
holes are punched at least 2 mm less in diameter than the required size and the hole is
reamed to the full diameter after assembly.

4.7.5 Slotted Holes

1 Slotted holes shall be made by one of the following methods:

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(a) punched in one operation
(b) formed by drilling two holes and completed by cutting
(c) machine operated flame cutting.

4.8 ASSEMBLY

4.8.1 General Requirements

1 All components shall be assembled within tolerances specified in Section 7 of this Section
and in a manner such that they are not bent, twisted or otherwise damaged.

2 Drifting of holes to align the components shall be permitted, but must not cause damage or
distortion to the final assembly (see Clause 6.3.2).

4.9 CURVING AND STRAIGHTENING

4.9.1 General Requirements

1 Curving or straightening components during fabrication, shall be performed by one of the


following methods:
(a) mechanical means, taking care to minimise indentations, or change of cross-
section
(b) the local application of heat, ensuring that the temperature of the metal is carefully
o
controlled, and does not exceed 650 C
(c) the induction bending process where the procedure used includes careful
temperature control; after curving or straightening, welds within the area of curving or
straightening shall be visually inspected. Welds which are to be subject to non
destructive examination shall have these tests carried out after curving or
straightening.

4.10 INSPECTION

4.10.1 General Requirements

1 Sufficient components shall be checked for dimensional accuracy and conformity to drawing,
to prove that the manufacturing process is working satisfactorily.

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4.11 STORAGE

4.11.1 Stacking

1 Fabricated components which are stored prior to being transported or erected shall be
stacked clear of the ground, and arranged if possible so that water cannot accumulate. They
shall be kept clean and supported in such a manner as to avoid permanent distortion.

4.11.2 Visible Markings

1 Individual components shall be stacked and marked in such a way as to ensure that they can
be identified.

END OF PART

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 5 Welding Page 1

5. WELDING ...................................................................................................... 2

5.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


5.1.1 Scope 2
5.1.2 References 2
5.1.3 System Description 2
5.2 WELDER QUALIFICATION ........................................................................... 2
5.2.1 Testing 2
5.2.2 Certification 2
5.3 WELDING PROCEDURES ............................................................................ 3
5.3.1 Preparation of Procedures 3
5.3.2 Approval of Procedures and Procedure Tests 3

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5.3.3 Availability of Welding Procedure Sheets 3
5.4 ASSEMBLY.................................................................................................... 3
5.4.1 Fit-up 3
5.4.2 Jigs 3
5.4.3 Tack Welds 3
5.4.4 Distortion Control 3
5.4.5 Fabrication or Erection Attachments 3
5.4.6 Extension Pieces 4
5.4.7 Production Test Plates 4
5.5 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF WELDS ................................................ 4
5.5.1 Record of Testing 4
5.5.2 Visual Inspection of Welds 4
5.5.3 Surface Flaw Detection 4
5.5.4 Ultrasonic Examination 4
5.5.5 Scope of Inspection 5
5.5.6 Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Action 5
5.6 SHEAR STUD WELDING .............................................................................. 5
5.6.1 Method 5
5.6.2 Trial Welding 5
5.6.3 Tests and Inspection 5
5.6.4 Defective Studs 5

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 5 Welding Page 2

5. WELDING
5.1 GENERAL

5.1.1 Scope

1 This Part specifies the requirements for welding associated with structural steelwork.

5.1.2 References

1 The following standards are referred to in this Part:


BS 3923 Methods for ultrasonic examination of welds
BS 4570 Fusion welding of steel castings
BS 4872 Approval testing of welders when welding procedure approval is not required
BS 5135 Process of arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels

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BS 5289 Code of practice for visual inspection of fusion welded points
BS 6072 Method for magnetic particle flaw detection
BS 6443 Penetrant flaw detection

BS EN 287 Approval testing of welders for fusion welding


BS EN 288 Approval of welding procedures for metallic materials

5.1.3 System Description

1 Welding shall be a metal arc process in accordance with BS 5135 and BS 4570, as
appropriate, together with other clauses contained in this section, unless otherwise
specifically permitted by the Engineer.

2 Welding consumables used shall be chosen to ensure that the mechanical properties of the
weld metal are not less than those required for the parent metal.

3 Joints shall be prepared in accordance with BS 5135. Precautions shall be taken to ensure
cleanliness of the connection prior to welding.

5.2 WELDER QUALIFICATION

5.2.1 Testing

1 Welders shall be tested to meet the requirements of BS EN 287 Part 1 but, in the case of
welders engaged on fillet welding only, BS 4872 Part 1 is an acceptable alternative.

2 As an alternative, when permitted by the Employer, welders may be tested to meet the
requirements of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASME IX, or the American
Welding Society, AWS Dl.1.

5.2.2 Certification

1 Welder testing shall be witnessed and certificates endorsed by an independent Inspection


Authority.

2 The certification shall remain valid providing it complies with the conditions for re-approval of
certification specified in BS EN 287 Part 1.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 5 Welding Page 3

5.3 WELDING PROCEDURES

5.3.1 Preparation of Procedures

1 Approved written welding procedures shall be available in accordance with BS 5135, and
tested in accordance with BS EN 288 Part 3 by the Contractor.

