Anda di halaman 1dari 443

TESIS DOCTORAL

ESTUDIO DEL PROCESO DE ELABORACIN DE BEBIDAS CON


AGUARDIENTE DE ORUJO: DESDE LAS MATERIAS PRIMAS
EMPLEADAS HASTA EL PRODUCTO FINAL

PRESENTADA POR

Raquel Rodrguez Solana

Para optar al ttulo de Doctora con Mencin Internacional por la Universidad de Vigo

Diciembre 2014
AGRADECIMIENTOS

Quiero dedicar esta tesis a toda aquella gente que de algn modo ha colaborado a que se
lleve a cabo, bien por su apoyo moral o logstico, en especial:

A mis directores de tesis Sandra Corts y Jos Manuel Domnguez por darme la
oportunidad de adentrarme en el apasionante mundo de la investigacin y por su
esfuerzo y dedicacin.

A mis compaeros del CACTI: Carmen Garca, Jos Gmez y Cristina Prez
porque a vuestro lado aprend mucho. Esa experiencia me ha hecho evolucionar
profesionalmente gracias a vuestra profesionalidad y paciencia.

A Petros A. Tarantilis, Dimitra Daferera y Moschos Polissiou por participar en


parte de mi desarrollo profesional durante la estancia predoctoral en la
Universidad de Agricultura de Atenas. Por vuestra atencin y vuestra cercana.

A mi familia: mis padres Manuel y Pilar, mi hermano Kike, mis tos Odilo, Jos
y Eugenia y mis abuelitas Josefa y Pilar, por haberme ayudado y aguantado
como unos campeones especialmente durante estos cuatro aos y porque no se
puede pedir ms de la mejor familia que se puede tener.

A Juan por haber sido un gran apoyo tanto en el terreno personal como en el
profesional dndome consejos cuando me han hecho falta y animndome en
todo momento.

A mis compaeros de estancia en Grecia, a Antonio mi compi de fatigas en


Atenas, a Cristina, Eliza y Katerina y dems gente que hizo que me sintiera
como en casa a miles de kilmetros.

A mis compaeros del CITI: Chemita, Beln, Laura, Noe, Irene, Sabela,
Belinda, Alicia, Noe la nueva, Bea, Mari, Alo e Iria por haberme hecho pasar
buenos momentos dentro y fuera del lab.

A mis otros compaeros del laboratorio Camila, Tere y Ral, por cuidarnos
como nadie con vuestro humor y por deleitarnos con deliciosos postres.

Gracias a todos de Corazn!

"Un cientfico en su laboratorio no es slo un tcnico, es tambin un nio colocado ante fenmenos
naturales que le impresionan como un cuento de hadas".

Marie Curie.
NDICE
NDICE
SUMMARY 1

PRLOGO 23

INTRODUCCIN 29

1. Aguardientes y licores amparados por las Indicaciones Geogrficas de los aguardientes y licores
tradicionales de Galicia 31

1.1. Aguardiente y licor de hierbas 32

1.2. Aguardiente de orujo envejecido 36

2. Materias primas 37

2.1. Aguardiente de orujo 38

2.2. Plantas aromticas y medicinales (PAM) 42

2.2.1. La produccin de las PAM en Espaa 45

2.2.2. Compuestos aportados por las plantas 47

2.2.3. PAM de uso tradicional en la elaboracin de aguardientes y licores de hierbas de Galicia


63

2.2.4. PAM aptas para uso alimentario 86

2.2.5. Tcnicas de extraccin de aceites esenciales 93

2.3. La madera de roble: el gnero Quercus 105

2.3.1. Antecentes: de las nforas (civilizacin greco-romana) a las barricas (civilizacin celta y
hasta nuestros das) 105

2.3.2. Caractersticas de la madera de roble 107

2.3.3. Especies de roble utilizados para el envejecimiento 108

2.3.4. Compuestos aportados por la madera de roble 113

2.3.5. Presentacin del roble para envejecimiento de bebidas 118

2.3.6. Barrica versus virutas 121

3. Legislacin 122

3.1. Aguardiente de orujo y Aguardiente de orujo Envejecido 122

3.2. Aguardientes y licores de hierbas 124

3.3. Legislacin PAM 125

3.4. Legislacin madera de roble (Quercus robur y Quercus petraea) 128

OBJETIVOS Y PLAN DE TRABAJO 129

MATERIALS AND METHODS 135

1. MATERIALS 137
1.1. The Plants. 137

1.2. Oak fragments 138

1.3. The grape marc distillate.


138

1.4. Commercial aged/herb grape marc distillates and herb liqueurs. 138

1.4.1. Aged distillates 138

1.4.2. Herb liqueurs and spirits 138

1.5. Chemicals and standards:


139

1.5.1. Chemicals 139

1.5.2. Standards 140

2. METHODS 142

2.1. Extraction methods 142

2.1.1. Liquid-liquid extraction (volatiles extraction) 142

2.1.2. Solid-liquid extractions 142

2.2. Total phenols (FOLIN index) 145

2.3. Color parameters


146

2.4. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) 147

2.5. Macerated preparation 147

2.6. Analytical characterization of samples 148

2.6.1. Identification 148

2.6.2. Quantification 152

2.7. Sensory analysis


157

2.8. Odour Activity Values 158

2.9. Statistical analysis 159

2.10. Box Behnken response surface methodology 160

RESULTADOS 163

CONCLUSIONS 193

BIBLIOGRAFA 201

CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS 231

ANEXXES 241
SUMMARY

SUMMARY

SUMMARY

The aims of the present research were the analytical characterization of the aged

grape marc distillates, herb liqueurs and herb spirits and, mainly, the raw materials used

in their elaboration. This leads to a better understanding of the composition of these

kinds of alcoholic beverages to further enhance the benefits that their responsible

consumption can contribute to the human health.

