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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman
HALAMAN JUDUL .........................................................................................i
LEMBAR PENGESAHAN ..............................................................................ii
KATA PENGANTAR .......................................................................................iii
DAFTAR ISI ......................................................................................................v
DAFTAR TABEL ............................................................................................x
DAFTAR GAMBAR ........................................................................................xi

BAB I TEKNIK RESERVOIR ................................................................. 1


1.1. Karakteristik Batuan Reservoir ................................................. 3
1.1.1. Komposisi Kimia Batuan Reservoir ................................ 3
1.1.2. Sifat Fisik batuan Reservoir............................................. 4
1.2. Karakteristik Fluida Reservoir ................................................... 13
1.2.1. Komposisi Kimia Fluida Reservoir ................................. 13
1.2.2. Sifat Fisik Fluida Reservoir ............................................. 16
1.3. Kondisi Reservoir .................................................................... 23
1.3.1. Tekanan Reservoir ........................................................... 23
1.3.2. Temperatur Reservoir ...................................................... 26
1.4. Jenis-jenis Reservoir ................................................................ 27
1.4.1. Berdasarkan Perangkap Reservoir ................................... 27
1.4.2. Berdasarkan Fasa Fluida Hidrokarbon ............................ 28
1.4.3. Berdasarkan Mekanisme Pendorong ............................... 31
1.5. Penentuan Cadangan ................................................................. 36
1.5.1. Metode Analogi ............................................................... 37
1.5.2. Metoda Volumetrik .......................................................... 37
1.5.3. Metoda Material Balance ................................................ 39
1.5.4. Metoda Decline Curve ..................................................... 40
1.5.5. Simulasi Reservoir ........................................................... 41

v
DAFTAR ISI
(Lanjutan)
Halaman
BAB II TEKNIK PEMBORAN.................................................................. 43
4.1. Perencanaan Peralatan Pemboran ............................................. 43
2.1.1. Sistem Tenaga (Power System) ....................................... 43
2.1.2. Sistem Angkat (Hoisting System) .................................... 44
2.1.3. Sistem Putar (Rotary System) .......................................... 45
2.1.4. Sistem Sirkulasi (Circulating System) ............................. 48
2.1.5. Sistem Pencegah Semburan Liar (BOP System).............. 50
2.1.6. Macam macam Rig Pemboran ...................................... 52
4.2. Lumpur Pemboran ..................................................................... 55
2.2.1. Fungsi Lumpur Pemboran ............................................... 56
2.2.2. Jenis - Jenis Lumpur Pemboran ....................................... 56
2.2.3. Sifat Fisik Lumpur Pemboran .......................................... 58
2.2.4. Komposisi Lumpur Pemboran ......................................... 62
4.3. Well Control .............................................................................. 64
2.3.1. Sebab terjadinya Kick ...................................................... 65
2.3.2. Indikasi adanya Kick ........................................................ 68
2.3.3. Metode Penanggulangan Well Kick ................................. 68
4.4. Casing Design ........................................................................... 71
2.4.1. Fungsi Casing .................................................................. 71
2.4.2. Macam Atau Jenis Casing ............................................... 72
2.4.3. Spesifikasi Casing ........................................................... 72
2.4.4. Grade Casing ................................................................... 73
2.4.5. Panjang Casing ................................................................ 73
2.4.6. Dimensi Casing ............................................................... 74
2.4.7. Parameter perencanaan Casing (casing design) .............. 74
2.4.8. Susunan Casing ............................................................... 74
2.4.9. Kriteria perencanaan casing (casing design) ................... 75
4.5. Semen Pemboran ....................................................................... 75

