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Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

1. The living and non-living

components of the Earth contain
-construct word and balanced formulae equations of chemical reactions as they are encountered

(acquired skill)

-Identify the difference between elements, compounds and mixtures in terms of particle theory

The particle theory of matter states that

-Matter is everything that has mass/occupies space.
-Matter is made up of tiny particles (atoms) that are continuously moving/interacting.

-are made up of only one type of atom and cannot be broken down into simpler matter by physical
or chemical means

-are made of two or more different elements bound together in a constant ratio and can be broken
down using chemical means but not physical means.
-have properties different from its component atoms.


-Two or more different elements/ compounds mixed together but not chemically bonded
-can be separated into its components by physical means
-components retain original properties


Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-identify that the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere contain examples of mixtures of
elements and compounds

Sphere Definition Location Elements Compounds

Biosphere The living Portion of earth O2, C, N2, P, S CO2, H2O, O2, Carbs (such
components inhabited by living as glucose), DNA,
of the Earth matter. (includes proteins, vitamins, amino
atmosphere, hydro acids
and lithosphere)
Lithosphere The Earths Crust + top portion O2, Si, Al, Fe, NaCl, SiO2 (quartz), Al2O3
crust of mantle Ca, Na, K, Mg (bauxite), Fe2O3
(haematite), calcite,
gypsum, apatite
Hydrosphere Waters on the Water of earths Dissolved O2, H2O, NaCl, MgCl, CaCl,
earths surface crust N Sulfates, Bromides,
Atmosphere Envelope of Layer of gas around N2, O2, Ar CO2, H2O other gaseous
gas planet compounds
the earth

Heavy media separation: involves using a mixture of fine media material such as a magnetite or
ferrosilicon suspended in a slurry of water to produce a media slurry with a specific gravity that will
allow low density materials to float, and the other high density materials to sink. Used to separate
iron from its ore.
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-identify and describe procedures that can be used to separate naturally occurring mixtures of: solids of
different sizes, solids and liquids, dissolved solids in liquids, liquids, gases

Separation Method Description Property used in separation

Separation of solids of
different sizes:
Allows particles of a certain Size of particles.
Sieving size through but prevents
larger particles from exiting
the sieve.

For example at quarries the

sieving of fine sand and
coarser material is conducted
to make concrete.
Solids and liquids:
Mixtures of solids and liquids Solubility of solids in liquids.
Filtration are often separated using
filtration. The liquid or
solution passes through the
paper while the suspended
solid remains in the filter
Dissolved Solids in Liquids:
A solid dissolved in a liquid Liquid has much lower boiling
Vaporisation (evaporation or can be separated by turning point than solid
boiling) the liquid into a gas using
(boiling or evaporation),
leaving the solid behind.
Involves boiling a material and Big difference in boiling points
Distillation (also two liquids) condensing the vapour back
into a liquid in another part of
the apparatus separating two
liquids or a liquid from a solid.
Separating liquids:
Distillation conducted in a Small differences in boiling
Fractional distillation (and fractioning column. points
Used to separate two Difference in density.
Separation funnel immiscible liquids. Placed in a Components are immiscible.
separating funnel and the less
dense liquid will float on the
top. The denser liquid can be
separated by letting it run out
from the bottom.
- -
Fractional distillation
Passing a gas through a Weight of gas particles
Diffusion porous material.
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-assess separation techniques for their suitability in separating examples of earth materials, identifying the
differences in properties which enable these separations

Plasmapheresis: Very efficient way to separate blood from plasma withdrawn from a donor. Placed
in a centrifuge to swiftly separate plasma from blood cells as opposed to waiting for it the blood cells
to settle. Relies on differences in weight of plasma and red blood cells.

Separation of oxygen and nitrogen using fractional distillation: Air is placed in a fractional
distillation tank. Since nitrogen and oxygen have boiling points which are very close together this is
suitable. The tank can be chilled so that gaseous nitrogen can be extracted through the top and
liquid oxygen can be extracted through the bottom.