5.3.2 Approval of Procedures and Procedure Tests

1 Procedures and tests shall be approved by an independent Inspection Authority.

5.3.3 Availability of Welding Procedure Sheets

1 Welding Procedure sheets shall be made available to the welder prior to the commencement
of the work and shall be available to the Engineer and Inspection Authority on request.

5.4 ASSEMBLY

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5.4.1 Fit-up

1 Joints shall be fitted up to the dimensional accuracy required by the welding procedure,
depending on the process to be used, to ensure that the quality in Table 5.2 is achieved.

5.4.2 Jigs

1 Fabrications assembled in jigs may be completely welded in the jig, or may be removed from
the jig after tack welding.

5.4.3 Tack Welds

1 Tack welds shall be made using the same procedures as for the root runs of main welds. The
length of the tack shall be the lesser of 4 times the thickness of the thicker part or 50 mm,
unless demonstrated by a weld procedure qualification.

2 Tack welds which are not defective may be incorporated into main welds provided that the
welder is qualified as in Clause 5.2 of this Part. However, where joints are welded using an
automatic or mechanised process, the suitability of the tack weld used for incorporation into
automatic processes shall be demonstrated in the weld procedure qualification.

3 Where tack welds are made in circumstances other than those identified above, they must be
removed.

5.4.4 Distortion Control

1 The sequence of welding a joint or a sequence of joints shall be such that distortion is
minimised (see Part 7 of this Section).

5.4.5 Fabrication or Erection Attachments

1 Welding of attachments required for fabrication or erection purposes shall be made in


accordance with the requirements for a permanent weld.

2 When removal is necessary, they shall be flame cut or gouged at a point not less than 3 mm
from the surface of the parent material. The residual material shall be ground flush and the
affected area visually inspected. When thicknesses are greater than 20 mm it shall also be
checked by magnetic particle inspection. Acceptance criteria are as set out in Table 5.2.
Attachments shall not be removed by hammering. (See Clause 3.4.2 of this Section).

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 5 Welding Page 4

5.4.6 Extension Pieces

1 Where the profile of a weld is maintained to the free end of a run by the use of extension
pieces they shall be of material of a similar composition, but not necessarily the same grade,
as the component. They shall be arranged so as to provide continuity of preparation and shall
be removed after completion of the weld and the surface ground smooth.

5.4.7 Production Test Plates

1 Where production test plates are required for testing purposes, they shall be clamped in line
with the joint. The grade of material and rolling direction shall match the parent plate, but
need not be cut from the same plates or cast.

5.5 NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF WELDS

5.5.1 Record of Testing

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1 The test results shall be recorded and be available for inspection by the Engineer.

5.5.2 Visual Inspection of Welds

1 Visual inspection shall be made in accordance with guidance given in BS 5289 over the full
length of the weld and before NDT inspection is performed (see Tables 5.1 and 5.2). Any
welds which will be rendered inaccessible by subsequent work shall be examined in
accordance with Tables 5.1 and 5.2 prior to the loss of access.

2 A suitably qualified person for visual inspection of welds may be a welding inspector or a
welder who can provide evidence of having been trained and assessed for competence in
visual inspection of the relevant types of welds.

5.5.3 Surface Flaw Detection

1 Where a closer examination of a weld surface is required in accordance with Table 5.1,
magnetic particle inspection (MPI) shall be used in accordance with the recommendations
given in BS 6072.

2 If magnetic particle inspection equipment is not available, dye penetrant inspection (DPI) may
be used in accordance with the recommendations given in BS 6443.

3 Final surface flaw detection of a welded joint shall be carried out not less than 16 hours from
the time of completion of the weld to be inspected, or not less than 40 hours in the case of
welds to Design Grade 55 material. The Contractor shall note that where a welding procedure
requires an inspection after initial weld runs before further welding is performed, such
inspections may be carried out when the weld metal has cooled to ambient temperature.

4 A suitably qualified person for surface flaw detection of welds may be a welding inspector or a
welder who holds a current certificate of competence in surface flaw detection of the relevant
types of work, from a nationally recognised authority.

5.5.4 Ultrasonic Examination

1 Where ultrasonic examination is required in accordance with Tables 5.1 and 5.2, it shall be
made in accordance with BS 3923 Part 1, Level 2B. Examination shall be carried out not less
than 16 hours from the time of completion of the weld to be inspected, or not less than 40
hours in the case of butt welds thicker than 40 mm or any welds to Design Grade 55 material.

2 Operators carrying out final ultrasonic examination of the weld shall hold a current certificate
of competence from a nationally recognised authority.

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QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 5 Welding Page 5

5.5.5 Scope of Inspection

1 The scope of inspection shall be in accordance with Table 5.1.

5.5.6 Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Action

1 Acceptance criteria, corrective action and re-testing shall be in accordance with Table 5.2 for
components subject to static loading.

2 The acceptance criteria shown in Table 5.2 are not intended to apply to bridges, offshore
structures, or other dynamically loaded structures.

5.6 SHEAR STUD WELDING

5.6.1 Method

1 Shear studs shall be welded in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations for

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materials, procedures and equipment.

