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Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas.

The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach and in front of the spine. The pancreas produces
digestive juices and hormones that regulate blood sugar. Cells called exocrine pancreas cells produce the
digestive juices, while cells called endocrine pancreas cells produce the hormones. The majority of
pancreatic cancers start in the exocrine cells.

Causes :

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms

Symptoms of pancreatic cancer include:

Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes)

Pain in the upper or middle abdomen and back

Unexplained weight loss

Loss of appetite

Fatigue

Depression

Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

factors which could put you at risk for developing pancreatic cancer include:

Chronic pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)

Inherited conditions (including hereditary pancreatitis)

Familial pancreatic cancer syndromes

Long-standing diabetes

How Is Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosed?

After taking down your health history and performing a physical exam, the doctor may order several
tests to determine the cause of your problem or extent of the condition, including:

CT scan (computed tomography)

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)


Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)

Laparoscopy (surgical procedure to look at organs)

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC; procedure used to X-ray liver and bile ducts)

Biopsy (removal of tissue to view it under a microscope)

Pancreatic Cancer Treatment

There are various treatments for pancreatic cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation
therapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to treat cancer, while radiation therapy uses X-rays or other kinds of
radiation to kill cancer cells. Surgery can be used to remove a tumor or to treat symptoms of pancreatic
cancer.

PERTANYAAN

1. WHAT DEFINITION OF CANCER ?

-> Cancer a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal
cells

2. WHAT PERBEDAAN BENIGN and MALIGNANT ?

-> Benign tumours do not spread from their site of origin, but can crowd out (squash) surrounding cells
eg brain tumour, warts.

-> Malignant tumours can spread from the original site and cause secondary tumours. This is called
metastasis. They interfere with neighbouring cells and can block blood vessels, the gut, glands, lungs
etc.