Sedimentation and Decanting: Minerals such as Gold, can be separated when the denser substances
sink to the bottom and the less dense material can be collected.

Froth flotation: Used to separate ores from gangue or waste material.

Relies on the fact that some materials are wetted more easily by a liquid than others.
Finely crushed ore is mixed with water and small amounts of oil. When air is blown through the
mixture, the froth carries valuable materials to the top while the gangue sinks to the bottom. The
ore is scooped out.

Density, Solubility, Boiling/melting points, magnetic (e.g. in junkyards)

-describe situations in which gravimetric analysis supplies useful data for chemists and other scientists

Gravimetric analysis is a method based on accurate determining of mass to find the percentage
composition of a mixture/ compound.

It is useful for chemists and other scientists because:

-They may want to decide whether a new mineral deposit contains a sufficiently high percentage of
a required compound to make its extraction worth the money.

-To find the composition of soil in a location to see if it is suitable for crops.

-To determine if certain substances are present in the air/water to find out how polluted samples

-To decide whether a commercial mixture being sold has the same percentage composition as a
similar mixture by a rival company.
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-apply systematic naming of inorganic compounds as they are introduced in the laboratory

Inorganic compounds are those containing elements other than carbon

Water and salts Common mineral acids Some common bases

water, H2O hydrochloric acid, HCl sodium hydroxide, NaOH
sodium chloride, NaCl sulfuric acid, H2SO4 potassium hydroxide, KOH
copper sulfate CuSO4 nitric acid, HNO3 calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2

-identify IUPAC names for carbon compounds as they are encountered

IUPAC is organic carbon chemistry (compounds containing carbon)

Some carbon compounds

methane, CH4 acetylene, C2H2 acetic acid, CH3COOH

propane, C3H6 benzene, C6H6 ethyl alcohol, CH3CH2OH
butane, C4H8
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry


-gather and present information from first-hand or secondary sources to write equations to represent all
chemical reactions encountered in the Preliminary course

-identify data sources, plan, choose equipment and perform a first-hand investigation to separate the
components of a naturally occurring or appropriate mixture such as a sand, salt and water

-gather first-hand information by carrying out a gravimetric analysis of a mixture to estimate its percentage

Experiment: Separating sand and salt and carrying out gravimetric analysis
Aim: To determine the percentage composition of a mixture of salt and sand, using gravimetric


1. Measure/record weight of weigh boat, evaporating basin and filter paper.

2. Pour the sample mixture of sand and salt into the weighing boat and once again measure
and record the weight of the mixture and the weighing boat as a whole. Use this figure to
work out the weight of the mixture alone.
3. Pour the mixture into a beaker, adding warm water and stirring thoroughly to ensure the
salt in the mixture has completely dissolved.
4. Fold a piece of filter paper allowing it to sit in the filter funnel and place it in an O ring
attached to a retort stand. Place a beaker under the setup.
5. Gradually pour the sand, salt and water mixture into the funnel allowing the salt solution to
pass through the filter while separating the sand. A brush may be used as an aid to remove
all the contents of the beaker such as sand which may be attached to the bottom.
6. To allow accurate measurements of composition quantities, the filter paper containing sand
must be left to dry or left in an oven to remove excess water from the paper.
7. Using a scale weigh the sand and the filter paper containing it as a whole. Use the weight of
the filter paper alone (previously recorded) to work out the weight of the sand.
8. Prepare equipment (as seen below) for the separation of the water from the salt solution by
9. Pour the salt solution slowly into the evaporating basin allowing water to slowly vaporise.
10. When the evaporation process has been completed, weigh the salt and evaporating basin as
a whole and use the previously recorded weight of the evaporating basin to work out the
weight of the salt.
11. Work out the ratio of salt to sand in the original mixture and record these quantitatively in
12. Record all results in a table
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-identify data sources, gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to identify
the industrial separation processes used on a mixture obtained from the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere
or atmosphere and use the evidence available to:

-identify the properties of the

mixture used in its separation

-identify the products of

separation and their uses

-discuss issues associated with

wastes from the processes used


Separation of nitrogen, argon and oxygen using fractional distillation

The properties of the mixture used in this separation are the very close boiling points of all three

The products of separation include oxygen, argon and nitrogen as well as a wastes such as
hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, organic vapours and other pollutants.