The importance of the results obtained in the present work is because most of the

Galician economy is focused in activities related to the agriculture. In concrete, the 28%

of the woody crop is dedicated to the vineyard, making the wine industry one of the

most important sectors in the economy of this region located in the northwestern of

Spain. In Galicia, there are five Denominations of Origin: Ribeiro, Ras Baixas, Ribeira

Sacra, Monterrei and Valdeorras. These areas have particular soil composition and

climatic characteristics and therefore the growth of different varieties of Vitis vinifera

produces wines with different analytical composition and sensory profiles. As a result of

the different vinification stages, an important quantity of solids residues is obtained.

These byproducts, known as grape marc and bottoms, are distilled to produce, after a

fermentation process of the residual sugars, a high alcoholic beverage called Orujo.

Thus, one part of an environmental problem of waste accumulation is avoided and, in

parallel, a product with high added value is obtained.

This traditional practice and the high quality of the distillates produced have

allowed, in part, that Galicia is the only Spanish region recognized by the European

Union entitled to Geographical Indication or Denomination Geographical: Orujo from

Galicia".

Pgina3

SUMMARY

But these alcoholic beverages, with high alcohol degree (between 37.5-50%) and

bitter taste, alcoholic and throbbing sensations, are not fully adapted to current

consumer tastes that demands less alcoholic graduation and healthier beverages. These

last properties could be attributed to aged grape marc distillates and, mainly to herb

liqueurs and spirits elaborated by distillation and/or maceration of aromatic and

medicinal plants. After the young grape marc distillate or Orujo (50% of the total

annual commercialization), the herb liqueurs represent the second beverage more

commercialized (between 31-37%). However, the herb spirits and the aged grape marc

distillates (aged Orujo) represent less than 5% of the annual production of the total

Orujo produced in Galicia. Herb distillates and aged Orujo are elaborated only with

alcohol obtained from grape marc distillation and contain a high alcohol degree (37.5-

50% v/v), so their sensory qualities are more similar to the young distillate, Orujo.

Moreover, in the case of aged Orujo, the aging process implies an important economic

cost with the ignorance about the most suitable species of oak to ensure the best quality

in the final product. Both reasons could be the answer of the lower aged Orujo

production despite their growing demand.

So, the study of which subspecies of barrel are more adequate to age these

alcoholic beverages and the study of the composition of the plants used in the

elaboration of the herb liqueurs and spirits, lead to producers allocate more information

about the best operational conditions to produce them and, mainly, determine the human

health benefits that a moderated consumption of these beverages could contribute to the

diary diet.

Pgina 4

SUMMARY

RAW MATERIALS: Aromatic and Medicinal plants.

Several aromatic and medicinal plants, selected among those traditionally used

in the elaboration of herb liqueurs and spirits, were studied: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.,

Mentha piperita, Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris.

Different extraction techniques, previously optimized, were applied to obtain the

essential oils from these plants.

The techniques assayed based in solid-liquid extraction, were the traditional

Soxhlet and two of recent application, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and

supercritical fluids extraction (SFE).

In the optimization process, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. was the plant selected due

to its physical characteristics (seeds) that ensured the study of a homogeneous sample.

The Soxhlet technique was optimized step-by-step. Five solvents with different

polarities (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol) were selected to

evaluate which of them were the best to extract the compounds that allow characterizing

the plants, mainly: terpenes, fatty acids and phenylpropenes. Two extraction times, 4

and 8 hours, were also selected to evaluate the extract composition. The results showed

that methanol (polar protic solvent) was the most suitable solvent and 4 hours, time

enough for the complete characterization of the plant.

The others extraction techniques optimized were: accelerated solvent extraction

(ASE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). In both cases a Box-Behnken design was

used to carry out, in a few experiments, a good prediction of the optimal conditions.

Different variables (independent variables) were selected in each technique: number of

cycles (1, 2 and 3), time of contact solvent-plant (3, 5 and 7 min) and temperature

Pgina5

SUMMARY

applied during the extraction (75, 100 and 125 C), for ASE technique and, temperature

(30, 40 and 50C), pressure (100, 175 and 250 atm) and extraction time (1, 2.5 and 4

hours), for SFE technique. To optimize these variables the quantification of the

estragole (dependent variable), the main chemotype of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare),

was used. The optimization procedure showed that the variables selected had a high

influenced in the results, being 3 cycles, 7 minutes and 125C the ASE independent

variables optima to obtain an optimum dependent variable of 6.60 g of estragole/kg dry

plant. In the case of SFE, the optima independent variables were 240 atm, 50C and

3.41 hours using CO2 as supercritical fluid and methanol as a cosolvent to enhance the

quantity of estragole. Methanol was selected because of being the better solvent for the

extraction of estragole in the Soxhlet extraction. Different percentages of methanol (0, 3

and 6 %) were evaluated step-by-step being 3% and the above independent optima

variables used to obtain an optimum concentration of estragole: 1.32 g estragole/ kg dry

plant. Results of additional studies, discussions and methodology are shown in annexes

I and II.

