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Mengenal Sembilan Jenis Soal Reading Text dan Cara

Menjawabnya dalam Ujian Nasional Bahasa Inggris


by Ayunara Bahar on 1:04:00 PM in Bahasa Inggris

Reading skill merupakan salah satu kompetensi yang harus dikuasai oleh para siswa
khususnya dalam soal ujian nasional pasalnya soal reading memiliki komposisi yang paling
banyak dibanding soal lainnya. Dalam hal ini para siswa harus menyiapkan dengan benar
jauh- jauh hari sebelum ujian dilaksanakan.

Mengenal jenis- jenis pertanyaan reading adalah satu hal yang mesti dipersiapkan pertama
kali untuk membekali anda dalam menghadapi soal- soal reading. Nah, pada post atau
tulisan kali ini, kami akan membahas mengenai jenis- jenis pertanyaan seputar reading text.
Dan seperti apa, jenis- jenis pertanyaan tersebut, berikut ulasannya.

Ilustrasi ujian

1. Gambaran Umum

Suatu bacaan ( dialog atau bacaan jenis lainnya) pasti membicarakan sesuatu. Bila kita
membahas tentang apa suatu bacaan tersebut, maka kita membicarakan gambaran umum
atau topik sebuah teks. Ada bermacam teks yang sudah kita kenal sebelumnya
seperti procedure, descriptive, report, narrative, recount, news items, exposition,
discussion, explanation, dan sebagainya. Beberapa contoh soal yang merujuk pada
gambaran umum adalah sebagai berikut.

The text tell us about ....


What is the text about?
The text tells/ describes us about ....
What is the topic of the text above?
The text mainly discusses ....

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan seputar gambaran umum, kita bisa menggunakan strategi yaitu
Melihat pada judul
Menghitung kata benda atau frasa kata benda yang dijadikan topik/ bahasan/ idde
utama.
Temukan pikiran utama tiap- tiap paragraf, utamanya pada paragraf awal. Pikiran
utama terkandung dalam kalimat utama dan kalimat utama terdapat pada awal paragraf.

Berikut contoh teks dengan pertanyaan gambaran umum.

Last holiday my friends and I went to Bali for a field trip. We went there by bus. When we
arrived in Tuban, the bus stopped at a restaurant for a rest. My friends and I got off the bus
to have meal for lunch. Then, I went to the toilet. It took only a few minutes.

When I came out again, the bus I rode was not there. It had left! I looked for my friends
around the restaurant but they were not there too. I felt shocked and confused. I didnt know
what I had to do. Then I asked the security of the restaurant about the bus and he said that
the bus had left about ten minutes ago. I thought that the bus had left when I was in the
toilet.

I tried to call my friends one by one but none was answer my phone. I couldnt do anything
but pray and hope. After several minutes, the bus came back. One of my friends knew that I
was not in the bus and told the bus driver that I was left in the restaurant.

Then I got on the bus and walked to my seat. I was so embarrassed when all of my friends
looked and laughed at me. I thought it was my unforgettable experience in my life.

What does the story mainly tell us about?

A. The writer and his friends enjoyed their trip to Bali

B. The writer was left by the bus on his trip

C. The writer went for a field trip by bus in his holiday


D. The writer called his friends but none of them answered

E. The writer arrived in Tuban for a rest

2. Pikiran Utama (main ideas of paragraph)

Bacaan umumnya dibangun dari sekumpulan paragraf; paragraf dibuat dari sekumpulan
kalimat walaupun terkadang hanya terdiri atas satu kalimat; dan kalimat dibangun ddari
sekumpulan kata- kata, frasa dan anak kalimat. Tipe soal yang menunjukkan pikiran utama
addalah sebagai berikut:

What is the main idea of paragraph 1?


Paragraph four tells us about ....
What is the main idea of the third paragraph?

Adapun strategi menjawabnya adalah sebagai berikut.


Dalam sebuah paragraf biasanya terdapat satu topik atau apa yang dibahas dan suatu
pokok pikiran yang biasanya dinyatakan dalam bentuk kalimat utama (topik sentence).
Pokok pikiran menceritakan kepada pembaca ide dari si penulis tentang topik tersebut.

Bila pokok pikiran atau kalimat utama terdapat di awal paragraf disebut deduktif.
Bila pokok pikiran atau kalimat utama terdapat di akhir paragraf disebut induktif.
Bila pokok pikiran atau kalimat utama terdapat di awal dan akhir paragraf maka bisa
disimpulkan.