5.6.2 Trial Welding

1 When specified by the Engineer and before production welding of studs commences,
procedure trials shall be carried out. The trials shall be made on samples of material and
studs representative of those to be used in the work. The samples of materials and studs
shall be agreed with the Engineer.

2 Where primers are to be applied to the work prior to the welding of studs they shall be applied
to the sample material before the procedure trials are made.

5.6.3 Tests and Inspection

1 All studs are to be visually inspected. They shall show a full 360 collar.

2 At locations agreed with the Engineer a minimum of 5% of studs which have satisfied the
visual inspection shall have a bend test. The bend test shall be made by striking the head of
the stud with a 6kg hammer until it is displaced laterally a distance of about one quarter of the
height of the stud. The stud weld shall not show any signs of cracking or lack of fusion.

3 Studs subjected to the bend test shall not be straightened.

5.6.4 Defective Studs

1 Studs with defective welding shall be removed in the manner described in Clause 5.4.5 of this
Part, and replaced and re-tested as in Clause 5.6.3 of this Part.

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Table 5.1

Welds - Scope of Inspection

The requirements of this table shall not preclude the use of Non- Destructive Testing outside the limits
shown should the results of visual inspection or NDT indicate that a lapse in quality may have occurred
in specific joints

PART A. VISUAL INSPECTION


Prior to Non -Destructive Testing all welds to be visually inspected by a suitably
qualified person (See Clause 5.5.2 of this Part)

PART B. THICKNESS WHEN NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING BECOMES MANDATORY


(all dimensions in mm)

Weld Type Butt (full, partial penetration and with reinforcing fillets)

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Joint Type In-line Tee and Cruciform Corner
Procedures Single sided Double sided Single sided Double sided All
and single and single
sided plus sided plus
backing backing
Examples

Design
Grade
MPI 43/50 t max 10 1max 12 1max 20 1max 20 1max 20
55 t max 10 1max 10 1max 15 1max 15 1max 15
U/S 43/50 t max 10 1max 12 1max 12 1max 30 1max 30
55 t max 10 1max 10 1max 10 1max 20 1max 20
Notation MPI - Magnetic Particle Inspection (see Clause 5.5.3 of this Part)
U/S - Ultrasonic Examination (see Clause 5.5.4 of this Part)
- Less than
- Less than or equal to

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Table 5.1 (Continued)

Welds - Scope of Inspection

PART B. THICKNESS WHEN NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING BECOMES MANDATORY


(Cont.) (all dimensions in mm)
Weld Type Fillet
Joint Type Lap Tee and Cruciform
Procedures All All
Examples

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Design
Grade
MPI 43/50 t max 20 t max 20
55 t max 15 t max 15
U/S 43/50 Not Mandatory t max 20
55 Not Mandatory t max 15
Notation MPI - Magnetic Particle Inspection (see Clause 5.5.3 of this Part)
U/S - Ultrasonic Examination (see Clause 5.5.4 of this Part)
- Less than
- Less than or equal to

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Table 5.1 (Continued)

Welds - Scope of Inspection

PART C FREQUENCY OF TESTING OF JOINTS IDENTIFIED IN PART B


Connection Shop Welds First 5 identified joints of each type having same
Zones basic dimensions, material grades and weld
geometry and welded to the same procedures .
Thereafter 1 in 5 joints of each type ( if the first
5 have complied with Table 5.2 )
Site Welds All identified joints
Member Traverse butts in web
Zones and flange plates
As for shop welds in
before assembly
Connection Zones

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Built up Transverse fillet welds
at ends of cover plates
Members
Longitudinal welds 0.5 m in each 10 m or
part thereof
Secondary Attachment Welds e.g. for fixing purlins 1 in 20 Attachments
side rails, buckling
stiffeners etc.
Note :- Where only partial inspection is required the joints for testing shall be selected on a random
basis, but ensuring that sampling covers the following variables as widely as possible : Joint Type ,
Material Grade and Welding Equipment .

Notation MPI - Magnetic Particle Inspection (see Clause 5.5.3 of this Part)
U/S - Ultrasonic Examination (see Clause 5.5.4 of this Part)
- Less than
- Less than or equal to

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Table 5.2

Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Actions

PARAMETER WELD PARTICULAR ACCEPTANCE REMEDIAL ACTION


CONDITIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-
TYPE CONFORMING
(all dimensions in mm) WELDS (see Note 2)

(see Note 1 and 5 ) Fig


WELD GEOMETRY
Location All As specified on drawings Repair
Weld Type All As specified on drawings Refer to Engineer
Length All As specified on Repair

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drawings
PROFILE
Throat Butt tb As drawing (Av.50) b,c Repair
Thickness Fillet tf As drawing (Av.50) a Repair or grind and
MPI after grinding
As drawing + 5
Leg Length Fillet 1f As drawing a Repair
Toe Angle All 90 a Grind and MPI after
grinding
Cap/Root Butt Butt Joint -1 Cb 4 b Repair or grind
Bead (Height
or concavity)
Misalignment Butt Butt Joint m As drawing + 0.25t d Refer to engineer
As drawing + 3
All Cruciform m As drawing + 0.50t e
Joint and As drawing + 6
Notes:-
1. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply
All limits are peak values unless indicated as average
2. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope
of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the
joint type in question.
3. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.
4. All welds to the same procedure.
5. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length
Equal or greater than
Equal or less than
Sum of