The waste products are a low risk environmental threat, because a lot of the waste products are
already present in the atmosphere. However increasing levels of carbon in the air may contribute to
global warming.

Uses of the products

Nitrogen Oxygen Argon

-Used to protect products from -Steel making -Shielding gas used in metal
atmosphere -Smelting Pb, Cu, Zn and wielding
-Used to remove risk of fire -Fill in incandescent light bulbs
explosion when handling -Chemical manufacturing with nitrogen
flammable solvents (nitrogen -Pulp and paper industries
-Medical/life support
-Used in the industry to freeze
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

2. Although most elements are found in

combinations on Earth, some elements
are found uncombined
-explain the relationship between the reactivity of an element and the likelihood of its existing as an
uncombined element

Apart from the noble gases and the gases in the air, virtually the rest of the 92 elements occur as
compounds because they are chemically reactive:

The higher the reactivity of an element, the less chance of finding it as an uncombined element.

-classify elements as metals, non-metals and semi-metals according to their physical properties

Metals are elements which:

1.are solids at room temp (except mercury)
2.are shiny or lustrous
3.are good conductors of electricity/heat
4. Are malleable/ductile
5. High density/melting point

All others are non metals.

Some do not fall clearly into one category such as: Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic and are called

-account for uses of metals and non-metals in terms of their physical properties

Common metals show many properties including: melting point, conductivity, strength and

Iron, Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, Chromium and Nickel are common metals and therefore are
commonly used as building materials, transport, machinery, electrical wiring, appliances and
household goods.

E.g. Copper is used for electrical wiring because it is ductile and has high electrical conductivity.
Gold is used as jewellery because of its lustre, low reactivity and rarity.
Aluminium is used as plane parts because it is light and very strong
Iron is used in building materials because it is strong
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

Non metals can be used as

Carbon (as graphite) electrodes in batteries, lubricants, lead pencils due to their molecular
structure being in layers.

Diamond is used as jewellery and sometimes shields in military helicopters because of their extreme

Helium is used in balloons because of its low molecular weight and density and non flammability/
cooling medium for nuclear reactors, helium/neon lasers
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

plan and perform an investigation to examine some physical properties, including malleability, hardness and
electrical conductivity, and some uses of a range of common elements to present information about the
classification of elements as metals, non-metals or semi-metals

Experiment: Comparing the Physical Properties of Elements

Aim: To examine the physical properties of some elements


1. To test each element sample for lustre, take a small ball of steel wool rubbing the sample evenly
and observe whether the surface of the sample becomes lustrous or shiny. This step is not required
if the sample is visibly lustrous or is in a powder form.

2. To test for electrical conductivity, connect the conducting wires from the power supply to the
element tested, to the a light source creating a circuit. If the element does conduct electricity then
the light source will remain off.

3. To test for hardness, take a sample of an element and rub it against another element to see if any
scratches are produced. If scratches are produced then the element used to rub is harder than the
element which is scratched.

4. To test for malleability, take a hammer and apply impact to the element. If the element can be
hammered into a sheet it is malleable.


Element Lustrous? Conducts Electricity? Hardness Rank Malleable?