Berikut contoh dari pertanyaan seputar pikiran utama.

The Mississippi River is the most important river in North America. It provided a major
highway for early explorers of North America. Many cities grew up along it. Furs and farm
goods traveled from these settlements down the river to markets. Today, more freight travels
on the Mississippi than on any other waterway within the continent.

The Mississippi is known as the Father of Waters. It splits the United States from north to
south in the nations heartland. The Mississippi gathers waters from rivers that lie between
the Appalachian Mountains in the East and the Rocky Mountains in the West. The Ohio
River flows into the Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois. The Missouri River empties into it near St.
Louis, Missouri. The Illinois and Arkansas are other major rivers that flow into the
Mississippi.

The Mississippi is the largest river in North America. This means that it carries more water
than any other North American river. But the Mississippi is not the longest river. That honor
goes to the Missouri. The Missouri is 200 miles (320 kilometers) longer. The Mississippi
starts at Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota. It flows southward through the central United
States for 2,340 miles (3,770 kilometers). In southeastern Louisiana, the river empties into
the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, the Mississippi borders ten states.

A number of important cities are located on the Mississippi River. Before railroads and roads
were available, these cities shipped and received goods by keel boats, steamboats, and
other vessels on the river. Today, coal, oil, grain, and other goods travel on barges along the
river. The biggest cities along the Mississippi are St. Paul and Minneapolis in Minnesota, St.
Louis in Missouri, Memphis in Tennessee, and New Orleans in Louisiana. Native Americans
lived along the Mississippi before European settlers arrived. Algonquian Indians gave the
river its name. The name means big water in the Algonquian language.

Adapted from : Article in Microsoft Encarta; The Mississippi River

What is the main idea of the third paragraph?

A. The Mississippi is one of a crucial river in America

B. Many rivers that lie between Appalachian Mountains in the East and the Rocky Mountains
in the West gather to The Mississippi river

C. The major river that flow into the Mississippi

D. The Mississipi becomes the largest river in North America

E. There are many important cities are located on the Mississippi river
3. Informasi tertentu (specific information)

Informasi tertentu merupakan informasi yang tertera jelas atau tertulis jelas dalam bacaan
dan dapat diidentifikasi dengan cepat. Informasi ini meliputi informasi seperti nama orang,
tempat, jumlah, warna, cara, waktu, hari, tanggal dan lainnya. Ciri- ciri pertanyaan ini adalah
dengan menggunakan WH Question seperti What (apa/ apakah), who (siapa), where
(dimana), when (kapan), what day (hari apa), whom (siapa), how (bagaimana), dan
seterusnya.

Cara menjawab

Untuk menemukan informasi tertentu dengan cepat, dapat dilakukan dengan cara
mengambil salah satu kata penting atau yang sama artinya di ddalam pertanyaan, lalu
mencari kata tersebut dalam bacaan dan menemukan informasi yang terkait yang mungkin
berada setelah atau sebelum kata penting tersebut.

Contoh soal informasi tertentu.

Because of construction work, Park street Station is closed. All passengers for Park Street
Station will have to exit the train at Center station. Bus service is available at Center station
to carry passengers to Park Street. After exiting the station, please line up the curb for a bus.
Please avoid crowding. Buses will leave frequently, but there may be some delays because
of street traffic. we are sorry for the inconvenience. The station is scheduled to reopen in
three weeks. thank you for your cooperation.

Where would this announcement be posted?

A. In a railway station

B. In a restroom
C. In a bus station

D. In a park

E. In an airport

4. Informasi Rinci (detailed information)

Ialah informasi yang baru bisa diketahui setelah kita membaca suatu teks dengan ciri rinci
atau seksama. Tipe soalnya adalah sebagai berikut .

Which sentence is correct based on the text above?


Which statement is incorrect about ... ?
Which is true according to the text?
Which of the following sentences is TRUE based on the text?

Cara menjawab:
Cek satu persatu jawaban yang disediakan
Periksa paraphrase yang ada dalam teks dan pilihan jawaban

Inilah contoh soal informasi rinci.

Two years ago I had a chance to fly in an aeroplane. This was my first flight so I was very
nervous. I feared that sorts of accidents might happen on the way. I thought that the engine
might burst and come down with a crash. Sometimes I was afraid that the pilot might make a
mistake and I had to pay for it with my life.

Soon after I had seated myself there, the sound of the engines rose to a roar as moved off,
and gradually its speed. Then it was with a feeling of surprise I noticed that the ground was
at some distance beneath me. As the plane went higher and higher up in the air, a strange
sensation ran through my body. Soon, the motion was easy. The fear which overtook me at
the time of flight was no more in my heart. Now I was quite bold in the air.