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Table 5.2 (Continued)

Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Actions

PARAMETER WELD PARTICULAR ACCEPTANCE REMEDIAL ACTION


CONDITIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-
TYPE CONFORMING
(all dimensions in mm) WELDS (see Note 2)

(see Note 1 and 5 ) Fig


SURFACE DISCONTINUITIES
Undercut Longitudinal U1+ U2 0.1t (Av.100) D,e Repair
Weld
All And 2 D,e
Transverse U1+ U2 0.05t (Av.100) D,e
Weld
And 1 D,e

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Root Single Longitudinal rp As c Repair and double
Penetration Weld drawing+0.1t(Av.100) scope of Ultrasonic
Sided
inspection
(lack of) and As drawing +3
Butt Transverse rp As c if root is inaccessible
Weld drawing+0.05t(Av.100)
and As drawing +2

Porosity All Welds d 3 f


Longitudinal d 20 in 100 (length) f Repair
Weld
All
Transverse d 10 in 100 (length) f
Weld
Lack of Repair and increase
Fusion and MPI
All Not Permitted
Cracks
to 100% (Note 4)
Notes:-
6. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply
All limits are peak values unless indicated as average
7. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope
of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the
joint type in question.
8. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.
9. All welds to the same procedure.
10. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length
Equal or greater than
Equal or less than
Sum of

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Table 5.2 (Continued)

Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Actions

PARAMETER WELD PARTICULAR ACCEPTANCE REMEDIAL ACTION


CONDITIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-
TYPE CONFORMING
(all dimensions in mm) WELDS (see Note 2)

(see Note 1 and 5 ) Fig


SUB-SURFACE DISCONTINUITIES
Slag Lines All h 3 + As drawing e,g Repair and double
and Lack of scope of U/S
Fusion/Root
All Welds 1 10 ) if h` 6 g
Inspection
Penetration 1` 10 ) g

Longitudinal 1 6t in 200 (length) g

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Weld
Transverse 1 3t in 200 (length) g
Weld

Root Gap Fillet Tee, rg 2(Av 100 ) a,e Repair and double
or Cruciform, scope of U/S
Partial Corner and and 3 a,e
Inspection
Pen Lap Joints
Butt
Cracks All Not permitted Repair and increase
U/S Inspection to
100%
All Tee, Not Permitted Refer to Engineer
Lamellar Cruciform, and increase U/S
( Note 3)
Tears Corner and Inspection to 100%
Lap Joints
Notes:-
11. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply
All limits are peak values unless indicated as average
12. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope
of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the
joint type in question.
13. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.
14. All welds to the same procedure.
15. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length
Equal or greater than
Equal or less than
Sum of

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Table 5.2 (Continued)

Weld Quality Acceptance Criteria and Corrective Actions

DIMENSIONAL SYMBOLS
DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENTS

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Notes:-
16. Where there are two limits for one dimension both shall apply
All limits are peak values unless indicated as average
17. Where a repair is necessary an approved procedure must be used. If on increasing the scope
of inspection, further non-conformances are found, the scope shall be increased to 100% for the
joint type in question.
18. May be accepted up to the limits for slag lines if the joint is subjected to longitudinal shear only.
19. All welds to the same procedure.
20. Abbreviations: Av. 100 or Av.50 indicates the average value over 100mm or 50mm length
Equal or greater than
Equal or less than
Sum of

END OF PART

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 6 Bolting Page 1

6. BOLTING ....................................................................................................... 2

6.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


6.1.1 Scope 2
6.1.2 References 2
6.2 ORDINARY BOLTED ASSEMBLIES ............................................................. 2
6.2.1 Bolt/Nut Combinations 2
6.2.2 Differing Bolt Grades 2
6.2.3 Bolt Length 2
6.2.4 Washers 2
6.2.5 Taper Washers 2
6.2.6 Galvanized Nuts 3
6.2.7 Bolt Tightening 3

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6.2.8 Fitted Bolts 3
6.3 FIT-UP WHEN USING ORDINARY BOLTS .................................................. 3
6.3.1 Fit-up 3
6.3.2 Reaming 3
6.4 HIGH STRENGTH FRICTION GRIP ASSEMBLIES ...................................... 3
6.4.1 Bolt/Nut/Washer Combinations 3
6.4.2 Tightening 3
6.4.3 Calibration of Torque Equipment 3
6.4.4 Discarded Bolt Assemblies 3
6.5 FIT-UP WHEN USING HSFG BOLTS ........................................................... 4
6.5.1 Fit-up 4
6.5.2 Reaming 4

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 6 Bolting Page 2

6. BOLTING
6.1 GENERAL

6.1.1 Scope

1 This Part specifies the requirements for bolting associated with structural steelwork.

6.1.2 References

2 The following standards are referred to in this Part:


BS 2583 Podger spanners
BS 3692 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screws and nuts
BS 4190 ISO metric black hexagon bolts, screws and nuts.
BS 4395 High strength friction grip bolts and associated nuts and washers for structural
engineering.

