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Assignment 1(Fall 2006)

(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 50
Due Date: 19/10/2006

Q.1.
For the circuit shown in Figure 1, find the currents I1, I2, I3, and I4.

Sol.
First we will label the diagram

First we will assume that entering current s at Nodes will be negative while leaving currents will be
positive
At Node D:
I4 + 4A – 2A = 0 ⇒I 4 = -2A ----- (A)
At Node C:
I3 – I4 -7A = 0
From (A) we have
I3 – (-2A) -7A = 0 ⇒ I + 2A -7A = 0
3

⇒ I = 5A ----- (B)
3

At Node B:
I2 + 7A + 3A = 0
⇒I 2 = -10A ----- (C)
At Node A:
-I1 – I2 + 2A = 0
From (C) we have
-I1 – (-10A) + 2A = 0 ⇒I 1 + 10A + 2A = 0

⇒I 1 = 12A
Q.2.
You are given the network shown in Figure 2. Find VX as indicted in the diagram.

Sol.
First we will label the diagram

Using KVL , starting at A , going Clockwise, using ∑drops = 0


-12 + (1)(15) -24 + VX + 9 + 12 = 0
VX = 12-15+24-21
= 36-36
VX = 0

Q.3.
You are given the circuit shown in Figure 3. Find the voltages V1, V2 and V3.
Sol.
First we will label the diagram

For V1
Using KVL , starting at A , going Clockwise

- 24 + V1 + 10 +12 = 0
V1 = 24-22
= 2V
For V2
Using KVL , starting at A , going Clockwise

- 24 + V1 + V2 = 0
V2 = 24- V1
= 24-2 = 22V

For V2
Using KVL , starting at A , going Clockwise

- V2+ V3 + 12 = 0
V3 = 22- 12
= 10V

Q.4.
You are given the network shown in Figure 4. Find REQ and Io.
Draw the circuit diagram of each step otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of
the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
First we will label the diagram

6Ω and 12 Ω are in parallel so, 6Ω|| 12Ω =4Ω


And
80Ω and 80Ω are in parallel so, 80Ω|| 80Ω =40Ω
Now we will redraw the circuit diagram

IO=40/12.09 = 3.309A

------ Good Luck -----


Assignment 2(Fall 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 40
Due Date: 06/11/2006

Q.1.
For the circuit shown in Figure 1, Determine VAB.

Sol.
VCA = 12x11 / 11+6.8 = 7.146V
VCB = 12x120 / 120+0.22 = 11.978 = 12V
VCA + VAB + VBC = 0 -------- (A)
Where VBC = - VCB put in (A)
VCA + VAB - VCB = 0
VAB + 7.416 – 12V = 0
VAB = 4.58V

Q.2.
First Identify and label each node in the network. Use nodal analysis to find voltage at each node in the
network given below. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram otherwise you will lose your marks. Write
each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.
First we will identify and nodes and labeled them,

KCL equation at Node V1 will be,


(V1 - 20)/30 + V1/20 + (V1 -V2)/10 = 0
11V1 - 6V2 = 40 ------------(A)
KCL equation at Node Vb will be,
(V2 - V1)/10 +V2 /30 + V2 /30 = 0
-3V1 + 5V2 = 0 ------------(B)
Solving (A) and (B) leads to
V1 = 5.41 V, V2 = 3.24V

Q.3.
First Identify and label each node in the network. Use nodal analysis to find Voltage at each node and
Current I in the network given below. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram otherwise you will lose
your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each
derived value.