This did not mean that I felt the worse for it. I felt as comfortable in the aeroplane as I used
to feel in my car. I felt no sense of insecurity. I did not occur to me even for a moment that
my life could ever be in danger. The machine flew as smoothly in the air as a boat glides
down a peaceful stream.

When the plane was at sufficient height, I looked through the pane of the window. The earth
seemed to be falling off from us. The big building looked like a small spots of beauty. The
sky was clear. Everything looked new and strange.

The most beautiful thing was the scene around me. I saw nothing but was surrounded by
pure air. Occasionally I saw clouds floating here and there.

We flew over the roofs of many houses. At one place we were very near the roof and I felt
that we were going to touch it. After flying for a long time, we finally touche the earth. The
journey was so pleasant and comfortable that I could not forget it.

Adapted from : http://www.4essay.blogspot.com

What is NOT true according to the text?

A. The writer felt worried before getting on the plane

B. The writer was afraid of flying because he had traumatic accident caused by the pilots
mistake

C. The writer felt relief after the plane went higher

D. The weather was fine when the writer flew by plane

E. The writer thought his first flight was his memorable experience

5. Informasi tersirat (not clearly stated information)

Informasi tersirat yaitu suatu kesimpulan yang logis/ masuk akal yang terdapat dalam
bacaan atau dengan menggunakan pengetahuan yang kita miliki atau keduanya. Ciri- ciri
dari soal informasi tersirat adalah sebagai berikut .

From the text above, we know that ....


What can we conclude from the text?
From the text above we can conclude that .....
The following statements are true about ..., except ....
From the text above,it shows that ....

Cara menjawabnya,

Periksa satu persatu pilihan jawaban yang disediakan


Paraphrase.

Contoh soal Informasi tersirat.

Because of construction work, Park Street Station is closed. All passengers for Park Street
Station will have to exit the train at Center Station. Bus service is available at Center station
to carry passengers to Park Street. After exiting the station, please line up the curb for a bus.
Please avoid crowding. Buses will leave frequently, but there may be some delays because
of street traffic. We are sorry for the inconvenience. The station is scheduled to reopen in
three weeks. Thank you for your cooperation.

From the text we may know that .

A. Park Street Station will be closed for a month

B. Passengers are suggested to take bus after exiting the station

C. Because of street traffic, passengers will be late to work for hours

D. Bus Services is available once a day

E. Passengers are allowed to wait for the bus everywhere

6. Rujukan Kata

Saat kita membaca sebuah teks, kadang kita menemukan kata- kata ganti seperti she, he, it,
they, we, us, ours, my, youratau kata lain yang mengganti orang- orang atau benda- benda
tertentu, seperti the boy, the man, one, this, that, these, those. Dalam teks kita biasa
menemukan kata- kata tersebut dalam pertanyaan seputar rujukan kata atau reference.
Biasanya ciri- ciri pertanyaan ini adalah sebagai berikut .

... What does the underlined word refer to?


...The underlinedd word refers to ....
... What does the word "she" refer to?
... The word I refer to ...

Cara menjawab
Rujukan kata biasanya terdapat pada kalimat sebelum kata ganti tersebut dan ada pula
yang terletak setelah kata ganti itu.

Contoh soal rujukan kata

Pramoedya Ananta Toer, also spelled Pramudya Ananta Tur (born February 20, 1925, Blora,
Java, Dutch East Indies (now in Indonesia)died April 30, 2006, Jakarta, Indonesia),
Javanese novelist and short-story writer, the pre-eminent prose writer of post independence
Indonesia.

Pramoedya, the son of a schoolteacher, went to Jakarta while a teenager and worked as a
typist there under the Japanese occupation during World War II. In 1945, at the end of the
war, when Indonesia declared its independence and revolted against renewed Dutch
colonial rule, he joined the nationalists, working in radio and producing an Indonesian-
language magazine before he was arrested by the Dutch authorities in 1947. He wrote his
first published novel, Perburuan (1950; The Fugitive), during a two-year term in a Dutch
prison camp (194749). That work describes the flight of an anti-Japanese rebel back to his
home in Java.

