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KKKL1124 Circuit Theory II
The Laplace Transform
Dept. of Electrical Electronic & Systems Eng.
Faculty of Eng. & Built Environment
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Office: 03 89216332

Introduction to the Laplace Transform

LEARNING GOALS

Be able to determine the Laplace Transform of signals common to electric circuits

Know how to perform an inverse Laplace Transform using partial fraction expansion

Be able to apply the initial-value and final value theorems

ONE-SIDED LAPLACE TRANSFORM

s j

It will be necessary to consider

t 0

as the lower limit

To insure uniqueness of the transform one assumes f (t) 0 for t 0

A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR EXISTENCE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM
THE INVERSE TRANSFORM

Contour integral in the complex plane

Evaluating the integrals can be quite time-consuming. For this reason we develop better procedures that apply only to certain useful classes of function

SINGULARITY FUNCTION

(Important “test” function in system analysis)

Unit step

For positive time functions f (t) f (t)u(t)

Using the unit step to build functions

Computing the transform of the unit step

 T U ( s )    0 1  e  sx dx  lim T   e  sx dx 0 U ( lim    1  sx  T  0 s   e ) T  s  1 e  sT U ( s )   lim T  ( s    j ) s s
 
T
j
T
1
e
e
U
( s
) 
 lim
T 
s
 j

1

s

U

( s

)

Unit step

Short Table of Laplace Transform Pairs

Some properties will
be proved and used as
efficient tools in the
computation of Laplace
transforms

LEARNING EXAMPLE

LINEARITY PROPERTY

Find the transform for

f (

t

)

e

at

 F ( s )  e    at e  st dt    e (   s a ) t dt 0 0 F ( s )  1 s  a   1 0 s  a
Homogeneity

Follow immediately from the linearity properties of the integral

APPLICATION

  1 L [ e  j t  ]  1 L [ e j t  2 2 F ( s )  1 1  1 1 2 s  j s 2  j 1 ( s  j  )  ( s  j  )  2 ( s  j  )( s  j  ) s  s 2  2

]

Basic Table of Laplace Transforms

We develop properties that expand the table and allow computation of transforms without using the definition

MULTIPLICATION BY EXPONENTIAL

LEARNING EXAMPLE

x
( )
 t
4 t
t
 
3
( )
3
e 
at
at
st
(
s
a
)
t
L e
[
f
( )]
t
e
f
( )
t
e
dt
f
(
t
)
e
dt
Application of Linearity
0
0
1
1
X
(
s
)
3
 
1
3
s
s  4
LEARNING EXAMPLE
 3 t
y t
( )
e
cos(10 )
t
Notice that the unit step is not
shown explicitly. Hence
s
f
( )
t
cos10
t
F
(
s
)
(From table)
2
s
 100
3 and 3u(t)
are equivalent
s  3
 3 t
y t
( )
e
f
( )
t
Y
(
s
)
F
(
s
3)
(
s 
3)
2
100

PERFORMING THE INVERSE TRANSFORM

Simple, complex conjugate poles

FACT: Most of the Laplace transforms that we encounter are proper rational functions of the form

Zeros = roots of numerator Poles = roots of denominator

m  n

KNOWN: PARTIAL FRACTION EXPANSION

C

1 (

s

)

C

2

(

s

)

2

2

(

s

)

2

2

 If Q ( s )  Q 1 ( s Q ) 2 ( s ) is a COPRIME factorization of the denominator with Multiple poles deg( Q ) (   n i  n ), then i  n i F ( s )  K  P 1 ( s )  P 2 ( s ) ; deg( P i )  n 0 Q 1 ( s ) Q 2 ( s ) i
If m<n and the poles are simple

SIMPLE POLES

/(
s  p
)
i

LEARNING EXAMPLE

F

(

s

)

 12( s  1)( s  3)  s ( s  2)( s  4)( s  5)

Write the partial fraction expansion

 F ( s )  K 1  K 2  K 3  K 4 s s  2 s  4 s  5 Determine the coefficients (residues) ( s ) 12 1   3 9 K  sF   1 s 0 2  4  5 10 K  ( s  2) F ( )  12( 1)(1)   1 2 s s 2 ( 2)(2)(3)  K  ( s  4) F ( )  12( 3)(   1)  36 3 s s 4 (  4)( 2)(1)  8 K  ( s  5) F ( )   12( 4)(  2)  32 4 s s 5 (  5)(  3)(  1) 5

Get the inverse of each term and write the final answer

f

( )

t

10

9

e

2

t

36

e

4

t

32

e

8 5

5

t

  u t

( )

The step function is necessary to make the function zero for t<0

COMPLEX CONJUGATE POLES

|
K
1 | 
 t
f
( t
)
 2 |
K
e
cos(
t
)
1 |

P
(
s
)
1
2
2
Q
(
s
) (
s 
)
1

t
t
f
( )
t
C e
cos
t
C e
sin
t
1
2

The two forms are equivalent !