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DAFTAR ISI
(Lanjutan)
Halaman
2.5.1. Fungsi Penyemenan ......................................................... 75
2.5.2. Macam macam Penyemenan ........................................ 76
2.5.3. Klasifikasi Semen Pemboran ........................................... 78
2.5.4. Komposisi dan Pembuatan Semen................................... 78
2.5.5. Sifat Fisik Semen Pemboran ............................................ 79
2.5.6. Additif Penyemenan ......................................................... 81
4.6. Masalah masalah Pemboran ................................................... 83
2.6.1. Shale Problem .................................................................. 83
2.6.2. Pipa Terjepit (Pipe Stuck) ................................................ 84
2.6.3. Hilang Lumpur (Lost Circulation)................................... 87
2.6.4. Kick dan Blow Out ........................................................... 89
4.7. Directional dan Horizontal Drilling ......................................... 91
2.7.1. Pemboran Berarah (Directional Drilling) ....................... 91
2.7.2. Horizontal Drilling .......................................................... 92
2.7.3. Faktor Penggunaan Directional dan Horizontal Drilling 93
2.7.4. Alat Alat Pembuat Sudut (Deflection Tool).................. 96

BAB III TEKNIK PRODUKSI .................................................................... 97


3.1. Produktivitas Sumur (Well Productivity / Performance) ......... 97
3.5.3. Productivity Index ............................................................ 97
3.5.4. Inflow Performance Relationship .................................... 99
3.5.5. Flow Efisiensi (FE) .......................................................... 101
3.2. Aliran Multifasa pada Pipa........................................................ 101
3.3. Sistem Analisa Nodal ................................................................ 102
3.4. Permasalahan Produksi ............................................................. 103
3.5. Metode Produksi ....................................................................... 106
3.5.1. Sembur Alam (Natural Flow).......................................... 106
3.5.1.1. Peralatan Sembur Alam ..................................... 106

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DAFTAR ISI
(Lanjutan)
Halaman
3.5.1. Metode Sembur Buatan ................................................... 108
3.5.2.1. Gas Lift ............................................................... 108
3.5.2.2. Pompa Sucker Rod .............................................. 113
3.5.2.3. Electric Submersible Pump (ESP) ..................... 118
3.5.2.4. HPU (Hydraulic Pumping Unit) ........................ 121
3.5.2.5. Progressing Cavity Pump (PCP) ....................... 121
3.2. Definisi dan Konsep Dasar EOR .............................................. 122
3.6.1. Faktor Utama yang Mempengaruhi Efektivitas EOR ..... 123
3.6.2. Efesiensi Injeksi .............................................................. 124
3.6.3. Metode Metode Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) ......... 125
3.3. Kegiatan Optimasi Produksi .................................................... 128

BAB IV PENILAIAN FORMASI ............................................................... 131


4.1. Penilaian Formasi ...................................................................... 131
4.1.1. Faktor Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Penilaian Formasi 131
4.2. Metode Well Logging ................................................................ 135
4.2.1. Log Listrik (Electric Log)................................................ 135
4.2.2. Log Radioaktif (Radioactive Log) ................................... 139
4.2.3. Log Akustik ..................................................................... 143
4.3. Open Hole Logging ................................................................... 143
4.4. Casing Hole Logging ................................................................ 143
4.5. Interpretasi Logging .................................................................. 144
4.5.1. Interpretasi Kualitatif ....................................................... 144
4.5.2. Interpretasi Kuantitatif ..................................................... 146

BAB V DAFTAR ISTILAH ....................................................................... 151


5.1. Daftar Istilah Reservoir ............................................................. 151
5.2. Daftar Istilah Pemboran ............................................................ 153

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DAFTAR ISI
(Lanjutan)
Halaman
5.1. Daftar Istilah Produksi .............................................................. 155
5.2. Daftar Istilah Penilaian Formasi................................................ 157

DAFTAR PUSTAKA
LAMPIRAN

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DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel Halaman
1.1. Ukuran Porositas di Lapangan ................................................................ 6
2.1. Additif Lumpur Pemboran ...................................................................... 64
2.2. Klasifikasi Semen Berdasarkan API ....................................................... 78