After Indonesian independence was recognized by the Netherlands in 1949, Pramoedya


produced a stream of novels and short stories that established his reputation. The novel
Keluarga gerilja (1950; Guerrilla Family) chronicles the tragic consequences of divided
political sympathies in a Javanese family during the Indonesian Revolution against Dutch
rule, while Mereka jang dilumpuhkan (1951; The Paralyzed) depicts the odd assortment of
inmates Pramoedya became acquainted with in the Dutch prison camp. The short stories
collected in Subuh (1950; Dawn) and Pertjikan revolusi (1950; Sparks of Revolution) are
set during the Indonesian Revolution, while those in Tjerita dari Blora (1952; Tales of Bora)
depict Javanese provincial life in the period of Dutch rule. The sketches in Tjerita dari
Djakarta (1957; Tales of Jakarta) examine the strains and injustices Pramoedya perceived
within Indonesian society after independence had been achieved. In these early works
Pramoedya evolved a rich prose style that incorporated Javanese everyday speech and
images from classical Javanese culture.

By the late 1950s Pramoedya had become sympathetic toward the Indonesian Communist
Party, and after 1958 he abandoned fiction for essays and cultural criticism that reflect a left-
wing viewpoint. By 1962 he had become closely aligned with communist-sponsored cultural
groups. As a result, he was jailed by the army in the course of its bloody suppression of a
communist coup in 1965. During his imprisonment he wrote a series of four historical novels
that further enhanced his reputation. Two of these, Bumi manusia (1980; This Earth of
Mankind) and Anak semua bangsa (1980; Child of All Nations), met with great critical and
popular acclaim in Indonesia after their publication, but the government subsequently
banned them from circulation, and the last two volumes of the tetralogy, Jejak langkah
(1985; Footsteps) and Rumah kaca (1988; House of Glass), had to be published abroad.
These late works comprehensively depict Javanese society under Dutch colonial rule in the
early 20th century. In contrast to Pramoedyas earlier works, they were written in a plain,
fast-paced narrative style.

source text: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pramoedya-Ananta-Toer

and popular acclaim in Indonesia after their publication, but the government subsequently
banned them from circulation, and the last two volumes of the tetra logy, (paragraph 4)

The underlined word refers to .

A. A series of four historical novels


B. Essays and cultural criticism

C. Short stories

D. Bumi Manusia and Anak Semua Bangsa

E. Pramoedyas early works

7. Makna Kata (deducing meaning of words from context)

Pertanyaan seputar makna kata membutuhkan kemampuan dan ketrampilan menebak arti
suatu kata yang belum diketahui artinya dengan cara menafsirkn arti kata tersebut
berdasarkan kata- kata yang anda tahu artinya atau berdasarkan konteks kalimat atau
bacaan, kemudian menyimpulkan kira- kira apakah arti dari kata tersebut. hal ini sangatlah
penting karena satu kata bisa memiliki banyak makna.

Contoh soal seputar makna kata

The underlined word has similar meaning with ....


The underlined word has the same meaning as ....
what does the underlined word mean?
The closest meaning of the underlined word is ....
The synonym of ... is ....
The word of " ..." can be replaced with ....
What is the antonym of the underlined phrase?

Cara menjawab :
Menebak kata berdasarkan konteks nya.

Contoh soal

Continued progress in advanced technology is not necessary. Already the technical progress
in our world has caused severe pollution in the air and in the water. Although the technical
progress in previous years has been helpful, recent technology has significantly increased
pollution. Another reason to stop technical progress is that many inventions which were
developed for good causes are now also used for powerful weapons to have been found
have serious side effects. For example, pesticide put inside particle boards to proscribe
termites has now be found to be toxic to human life. Technology does not always bring good
effects; for example, computers do much work faster than man, but then man loses his job to
a machine. Because no man can guarantee that technology will have only good effects and
will be used only for the benefit of man, we should delay the continued development of
technology.

For example, pesticide put inside particle boards to proscribe termites has now be found to
be toxic to human life

What does the underlined word mean?

A. prevent

B. authorize

C. allow

D. accept

E. enroll

8. Tujuan Komunikatif (purpose of the text)

Setiap teks dibuat dengan maksud tertentu yang hendak disampaikan kepada pembacanya.
Beberapa contoh soal yang berkaitan dengan tujuan komunikatif teks adalah sebagai
berikut.

The aim of the text above is ....


What does the writer write the message for?
The purpose of the text above is to ....
What is the goal of the text?
The text is written to .....

Cara menjawab.
Setiap teks memiliki tujuan tersendiri misalnya,

Descriptive = to describe
Report = to describe in general
Procedure = to explain how ...
Recount = to retell ....
Narrative = to entertain or to amuse ....
etc.

