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KKKL1124 Circuit Theory II The Laplace Transform Dr. Badariah Bais Dept. of Electrical Electronic &
KKKL1124 Circuit Theory II
The Laplace Transform
Dr. Badariah Bais
Dept. of Electrical Electronic & Systems Eng.
Faculty of Eng. & Built Environment
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Email: badariah@vlsi.eng.ukm.my
Office: 03 89216332

Introduction to the Laplace Transform

LEARNING GOALS

Be able to determine the Laplace Transform of signals common to electric circuits

Know how to perform an inverse Laplace Transform using partial fraction expansion

Be able to apply the initial-value and final value theorems

an inverse Laplace Transform using partial fraction expansion Be able to apply the initial-value and final

ONE-SIDED LAPLACE TRANSFORM

ONE-SIDED LAPLACE TRANSFORM s    j  It will be necessary to consider t

s j

It will be necessary to consider

t 0

as the lower limit

To insure uniqueness of the transform one assumes f (t) 0 for t 0

A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR EXISTENCE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM THE INVERSE TRANSFORM
A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR EXISTENCE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM
THE INVERSE TRANSFORM
FOR EXISTENCE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM THE INVERSE TRANSFORM Contour integral in the complex plane Evaluating the

Contour integral in the complex plane

Evaluating the integrals can be quite time-consuming. For this reason we develop better procedures that apply only to certain useful classes of function

quite time-consuming. For this reason we develop better procedures that apply only to certain useful classes

SINGULARITY FUNCTION

(Important “test” function in system analysis)

Unit step

(Important “test” function in system analysis) Unit step For positive time functions f ( t )

For positive time functions f (t) f (t)u(t)

analysis) Unit step For positive time functions f ( t )  f ( t )

Using the unit step to build functions

analysis) Unit step For positive time functions f ( t )  f ( t )

Computing the transform of the unit step

 

T

 

U

(

s

)

0

1

e

sx

dx

lim

T 

e

sx

dx

 

0

 

U

(

 

lim

 

1

sx

T

0

 

s

 

e

)

T 

 

s

 

1

e

sT

 

U

( s )

 

lim

T 

 

(

s

j

)

 

s

s

  T j  T 1 e e U ( s )  
 
T
j
T
1
e
e
U
( s
) 
 lim
T 
s
 j

1

s

U

( s

)

  T j  T 1 e e U ( s )   lim

Unit step

  T j  T 1 e e U ( s )   lim

Short Table of Laplace Transform Pairs

Short Table of Laplace Transform Pairs
Short Table of Laplace Transform Pairs
 Some properties will be proved and used as efficient tools in the computation of
Some properties will
be proved and used as
efficient tools in the
computation of Laplace
transforms

LEARNING EXAMPLE

LINEARITY PROPERTY

Find the transform for

f (

t

)

e

at

F

(

s

)

e

at

e

st

dt

e

(

 

s

a

)

t

dt

 

0

0

 

F

(

s

) 

1 s  a
1
s
a

 

1

   
 

0

s

a

   1       0 s  a Homogeneity Additivity Follow immediately from the
Homogeneity Additivity
Homogeneity
Additivity

Follow immediately from the linearity properties of the integral

APPLICATION

from the linearity properties of the integral APPLICATION    1 L [ e  j
from the linearity properties of the integral APPLICATION    1 L [ e  j
 

1

L

[

e

j

t

]

1

L [

e

j

t

 

2

2

 

F

(

s

)

1

1

1

1

     
 

2 s

j

 

s

2

j

   

1 (

s

j

)

(

s

j

)

 

 
 

2

 

(

s

j

)(

s

j

)

 
 

s

     

s

2

2

]

s        s 2   2 ] Basic Table of Laplace Transforms

Basic Table of Laplace Transforms

s 2   2 ] Basic Table of Laplace Transforms We develop properties that expand

We develop properties that expand the table and allow computation of transforms without using the definition

Transforms We develop properties that expand the table and allow computation of transforms without using the

MULTIPLICATION BY EXPONENTIAL

LEARNING EXAMPLE

x ( )  t 4 t t   3 ( )  3
x
( )
 t
4 t
t
 
3
( )
3
e 
at
at
st
(
s
a
)
t
L e
[
f
( )]
t
e
f
( )
t
e
dt
f
(
t
)
e
dt
Application of Linearity
0
0
1
1
X
(
s
)
3
 