Sol.
First we will identify and nodes and labeled them,

At Node V1
V1/200 + (V1 - V2)/5 + (V1-V3/100 = 0
43V1 – 40V2 -2V3 = 0 -------- (A)
Constraint equation
V3-V2 = 50V
0V1+V2-V3 = -50V ------- (B)

Now we will write KCL equation at Super Node,

(V2 - V1)/5 + 0.2 + V3/50 + (V3- V1)/100 = 0


-21V1 + 20V2 + 3V3= 0 ----------- (C)
Solving (A) (B) and (C) simultaneously we have ,

V1 =-45.23V, V2= -48.69V, V3= 1.31V


At Node V2 using KCL we have,
(V2- V1)/5 +0.2 + I = 0
I = (-45.23 + 48.69)/5 - 0.2
I = 0.492A

------ Good Luck -----


Assignment 3(Fall 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 40
Due Date: 15/11/2006

Q.1.
First Identify and label each node in the network.
Use nodal analysis to find voltage at each node in the network given below and also find out Current IO
through 10KΩ. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each
step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.
First we will identify nodes and labeled them,

KCL equation at Node V1 will be,

V1 – V2 V1
+ = 2 mA
10 k 10 k

V1 – V2 + V1
= 2 mA
10 k

V1 – V2 + V1 = (10 k)(2 mA)

2V1 – V2 = 20 … (A)

KCL equation at Node V2 will be,

V2 V2 – V1
+ 2Ix =
10 k 10 k

Here

V1
Ix =
10 k

Substituting the value of Ix


V2 2V1 V2 – V1
+ =
10 k 10 k 10 k

V2 2V1 V2 – V1
+ - =0
10 k 10 k 10 k

V2 + 2V1 – [V2 – V1]


=0
10 k

V2 + 2V1 – [V2 – V1] = 0


V2 + 2V1 – V2 + V1 = 0
V1 = 0 V
Substituting the value of V1 in eq. (A)
2[0 V] – V2 = 20

V2 = -20 V

V2
I0 =
10 k

-20 V
I0 =
10 k

I0 = -2 mA

Q.2.
Use Mesh analysis to find VO in the given network. Identify and label each mesh otherwise you will lose
your marks. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram. Write each step of the calculation to get
maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

First we will identify mesh and labeled them,


From Mesh I1:
According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
3I1 + 6[I1 – I2] = 12
3I1 + 6I1 – 6I2 = 12

9I1 – 6I2 = 12 -----------------(A)

I2 = 2 mA
Substituting the value of I2 in Equation (A)
9I1 – 6[2 mA] = 12
9I1 – 12 = 12
9I1 = 24

I1 = 2.667 mA

V0 = 2I2 + 6[I2 – I1]


V0 = 2I2 + 6I2 – 6I1
V0 = 8I2 – 6I1
Substituting the values of I1 & I2
V0 = 8[2 ] – 6[2.667 ]
V0 = 16 – 16.002

V0 = -0.002 V

Q.3.
Use Mesh analysis to find VO in the given network. Identify and label each mesh otherwise you will lose
your marks. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram. Write each step of the calculation to get
maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

First we will identify mesh and labeled them,


From Mesh I2:

I2 = -2 mA

From Mesh I1:


According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
1[I1 – I2] + 1I1 = 12
1I1 – 1I2 + 1I1 = 12
2I1 – 1I2 = 12
Substituting the value of I2
2I1 – 1[-2] = 12
2I1 + 2 = 12
2I1 = 10

I1 = 5 mA

From Mesh I3:


According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage rise = sum of all the voltage drop
1I3 + 1[I3 – I2] = -12
1I3 + 1I3 – 1I2 = -12
2I3 – 1I2 = -12
Substituting the value of I2
2I3 – 1 [-2 mA] = -12
2I3 + 2 = -12
2I3 = -12-2
2I3 = -14

I3 = -7 mA

V0 = 1 [I3 – I2] + 1 [I1 – I2]


V0 = 1 [-7 – (-2)] + 1 [5 – (-2)]
V0 = 1 [-5] + 1 [7]

V0 = 2 V

------ Good Luck -----


Assignment 4(Fall 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 50
Due Date: 19/11/2006

Q.1.
First Identify and label each node in the network.
Use Nodal analysis to find out voltage at each node in the network given below and also find out
Current IO and Voltage Vo in the given network. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram otherwise
you will lose your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum marks and also mention the
units of each derived value.

