Anda di halaman 1dari 9

Regim Aliran

1. Aliran di atas permukaan datar (Flat plate)

xc,r (Laminar sublayer)

Berdasarkan Osborn Reynolds (1880s), regim aliran tergantung pada ratio of the inertia
forces to viscous forces di dalam fluida, yang didefinisikan sebagai bilangan Reynolds.

Inertia force
Re (1)
Viscous force

u x u x
Reynolds number Re (2)

dimana :
= viskositas dinamik, kg/m.s
= viskositas kinematik, m2/s
= massa jenis, kg/m3
u = kecepatan aliran free stream , m/s
x = jarak dari ujung depan (leading edge), m

Aliran laminar Re 105


Aliran transisi 105 < Re < 3 x 106
Aliran turbulent Re > 3x 106
u x
Jarak kritis dari ujung depan dihitung pada bilangan Reynolds Re 5 10 6

Pola aliran dalam daerah laminar, fluida bergerak secara teratur, sehingga
dimungkinkan untuk mengidentifikasi garis garis aliran (stream lines).
Dalam daerah turbulent, gerakan fluida tidak teratur dan ditandai oleh adanya
fluktuasi kecepatan, hal ini akan :
meningkatkan transfer momentum dan energi
meningkatkan gesekan permukaan
meningkatkan koeffesian konveksi
Fluktuasi kecepatan mulai terjadi di daerah transisi
Lapis batas dalam daerah turbulent lebih tebal dan profil lapis batas ( kecepatan dan
temperatur) lebih datar.

Daerah turbulent dibedakan dalam tiga lapisan yaitu turbulent , buffer layer dan laminar
sublayer ( viscous sublayer).
PERSAMAAN PERPINDAHAN KALOR KONVEKSI

Persamaan perpindahan kalor konveksi dapat diturunkan dari tiga hukum kekekalan yaitu:
1. Hukum kekekalan massa
2. Hukum kekekalan momentum
3. hukum kekekalan energi

1. Hukum kekekalamn massa

Volume atur (dx.dy.1)

u = komponen kecepatan rata-rata kearah x


v = komponen kecepatan rata-rata kearah y

Persamaan kekekalan massa untuk volume atur di atas dapat ditulis sebagai
(Laju aliran massa masuk ke volume atur) = (Laju aliran massa keluar dari volume atur) (3)

Massa masuk permukaan sisi kiri u ( dy.1 ) u dy (4)


Massa keluar permukaan sisi kanan u x ( u ) dx dy (5)

Massa masuk permukaan sisi bawah v ( dx.1 ) v dx (6)


Massa keluar permukaan sisi atas v y ( v ) dy dx (7)

Berdasarkan persamaan (3) dapat ditulis


u dy v dx u ( u )dx dy v ( v )dy dx
x y

u dy v dx u dy ( u )dx dy v dx ( v )dx dy
x y

( u ) ( v )
dx dy dx dy 0 (8)
x y

Persamaan (8) dibagi dengan (dx dy) maka dihasilkan

( u ) ( v )
0 (9)
x y

Jika masa jenis pada persamaan (9) diasumsikan konstan, maka akan dihasilkan pesamaan
yang disebut persamaan kontinuitas (continuity equation) berikut

u v
0 (10)
x y

2. Hukum kekekalan momentum (Hukum Newton ke II tentang gerak)

Gaya netto yang bekerja pada sebuah volume atur sama dengan massa dikali dengan percepatan
elemen fluida dalam volume atur, yang besarnya sama dengan laju aliran momentum dari control volume.
Gaya yang bekerja pada volume atur terdiri dari:
1. body forces yang bekerja padaseluruh volume atur (seperti gravitasi, elektrik, magnetic) dan
proposional dengan volume dari body.
2. Surface forces yang bekerja pada permukaan volume atur, seperti gaya tekan akibat tekanan
hidrostatik dan gaya geser akibat efek viscous)
3. Tekanan yang merepresentasikan gaya tekan pada elemen fluida berasal dari fluida sekelilingnya.
dan mengarah pada permukaan.