Lead Yes Yes 5th Yes
Iron Yes Yes 1st Yes
Zinc Yes Yes 2nd Yes
Aluminium Yes Yes 4th Yes
Copper Yes Yes 3rd Yes
Graphite No No 6th No
Silicon Yes Yes N/A No
Sulfur No No N/A No

analyse information from secondary sources to distinguish the physical properties of metals and non-metals
Refer to STUDENTS LEARN TO: dot points
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

process information from secondary sources and use a Periodic Table to present information about the
classification of elements as:
-metals, non-metals and semi-metals
-solids, liquids and gases at 25 C and normal atmospheric pressure

Blue = Semi Metals

Purple = Non metals
White = Metals

Underlined (except Hg and Br)= Gases at room temp, (N, O, F, Cl, Kr, Xe, Rn, Ar, Ne, He, H)
Liquids at room temp, (Mercury and Bromine)

All others are solids at room temp

Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

3. Elements in Earth materials are

present mostly as compounds because
of interactions at the atomic level
-identify that matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting

Matter is made of particles that are continuously moving and interacting.

Solids Liquids Gas

particles closely packed in fixed particles are fairly closely particles are widely spaced and
regularly arranged positions packed but able to slide over move independently
each other
definite shape takes shape of the container takes shape of the container
definite volume definite volume expands to fill volume of
container. Volume varies
according to
almost not compressible difficult to compress easily compressed

-describe qualitatively the energy levels of electrons in atoms

Electrons exist in energy levels. As the energy level goes up, the greater the energy a level possesses.

There is a max number of electrons which can exist in energy levels. The general rule for this is 2n2, n
being the energy level. In atoms the electrons tend to be in the lowest energy levels possible
consistent with not over-filling the levels.

-describe atoms in terms of mass number and atomic number

The atomic number is the number of protons (and electrons) in the nucleus of an atom of an

The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons

Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge

Proton 1 +1
Neutron 1 0
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

Electron 1/1840 -1

X = (element symbol) Z = (atomic number) A = (mass number)

-describe the formation of ions in terms of atoms gaining or losing electrons

Atoms are neutral particles (protons =electrons). They are able to gain/lose these electrons. When
they do they are no longer neutral and called ions.

When there is an excess of (positive) protons compared to (negative) electrons, the ion is positively
charged and is called a cation.

When there is a shortfall of (positive) protons compared to (negative) electrons, the ion is negatively
charged and is called an anion.

Generally metals lose electrons to form positive ions and non metals gain electrons to form negative

-apply the Periodic Table to predict the ions formed by atoms of metals and non-metals

Look at the valencies (refer to above dot point)

-apply Lewis electron dot structures to: - the formation of ions the electron sharing in some simple
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-describe the formation of ionic compounds in terms of the attraction of ions of opposite charge

Ionic compounds form due to the attraction of ions of opposite charge. The electron donation
between a metal to a non-metal is the reason for it becoming a charged ion. They are then attracted
to each other because they have an opposite charge forming a 3d repeating lattice of cations/anions

-describe molecules as particles which can move independently of each other

Molecules are particles which can move independently of each other.

-distinguish between molecules containing one atom (the noble gases) and molecules with more than one

Diatomic molecule:
Is a pair of atoms permanently stuck together to form a molecule e.g. oxygen gas (O2).
They from a diatomic molecule as they need covalent bonds to have a stable outer shell.

Metals cannot form diatomic molecules as they are not involved in covalent bonds.

Monatomic molecule:
The noble gases are examples of monatomic atoms meaning they exist as independent atoms.

They dont need to join with another atom to become diatomic as they have a full outer shell.

-describe the formations of covalent molecules in terms of sharing electrons

Covalent bonds form between atoms where they share electrons to achieve a full outer shell (stable
configuration) (non-metal and non metal)
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-construct formulae for compounds formed from: - ions atoms sharing electrons

Ionic - Acquired (cross multiplication method)

Non transitional metals (you can tell by looking at the group number)
(Transition metals) Name will specify. .e.g. Iron (II) Oxide

Valency -1 Valency -2 Valency -3 Valency -4

Fluoride F- Oxide O2- Nitride N3- Carbide C4-
Chloride Cl- Sulfide S2- Phosphide P3- Silicon Si4-
Bromide Br-
Iodide I-
Hydride H-

Polyatomic ions

Valency +1 Valency -1 Valency -2 Valency -3

Ammonium NH4+ Hydroxide OH -
Sulfate SO42- Phosphate PO43-
Nitrate NO3 Sulfite SO32-
Hydrogen HCO3- Carbonate CO32-
Hydrogen HSO4-

Compounds with atoms sharing electrons covalent molecules

Prefix Meaning
mono- One atom
di- Two atoms
tri- Three atoms
tetra- Four atoms
penta- Five atoms
hypo= smaller
proportion of
per- greater
proportion of

.e.g. CO is carbon monoxide while CO2 is carbon dioxide.

Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-analyse information by constructing or using models showing the structure of metals, ionic compounds and
covalent compounds

Metals Ionic Compounds (lattice) Covalent molecular

Covalent network

-construct ionic equations showing metal and non-metal atoms forming ions

Ions are formed when atoms give up or accept electrons. Metals giving up electrons are cations. Non
metals gaining electrons are anions.
For example:

Na -> Na+ + e-

Mg-> Mg2+ + 2e-

Cl + e- ->Cl-
S + 2e- -> S2-
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

4. Energy is required to extract
elements from their naturally occuring
-identify the differences between physical and chemical change in terms of rearrangement of particles

A physical change is one that does not lead to forming a new substance. These include changes in
physical properties such as a change in state, density or volume.

A chemical change ALWAYS involves a new substance with different properties/composition being

Telltale signs: A change in colour

A gas or odour forms
A change in temperature
A precipitate is formed
A solid disappears into a solution by reacting

-summarise the differences between the boiling and electrolysis of water as an example of the difference
between physical and chemical change

Boiling water (physical change) Electrolysis of water (chemical change)

No new substances produced. Two new substances produced.
Water changes state from liquid to -Hydrogen and Oxygen by decomposing
gas (still composed of H2O particles) water.
Easy to reverse. Steam can be Difficult to reverse. Components need to
condensed into liquid. be collected, remixed and reacted
Water -> Water Vapour Electrolysis
(Heat input of 44kJ) (electrical energy input 286kJ)

-identify light, heat and electricity as the common forms of energy that may be released or absorbed during
the decomposition of synthesis of substances and identify examples of these changes occurring in everyday

Common decomposition reactions:

Electricity is absorbed in the process of electrolysis to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen gas
2H2O (l) -> 2H2 (g) + O2 (g)

Silver hallide salts decompose when they absorb sunlight

2AgCl (s) -> 2Ag(s) + Cl2(g)
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

Heat is absorbed to decompose Copper Carbonate into Copper Oxide solid and Carbon dioxide gas
CuCO3(s) -> CuO (s) + CO2 (g)

Everyday examples of decomposition:

Aluminium is decomposed by electrolysing molten aluminium oxide

Calcium carbonate (limestone) is decomposed to calcium oxide and carbon dioxide by heating it to
make lime, cement and glass

Common synthesis reactions including everyday examples

When magnesium absorbs heat it combines with the oxygen in the air releasing a bright light
forming magnesium oxide
2Mg (s) + O2 (g) -> 2MgO (s)
Plants absorb heat and light and convert it into chemical energy stored as a carbohydrates.
6CO2 + 6H2O (+ light energy) -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
When iron reacts with oxygen or absorbs heat during combustion, to form iron oxide
4Fe (s) + 3O2 (g) -> 2Fe2O3 (s)

-explain that the amount of energy needed to separate atoms in a compounds is an indication of the
strength of the attraction, or bond, between them

The amount of energy required to separate atoms in a compound is an indication of the strength of
the attraction or bonds between them. The stronger the bond, the higher the energy required to
break a bond.

In covalent bonds, non metals can be sharing one pair, two pairs or three pairs. The higher the
number of bonds the higher the energy required to break them.
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-plan and safely perform a first-hand investigation to show the decomposition of a carbonate by heat, using
appropriate tests to identify carbon dioxide and the oxide as products of the reaction

Experiment: Decomposition of a Carbonate

Aim: To thermally decompose calcium carbonate and examine the products

1. Set up the apparatus as shown with about a teaspoon
of calcium carbonate in the test tube being heated and
some limewater in the second test tube.