Sol.
First we will identify nodes and labeled them,

Write KCL equations.


Apply KCL on node V1:

V1 − 100 V1 − 4v o V1 − (−120 + V 2 )
+ + = 0 ------------ (A)
10 20 40
v 0 = V2 ------- (B)

V1 − 100 V1 − 4V 2 V1 − ( −120 + V 2 )
Sub (B) into (A): + + =0 ----------- (C)
10 20 40
Apply KCL at node V2:

V2
i 0 + 2i o = ---------- (D)
80
V − V2 + 120
i0 = 1 -------------- (E)
40

⎛ V − V2 + 120 ⎞ V2
Substitute (E) into (D): 3⎜ 1 ⎟= ---------------- (F)
⎝ 40 ⎠ 80

Solving (C) and (F)

vo = V2 = -1344V,
V1 = -1688V
so, io = (V1 –V2 + 120)/40 = -5.6A

Q.2.
First Define all nodes and Identify and label each Mesh in the network.
Use Mesh analysis to find Current IO and Voltage Vo in the given network. Draw and labeled complete
circuit diagram otherwise you will lose your marks. Write each step of the calculation to get maximum
marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.
First define all the meshes and assign mesh current variables in each mesh
Observe any mesh which the mesh current can be known by observation.
Æ No mesh can be solved by observation in this case.

Write KVL equations:

For Mesh I:
− 100 + I 1 (10) + ( I 1 − I 2 )(20) + 4Vo = 0 ---------------- (1)
V0 = I 3 (80) ----------------- (2)
Sub. (2) into (1): − 100 + I 1 (10) + ( I 1 − I 2 )(20) + 4( I 3 )(80) = 0 --------- (3)

There is a CCCS between mesh 2 and 3, so Mesh 2 and Mesh 3 form a SuperMesh:

KVL For SuperMesh :


− 4V0 + ( I 2 − I 1 )(20) + I 2 (40) − 120 + ( I 3 )(80) = 0 ---------- (4)
Sub. (2) into (4):
− 4( I 3 )(80) + ( I 2 − I 1 )(20) + I 2 (40) − 120 + ( I 3 )(80) = 0 ------- (5)

Constraint equation: 2I 0 = I 3 − I 2
Since,
I 0 = I 2 , so 2 I 2 = I 3 − I 2 ---------- (6)

Solve (3), (5) and (6), i1 = 178.8A, i2 = -5.6A, i3 = -16.8A, vo = 80(i3) = -1344V
Q.3.
Use Mesh analysis to find VO in the given network. Identify and label each mesh otherwise you will lose
your marks. Draw and labeled complete circuit diagram. Write each step of the calculation to get
maximum marks and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.
First define all the meshes and assign mesh current variables in each mesh

From Mesh I1:


According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
2000I1 + 4000[I1 – I2] = 2000Ix
2000I1 + 4000I1 – 4000I2 = 2000Ix
6000I1 – 4000I2 = 2000Ix
Here
I2 = Ix
6000I1 – 4000I2 = 2000[I2]
6000I1 – 4000I2 - 2000I2 = 0
6000I1 – 6000I2 = 0
6000[I1 – I2] = 0

I1 – I2 = 0 ……….… (A)

From Mesh I2:


According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
2000I2 + 4000[I2 – I1] = 6
2000I2 + 4000I2 – 4000I1 = 6
6000I2 – 4000I1 = 6
2[3000I2 – 2000I1] = 6
3000I2 – 2000I1 = 3
From equation (A)
I1 = I2
3000I2 – 2000[I2] = 3
3000I2 – 2000I2 = 3
1000I2 = 3

I2 = 3 mA
According to ohm’s Law
V0 = (I2)(2 k)
V0 = (3 mA)(2 k)

V0 = 6 V

------ Good Luck -----


Assignment 5(Fall 2006)
(Solution)

CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)