 Euler's Identity e  j  e   j cos   2 C 1 ( s   )  C 2  ( s   ) 2   2 (  s  ) 2   2

10(
s 
2)
LEARNING EXAMPLE
Y
(
s
)
2
 s
(
s
4
s
5)
2
s
4
s
 
5
(
s
 
2
j
1)(
s
 
2
j
1)
2
(
s
2)
1
*
10(
s 
2)
K
K
K
 t
f
(
t
)
2 |
K
|
e
cos(
t
)
0
1
1
Y
(
s
) 
1
s s
(
 
2
j
1)(
s
 
2
j
1)
s
s
 
2
j
1
s
 
2
j
1
10(2)
20
K
0 sY
(
s
)
 4
s
 0
(2
j
1)(2
j
1)
5
10( 1)
j
5
K
(
s
 
2
j
1)
Y
(
s
)
 2.236 153.43
1 
s
 
2
j
1
(
  j
2
1)(
j
2)
5
153.43
2 t
y t
( )
[4
4.472
e
cos(
t
153.43)] ( )
u t
10(
s 
2)
C
C
(
s 
2)
C
2
C
((
s
2)
1)
C
(
s
2)
s
C
s
0
1
2
Y
(
s
) 
0
1
2
2
2
2
s
(
s
4
s
5)
s
(
s 
2)
1
(
s 
2)
1
2
s
(
s
4
s
5)
2
10(  2) 
s
C
((
s
 2)
1) 
C
(
s
 2) 
s
C
s
 t
2
 t
2
0
1
2
y t
( )
(
C
C e
cos
t
C e
sin
t u t
)
( )
0
1
2
For s  0 : 20  5C
C
 4
0
0
 t
2
 t
2
y t
( )
[4
4
e
cos
t
2
e
sin
t u t
]
( )
For s  2 : 0  C  2C
C
 2
0
2
2
For s  1: 10  2C  C  C
C  4
0
1
2
1

LEARNING EXAMPLE – MULTIPLE POLES

 L -1    ( s 1  p ) n  t 1  n    ( 1)! n  1  e pt f ( )  t    K 11 e  t  K 12 te  t  10(1) K 13    2 1 t 2 e  t     K 2 e  2 t    ( ) u t K 2  ( s  2) F ( s ) s 2  (  1) 3  10 K 13  ( s  1) 3 F ( s ) s 1  10(2) (1)  20 K  d  ( s  1) 3 F ( s )   d  10(  s  3)   12 ds s  1 ds  s  2  s  1  10( s  2)  10( s  3)   10  10 ( s  2) 2 s  1 ( s  2) 2 s  10 1 d 2  )  1 d  10 1 (  10)   2( s  2)  K  ( s  1) 3 F ( s  K  11  10 11 2! ds 2 s  1 2! ds ( s  2) 2 2 s  ( 2) 3  s  1 10 3 ( s  2) s  1 f t ( )  10 e t  10 te t  10 t 2 e t  10 e 2  t  ( u t )

INITIAL AND FINAL VALUE THEOREMS

 These results relate behavior of a function in the time domain with the behavior of the Laplace transform in the s-domain INITIAL VALUE THEOREM LEARNING EXAMPLE Assume that both df have Laplace Given F ( )  10( s  1) f ( ), t dt , s ( s s 2  2 s  2) . transform. Then Determine the initial and final values for f t ( ) lim f t ( ) s ) t 0  lim s sF ( Clearly, f(t) has Laplace transform. And sF(s) -f(0) is also defined.

FINAL VALUE THEOREM

df
Assume that both
f
( ),
t
,
have Laplace
dt
transform and that
lim
f
( )
t
exists. Then
t 
lim
f
( )
t
 lim
sF
(
s
)
t

s
 0
 f (0) lim  sF (s) s 10( s  1) f (0)  lim  0 s  s 2  2 s  2
 F(s) has one pole at s=0 and the others have negative real part. The final value theorem can be applied. lim t f t ( )  lim s 0 sF ( s ) 10( s  1) lim f t ( )  lim  5 t  s  0 s 2  2 s  2