After the optimization of the previous extraction techniques the next step was to

evaluate the volatile profile and phenol compounds of different Lamiaceae plant

extracts. The optimal conditions were applied to extract the essential oil of the

following plants: Mentha piperita L., Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris L. and

Rosmarinus officinalis L. The volatile composition determined by gas chromatography

showed that mint (menthol/menthone), rosemary (eucalyptol/camphor) and oregano

(carvacrol/thymol) were mixed chemotypes (various volatile compounds with high

percentage, but lesser than 50% area) while thyme (thymol) was pure chemotype with

high percentage of area of only this compound: 77-83%. In general, no significant

Pgina 6

SUMMARY

difference was found in the volatile composition of the methanolic extracts between

extraction techniques, obtaining similar concentration of each main chemotype for the

plants studied: menthol between 6.42-6.97 g/kg dry plant for mint, thymol, in thyme,

between 0.32-0.34 g/kg dry plant, thymol, in oregano, between 1.05-1.57 g/kg dry plant

and, finally eucalyptol, in rosemary, between 3.29-5.29 g/kg dry plant (in this case there

were significant differences between all extraction techniques assayed). In the phenolic

composition there were significant differences between extraction techniques: ASE was

the technique which extracts contained more quantity of the 8 compounds studied and

SFE the technique that showed the lower quantity. The higher concentration of

compounds in Lamiaceae plants was rosmarinic acid (mint) and carnosic acid

(rosemary), both with antioxidant properties, according to the literature. Results also

showed that the majority of the phenolic compounds studied were positively correlated

(Pearson correlations) with the total phenolic content and negatively with the

antioxidant activity. The higher percentages of inhibition were for Thymus vulgaris L.

and Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts obtained with ASE and Soxhlet techniques while

the total phenol content was higher for Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare extracts

obtained with ASE technique.

Applying Analysis of Principal Components, the extracts obtained with the three

analytical techniques could be classified according to six variables, such as four

phenolic compounds (carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, quercetin and eriodictyol), the total

phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. Results obtained showed that the extract

obtained with SFE technique was not characterized by any of the six parameters, while

extracts from ASE and Soxhlet were characterized for the same compounds or

Pgina 7

SUMMARY

parameters. Results of additional studies, discussions and methodology are shown in

annex III.

During the research stay in the Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Food

Science and Human Nutrition from Agricultural University of Athens, other plants,

belong to Lamiacea family, were also studied: Satureja pilosa, Satureja hortensis,

Satureja thrymba, Mentha pulegium, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus longicaulis subsp.

chaubardii, Thymus sp., Origanum onites and Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum. These

plants, wild or cultivated, were collected in different geographical localization in

Greece. Hydrodistillation (HD) with Clevenger apparatus and the simultaneous steam

distillation-solvent extraction (SDE) Likens-Nickerson were applied to extract the

corresponding essential oils from these plants.

The essential oils obtained were characterized by chromatographic (GC-

MS/FID) and spectroscopic (FT-IR and dispersive-RAMAN) techniques. In the first

case, the area (%) of each compound in the chromatograms allowed differentiating

between pure or mixed chemotypes in all samples. Mixed chemotypes such as

carvacrol/-terpinene chemotype, were obtained for: wild Satureja hortensis, cultivated

Satureja hortensis, Satureja thrymba, Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii,

carvacrol/thymol chemotype for Satureja pilosa and thymol/p-cymene chemotype for

Thymus vulgaris 37. Pure chemotype: pulegone chemotype was obtained for Mentha

pulegium, carvacrol chemotype for Origanum onites, Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum,

Satureja hortensis wild and Thymus serpyllum and, finally, thymol chemotype for

Thymus vulgaris 52. The canonical plot analyzing area percentage of the five major

compounds determined by GC-FID did not allow differentiating between carvacrol and

carvacrol/-terpinene and between thymol and thymol/p-cymene. Furthermore these

Pgina 8

SUMMARY

techniques have several disadvantages such as spending time and also they are

destructive and laborious techniques that require organic solvents. Therefore, the use of

alternative techniques it would be good for analytical characterization of plants.

The use of spectroscopic techniques remove some of the drawbacks previously

cited: they are techniques that do not require the use of solvents allowing to work with

intact samples and the results are obtained in a short time, reducing costs.

Libraries from both techniques (FT-IR and dispersive-RAMAN) with the spectra

of the samples themselves were created previously employing the pure standards of the

main chemotype: pulegone, carvacrol and thymol.

In general, the FT-IR library showed highest match values of the essential oil

spectra to their corresponding chemotype, than the Raman library. On the other hand,

Raman library appears to be more restrictive, as match values of the samples to other

chemotypes than the one they belonged to were rather low (11.37%), with the only

exception of Satureja pilosa which had a match value of 76.35% for carvacrol and of

49.37% for thymol. However, this cannot be considered as an inadequacy of the

dispersive-Raman library, since this essential oil is mixed of carvacrol/thymol

chemotype.

The main chemotypes of the plants studied were quantified by GC-FID, in order

to compare the two extraction techniques: HD type Clevenger (3 hours extraction) and

SDE Likens-Nickerson (1 hour extraction) type. In all cases the extracts obtained with

the first technique showed a greater concentration for the main chemotypes. Moreover,

HD technique used only water as solvent, being more environmentally friendly, so,

despite needing a longer extraction time, it is a widely used to extract essential oils from

Pgina 9

SUMMARY

plants. Results of additional studies, discussions and methodologies are shown in

Annex IV.

FINAL PRODUCTS

Herb liqueurs

Besides the analytical characterization of the aromatic and medicinal plants used

as raw materials, several samples of herb liqueurs and spirits from the market were also

analyzed in order to obtain information about the analytical composition of these

alcoholic beverages. The volatile and phenolic profiles of 28 commercial samples that

follow the guidelines of the Regulatory Council of the Geographic Indication Spirits

and Traditional Liqueurs from Galicia were evaluated. Results were completed with

those resulting from the sensory analysis.