x
DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar Halaman
1.1. Skema Perbandingan Porositas Ef, NonEf dan Porositas Abs Batuan . 5
1.2. Diagram Percobaan Pengukuran Permeabilitas ...................................... 7
1.3. Kurva Permeabilitas Efektif untuk Sistem Minyak dan Air ................... 9
1.4. Grafik Capillary Pressure (Pc) vs Saturation Water (Sw) ..................... 11
1.5. Pengaruh Permeabilitas terhadap Tekanan Kapiler ................................ 12
1.6. Pengaruh API Gravity Minyak terhadap Tekanan Kapiler ..................... 12
1.7. Hubungan antara Tekanan dan Faktor Volume Formasi Minyak (Bo) . 17
1.8. Hubungan antara Tekanan dan Kelarutan Gas dalam Minyak................ 18
1.9. Grafik Hubungan Cpr vc Ppr dan Tpr untuk Minyak ................................. 20
1.10. Hubungan antara Tekanan dan Viscositas Minyak ................................. 21
1.11. Diagram Fasa dari Black Oil ................................................................... 28
1.12. Diagram Fasa dari Volatile Oil ............................................................... 29
1.13. Diagram Fasa dari Retrograde Gas......................................................... 30
1.14. Diagram Fasa dari Wet Gas..................................................................... 30
1.15. Diagram Fasa dari Dry Gas..................................................................... 31
1.16. Water Drive Reservoir ............................................................................ 32
1.17. Gas Cap Drive Reservoir ........................................................................ 33
1.18. Solution Gas Drive Reservoir ................................................................. 34
1.19. Gravitational Segregation Drive Reservoir ............................................ 35
1.20. Combination Drive Reservoir ................................................................. 36
1.21. Peta Isopach Reservoir ............................................................................ 38
1.22. Kurva umum Decline Curve ................................................................... 40
2.1. Power System .......................................................................................... 44
2.2. Skema Instalasi Drawwork ..................................................................... 45
2.3. Skema Sistem Putar dengan Rotary Table .............................................. 47
2.4. Skema Sistem Putar dengan Top Drive................................................... 47
2.5. Sistem Sirkulasi....................................................................................... 50
2.6. Skema penampang BOP .......................................................................... 52

xi
DAFTAR GAMBAR
(Lanjutan)
Gambar Halaman
2.7. Rig Pengeboran ....................................................................................... 53
2.8. Land Rig .................................................................................................. 53
2.9. Swamp Barge Rig ................................................................................... 54
2.10. Jack Up Rig ............................................................................................. 54
2.11. Semi-Submersible Rig ............................................................................. 55
2.12. Drill Ship ................................................................................................. 55
2.13. Tabel jenis grade casing dan yield strength API .................................... 73
2.14. Tabel Range panjang casing ................................................................... 73
2.15. Tabel dimensi casing............................................................................... 74
2.16. Penematan pemasangan casing ............................................................... 75
2.17. Empat Komponen semen Portland ......................................................... 78
2.18. Differential Pipe Sticking ........................................................................ 84
2.19. Konfigurasi pipa U sumur ....................................................................... 85
2.20. Perkembangan Key Seat .......................................................................... 87
2.21. Tipe pemboran berarah ........................................................................... 92
2.22. Jenis-jenis Pemboran Horizontal Drilling .............................................. 92
3.1. Kurva IPR 1 fasa ..................................................................................... 99
3.2. Kurva IPR 2 fasa ..................................................................................... 100
3.3. Sistem Kehilangan Tekanan didalam sumur (Brown, Kermit E, 1977) .. 102
3.4. Wellhead dan X-mas tree pada Gas Lift .................................................. 110
3.5. Gas Kompressor ...................................................................................... 111
3.6. ESPs Surface Equipment........................................................................ 114
3.7. SRPs Subsurface Equipment .................................................................. 117
3.8. ESPs Equipment ..................................................................................... 119
3.9. Diagram Alir Metode-metode EOR untuk Peningkatan Recovery ......... 123
3.10. (a) Areal Sweep Effisiensi, (b) Vertical Sweep Effisiensi ........................ 124
4.1. Prinsip Kerja SP Log (Bowen, 2003) ...................................................... 136
4.2. Interpretasi SP Log (Darling, 2005) ........................................................ 137

xii
DAFTAR GAMBAR
(Lanjutan)
Gambar Halaman
4.3. Prinsip Kerja Resistivity Log (Harsono, 1997) ...................................... 138
4.4. Prinsip Kerja GR Log (Harsono, 1997) ................................................. 140
4.5. Interpretasi GR Log (Bowen, 1997) ....................................................... 141
4.6. Prinsip Kerja Neutron Log (Harsono, 2003) .......................................... 142
4.7. Skema Proses Interpretasi Kuantitatif ..................................................... 146

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