QD-SBG
BS 4606 Recommendations for the co-ordination of dimensions in building. Co-
ordination sizes for rigid flat sheet materials used in building.

6.2 ORDINARY BOLTED ASSEMBLIES

6.2.1 Bolt/Nut Combinations

1 The combinations of bolts and nuts shall be not less than the following:
(a) 4.6 bolts with grade 4 nuts (BS 4190)
(b) 8.8 bolts with grade 8 nuts (BS 3692)
(c) 10.9 bolts with grade 12 nuts (BS 3692).

2 Any bolt assemblies which seize when being tightened shall be replaced.

6.2.2 Differing Bolt Grades

1 Different bolt grades of the same diameter shall not be used in the same structure, except
when agreed otherwise by the Engineer.

6.2.3 Bolt Length

1 The bolt length shall be chosen such that, after tightening, at least one thread plus the thread
run-out will be clear between the nut and the unthreaded shank of the bolt and at least one
clear thread shall show above the nut.

6.2.4 Washers

1 When the members being connected have a finished surface protective treatment which may
be damaged by the nut or bolt head being rotated, a washer shall be placed under the
rotating part

2 A suitable plate, or heavy duty, washer shall be used under the head and nut when bolts are
used to assemble components with oversize or slotted holes.

6.2.5 Taper Washers

1 When the bolt head or nut is in contact with a surface which is inclined at more than 30 from
a plane at right angles to the bolt axis, a taper washer shall be placed to achieve satisfactory
bearing.

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 6 Bolting Page 3

6.2.6 Galvanized Nuts

1 Nuts shall be checked after being galvanized for free running on the bolt and retapped if
necessary to ensure a satisfactory tightening performance.

6.2.7 Bolt Tightening

1 Bolts may be assembled using power tools or shall be fully tightened by hand using
appropriate spanners in accordance with BS 2583.

6.2.8 Fitted Bolts

1 Precision bolts to BS 3692 may be used as fitted bolts when holes are drilled or reamed after
assembly so that the clearance in the hole is not more than 0.3 mm.

6.3 FIT-UP WHEN USING ORDINARY BOLTS

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6.3.1 Fit-up

1 Connected parts shall be firmly drawn together. If there is a remaining gap which may affect
the integrity of the joint, it shall be taken apart and a pack inserted.

6.3.2 Reaming

1 Where parts cannot be brought together by drifting without distorting the steelwork,
rectification may be made by reaming, provided the design of the connection will allow the use
of larger diameter holes and bolts.

6.4 HIGH STRENGTH FRICTION GRIP ASSEMBLIES

6.4.1 Bolt/Nut/Washer Combinations


Bolt/nut/washer combinations shall comply with BS 4395 Parts 1 or 2, as appropriate.
6.4.2 Tightening

1 The use of friction grip bolts shall comply with BS 4604. Part 1 or 2.

2 Tightening which complies with BS 4604 Part 1, may be by the torque control method, part-
turn method, or with load indicating devices used in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations.

6.4.3 Calibration of Torque Equipment

1 Torque spanners and other devices shall have a calibration check at least once per shift, and
shall be re-calibrated where necessary in accordance with BS 4604.

6.4.4 Discarded Bolt Assemblies

1 If, after complete tightening, a bolt or nut has to be slackened off, the whole bolt assembly is
to be disposed of.

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 6 Bolting Page 4

6.5 FIT-UP WHEN USING HSFG BOLTS

6.5.1 Fit-up

1 Connected parts shall be firmly drawn together with all bolts partially tightened.The joint shall
then be examined and if there is any remaining gap which may affect the integrity of the joint,
it shall be taken apart and a pack inserted before recommencing the tightening procedure.

6.5.2 Reaming

1 Where parts cannot be brought together by drifting without distorting the steelwork,
rectification can be made by reaming, provided that the design of the connection will allow the
use of larger diameter bolts.

2 Calculations shall be made to demonstrate that the connection remains adequate for the
forces in the connection.

QD-SBG
END OF PART

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 1

7. ACCURACY OF FABRICATION .................................................................... 2

7.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


7.1.1 Scope 2
7.1.2 References 2
7.2 PERMITTED DEVIATIONS ........................................................................... 2
7.2.1 Permitted Deviations In Rolled Components After Fabrication 2
7.2.2 Permitted Deviations for Elements of Fabricated Members 3
7.2.3 Permitted Deviations In Plate Girder Sections 5
7.2.4 Permitted Deviations in Box Sections 8

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QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 2

7. ACCURACY OF FABRICATION
7.1 GENERAL

7.1.1 Scope

1 This Part deals with the accuracy of fabrication of structural steel sections.

7.1.2 References

1 The following standards are referred to in this Part:


BS 4 Structural steel sections
BS 4848 Hot rolled structural steel sections
BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in buildings

QD-SBG
7.2 PERMITTED DEVIATIONS

7.2.1 Permitted Deviations In Rolled Components After Fabrication

1 Permitted deviations in rolled components after fabrication (including structural hollow


sections) are given in Table 7.1

Table 7.1

Permitted Deviations in Rolled Components After Fabrication

Item Component Deviation


1 Cross Section after Fabrication In accordance with the tolerances
specified in BS 4 or BS 4848 as
appropriate.
2 Squareness of Ends Not
Prepared for Bearing
See also clause 4.4.3-1.