MARKS: 40
Due Date: 28/12/2006

Q.1.
Apply Superposition to the circuit given below to find IO.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.
Now we will turn off current source and replace it with an open circuit and only Voltage source
is acting in the above circuit

Series combination
= 8 kΩ + 2 kΩ + 6 kΩ
= 16 kΩ

Parallel combination

12 kΩ × 16 kΩ
=
12 kΩ + 16 kΩ Fig (A)
= 6.857 kΩ

According to voltage divider rule

6.857 k
V4k = × 40 V
4 k + 6.587 k

V4k = 25.263 V

V4k = VAB
From fig. (A)

VAB
I0 ' =
12 k

25.263 V
I0 ' =
12 k

I0' =2.1 mA

Now we will turn off a Voltage source and replace it with a short circuit and only Current
source is acting

Parallel combination

12 kΩ × 4 kΩ
=
12 kΩ + 4 kΩ

72 k × k

= 3 kΩ

Series combination
= 3 kΩ + 8 kΩ
= 11 kΩ

According to current divider rule

8k
I1 = × 10 mA
11 k + 8 k

I1 = 4.21 mA

According to ohm’s Law


V3k = (I1)(3k)
V3k = (4.21mA)(3k)

V3k = 12.63 V

V3k = VAB
From fig. (B)

VAB
I0 " =
12 k

12.63 V
I0 " =
12 k

I0" = 1.05mA

Hence
I0 = I0' - I0"
I0 = 2.1 mA - 1.05 mA

I0 = 1.05 mA

Q.2.
Apply Superposition to the circuit given below to find VO.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.
Now we will turn off current source and replace it with an open circuit and only Voltage source
is acting in the above circuit

Parallel combination Series combination

6 kΩ × 6 kΩ
= = 3 kΩ +6 kΩ
6 kΩ + 6 kΩ
= 3 kΩ = 9kΩ
Parallel combination

6 kΩ × 9 kΩ
=
6 kΩ + 9 kΩ

54 k × k
= = 3.6kΩ
15 k
According to KVL
Sum of voltage drop = sum of voltage rise
6000I + 3600I = 2
9600I = 2

I = 0.208 mA

According to ohm’s Law


V0′ = (I)(6 k)
V0′ = (0.208 mA)(6 k)

V0′ = 1.248 V

Now we will turn off a Voltage source and replace it with a short circuit and only Current
source is acting

Technique I

According to current divider rule


6k
I = × 12 mA
6k+6k

I = 6 mA

According to ohm’s Law


V3k = (I)(3 k)
V3k = (6 mA)(3 k)

V3k = 18 V
Technique II
When only current source is acting

Constraint Equation:
I 3 − I 2 = 12mA − − − − − − − − − − − − (1)

Super Mesh
6 I 3 + 3 ( I 3 − I1 ) + 6 ( I 2 − I1 ) = 0
⇒ 3I 3 + 2 I 2 − 3I1 = 0 − − − − − − − − − ( 2 )
For Mesh I

6 I1 + 6 ( I1 − I 2 ) + 3 ( I1 − I 3 ) = 0
⇒ 5 I1 − 2 I 2 − 3I 3 = 0 − − − − − − − − − − − ( 3)
From equation (1) putting the value of I3 in equation ( 2)and(3)
3I 2 + 36 − 3I1 + 2 I 2 = 0
⇒ 3I1 − 5 I 2 = 36 − − − − − − − − − − − ( 4 )
in equation ( 3)
5 I1 − 2 I 2 − I 2 − 12 = 0
⇒ 5 I1 − 3I 2 = 12 − − − − − − − − − − − − − − ( 5 )
Multiplying equation (4) by 3 and (5) by 5 and subtracting

25 I1 − 15 I 2 = 60
9 I1 − 15I 2 = 36
⇒ I1 = −3mA
From (5) and (1)
−15 − 3I 2 = 12
⇒ I 2 = −9mA
I 3 − ( −9 ) = 12
⇒ I 3 = 3mA
Voltage drop due to current source is given by
VO = (3)(6)
= 18 volts.