The determination of volatile compounds was performed by GC-MS after a

previous step of liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether:hexane (1:1). 32 compounds

were determined belonging to the next families: terpenes, alcohols, carbonyl

compounds, C13-norisoprenoids, volatile phenols and lactones. Between these

compounds, 2-phenylethanol, linalool, menthol, thymol, eugenol and trans-anethol can

proceed from the plants used during the maceration process. 2-phenylethanol was the

most abundant volatile compound founded (73.45% of area) in the set of samples

analyzed, and it can also proceed from the distillate. The terpene linalool, with 2.16% in

area, can proceed from the Coriandrum sativum L., Citrus sinensis (main compound in

these plants) and in low proportions from Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha piperita L.,

Lippia citriodora and Myristica fragrans. Other terpene, menthol (2.17%) only can

proceed from the plants used in the elaboration, mainly from Mentha piperita L. The

presence of thymol in these alcoholic beverages is consequence of the maceration of the

Pgina 10

SUMMARY

different aromatic plants in the distillate. This compound is the main component in

Thymus vulgaris L. and it is also present in Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus

officinalis L. (less proportion).

The volatile phenol, eugenol (2.18%) can be present in the distillate or be

extracted from the plants. It is one of the main compounds of the cinnamon but also

appears in low proportion in Rosmarinus officinalis L. Something similar occurs with

trans-anethol that can be extracted from Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

The concentration of each volatile compound has been correlated with the

corresponding threshold value, obtaining that the 56% of the compounds identified

showed odorant activity value (OAV) above 1 (OAV=concentration/threshold). Those

compounds with OAV1 contribute directly to the aroma and they are considered like

impact odorants. The volatile phenols and C13-norisoprenoids contribute directly to the

global aroma of the herb liqueurs, increasing the spicy and floral notes, respectively.

Vanillin also contributes to the spicy intensity. Two important terpenes, linalool and

citronellol and a higher alcohol, 2-phenylethanol increase the floral notes of the herb

liqueurs. All above-mentioned compounds come mainly from the plants employed in

the elaboration of herb liqueurs. Other compounds, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl

hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate contribute mainly with fruity notes. The

rest of volatiles do not appear to contribute individually to aroma; with OAVs < 1,

however they can enhance some attributes by synergism effects with other active

odorants.

Pgina 11

SUMMARY

To evaluate the global aroma of the herb liqueurs, all volatile compounds were

grouped in six different classes (aromatic series), according to their similar odour

descriptors. The total value in each series results from the sum of individual OAVs of

the volatile compounds that are included in each class. Compounds with OAV< 1 were

also included in the sum.

Results showed that spicy was the most important aromatic series to describe

herb liqueurs. Fruity, floral and vegetal were also aromatic series with high

influence in the overall aroma. However, sweet and nutty did not contribute directly

to the global aroma of this kind of beverage.

As it was mentioned for the volatile compounds, the phenolic compounds in

herb liqueurs may come from the grape marc distillate and from the plants used in their

elaboration process. These compounds have antioxidant activity and several positive

effects on human health. The maceration of the plants in the distillate increases the

phenolic content and the corresponding health benefits.

5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and benzoic acid were the phenols detected

in higher concentration. The first one is formed from hexose dehydration along the

distillation or storage process. However, its concentration in the herb liqueur also

depends on the quantity of caramel added as coloring and sweetener. This could justify

the higher concentration of 5-HMF in some of the samples analyzed.

Vanillyl alcohol, vanillin and acetovanillone (lignin-derived compounds) are

more related to wood-ageing (according to the literature), but also appear in low

concentration in the herb liqueur samples analyzed.

Phenolic acids (derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acids) as vanillic acid and

benzoic acid are potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases in part

Pgina 12

SUMMARY

due to their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of

commonly consumed foods of plant origin. Among the compounds studied, vanillic and

benzoic acid were found in the samples at higher rates after furfural and hydroxy methyl

furfural. The vanillic acid is one of the representative components of phenolic

compounds found in Foeniculum vulgare Mill. This compound is also present in trace

amount in rosemary extracts, whereas vanillic and benzoic acids were found in extracts

from Thymus vulgaris L. Vanillin, as natural flavoring, could be added to increase the

global aroma of the liqueur.

Finally, in order to determine the influence of the different variables evaluated

(phenols and volatiles) in the composition of herb liqueurs, a multivariate principal

component analyses was carried out.

A first PCA was performed on the concentration of the 7 phenols determined in

the samples. But as a result of the high dispersion in the data obtained for the phenols

determined in the samples studied, no statistical separation could be clearly observed.

A second PCA was performed on the concentration of impact odorants (18),

volatiles with OAV1, with a direct contribution to the aroma of the herb liqueurs.

Three groups of herb liqueurs were separated, first group characterized by thymol and

1,8-cineol. A second group correlated positively with citronellol, -ionone, linalool, -

damascenone and 2-phenyl ethanol and, a third group, with low number of samples,

defined by those odorants sited in the positive side of PC2, mainly by the group of ethyl

esters and by -ionone. Results of additional studies, discussions and methodologies are

shown in Annex VII.

Aged grape marc distillates

Pgina 13

SUMMARY

Commercial grape marc distillates from Galicia aged in wooden barrels from the

species Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) (origin: Limousin (France) and Galicia

(Spain)), Quercus alba (American oak) and Quercus petraea (origin: Allier, French

oak) were analyzed. All the 225 L wooden barrels had been previously used for wine

fermentation and/or maturation. Samples were bottled after an aging period between 1

and 6 years. Physicochemical composition, sensory profile, phenolic compounds and

the mineral composition were determined. The Regulatory Board of Geographic

Indication Spirits and Traditional Liqueurs from Galicia establishes range of values for

some of the parameters previously mentioned as the physicochemical composition

(including some volatile compounds), the sensory profile and the copper content.