Plan or Elevation of End


3 Squareness of Ends Prepared
for Bearing
Prepare ends with respect to
the longitudinal axis of the
member. See also Clauses
4.4.3-2 and 4.4.3-3.

Plan or Elevation

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 3

Table 7.1 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations in Rolled Components After Fabrication

Item Component Deviation


4 Straightness on Both Axes

= L/1000 or 3mm
whichever is the greater

5 Length
Length after cutting,

QD-SBG
measured on the centre line
of the section of angles.

6 Curved or Cambered
Deviation from intended curve
or camber at mid-length of
curved portion when
measured with web
horizontal.

Deviation = L/1000 or 6mm


whichever is greater

7.2.2 Permitted Deviations for Elements of Fabricated Members

1 Permitted deviations for elements of fabricated members are given in Table 7.2

Table 7.2

Permitted Deviations for Elements of Fabricated Members

Item Component Deviation


1 Position of Fittings
Fittings and components whose
location is crucial to the force
path in the structure, the
deviation from the intended
position shall not exceed .

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 4

Table 7.2 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations for Elements of Fabricated Members

Item Component Deviation


2 Position of Holes
The deviation from the intended
position of an isolated hole, also
a group of holes, relative to each
other shall not exceed

3 Punched Holes

The distortion caused by a

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punched hole shall not exceed
(see clause 4.6.3)

= D/10 or 1mm
whichever is the greater

4 Sheared or Cropped Edges of


Plates or Angle

The deviation from a 90 edge


shall not exceed

5 Flatness
Where bearing is specified, the
flatness shall be such that when
measured against a straight
edge not exceeding one metre
long, which is laid against the
full bearing surface in any
direction, the gap does not
exceed

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 5

7.2.3 Permitted Deviations In Plate Girder Sections

1 Permitted deviations in plate girder sections are given in Table 7.3

Table 7.3

Permitted Deviations In Plate Girder Sections

Item Component Deviation


1 Depth
Depth on centre Line

QD-SBG
2 Flange Width
Width of Bw or Bn

3 Squareness of Section B Flange width


Out of Squareness of Flanges.

=B/100 or 3mm whichever
is greater

4 Web Eccentricity
Intended position of web from
one edge of flange.

5 Flanges B Flange width


Out of flatness

= B/100 or 3mm
whichever is the greater

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 6

Table 7.3 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations In Plate Girder Sections

Item Component Deviation


6 Top Flange of Crane Girder
Out of flatness where the rail w = Rail width + 20 mm
seats.

7 Length
Length on centre line

QD-SBG
8 Flange Straightness
Straightness of individual
flanges

= L/1000 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
9 Curved or Cambered
Deviation from intended curve
or camber at mid-length of
curved portion, when measured
with the web horizontal.

Deviation = l/1000 or 6mm


whichever is the greater
10 Web Distortion
Distortion on web depth or gauge length = web depth
gauge length.

= d/150 or 3mm
whichever is the greater

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 7

Table 7.3 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations In Plate Girder Sections

Item Component Deviation


11 Cross Section at Bearings
Squareness of flanges to web

12 Web Stiffeners

QD-SBG
Straightness of stiffener out of
plane after welding.

= d/500 or 3mm
whichever is greater

13 Web Stiffeners
Straightness of stiffener in plane
after welding.

= d/250 or 3mm
whichever is greater

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 8

7.2.4 Permitted Deviations in Box Sections

1 Permitted deviations in box sections are given in table 7.4

Table 7.4

Permitted Deviations in Box Sections

Item Component Deviation


1 Plate Widths
Width of Bf or Bw

QD-SBG
2 Squareness
Squareness at diaphragm
positions

3 Plate Distortion gauge length = width, w


Distortion on width or gauge
length.

= w/150 or 3mm
whichever is the greater
4 Web or Flange Straightness
Straightness of individual web
or flanges.

= L/1000 or 3mm
whichever is the greater

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication Page 9

Table 7.4 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations in Box Sections

Item Component Deviation


5 Web Stiffners
Straightness in plane with plate
after welding.

= d/500 or 3mm
whichever is the greater

QD-SBG
6 Web Stiffners
Straightness out of plane to
plate after welding.

