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The APA style of referencing

Sohail Ahmed
The APA style of referencing
Consists of two elements:
1. in-text citations, giving author, year and
sometimes page number in the body of the
paper
2. a reference list at the end of the paper,
providing complete details for each in-text
citation.

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PART 1: In-text citations
Formatting Quotations
When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure
to include the authors name, the year of publication, the page number,
but keep the citation briefdo not repeat the information.

Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a


delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations
and other intrusive phenomena (p.11).

A traumatic response frequently entails a delayed, uncontrolled


repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive
phenomena (Caruth, 1996, p.11).

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In-text Citations:
Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase
Provide the authors last name and the year of
publication in parenthesis after a summary or a
paraphrase.

Though feminist studies focus solely on women's experiences,


they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered
impressions (Fussell, 1975).

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In-text citations
One author
When you refer to a single author, include
the authors family name and year of
publication using one of the forms shown
here.
Clay (2003) argues that having a planned approach to writing essays
can be of great benefit.
or
Essay writing can be made much more manageable if a planned
approach is taken (Clay, 2003).

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In-text citations
Multiple authors
For two authors, include the family names
of both authors and the year as required.
According to Antonakos and Kazanis (2003) there are advantages to
keeping design and research methods simple. use and when family
names are outside
parentheses

There are advantages to keeping design and research methods simple


(Antonakos & Kazanis, 2003). use & when family
names are inside
parentheses(bracket)

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In-text citations
Multiple authors
In the case of three, four or five authors,
cite all authors the first time, then in
subsequent citations of this work use the
family name of the first-listed author plus
et al. and the year as required.
Always list the authors in the order they
appear in the publication.

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In-text citations
Multiple authors
When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in
the signal phrase or in parenthesis.

(Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)

In subsequent (Already given above) citations, only use the first


author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in
parentheses.

(Harklau et al., 1993)

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In-text Citations:
A Work with Six and More Authors
When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first
authors name followed by et al.

Smith et al. (2006) maintained that.

(Smith et al., 2006)

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In-text Citations:
A Work of Unknown Author
When citing a work of unknown author, use the sources full title in
the signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by the
year of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of articles and chapters in
quotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports.
According to Indiana Joins Federal
Accountability System (2008),
Or,
(Indiana, 2008)

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In-text Citations:
Organization
When citing an organization, mention the organization the first time
when you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical
citation.

The data collected by the Food and Drug


Administration (2008) confirmed that
If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the
abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use
only the abbreviation in later citations.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)


confirmed FDAs experts tested

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In-text Citations:
The same last name/the same author
When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the
last names.

(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)

When citing two or more works by the same author published in the
same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year of publication
to order the references.

Smiths (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants

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In-text Citations:
Personal communication
When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the
communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication,
and the date of the communication. Do not include personal
communication in the reference list.

Sohail. A also claimed that many of his students


had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, October
3, 2011).
Or,
(S. Stella, personal communication, January 4,2011).

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In-text Citations:
Electronic sources
When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the
author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and
identify paragraph number/paragraph heading.

According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

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In-text Citations:
Electronic sources
Many online articles are pdf files, i.e. copies of print documents, so
they usually indicate page numbers. Use these page numbers when you
cite information from such sources.
Some articles are not pdf files and do not have page numbers. In these
cases use paragraph numbers, if these are provided.
Smith (2003, para. 3) claims

If paragraph numbers are not provided and the document includes


headings, use these headings and count the number of paragraphs.
Smith (2003, Conclusion section, para.3) claims

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In-text Citations:
No year of publication provided
If there no year is given for a source, use
n.d. (which stands for no date) after the
authors name.
In a detailed analysis, Ahmed(n.d.) argues

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PART 2: Reference list
An important purpose of the reference list is
to enable readers to locate sources.
Therefore details must be correct and
complete. Each in-text citation and the
related reference list entry should be
identical in spelling and year.

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Reference list
In compiling your APA reference list, you should:

list references on a new page with a centred heading titled


References
include books, journal articles, online sources etc. in one alphabetical
listing
order entries alphabetically by family name of author/s
list works with no author under the first significant word of the title
indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (57 spaces)
use double spacing.

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Reference list
Books
Book titles are italicized.
The city and state in which the publisher is located are included,
using United States postal codes to abbreviate states. However,
the state (and/or country) is omitted for major cities and for
university presses that include the name of the state. If more than
one location is listed, the first is used.
Basic Format for Books In Italic

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also


for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

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Reference list
Books
No author
World development report. (1989). New York: Oxford University Press.

One author
Perloff, R. M. (1995). The dynamics of persuasion. Hillsdale, NJ: rlbaum.