V3k = VAB
V3k = V0″
V0 = V0′ + V0″
V0 = 1.248 V + 18 V

V0 = 19.248 V

Q.3.
Apply Source Transformation on the circuit given below to find VO.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

6mA current source and 6kW resistance is in parallel so convert it into voltage source
According to ohm’s Law
V = (6 mA)(6 k)
V = 36 V

Using mesh analysis


I1:
According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
6000I1 + 4000[I1 – I2] = 39
6000I1 + 4000I1 – 4000I2 = 39

10000I1 – 4000I2 = 39 … (A)

I2:
According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
12000I2 + 4000[I2 – I1] = 12
12000I2 + 4000I2 – 4000I1 = 12
16000I2 – 4000I1 = 12
Rearranging

-4000I1 + 16000I2 = 12 … (B)

Multiplying equation (A) by (4)

40000I1 – 16000I2 = 156 … (C)

Adding equations (B) & (C)


-4000I1 + 16000I2 = 12
40000I1 – 16000I2 = 156

36000I1 = 168

I1 = 4.667 mA

Substituting the value of I1 in equation (B)


-4000[4.667 mA] + 16000I2 = 12
-18.668 + 16I2 = 12
16I2 = 30.667

I2 = 1.91 mA

I4k = I1 – I2
I4k = 4.667 mA – 1.91 mA

I4k = 2.757 mA

According to ohm’s Law


V0 = (I4k)(4 k)
V0 = (2.757 mA)(4 k)

------ Good Luck -----


Assignment 6(Fall 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 45
Due Date: 08/01/2007

Q.1.
Find VO in the network given below using Thévenin’s theorem.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.

Using Nodal analysis


At Node I:
V1/16 + (V1-V2)/4 -3=0
5V1 -4V2= 48 --------- (A)

At Node II:
V2 – V1/4 + (V2 -12)/5 -3=0
5V1 - 9V2= -48 --------- (B)
Solving A and B we have
VTh=V2= 19.2
THEVENIN’S EQUIVALENT:

Vo = 10/(10+5) x 19.2V
= 12.8V

Q.2.
Find VTH and RTH in the network given below using Thévenin’s theorem.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Load resistance is already removed ,

Calculate VTH

Using Nodal analysis


At Node I:
V1/40 + (V1-40)/10 + (V1-V2)/20 -3=0
7V1 -2V2= 40 --------- (A)

At Node II:
V2 – V1/20 + 3=0
V1 = V2 -60 --------- (B)
Solving A and B we have
V1= 32 V , V2 = 92V and VTH=V2= 92V
Q.3.
Find VO in the network given below using Thévenin’s theorem.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.
Removing load resistance RL= 1KΩ

In the above circuit Ix = 0 because current is not completing its path due to open circuit so, value of
dependent current source is also zero.

VTH = 6 V
Now for RTH we will short the open terminal of the Thévenin’s circuit and calculate the Isc and then divide
VTH with Isc to calculate RTH

Applying KCL at node V


Sum of all the currents leaving the junction = sum of all the currents entering the junction
V V+6
+ = 2Ix
1k 2k
Here
V+6
Ix =
2k

V V+6 V+6
+ =2
1k 2k 2k
V V+6 V+6
+ =
1k 2k 1k

V V+6 V+6
+ - =0
1k 2k 1k

2V + V + 6 – 2[V + 6]
=0
2k

2V + V + 6 – 2[V + 6] = 0
2V + V + 6 – 2V - 12 = 0

V=6V

Now
6+6
Ix =
2k

Ix = 6 mA = ISC

VTH
RTH =
ISC

6V
RTH =
6 mA

RTH = 1 kΩ

THEVENIN’S EQUIVALENT:

According to Voltage divider rule:

1k
V0 = ×6V
1k+1k

V0 = 3 V

------ Good Luck -----


Assignment 7(Fall 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 50
Due Date: 17/01/2007

Q.1.
Find IO in the network given below using Norton’s theorem.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.