= d/250 or 3mm
whichever is the greater

7 Length
Length on centre line.

8 Curved or Cambered
Deviation from intended curve
or camber at mid-length of
curved portion when measured
with the uncambered side
horizontal.
Deviation = L/1000 or 6mm
whichever is the greater

END OF PART

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 8 Erection Page 1

8. ERECTION .................................................................................................... 2

8.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


8.1.1 Scope 2
8.2 ERECTION .................................................................................................... 2
8.2.1 Erection Method Statement 2
8.2.2 Meaning of Acceptance 2
8.2.3 Provision of Setting-Out Lines by the Employer 2
8.2.4 Handling and Storage 2
8.2.5 Damaged Steelwork 2
8.2.6 Column Base Plates and Slabs 2
8.2.7 Grouting 3
8.3 STABILITY ..................................................................................................... 3

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8.3.1 Temporary Restraints until Permanent Features are Built 3
8.3.2 Other Temporary Restraints used by the Contractor 3
8.4 ERECTION LOADS ....................................................................................... 3
8.4.1 General Requirements 3
8.5 LINING AND LEVELLING .............................................................................. 3
8.5.1 Alignment of Part of the Structure 3
8.5.2 Temperature Effects 3
8.6 SITE WELDING ............................................................................................. 3
8.6.1 General Requirements 3
8.7 SITE BOLTING .............................................................................................. 4
8.7.1 General Requirements 4
8.8 CERTIFICATION OF COMPLETION ............................................................. 4
8.8.1 General Requirements 4

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 8 Erection Page 2

8. ERECTION
8.1 GENERAL

8.1.1 Scope

1 This Part specifies the requirements for the erection of structural steelwork.

2 Related Parts and Sections are as follows:


This Section
Part 5 Welding
Part 6 Bolting

8.2 ERECTION

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8.2.1 Erection Method Statement

1 The Contractor shall prepare a written method statement, taking into account the requirement
of the design, erection procedure and programme, respectively.

2 The Contractor shall submit the method statement to the Engineer for acceptance at least
two weeks before erection commences.

3 Erection shall not commence before the method statement has been accepted by the
Engineer.

8.2.2 Meaning of Acceptance

1 Acceptance by the Engineer of the Erection Statement does not reduce the contractors
responsibility for the safety of the erection process.

8.2.3 Provision of Setting-Out Lines by the Employer

1 The Contractor shall provide and maintain until the steelwork is accepted, setting-outlines and
datum levels within, or immediately adjacent to, the Works.

8.2.4 Handling and Storage

1 Components shall be handled and stored in such a manner as to minimise the risk of surface
abrasion and damage.

2 Fasteners and small fittings shall be stored under cover in dry conditions.

8.2.5 Damaged Steelwork

1 Any steelwork damaged during off-loading, transportation, storage or erection shall be


restored to conform to the standards of manufacture as given in this Specification.

8.2.6 Column Base Plates and Slabs

1 Steel packings shall be supplied to allow the structure to be property lined and levelled and of
sufficient size to avoid local crushing of the concrete.

2 Base packings shall be placed so that they do not prevent subsequent grouting to completely
fill all spaces directly under the base plates.

3 Base packs may be left permanently in place.

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 8 Erection Page 3

8.2.7 Grouting

1 Grouting shall not be carried out under column base plates until a sufficient portion of the
structure has been aligned, levelled, plumbed and adequately braced.

2 Immediately before grouting, the space under column base plates shall be clean and free of
all extraneous matter.

8.3 STABILITY

8.3.1 Temporary Restraints until Permanent Features are Built

1 The Engineer shall advise the Contractor of positions on the structure where temporary
bracing or restraints are necessary until walls, floors or other non-steel structures are built.
He shall also provide details of the forces and moments in these elements.

2 The Contractor shall design and provide the temporary bracing or restraints.

QD-SBG
8.3.2 Other Temporary Restraints used by the Contractor

1 If the Contractor uses temporary restraints during erection which do not substitute for
permanent features, they may be removed after the structure has been lined, levelled and
plumbed provided that sufficient steelwork and or permanent bracing has been erected to
ensure the stability of the structure under the worst expected conditions of dead, imposed
and wind loading.

8.4 ERECTION LOADS

8.4.1 General Requirements

1 The Contractor shall ensure that no part of the structure is permanently distorted by stacking
of materials or temporary erection loads during the erection process.

8.5 LINING AND LEVELLING

8.5.1 Alignment of Part of the Structure

1 Each part of the structure shall be aligned as soon as practicable after it has been erected.
Permanent connections shall not be made between members until sufficient of the structure
has been aligned, levelled, plumbed and temporarily connected to ensure that members will
not be displaced during subsequent erection or alignment of the remainder of the structure.

8.5.2 Temperature Effects

1 Due account shall be taken of the effects of temperature on the structure and on tapes and
instruments when measurements are made for setting out, during erection, and for
o
subsequent dimensional checks. The reference temperature shall be 30 C.

8.6 SITE WELDING

8.6.1 General Requirements

1 Site welding shall be carried out in accordance with Part 5 of this Section.

2 Welding shall not be permitted during inclement weather, unless adequate protective
measures are taken.

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 8 Erection Page 4

8.7 SITE BOLTING

8.7.1 General Requirements

1 Bolting shall be carried out in accordance with Part 6 of this Section.

8.8 CERTIFICATION OF COMPLETION

8.8.1 General Requirements

1 When the steelwork, or portion of the steelwork, has been completed, the Contractor shall
present a certificate for the Engineer and the Contractor to sign.