2. Heat gently, increasing the temperature until bubbles

are seen entering the limewater. Allow the bubbles to run
through for a few minutes.

3. While still heating the magnesium carbonate, remove the test tube containing the limewater and
place it on a rack.

4. Continue heating the calcium carbonate for several more minutes.

5. Turn of the bunsen and allow the apparatus to cool.


A chemical change occurs: a gas (CO2) was given off and changes colour from green to black.

Limewater can be used to detect CO2 due to the fact that a precipitate is formed when it is in the
presence of carbon dioxide. (This is according to the following formula)

CO2 (g) + Ca(OH)2 (aq) -> CaCO3 (s) + H2O (l)

Decomposition reaction (Copper carbonate -> Carbon dioxide + Copper Oxide) formula

CuCO3(s) -> CO2 (g) + CuO (s)

The solid (calcium oxide) can be tested using reaction with a dilute acid to to test for the presence of
any unreacted carbonate and when there was more CO2 was given off.


The reaction didnt produce copper metal because it requires more carbon to be produced
(Further decomposition for the reaction)
CuO(s) + C(s) Cu (s) + CO (g)
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-gather information using first-hand or secondary sources to

-observe the effect of light on silver salts and identify an application of the use of this reaction

Experiment: Observing light on silver halide salts

Aim: To examine the effects of light on silver halide salts.

Method: Silver nitrate is soluble, but the silver halide salts (silver chloride, silver bromide, silver
iodide) are not.

1. Add around 10mL silver nitrate solution to separate test tubes containing sodium chloride, sodium
bromide and sodium iodide solutions. The silver halide salts should precipitate out.

2. Transfer about 5mL of each silver halide salt to 3 petri dishes.

3. For each halide salt, place one dish in direct sunlight, another dish under an ultraviolet lamp and
the third in a dark cupboard. Leave for 10 minutes.

4. Examine the results.

Results: the precipitation reactions for the preparation of the silver halides are given by

AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3

The substances placed in the petri dishes either in sunlight or under the UV lamp would have
changed colour. This change indicates that a chemical reaction has taken place. The petri dishes left
in the dark would not have changed. Light decomposes silver halide salts to silver and a halide gas.

The decomposition of silver halide is given by

2AgCl (s) 2Ag (s) + Cl2 (g)

White AgCl salt slowly turns purple and then progressively darkens further as finely divided silver
metal is deposited. The decomposition of silver salts by light is used in conventional (non digital
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-observe the electrolysis of water, analyse the information provided as

evidence that water is a compound and identify an application of the use of
this reaction

Experiment: Observing the electrolysis of water

Aim: To decompose water by electrolysis and identify an application

Method: A voltameter is a device used to electrolyse water. Set up a

Hoffman voltameter with water and a little sulphuric acid added to make the water a better
conductor. Pass a current through the solution and observe the volumes of the two gases produced.
Test each of the gases to identify them.

Results: Water decomposes and the reaction is

2H2O (l) 2H2 (g) + O2 (g)

Oxygen gas is collected at one electrode and hydrogen at the other. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen
is 2:1 in the collected gases (according to balanced equation). These gases can be tested.

Hydrogen pop test

Oxygen test with glowing splint. In the presence of oxygen the flame will reignite.

Conclusion: Water is a compound and can be decomposed through electrolysis. This is a means of
obtaining pure oxygen and pure hydrogen for use as fuels.

-analyse and present the information to model the boiling of water and the electrolysis of water tracing the
movements of and changes in arrangements of molecules

Boiling water is a physical change. H2O molecules remain intact. However water has changed from
closely packed molecules to well spaced molecules in a gas which mixes with air

Electrolysis is a chemical change and the bonds in the molecules are broken and new bonds formed.
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

5. The properties of elements and

compounds are determined by their
bonding structure
-identify differences between physical and chemical properties of elements, compounds and mixtures

The different chemical and physical properties of substances allows them to be distinguished and

Physical properties are those determined without changing the chemical composition of the
substance. Includes colour, lustre, hardness, conductivity, melting/boiling points and solubility.