1
3
s
s  4
LEARNING EXAMPLE
 3 t
y t
( )
e
cos(10 )
t
Notice that the unit step is not
shown explicitly. Hence
s
f
( )
t
cos10
t
F
(
s
)
(From table)
2
s
 100
3 and 3u(t)
are equivalent
s  3
 3 t
y t
( )
e
f
( )
t
Y
(
s
)
F
(
s
3)
(
s 
3)
2
100

PERFORMING THE INVERSE TRANSFORM

Simple, complex conjugate poles

FACT: Most of the Laplace transforms that we encounter are proper rational functions of the form

we encounter are proper rational functions of the form Zeros = roots of numerator Poles =
we encounter are proper rational functions of the form Zeros = roots of numerator Poles =

Zeros = roots of numerator Poles = roots of denominator

m  n
m  n

KNOWN: PARTIAL FRACTION EXPANSION

C

1 (

s

)

C

2

(

s

)

2

2

( s   ) 2   2 ( s   ) 2 

(

s

)

2

2

If

Q

(

s

)

Q

1

(

s Q

)

2

(

s

)

is a COPRIME factorization

 

of the denominator with

   

Multiple poles

deg(

Q

 

)

 

(

n

i

n

), then

   

i

n

i

i  n i  
 

F

(

s

)

K

P 1 (

s

)

P

2

(

s

)

; deg(

P

i

)

n

0

Q

1

(

s

)

Q

2

(

s

)

 

i

     
If m<n and the poles are simple
If m<n and the poles are simple
0 Q 1 ( s ) Q 2 ( s )   i      
0 Q 1 ( s ) Q 2 ( s )   i      

SIMPLE POLES

 /( s  p ) i
/(
s  p
)
i
SIMPLE POLES  /( s  p ) i LEARNING EXAMPLE F ( s )  

LEARNING EXAMPLE

F

(

s

)

 

12(

s

1)(

s

3)

 

s

(

s

2)(

s

4)(

s

5)

Write the partial fraction expansion

 

F

(

s

)

K 1

K 2

K 3

K 4

 
 

s s 2

s

4

s

5

Determine the coefficients (residues)

 

(

s

)

 

12

1

 

3

9

 

K

 

sF

 

1

s0

2

4

5

10

K

(

s

2)

F

(

 

)

 

12( 1)(1)

1

 
 

2

s

s 2

( 2)(2)(3)

K

(

s

4)

F

(

 

)

 

12( 3)(

1)

36

 
 

3

s

s 4

(

4)( 2)(1)

8

K

(

s

5)

F

(

 

)

 

12( 4)(

2)



32

 

4

s

s 5

(

5)(

3)(

1)

5

Get the inverse of each term and write the final answer

5 Get the inverse of each term and write the final answer f ( ) 

f

( )

t

10

9

e

f ( )  t    10 9   e 2 t 
f ( )  t    10 9   e 2 t 

2

t

36

e

4

t

32

e

8 5

t    10 9   e 2 t  36  e 4
t    10 9   e 2 t  36  e 4

5

t

  u t

( )

The step function is necessary to make the function zero for t<0

 e 8 5 5 t   u t  ( ) The step function

COMPLEX CONJUGATE POLES

| K 1 | 
|
K
1 | 
COMPLEX CONJUGATE POLES | K 1 |    t f ( t ) 
  t f ( t )  2 | K e cos(  t
 t
f
( t
)
 2 |
K
e
cos(
t
)
1 |

USING QUADRATIC FACTORS

P ( s ) 1   2 2  Q ( s ) (
P
(
s
)
1
2
2
Q
(
s
) (
s 
)
1

  t   t f ( ) t  C e cos 
t
t
f
( )
t
C e
cos
t
C e
sin
t
1
2

The two forms are equivalent !