Alcohol degree must be between 50-37.5% (v/v), all the samples were between those

values with an average of 44.3% (v/v). Methanol is a toxic compound that comes from

natural origin from the grape marc and the concentration must be between 200-950

g/100 L absolute alcohol. In the aged grape marc distillates analyzed, the quantity of

methanol was between 200-881 g/100 L absolute alcohol. The total acidity in distillates

increases its concentration as consequence of the oxidation reactions of the ethanol and

from the wood compounds extracted. The maximum concentration allowed for this

parameter is 250 g acetic acid/100 L absolute alcohol, whereas the samples analyzed

showed values between 124 and 250 g acetic acid/100 L absolute alcohol. Acetaldehyde

is a volatile compound formed during spontaneous or microbial mediated oxidation

during the alcoholic fermentation of raw material and can increase because of

oxidations in the aging process. Its quantity was lesser in distillates aged in Quercus

alba probably because the lower porosity of this wood species. The total acetaldehyde

content in the aged distillates must be lower than 150 g/100 L absolute alcohol and the

Pgina 14

SUMMARY

samples showed values between 35 and 140 g/100 L absolute alcohol. The ethyl acetate

can be formed during the secondary metabolism of the yeast during the alcoholic

fermentation of grape pomace. However, it is the product of acetic acid esterification

and thus its concentration also increases during the aging process. The maximum value

allowed is 250 g/100L absolute alcohol while the samples showed values between 68

and 156 g/100L absolute alcohol, contributing with floral and fruity notes to the aged

distillate. The majority of higher alcohols are formed during the alcoholic fermentation

of the residual sugars and they are, quantitatively, the group of volatile compounds

more important in the distillates. 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol,

2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol are the higher alcohols with more influence

in the quality of the grape marc distillates and, for this reason, their total content are also

regulated, 225-600 g/100 L absolute alcohol. The samples analyzed showed total higher

alcohols concentrations between 262-406 g/100 L absolute alcohol. The unique mineral

regulated is the copper. This toxic mineral must be lower than 9 ppm, due to its high

toxicity. Cu in distillates comes from distillation equipments and treatments of the

vineyards with CuSO4. All samples showed Cu contents lower than this regulated value.

The samples were also sensorially evaluated by the official tasting panel of

Geographic Indication Spirits and Traditional Liqueurs from Galicia composed by 8

professionals (5 men and 3 women) with ages from 31 to 55 years. The judges

evaluated the intensity of several descriptive and qualify parameters (in visual, aroma,

taste, aftertaste and general impression), previously used and defined by the same

panellists to sensorially evaluate young and aged distillate from grape marc (Orujo).

The tasters were asked to score each attribute using a structured scale from 0 (no

Pgina 15

SUMMARY

perception) to 5 (very high intensity). The panel also scored the overall quality of the

Orujos between 0 (without quality) and 50 (maximum quality).

The results showed similar evaluation results for grape marc distillates aged

during 60 months in Quercus robur from Galicia and during 144 months in Quercus

petraea. The worst evaluated distillates were those aged during 72 months in Quercus

petraea and the mix of distillates aged in different oak species during 42 months.

Finally the PCA showed that the samples were separated in four groups: the first one:

samples aged in Quercus petraea Allier during 72 months with herbaceous notes in

aftertaste. The second group is formed by distillates aged in Quercus robur during 60

and 72 months and in Quercus petraea Allier during 144 months and a mix of distillates

from different oak subspecies aged 14 months: associated with positive attributes like

persistence and with aroma notes such as fruity and floral, both in nose and in aftertaste.

Third group was formed by distillates aged in Quercus alba during 72 months in the

central plot, and finally the fourth group sample of mix distillates aged in different oak

subspecies during 42 months: negative aroma attributes in the nose, such as heads and

ensilage. Results of additional studies, discussions and methodologies are shown in

Annex V.

The mineral composition of the aged distillates was also evaluated. The essential

minerals, Na, K were determined by flame atomic emission spectrometry, Ca, Mg, Zn,

Cu, Mn and Fe, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and the non-essential

minerals, Al, Pb and Cd, by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry. The minerals

founded in high concentration were the essential elements Na (3.56-13.87 ppm), K

(9.32-116.55 ppm) and Ca (1.74-11.58 ppm) and Al (69.70-752.1 ppb) as non-essential

element. According to other published studies, Na, K and Ca with Mg can be introduced

Pgina 16

SUMMARY

in the distillate with the water employing in the dilution process to reduce the alcohol

degree. Na can also increase its concentration during the aging process, being the

distillates aged in Quercus robur from Galicia the samples with higher concentration of

this mineral. This last subspecies showed also high concentration of Fe (0.30-0.33

ppm).

The quantity of Al (248.4-381.6 ppb), Pb (34.4-112.5 ppb) and Zn (0.39-0.41)

showed the higher concentrations in samples aged in Quercus alba, whereas Cu and Pb

showed the lower concentrations in these samples. Both compounds can be introduced

during distillation, in the vineyard treatment or in the dilution of the distillate. The low

contents from these minerals in the distillates analyzed indicate a good elaboration.

Considering the concentrations obtained, the intake, in small doses, of grape

marc distillates aged in oak could contributes to the daily intake of essential elements

studied. The lower mineral content in those minerals which may not be as beneficial to

human health shows the correct preparation of such beverages.

The PCA analysis with 62.91% of total variance showed a good separation of

samples according to mineral content. Orujo aged in Quercus alba was characterized by

Ca, Mg, Al and Cu. Mix of distillates aged in different oak subspecies were correlated

with K. Orujo aged in Quercus robur was characterized by Na, Zn, Fe and Cd. Results

of additional studies, discussions and methodologies are shown in Annex VI.

Phenolic composition, the total phenolic content and color parameters (color

intensity and hue) were also evaluated in the same aged grape marc distillates.