Contoh soal dalam teks

Two years ago I had a chance to fly in an aeroplane. This was my first flight so I was very
nervous. I feared that sorts of accidents might happen on the way. I thought that the engine
might burst and come down with a crash. Sometimes I was afraid that the pilot might make a
mistake and I had to pay for it with my life.

Soon after I had seated myself there, the sound of the engines rose to a roar as moved off,
and gradually its speed. Then it was with a feeling of surprise I noticed that the ground was
at some distance beneath me. As the plane went higher and higher up in the air, a strange
sensation ran through my body. Soon, the motion was easy. The fear which overtook me at
the time of flight was no more in my heart. Now I was quite bold in the air.

This did not mean that I felt the worse for it. I felt as comfortable in the aeroplane as I used
to feel in my car. I felt no sense of insecurity. I did not occur to me even for a moment that
my life could ever be in danger. The machine flew as smoothly in the air as a boat glides
down a peaceful stream.

When the plane was at sufficient height, I looked through the pane of the window. The earth
seemed to be falling off from us. The big building looked like a small spots of beauty. The
sky was clear. Everything looked new and strange.

The most beautiful thing was the scene around me. I saw nothing but was surrounded by
pure air. Occasionally I saw clouds floating here and there.

We flew over the roofs of many houses. At one place we were very near the roof and I felt
that we were going to touch it. After flying for a long time, we finally touche the earth. The
journey was so pleasant and comfortable that I could not forget it.
Adapted from : http://www.4essay.blogspot.com

What is the purpose of the text?

A. To describe the writers experience in his first flight

B. To persuade the readers to fly by aeroplane

C. To inform the readers about condition in an aeroplane

D. To retell the writers experience in his first flight

E. To show the writers opinion about flying by aeroplane

9. Nilai Moral (moral value)

Nilai moral suatu teks dapat dipahami dari kata- kata yang digunakan di akhir teks dan
biasanya kata- kata itu menunjukkan perbuatan- perbuatan yang patut diteladani atau
diperhatikan. Namun kadang- kadang pada akhir cerita tidak menunjukkan secara langsung
nilai moralnya sehingga kita harus menarik suatu kesimpulan tentang nilai moral tentang apa
yang hendak disampaikan.

Contoh soal

What can you learn from the story above?


What is the moral value of the story?

Cara menjawab :
Penyimpulan tiap- yiap paragraf
Beberapa ditemukan dalam paragraf terakhir.

Contoh Soal dalam Teks

Once upon a time Sammy and his sister Marie visited their grandparents at their farm.
Sammy picked up a slingshot to play with out in the woods. He practiced in the woods but
he could never hit the target. Getting a little discouraged, he headed back for the lunch. As
he was walking back he saw Grandmas pet duck.

Just out of impulse, he let the slingshot fly which hit the duck square in the head and killed it.
He was shocked and grieved. In a panic, he hid the dead duck in the pile of woods. Marie
had seen it all from the window but she said nothing. After the lunch, the next day Grandma
said, Marie, lets wash the dishes. Marie said, But Grandma, Sammy told me he wanted
to help in the kitchen.

Then she whispered to Sammy, Remember the duck? Sammy got nervous knowing his
sister knew about the duck and if he doesnt obey, she may tell his grandparents about it.
So without saying anything he did the dishes.

Later that day, Grandpa asked if the children wanted to go fishing but Grandma said, Im
sorry but I need Marie to help make a supper. Marie just smiled and said, Well thats all
right because Sammy told me he wanted to help.

She whispered again to Johnny, Remember the duck? So Marie went fishing and Sammy
stayed to help. After several days of Marie taking advantage of Sammy, he finally couldnt
stand it any longer. He came to Grandma and confessed that he had killed the duck.

Grandma knelt down, gave him a hug and said, Sweetheart, I know. I was standing at the
window and I saw the whole thing but because I love you, I forgave you. I was just
wondering how long you would let Marie take advantage of you.

Source text : http://www.moralstories.org

What is the moral value of the story?

A. Practice makes perfect

B. What is bad in one case may be good in another

C. Dont trust people easily

D. You should confess of your mistakes


E. Keep going and do the best

Demikian sembilan jenis pertanyaan atau soal reading teks dan cara menjawabnya dalam
Ujian Nasional Bahasa Inggris. Semoga bis amemberikan manfaat bagi anda semuanya.

Salam.

Source texts :

http://www.4essay.blogspot.com

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pramoedya-Ananta-Toer

http://www.moralstories.org

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