Differential control volume used in the derivation of x-momentum equation in


velocity boundary layer in twodimensional flow over a surface

Gaya yang bekerja pada permukaan volume atur ke arah x adalah


p p
Gaya karena tekanan : p( dy .1 ) p dx ( dy .1 ) ( dx.dy .1 )
x x

Gaya karena tegangan geser : dy ( dx.1 ) ( dx.1 ) ( dx.dy.1 )
y y
Gaya total pada volume atur (dx.dy.1) ke arah x adalah
p
Fx ( dx.dy .1 ) ( dx.dy .1 )
y x

p
Fx ( dx dy 1 ) (11)
y x
u
Dengan menggunakan persamaan pada persamaan (11) dihasilkan
y

2u p
Fx 2 ( dx dy 1 ) (12)
y x
Untuk aliran steady dua dimensi ke arah x dan y, kecepatan aliran dinyatakan dengan u=u(x,y).

u u
Derivatif total u adalah : du dx dy (13)
x y
du u dx u dy
Percepatan volume atur ke arah x adalah ax
dt x dt y dt
u u
ax u v (14)
x y
Massa fluida dalam volume atur m ( dx.dy .1 ) (15)
Gaya netto ke arah x = massa . percepatan ke arah x

2u p u u
2 ( dx dy 1 ) ( dx.dy.1 ) u v
y x x y

u u 2u p
u v 2 (16)
x y y x
persamaan (16) disebut conservation of momentum in the x-direction, and is known as the x-momentum
equation.

3. Hukum kekekalan energi


The energy balance for any system undergoing any process is expressed as

E in E out E sistem (17)

Steady flow proses E sistem 0 , Then the rate form of the general energy equation reduces for a
steady-flow process to in E E 0
out
the energy balance for a steady-flow control volume can be written explicitly as

( Ein Eout )by heat ( Ein Eout )by work ( Ein Eout )by mass 0 (18)
The total energy of a flowing fluid stream per unit mass is estream = h +ke +pe , where h is
the enthalpy (which is the sum of internal energy and flow energy), pe is the potential energy, and
ke is the kinetic energy of the fluid per unit mass. The kinetic and potential energies are usually very
small relative to enthalpy, and therefore it is common practice to neglect them.
Asume the density , specific heat Cp, viscosity , and the thermal conductivity k of the fluid
to be constant. Then the energy of the fluid per unit mass can be expressed as estream = h = CpT.

The rate of energy transfer to the control volume by mass in the x-direction is,

(19)
Repeating this for the y-direction and adding the results, the net rate of energy transfer to the
control volume by mass is determined to be

(20)
The net rate of heat conduction to the volume element in the x-direction is

(21)

Repeating this for the y-direction and adding the results, the net rate of energy transfer to the
control volume by heat conduction becomes

(22)

Another mechanism of energy transfer to and from the fluid in the control volume is the work done by
the body and surface forces.
The work done by a body force is determined by multiplying this force by the velocity in the direction
of the force and the volume of the fluid element, and this work needs to be considered only in the
presence of significant gravitational, electric, or magnetic effects.
The surface forces consist of the forces due to fluid pressure and the viscous shear stresses.
The work done by pressure (the flow work) is already accounted for in the analysis above by using
enthalpy for the microscopic energy of the fluid instead of internal energy.
The shear stresses that result from viscous effects are usually very small, and can be neglected in many
cases. This is especially the case for applications that involve low or moderate velocities.

Then the energy equation for the steady two-dimensional flow of a fluid with constant properties and
negligible shear stresses is obtained by substituting Eqs. (20) and (22) into (18) to be

T T 2T 2T
Cp u v k 2 2 (23)
x y x y

The net energy convected by the fluid out of the control volumeis equal to the net energy transferred into
the control volume by heatconduction.
When the viscous shear stresses are not negligible, their effect is accounted for by expressing the energy
equation as
T T 2T 2T
Cp u v k 2 2 (24)
x y x y
where the viscous dissipation function is obtained after a lengthy analysis (see an advanced book such as
the one by Schlichting (Ref. 9) for details) to be

u 2 v 2 u v 2
2 (25)
x y x y

Viscous dissipation may play a dominant role in high-speed flows, especially when the viscosity of the
fluid is high (like the flow of oil in journal bearings).
This manifests itself as a significant rise in fluid temperature due to the conversion of the kinetic
energy of the fluid to thermal energy.
Viscous dissipation is also significant for high-speed flights of aircraft.
For the special case of a stationary fluid, u =v = 0 and the energy equation reduces, as expected, to the
steady two-dimensional heat conduction equation,

2T 2T
2 2 0 (26)
x y