Between the samples studied those aged in Quercus robur from Galicia showed

the higher content in total phenolic compounds (5590352 mg equivalent of gallic

Pgina 17

SUMMARY

acid/L), color intensity (2.320.34), gallic acid (representative of the benzoic

compounds) (58.159.23 ppm), vanillic and syringic acid (2.821.45 ppm and

5.750.69 ppm); vanillin (5.711.57 ppm) and vanillyl alcohol (2.470.36 ppm).

Distillates aged in Quercus alba showed the lower values of total phenolic content

(121144.1 mg equivalent of gallic acid/L) and color intensity (0.680.15), whereas

those aged in Quercus robur from Limousin showed the lower values of vanillic and

syringic acid (<LOQ and 1.200.05 ppm).

Statistical treatment of the results obtained showed a high positive correlation

value between vanillic and syringic acids, both from lignin degradation. Both benzoic

acids were also positively correlated with guaiacyl-type compounds (syringaldehyde

and sinapaldehyde). Gallic acid showed high positive correlation with the majority of

phenolic and cinnamic acids determined and with the corresponding aldehydes.

Cinnamic acids (ferulic, isoferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids) were also highly

correlated among them.

Pearson correlations between phenolic compounds and taste attributes showed

strong positive correlations: they were found between the phenolic acids, benzoic acids

(gallic, syringic and benzoic) and cinnamic acids (ferulic, isoferulic and sinapic) with

negative descriptors in mouth (astringent and alcoholic notes). On the other hand, the

positive attributes, sweet and dense-oily, showed strong positive correlations with the

corresponding phenolic aldehydes, benzoic (protocatechaldehyde and syringaldehyde)

and cinnamic (sinapaldehyde). 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-coumaric acid were

negatively correlated with the positive attributes whereas vanillin, as alcohol, aldehyde

and acid showed strong positive correlation with the alcoholic note.

Pgina 18

SUMMARY

Color parameters and the three visual attributes (transparency, brightness and

color) were also correlated. The results showed that hue is the color parameter that has

more influence in the positive valorization of the aged samples.

The principal component analysis (PCA) showed a good separation of the aged

Orujo according to the species and origin of the oak wood. Four groups of samples were

defined by the two first principal components. Samples from group 1 (QRG60: Quercus

robur from Galicia with 60 months of aging and QRG72: Quercus robur from Galicia

with 72 months of aging) were better characterized mainly by gallic, syringic and

sinapic acids and by total phenols and colorant intensity. In contrast samples included in

the group 2 (QRL13: Quercus robur from Limousin with 13 months of aging and

QRL16: Quercus robur from Limousin with 16 months of aging) were very little

characterized by them, showing differences among samples aged in the same species of

oak wood but from different origin. The group 3 (QA72A: Quercus alba with 72

months of aging and QA72B: the same that the other one) was characterized by mainly

syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. The group 4 was composed by distillates aged in Q.

petraea (QPA30: Quercus petraea from Allier with 30 months of aging, QPA72A: from

Allier with 72 months of aging, QPA72B: the same as above, and QPA144: from Allier

with 144 months of aging) in the center of the plot. Results of additional studies,

discussions and methodologies are shown in Annex VII.

MACERATION PROCESS

Once the commercial aged grape marc distillates and herb liqueurs and spirits

were characterized, it was undertaken a pilot study to determine the best operational

conditions to improve the elaboration process. The main aim was to evaluate which

Pgina 19

SUMMARY

variables have more influence during the maceration process of aromatic and medicinal

plants and during the aging contact to increase the quality of the resulting beverage. The

variables studied were, alcohol degree, concentration of plant/wood fragment and time

of maceration/contact.

Plants macerated
In the optimization of maceration process, different parts from several aromatic

and medicinal plants were assayed: flowers from Matricaria recutita L., seeds from

Coriandrum sativum L., roots from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and leaves from Eucalyptus

globulus Labill.

The optimization of the above mentioned variables, alcohol degree in the initial

distillate (% (v/v) ethanol), time and concentration (independent variables) were

possible following the concentration (dependent variable) of volatile compounds:

bisabolol oxide A in chamomile, linalool in coriander and eucalyptol in eucalyptus and

a phenolic compound, glycyrrhizic acid in licorice. Other dependent variables, with high

interest, were also evaluated: the total phenolic content (due to its importance on the

biological properties of these plants) and parameters of color (hue and color intensity).

Samples were submitted to a consumers study in order to determine the score of

preference.

Box-Behnken experimental design was applied in the optimization process.

Results showed that this tool was an efficient method to evaluate the effect of

concentration of plant, time and ethanol content on principal compounds, TP and color

in herbal liqueurs and spirits.

In general, for the main compounds and for the consumer valuation of color of

each plant macerated the concentration of plant was the independent variable with

Pgina 20

SUMMARY

higher positive effect. For total phenolic content (TP) and spectrophotometric

parameters of color was the ethanol content. Time was an independent variable with

lower influence on the extraction of the dependent variables studied.

Results showed that the concentrations of main compounds determined in the

experimental macerates, which can have toxic effects on human health, were in the

recommendable range (assuming an adult weight of 70 kg which consumes no more

than 50 ml, of liqueur or spirit, per day). For linalool the acceptance daily intake

calculated is 0.11 0.00 mg/kg body weight/day that is within the range permitted by

the International Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)

(ADI= 00.5mg linalool/kg body weight/day). Eucalyptol presented a tolerable daily

intake (TDI) of 0.66 0.03 mg/kg body weight, being the TDI recommended by

literature of 0.1 mg/kg. This quantity exceeds six times the recommended tolerable

daily intake value, so the optimum independent variables must be avoided.

Results of additional studies, discussions and methodologies are shown in

Annex IX.