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Reference list

Organization as Author:
American Psychological Association. (2003).

Unknown Author:
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993).
Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

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Reference list
Books
Two authors: Separated by &

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of book. City: Publisher.

Crawford, P., Brown, B., & Nolan, P. (1998). Communicating care: The language of
nursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.

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Reference list
Books
Three to Seven Authors:
List by last names and initials; commas separate author
names, while the last author name is preceded again by
ampersand(&).

Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., Harlow, T., & Bach, J. S. (1993).
Communicating care: The language of nursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.

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Reference list
Books
More Than Seven Authors:
Provide the family names and initials of the first six authors
followed by three ellipsis points and the last authors family
name and initial.
Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F.,
Author, M. (year). Details of the work as appropriate to its form.

Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A.,
Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Communication. London: London
Publishers.

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Reference list
Books
Book other than first edition:
Abbott, C. (1982). Colorado: A history of the Centennial State (Rev. ed.). Boulder:
Colorado Associated University Press.

Other abbreviations include: 1st ed., 2nd ed, etc.

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Reference list
Books
Article or chapter in an edited book :
Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of chapter. In C. Editor & D. Editor
(Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxxx). City: Publisher.
Page Numbers

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article or chapter
title, and any proper nouns.

Naidoo, B. (2000). Evaluating the use of public health risk factor simulation models. In
M. Thorogood & Y. Coombes (Eds.), Evaluating health promotion: Practice and
methods (pp. 99109). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For multiple editors, use abbreviation, Eds.

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Reference list
Books
Book, online:
Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of book. [details about the
format if available]. doi or Retrieved from web address.

Munsterberg, H. (1916). The photoplay: A psychological study. Retrieved


from http://www.gutenberg.org/files/15383/15383-8.txt

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Reference list
Journal article
Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of article. Title of
Journal, volume number (issue number), page numbers.

The issue number should be indicated only if each issue of a journal


begins on page 1.
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of an article title and
subtitle, and any proper nouns.
Capitalize the first letter of every main word in the journal title.
Include a digital object identifier (DOI) if provided.

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Reference list
Journal article
Article in Journal Paginated by Volume:
Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue
one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.


Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue:


Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13.

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Reference list
Journal article, online
Author, A. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume
number (issue number), page numbers. doi or Retrieved from
web address.
If a digital object identifier (DOI) is provided then it should be given; if no
DOI is available then the home page web address of the journal, or
uniform resource locator (URL), should be given. Date of retrieval is not
required.

Ekwall, A., Gerdtz, M., & Manias, E. (2008). The influence of patient acuity on
satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers. Journal of
Clinical Nursing,17,800809. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02052.x

Midford, R. (2005). Australia and alcohol: Living down the legend. Addiction,100,
891896. Retrieved from http://www.addictionjournal.org

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Reference list
Newspaper article
Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p. x.

Wroe, D. (2004, June 24). Canberra enlists GPs in war on smoking. The Age, p. 3.

Newspaper article, no author:


Title of article. (year, month day). Title of Newspaper, p. x.
Embryo study nod, OK say IVF couples. (2004, May 31). Herald Sun, p.10.

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Reference list
Newspaper article, online
Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper.
Retrieved from home page web address

Nader, C. (2009, June 19). Mental health issues soar among


children. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au

Letter to the Editor:

Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the


editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.

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Reference list
Document, online
Author, A. (year). Title of document. Retrieved from web address

Retrieval date is given if it is believed the information could change over time.

Northern Territory Department of Justice. (2007). Step forward:


Getting help about sexual violence. Retrieved
fromttp://www.nt.gov.au/justice/documents/stepforward.pdf

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Reference list
Web page
Web page
Author, A. (year). Title of page. Retrieved month, day, year from
web address.

The title of a web page is not italicized.

Diabetes Australia. (2010). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved July 22, 2010 from
http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Understanding-Diabetes/What-is- Diabetes/
Gestational-Diabetes-/

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Reference list
Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors'
names). When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of
the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no
date is present in the entry.

Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopdia Britannica online. Retrieved from


http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

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Reference list
Audiovisual materials
Persons primarily responsible for the item are named; their roles are
identified in parentheses after their names.
The medium, placed in brackets, is supplied after the title. Media
designations include [Audio recording], [CD] (for music CD), and
[Motion picture] for both film and videotape.
Videotape
Weir, P. B. (Producer), & Harrison, B. F. (Director). (1992). Levels of
consciousness [Motion Picture].Boston: Filmways.

Audio cassette
Carter, B. (Speaker). (1977). The growth of English [Audio Recording].
New York: Audio Associates.

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Further reading
The APA website provides further examples
at <www.apastyle.org>.

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Enjoy It!

GOOD LUCK

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