Chemical properties are those related to the reaction of one substance with another.
Includes changes when one substance decomposes or reacts with other substances. For example
mercury (II) oxide can e easily broken down by heat into mercury and oxygen but heating silicon
dioxide has no effect. Similarly sodium is so reactive it reacts with moisture in the air but gold
remains the same for centuries.

-describe the physical properties used to classify compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or covalent

Physical property Ionic Lattice Covalent Molecular Covalent Network

Melting/Boiling Points Generally high (as Low. (Weak intermolecular Very high (as all held
there are strong forces). together by covalent
electrostatic forces bonds)
between ions)
State at room Solid Gases/ liquids and some Solid (SiO2, diamond)
temperature solids (O2, H2O (in
ice/liquid/gas form)
Hardness Hard and brittle Solids are soft or waxy Very Hard (diamond)
Solubility in water Most are soluble Usually in soluble insoluble
Electrical conductivity:

Solid No No (poor) No (except

graphite as free
Molten (DUE TO NO (poor) electron)
In solution NO (poor) No
(aqueous) Yes (as
become ions (+) N/A
and (-)
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-distinguish between metallic, ionic and covalent bonds

In metallic bonds there are a 3D lattice of metal cations bonded together surrounded by a sea of
delocalised electrons.

Ionic bonds consist of strong electrostatic bonds formed between cations and anions.

Ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non metal in an effort to attain a
stable octet of electrons. In the process the metal atoms becomes cations and the non metal atoms
become anions and the strong electrostatic attraction between them holds them together in a
repeating 3d lattice.

E.g. sodium gives up an electron to chlorine to become Na+ and Cl receives an electron to become Cl-
mimicking the stable arrangement of a noble gas.

Covalent bonds consist of two atoms sharing electrons to gain a stable configuration. The electrons
are not free to move around.

-describe metals as three-dimensional lattices of ions in a sea of electrons

The bonding in metals can be described as 3D lattices of metal cations in a sea of electrons.

-describe ionic compounds in terms of repeating three dimensional lattices of ions

Ionic compounds consist of oppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction
between the cat and anions. These ions are arranged in repeating regular, 3D lattices.

-explain why the formula for an ionic compound is an empirical formula

An empirical formula shows the ratio of the ions of atoms in the compound using simple whole

Because ionic compounds consist of repeating 3D lattices, there are no identifiable discrete
molecules such as H2O. There is no set number of NaCl particles in any particular crystal of sodium
chloride and secondly there is no need as the formula for an ionic compound can be represented as
an empirical formula.

The radio of Na+ ions to Cl- ions in a NaCl lattice is 1:1 and therefore we can write NaCl.

-identify common elements that exist as molecules or as covalent lattices

Covalent Molecules Covalent Lattices

O2 (oxygen) SiO2 (Silicon Dioxide)
H2O (water) Carbon (Diamond)
I2 (iodine) Carbon (Graphite)
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-explain the relationship between the properties of conductivity and hardness and the structure of ionic,
covalent molecular and covalent network structures

Ionic compounds
Ionic compounds consist of very large endlessly repeating lattice of ions. There are strong
electrostatic attractions between positive and negative and therefore require a lot of energy to
overcome them. Therefore these substances all have high melting/boiling points and are hard but
brittle solids.

Since the electrons or ions in a solid ionic compound are not free to move, they cannot conduct
electricity. However if they are dissolved or molten, the mobile ions will allow them to.

Covalent compounds
Covalent compounds involve atoms bonded together through the sharing of electrons with other
atoms. In these compounds, each atom is joined to other atoms in molecules. When a covalent
compound melts or boils, it is the forces between the molecules that are broken and very little
energy is need to make this happen so they exist as gases or soft easily melted solids.