 

Euler's Identity

e

j

e

j

 

cos

 
 

2

C

1

(

s

)

C

2

 

(

s

)

2

2

 

(

s

)

2

2

   ( s   ) 2   2   (  s 
10( s  2) LEARNING EXAMPLE Y ( s ) 2  s ( s
10(
s 
2)
LEARNING EXAMPLE
Y
(
s
)
2
 s
(
s
4
s
5)
2
s
4
s
 
5
(
s
 
2
j
1)(
s
 
2
j
1)
2
(
s
2)
1
*
10(
s 
2)
K
K
K
 t
f
(
t
)
2 |
K
|
e
cos(
t
)
0
1
1
Y
(
s
) 
1
s s
(
 
2
j
1)(
s
 
2
j
1)
s
s
 
2
j
1
s
 
2
j
1
10(2)
20
K
0 sY
(
s
)
 4
s
 0
(2
j
1)(2
j
1)
5
10( 1)
j
5
K
(
s
 
2
j
1)
Y
(
s
)
 2.236 153.43
1 
s
 
2
j
1
(
  j
2
1)(
j
2)
5
153.43
2 t
y t
( )
[4
4.472
e
cos(
t
153.43)] ( )
u t
Using quadratic factors
10(
s 
2)
C
C
(
s 
2)
C
2
C
((
s
2)
1)
C
(
s
2)
s
C
s
0
1
2
Y
(
s
) 
0
1
2
2
2
2
s
(
s
4
s
5)
s
(
s 
2)
1
(
s 
2)
1
2
s
(
s
4
s
5)
2
10(  2) 
s
C
((
s
 2)
1) 
C
(
s
 2) 
s
C
s
 t
2
 t
2
0
1
2
y t
( )
(
C
C e
cos
t
C e
sin
t u t
)
( )
0
1
2
For s  0 : 20  5C
C
 4
0
0
 t
2
 t
2
y t
( )
[4
4
e
cos
t
2
e
sin
t u t
]
( )
For s  2 : 0  C  2C
C
 2
0
2
2
For s  1: 10  2C  C  C
C  4
0
1
2
1

LEARNING EXAMPLE – MULTIPLE POLES

LEARNING EXAMPLE – MULTIPLE POLES       L -1    ( s 1
LEARNING EXAMPLE – MULTIPLE POLES       L -1    ( s 1
     

L

-1

(

s

1

p

)

n

t

1

n

(

1)!

n

1

e

pt

 

f

( )

t

K

11

e

t

K

12

te

t

10(1)

K

13

2

1

t

2

e

t

K

2

e

2

t

( )

u t

 

K

2

(

s

2)

F

(

s

)

s 2

 

(

1)

3

 10

 

K

13

(

s

1)

3

F

(

s

)

s 1

10(2)

(1)

20

K

d

(

s

1)

3

F

(

s

)

d

10(

s

3)

     

12

ds

s  1

 

ds

s 2

s  1

   

10(

s

2)

10(

s

3)

 

10

   

 10

 
 

(

s

2)

2

s  1

 

(

s

2)

2

s  10

 

1

d

2

 

)

 

1

d

 

10

     

1 (

10)

2(

s

2)

       

K

(

s

1)

3

F

(

s

 

K

11

10

11

2! ds

2

s

 1

2! ds (

s

2)

2

2 s

(

2)

3

s  1

10 3 ( s  2)
10
3
(
s 
2)

s  1

 

f

t

( )

 

10

e

t

10

te

t

10

 

t

2

e

t

10

e

2

t

(

u t

)

 
 10 te  t  10   t 2 e  t  10 e

INITIAL AND FINAL VALUE THEOREMS

These results relate behavior of a function in the time domain with the behavior of the Laplace transform in the s-domain

 

INITIAL VALUE THEOREM

   

LEARNING EXAMPLE

 

Assume that both

df

 

have Laplace

 

Given

F

(

 

)

10(

s

1)

 

f

( ),

t

 
dt
dt

,

s

(

s s

2

2

s

2)

.

transform. Then

 

Determine the initial and final values for f t

( )

lim

 

f

t

( )

 

s

)

   

t

0

lim

s

sF

(

 

Clearly, f(t) has Laplace transform. And sF(s) -f(0) is also defined.

 
 

FINAL VALUE THEOREM

df Assume that both f ( ), t , have Laplace dt transform and that
df
Assume that both
f
( ),
t
,
have Laplace
dt
transform and that
lim
f
( )
t
exists. Then
t 
lim
f
( )
t
 lim
sF
(
s
)
t

s
 0

f (0)

lim

sF (s)

s

 
 

10(

s

1)

   

f (0)

lim

0

s

s

2

 
 

2

s

2

 

F(s) has one pole at s=0 and the others have negative real part. The final value theorem can be applied.

lim

t

f

t

( )

lim

s0

sF

(

s

)

 
 

10(

s

1)

   

lim

 

f

t

( )

lim

 

5

 

t



s

0

 

s

2

2

s

2

 
 lim    5   t  s  0   s 2  2