Sol.
ISC =?

Using mesh analysis:


Loop I1:

According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
2I1 = 12

I1 = 6 mA

Loop I2:
According to KVL
Sum of all the voltage drop = sum of all the voltage rise
4000I2 = 4

I2 = 1 mA

ISC = I1 – I2
ISC = 6 mA – 1 mA

ISC = 5 mA

Parallel combination:
2 kΩ × 4 kΩ
=
2 kΩ + 4 kΩ

8k×k
=
6k

RN = 1.334 kΩ

NORTON’S EQUIVALENT:

According to current divider rule:

1.334 k
I2k = × 5 mA
2 k + 1.334 k

I2k = 2 mA = I0

Q.2.
Find IO in the network given below using Norton’s theorem.
Show each step of calculation otherwise you will lose your marks. Draw and label the circuit diagram of
each step and also mention the units of each derived value.
Sol.

Applying KCL at node V1


V1 – V2 V1 – V2 V1
+ + =0
6k 3k 2k

V1 – V2 + 2V1 – 2V2 + 3V1


=0
6k

V1 – V2 + 2V1 – 2V2 + 3V1 = 0


6V1 – 3V2 = 0
2V1 – V2 = 0
Here
V2 = 12 V
2V1 – 12 = 0

V1 = 6 V

V2 – V1
I1 =
3k

12 V – 6 V
I1 =
3k

I1 = 2 mA
V2
I2 =
4k

12 V
I2 =
4k

I2 = 3 mA

According to KCL
ISC = I1 + I2
ISC = 2 mA + 3 mA

ISC = 5 mA

RN =?

Parallel combination:
2 kΩ × 6 kΩ
=
2 kΩ + 6 kΩ

12 k × k
=
8k

= 1.5 kΩ

Series combination
= 1.5 kΩ + 3 kΩ
= 4.5 kΩ

Parallel combination:
4.5 kΩ × 4 kΩ
=
4.5 kΩ + 4 kΩ
18 k × k
=
8.5 k

= 2.118 kΩ

RN = 2.118 kΩ

NORTON’S EQUIVALENT:

According to current divider rule:

2.118 k
I2k = × 5 mA
2.118 k + 2 k

I2k = 2.572 mA = I0

Q.3.
The circuit shown in figure below utilize four identical diodes having n=1 and Is =10-14 A.
Find the value to obtain an output voltage Vo=3V, if a current of 1mA is drawn away from
the output terminal by a load, what is the change in output voltage.

Sol.
For V =3V, so the voltage drop across each diode is 3/4 V= 0.75V
0
Thus I must be
v/nVT
I = Is e
VT= 25 mV=0.025 volts
-14 0.75/0.025
= 10 e
=106.86mA
If a current of 1mA is drawn away from the terminals by means of a load, the current
though the diodes reduces to
106.86 – 1 = 105.86
Thus the voltage across each diode changes by
I=105.68mA VD = 0.025 ln(105.68 x 10-3 / 10-14)

VD = 0.749V
So
∆V =0.75V- 0.749V =0.0010
The total decrease in V
0
V = 4 x 0.0010
0
= 0.0040v

Q.4.
Determine the dc load voltage for the circuit shown below.

Sol.
Primary voltage is in rms so we can calculate the peak voltage
V =V /0.707
1(pk) rms
= 45/0.707
= 63.65V
pk
Primary voltage and turn ratio is known so we can determine the secondary voltage
V =(N2/N1)V
2(pk) 1pk
=1/5 (63.65)
=12.73V
pk
Now load voltage can be calculated as
V = V /2 – 0.7
L(pk) 2
= 12.73/2 -0.7
= 5.67V
pk
Now dc value of the voltage can be calculated as
V = 2V /Π
ave L(pk)
= 0.636V
L(pk)
= 0.636(5.67)
= 3.609 Vdc

------ Good Luck -----


Assignment 8(Fall 2006)
(Solution)
CIRCUIT THEORY (PHY301)
MARKS: 35
Due Date: 27/01/2007

Q.1.
For the circuit shown in the figure below, both diodes are identical, conducting 10mA at 0.7V and 100mA
at 0.8V. Find the value of R for which V=80mV

Sol.