2 The completion of the certificate means the following:


(a) the Contractor's signature signifies that an inspection has been made to ensure that
all connections are completed and that the steelwork is erected in accordance with this

QD-SBG
Specification and contract requirements.
(b) the Engineer's signature signifies acceptance that the structure, or part of the
structure, has been built in accordance with this Specification and the contract
requirements.

END OF PART

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Page 1

9. ACCURACY OF ERECTED STEELWORK ................................................... 2

9.1 GENERAL ...................................................................................................... 2


9.1.1 Scope 2
9.1.2 General Requirements 2
9.2 INFORMATION FOR SUB CONTRACTORS ................................................ 2
9.2.1 General 2
9.3 DEVIATIONS ................................................................................................. 2
9.3.1 Permitted Deviations For Foundations, Walls And Foundation Bolts 2
9.3.2 Permitted Deviations of Erected Components 4

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QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Page 2

9. ACCURACY OF ERECTED STEELWORK


9.1 GENERAL

9.1.1 Scope

1 This Part the requirements for the accuracy of erected structural steelwork.

2 Related Parts and Sections are:


This Section
Part 7 Accuracy of Fabrication
Part 8 Erection

9.1.2 General Requirements

1 Permitted maximum deviations in erected steelwork shall be as specified in Clause 9.4.2 of

QD-SBG
this Part taking account of the following:
(a) All measurements be taken in calm weather, and due note is to be taken of
temperature effects on the structure. (See Clause 8.4.2 of this Section).
(b) The deviations shown for I sections apply also to box and tubular sections.
(c) Where deviations are shown relative to nominal centrelines of the section, the
permitted deviation on cross-section and straightness, given in Part 7 of Section, may
be added.

9.2 INFORMATION FOR SUB CONTRACTORS

9.2.1 General

1 The Contractor shall advise sub contractors engaged in operations following steel erection of
the deviations acceptable in this document in fabrication and erection, so that they can
provide the necessary clearances and adjustments.

9.3 DEVIATIONS

9.3.1 Permitted Deviations For Foundations, Walls And Foundation Bolts

1 The permitted deviations for foundations, walls and foundation bolts are given in Table 9.1.

Table 9.1

Permitted Deviations for Foundations, Walls and Foundation Bolts

Item Component Deviation


1 Foundation Level
Deviation from exact level.

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Page 3

Table 9.1 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations for Foundations, Walls and Foundation Bolts

Item Component Deviation


2 Vertical Wall
Deviation from exact position at
steelwork support point.

3 Pre-set Foundation Bolt or Bolt


Groups when Prepared for
Adjustment
Deviation from the exact location

QD-SBG
and level and minimum movement
in pocket.

4 Pre-set Foundation Bolt or Bolt


Groups when Not Prepared for
Adjustment
Deviation from the exact location
level and protrusion.

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Page 4

9.3.2 Permitted Deviations of Erected Components

1 Permitted deviations of erected components is given in Table 9.2.

Table 9.2

Permitted Deviations of Erected Components

Item Component Deviation


1 Position at Base of First Column
Erected
Deviation of section centreline from
the specified position.

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2 Overall Plan Dimensions
Deviation in length or width True overall dimension L
L 30 metres, = 20 mm
L 30 metres, = 20 mm +
0.25 (L - 30) mm
where L is in metres

3 Single Storey Columns Plumb


Deviation of top relative to base,
excluding portal frame columns, on
main axes. See Clause 3.4.4 (c) of
this Section regarding pre-setting
continuous frames.

= H/600 or 5 mm
whichever is greater
Max = 25 mm

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Page 5

Table 9.2 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations of Erected Components

Item Component Deviation


4 Multi-storey Columns Plumb
Deviation in each storey and
maximum deviation relative to
base.

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h = h/600 or 3 mm
whichever is greater
H = 50 mm maximum
5 Gap Between Bearing Surfaces
(See Clauses 4.4.3-3, 6.3.1 and
Item 3 of Table 7.1)

6 Alignment of Adjacent Perimeter


Columns critical face of columns

Deviation relative to next column


on a line parallel to the grid line
when measured at base or splice
level.

= 10 mm

7 Floor Beams Level


Deviation from specified level at
supporting stanchion.

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Page 6

Table 9.2 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations of Erected Components

Item Component Deviation


8 Floor Beams Level at Each End of
Same Beam
Deviation is level.

9 Floor Beams Level of Adjacent

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Beams within distance of 5 metres
Deviation from relative horizontal
levels (measured on centreline of
top flange)

10 Beams Alignment
Horizontal deviation relative to an
adjacent beam above or below.

h 3 m, = 5 mm
h 3 m, = h/600

11 Crane Gantry Columns Plumb


Deviation of cap relative to base.

= Hc /1000 or 5 mm
whichever is greater
Max = 25 mm

QCS 2010
QCS 2010 Section 16 Part 9 Accuracy of Erected Steelwork Page 7

Table 9.2 (Continued)

Permitted Deviations of Erected Components

Item Component Deviation


12 Crane Gantries Gauge of Rail
Tracks
Deviation from true gauge

= 10 mm
13 Joints in Gantry Crane Rails

QD-SBG
= 0.5 mm

END OF PART

QCS 2010