Accelerated aging grape marc distillate process


This study has similarities with the plant maceration. In this case the influence of

French oak (Quercus petraea) in chips with medium toasting level was evaluated to see

the contribution of phenols (as total phenolic content (TP) and total phenols index

(TPI)), color parameters (hue and color intensity (CI)), antioxidant capacity, and two

compounds with influence on the organoleptic composition of the final aged product:

whiskey lactone and vanillin, on the grape marc distillate. In the optimization of the

accelerated aging process, these parameters were studied as dependent variables of a

Pgina 21

SUMMARY

Box-Benhken experimental design, using the same independent variables as in plant

maceration but in some cases with different values: alcohol degree in the initial

distillate (% (v/v) ethanol: 40, 55 and 70 %), time (2, 4 and 6 weeks) and concentration

of chips in the grape marc distillate (5, 15, 25 g/L).

The concentration of chips was the variable with higher effect in the

optimization process except in the case of whiskey lactone where the alcohol degree

was the more important variable.

Once the optimization took place, the next step was to evaluate the influence of

different characteristics of the oak on the final composition of the aged Orujo. The

parameters studied were the same that in the optimization process: the alcohol degree,

the time and the concentration of chips. 24.40 g/L, 4.60 weeks and 58.00 %(v/v) were

the optimized values found in the vanillin extraction, because of the good contribution

of this compound on the aged spirits and because this compound is present in the fresh

oak and its concentration increases in oak with different toasting levels.

This variables were applied to different fragment size (granular and chips), oak

species (Quercus petraea (French oak) and Quercus alba (Amercian oak) and a mix of

both) and finally, different toasting levels (fresh, light, medium and high).

Results showed that granular size, the Quercus petraea species and the medium

toasted presented, in general, the higher values of the different parameters studied.

Results of additional studies, discussions and methodologies are shown in

Annex X.

Pgina 22

PRLOGO
PRLOGO

PRLOGO

Una parte importante de la economa de Galicia, regin situada en el noroeste de

Espaa, se centra en actividades relacionadas, directa o indirectamente, con la

agricultura. Esta regin espaola cuenta con una superficie total de 29.574,8 km2, de los

cuales, la mayor extensin, 13.9% (447.461 hectreas) est dedicada a cultivos: el 80%

de tipo herbceo (unas 325.000 hectreas), mientras que un 3.1% (90.000 hectreas) es

de tipo leoso. De la superficie total dedicada al cultivo leoso una parte importante,

24.942 hectreas, est dedicada a la produccin de uva destinada a la elaboracin de

vino (Conselleria de Medio rural, 2012).

Teniendo en cuenta la extensa superficie dedicada al viedo, el sector

vitivincola es uno de los ms importantes en la economa de Galicia. As, los vinos que

se producen en esta regin se encuentran amparados bajo cinco Denominaciones de

Origen (Ribeiro, Ras Baixas, Ribeira Sacra, Monterrei y Valdeorras) (Figura 1) y, bajo

tres Indicaciones Geogrficas con derecho a mencin Vino de la Tierra (Betanzos, Valle

del Mio-Ourense y Barbanza e Iria).

Figura 1: Localizacin de las 5 Denominaciones de Origen gallegas.

Pgina 25
PRLOGO

Las caractersticas edafoclimticas de cada zona propician el cultivo de distintas

variedades de Vitis vinifera lo que repercute en la elaboracin de vinos de composicin

analtica y perfiles sensoriales diferentes (Sabon y col., 2002; Coelho y col., 2009).

Paralelamente a la produccin de vino se elaboran, de modo tradicional,

aguardientes a partir de los subproductos generados en la vinificacin (orujos y las).

Esta prctica enolgica tiene dos finalidades, por un lado revalorizar dichos

subproductos a travs de la obtencin de una bebida alcohlica de alto valor aadido y,

por otro lado, solucionar un problema medioambiental de generacin y acumulacin de

residuos. Esta tradicin y la calidad de los productos elaborados han permitido, en parte,

que Galicia sea la nica regin espaola reconocida por la Unin Europea con derecho

a Indicacin o Denominacin Geogrfica (I.G. D.G.) "Orujo de Galicia (Reglamento

(CE) n. 110/2008 del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 15 de enero de 2008),

con una produccin de vino y subproductos de 58 millones de euros en el ao 2008

(Instituto Gallego de Estadstica).

En lneas generales, los aguardientes de orujo se caracterizan por poseer una

elevada graduacin alcohlica y sensaciones aromticas y gustativas que dependen de la

conservacin y destilacin de la materia prima (Corts y col., 2010). Por su elevada

graduacin, 37.5-50% (v/v), sensorialmente son bebidas de gran intensidad aromtica y,

desde el punto de vista gustativo, se perciben con marcadas sensaciones amargas,

alcohlicas y punzantes con un postgusto largo. Estas caractersticas generales no se

adaptan al gusto actual del consumidor medio que ha modificado sus hbitos de

Pgina 26
PRLOGO

consumo hacia productos ms saludables y de menor contenido alcohlico. En esta

nueva situacin de mercado, las destileras cuentan con un importante excedente de

volumen de aguardiente que se ve incrementado considerablemente con cada nueva

campaa. Tanto por motivos econmicos como logsticos, es necesario dar salida al

mercado de dicho destilado a travs de la elaboracin de productos que, tomando como

base el aguardiente de orujo y respetando la elaboracin, respondan a los gustos del

consumidor y les permitan ser competitivos. En esta lnea, las empresas tienden a

comercializar bebidas alcohlicas saludables como los licores y aguardientes de

hierbas. Ambos productos, de gran tradicin en Galicia, han sido recuperados en el ao

2004 para incluirlos en la nueva legislacin del Reglamento del Consejo Regulador de

las Indicaciones Geogrficas de los Aguardientes y Licores Tradicionales de Galicia

(D.O.G. 04.10.04). Adems del aguardiente blanco y los licores y aguardientes de

hierbas, el reglamento del consejo regulador tambin ampara los aguardientes

envejecidos, con una limitada produccin debido por un lado al importante coste

econmico que supone para las empresas la adquisicin de barricas (no existen estudios

previos sobre el producto que ayuden a seleccionar el tipo de roble ms adecuado) y,

por otro lado, debido a la inmovilizacin del producto durante un periodo mnimo de un

ao.