It is told that D1 ,D2 conduct 10mA @ 0.7V and 100mA @ 0.8V


We know that lni2/i1 = V2-V1/nVT
nVT = V2-V1 / ln (i2/i1)
= 0.8-0.7 / ln10 = 0.0434
From the above figure
i1+ i2 = 10mA -------- (I)
V = Ri1

Where V=80mV
0.08 = Ri1 -------- (II)

V1/0.0434
i1 = Is e -------- (A)
V2/0.0434
i2 = Is e ---------- (B)
where, V2= V1 + 0.08 put this value in (B)

i2 = Is e (V1 + 0.08)/0.0434
= Is eV1 /0.0434 (e0.08/0.0434)
From (A) we have
i2 = i1 6.3175
From eq(I) we have,
i1 + 6.3175i1 = 10
i1 = 10/7.3175 = 1.366mA
From eq (II) we have,
R = 80mV/ 1.36mA = 58.8Ω

Q.2.
For the circuits shown in figure below, using the constant voltage-drop (V D =0.7V) diode model, find the
voltages and currents indicated.

Sol.

(A) Diode FB by inspection,


I = {3-(-3 +0.7)}/10 = 530 µA =0.53mA

Diode FB , so replace by 0.7V source ⇒ V=3 – (0.53mA) (10k)= -2.3V


(B) Diode RB by inspection,
Diode ≡ Open circuit ⇒ V=+3V
I = 0 (same as ideal diode)
(C) Diode On by inspection, 0.7V drop
I = {3- 0.7) –(-3)}/10 = 530 µA =0.53mA

⇒ V= -3 + (10k)(0.53mA)= 2.3V

(D) Diode Off by inspection,


Diode ≡ Open circuit ⇒ V=-3V
I = 0 (same as ideal diode)
Q.3.
Measurement of VBE and two terminal current taken on a number of npn transistors are
tabulated below. For each, calculate the missing current value as well as α, β, and Is as
indicated by the table.

Transistor a b c d e
VBE(mV) 690 690 580 780 820
Ic(mA) 1.000 1.000 10.10
IB(mA) 50 7 120 1050
IE(mA) 1.070 1.137 75.00
α
β
Is

Sol.
a) IE = IC + IB = 51mA
α = IC/IE = 1.00/51 = 0.0196
β = IC/IB = 1.0/50 = 0.02
Ic = Is e VBE / VT

IS = Ic e -VBE / VT
= 10-3 e --690 / 25
= 1.03x10-15
b) IB = IE - IC = 0.070mA
α = IC/IE = 1.00/1.07 = 0.935
β = IC/IB = 1.0/0.7 =14.3
Ic = Is e VBE / VT

IS = Ic e -VBE / VT
= 10-3 e --690 / 25
= 1.03x10-15
c) IC = IE - IB = -5.863
α = IC/IE = -5.863/1.137 = -5.156
β = IC/IB = -5.863/7 = -0.8375
Ic = Is e VBE / VT

IS = Ic e -VBE / VT

= -4.33 x10-10
d) IE = IC + IB = 130.10mA
α = IC/IE = 10.1/130.01 = 0.0776
β = IC/IB = 10.1/120 = 0.0841
Ic = Is e VBE / VT

IS = Ic e -VBE / VT
= 10.1x 10-3 e - 780 / 25
= 2.84x10-16
e) IC = IE - IB = -975mA
α = IC/IE = -975/75 = -13
β = IC/IB = -975/1050 = 0.9285
Ic = Is e VBE / VT

IS = Ic e -VBE / VT
= -975 e -820 / 25
= -5.5x10-12

------ Good Luck -----