There are no free electrons and ions cant move and therefore they do not conduct electricity.

Covalent network
Giant molecular lattices. Covalent bonding holds the atoms together in an extended network with
the bonding between atoms going on in 3D. Because of the large amount of energy needed to break
huge numbers of covalent bonds, all giant covalent network structures have high melting/boiling

Electron movement in covalent network structures is generally restricted and do not conduct an
electric current. However in graphite each carbon atom uses only 3 of its 4 outer energy levels in
covalent bonding and so each carbon atom contributes one electron to a delocalised system of
electrons free to move throughout the plane. Graphite conducts electricity along this plane of
carbon atoms but not perpendicular to the plane.

Diamonds are EXTREMELY hard because it has a tetrahedral structure which is extremely
compact/compressed. There are millions of bonds in a diamond tetrahedral network meaning
energy required to break these bonds is palpable and stresses are absorbed in all directions.
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-perform a first-hand investigation to compare the properties of some common elements in their elemental
state with the properties of the compound(s) of these elements (eg magnesium and oxygen)

Experiment: Comparing properties of elements and compounds of these elements

Aim: To compare the properties of magnesium and oxygen in their elemental state with the
properties of the compound formed from these elements.

Method: Take a piece of magnesium ribbon and, with a piece of steel wool, remove the oxide
coating on it. Note its appearance, test its flexibility and solubility in water.

Look at some oxygen gas in a test tube. Record the appearance of oxygen. Bubble some through
water and note its solubility.

Burn some dry Mg. Note the appearance of the ash, magnesium oxide. Test its solubility in water.


Mg is shiny, light, insoluble in water.

Oxygen is colourless odourless gas

MgO is a white powder and is soluble in water. The compound MgO has a very different appearance
and properties to either of the elements from which it was formed.

-choose resources and process information from secondary sources to construct and discuss the limitations of
models of ionic lattices, covalent molecules and covalent and metallic lattices

Advantages of models
-Summarise what we know
-Based on practical experiences
-Help us to visualise and understand ideas eg structure of matter
-Help us to understand mechanisms of chemical reactions
-Can be used to make predictions and design further experiments to test a model

Limitations of models
-Models and theories are not facts they are ideas so they depend on the observers interpretation.
Anyone can make mistakes. Scientists may misinterpret data and become too attached to their own
ideas and lose objectivity.
-Models may be based on incomplete or incorrect information
Joshua Pham The Chemical Earth Summaries Preliminary Chemistry

-Models may be simplifications designed to get a main idea across

-There are assumptions behind all models

A common limitation is models cannot show the strength of the bonds.

Metallic lattice model:

-displays why metals are conductive or elec + heat, whether solid or molten (delocalised electrons)
-displays metals can change shape (malleable) and ductile (atoms can be moved, sliding is easy)
-metals are hard (strong bonds hold ions together)
-Cannot account for differences between metals .e.g differences in ability to conduct electricity,
melting/boiling points

Covalent molecular model:

-Covalent molecular physical and structural formulas provide information about molecules such as
the number of each different type of atom.
-Structural formulas may give an incorrect idea of the actual shape of the molecule .e.g. H2O and
may display molecules as 2D when they are actually 3D.
-Bonds are not rods

Covalent lattice
-Display the covalent bonds and correct ratios
-Models sometimes incorrectly suggest that a covalent lattice compound is a small number of atoms,
whereas the actual structure is a huge number of atoms in a network.

Ionic lattice
-Empirical formula suggests ionic bonds exist as small units which is not so.
-Tells us the ratio of ions present.
-Tell us that ionic substances exist in crystals with many ions packed together and the arrangement
of the ions determines shape of crystal.

-perform an investigation to examine the physical properties of a range of common substances in order to
classify them as metallic, ionic or covalent molecular or covalent network substances and relate their
characteristics to their uses (refer to dot point: -describe the physical properties used to classify
compounds as ionic or covalent molecular or covalent network)