Los aguardientes y los licores de hierbas son apreciados por sus propiedades

medicinales, principalmente de tipo digestivo, consecuencia del aporte de determinados

compuestos extrados de las plantas por el etanol del aguardiente en el que se maceran.

Sin embargo, pese a conocer los beneficios que para la salud pueden aportar las plantas

medicinales y aromticas utilizadas en la elaboracin de ambas bebidas, no constan

estudios cientficos que reflejen cules son los compuestos implicados ni las

Pgina 27
PRLOGO

condiciones ptimas de elaboracin que propicien su presencia en el aguardiente o licor

final.

En el caso de los aguardientes envejecidos, el poder determinar el tipo de roble

ms adecuado para llevar a cabo el proceso de envejecimiento supondra una mejora

econmica notable para el sector productivo. Este aspecto podra repercutir en una

mayor produccin de aguardiente envejecida y una mayor diversificacin para las

empresas.

El desarrollo de esta tesis doctoral se ha enfocado para dar respuesta a estos

aspectos concretos relativos a la elaboracin de bebidas alcohlicas relacionadas con el

aguardiente de orujo.

Pgina 28
INTRODUCCIN
INTRODUCCIN

INTRODUCCIN
1. AGUARDIENTES Y LICORES AMPARADOS POR LAS
INDICACIONES GEOGRFICAS DE LOS AGUARDIENTES Y
LICORES TRADICIONALES DE GALICIA

En la Tabla 1 se recoge la evolucin en la comercializacin anual de cada tipo

de bebida amparada por las Indicaciones Geogrficas de los Aguardientes y Licores

Tradicionales de Galicia tras haber pasado un proceso previo de calificacin. Los

resultados se expresan en litros y en % de cada una de ellas frente al total de litros

comercializados.

Tabla 1: Registro de la comercializacin anual de Licores y Aguardientes de orujo de Galicia


con Indicacin Geogrfica protegida.

Aguardiente
Aguardiente de Aguardiente Licor de
Ao de orujo Licor caf
orujo de hierbas hierbas
envejecido
54% - 1% 31% 15%
2008
184.127 litros - 1.782 litros 104.972 litros 49.474 litros
43% - 5% 37% 15%
2009
87.572 litros - 10.400 litros 75.756 litros 29.910 litros
48% - 2% 37% 13%
2010
140.986 litros - 5.000 litros 106.544 litros 38.475 litros
53% - < 1% 30% 17%
2011
113.651 litros - 900 litros 64.254 litros 36.470 litros
44% 1% 3% 34% 19%
2013
127.900 litros 1.475 litros 8.625 litros 99.215 litros 56.080 litros

Datos suministrados por la Xunta de Galicia- Consellera do medio rural e do mar

Como se puede observar, el registro de aguardiente envejecido que fue

comercializado hasta el 2013 es nulo, probablemente como consecuencia del tiempo

(mnimo de un ao) que el aguardiente ha de permanecer en contacto con madera antes

Pgina 31
INTRODUCCIN

de su salida al mercado. Aunque el elevado coste que supone la elaboracin de dicho

producto, lleva consigo que el nmero de empresas productoras sea tambin muy bajo

respecto al total.

En torno a la mitad de la produccin anual de aguardiente se comercializa como

aguardiente de orujo, mientras que, del resto, el mayor porcentaje se destina a la

elaboracin de licores de hierbas y caf.

Los procesos de elaboracin de los licores de hierbas y los aguardientes

(maceracin y/o destilacin) as como el periodo de envejecimiento en barrica,

conferirn a los productos resultantes caractersticas analticas y sensoriales propias.

Algunas de dichas caractersticas, principalmente aquellas relativas a la composicin, se

recogen en el correspondiente reglamento.

1.1. Aguardiente y licor de hierbas

Tal y como se recoge en la ltima modificacin del Reglamento de las

Indicaciones Geogrficas de los Aguardientes y Licores Tradicionales de Galicia, cuya

contraetiqueta puede observarse en la Figura 2 (Orden del DOG n 10 de 2012/1/16)

Aguardiente de Hierbas de Galicia se define como la bebida espirituosa tradicional

elaborada en Galicia, obtenida a partir del aguardiente amparado por la Indicacin

Geogrfica Aguardiente de Galicia, mediante maceracin y/o destilacin del alcohol en

presencia de hierbas. Su contenido en azcar deber ser inferior a 100 gramos por litro y

el grado alcohlico volumtrico estar comprendido entre 37.5% y 50% vol.

Pgina 32
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 2: Logotipo de la Indicacin Geogrfica de Aguardientes de Hierbas de Galicia.

Por su parte, el Licor de Hierbas de Galicia (bebida encuadrada en la categora

32 del anexo II del Reglamento (CE) n 110/2008) (ver la contraetiqueta

correspondiente en la Figura 3) se define de modo similar, con ligeras salvedades

relativas a su composicin y elaboracin. As, en el licor de hierbas est permitido el

uso de alcohol etlico de origen agrcola en su elaboracin, la adicin de, como mnimo,

100 gramos por litro de azcar, y una menor graduacin alcohlica (20% y 40% vol).

Figura 3: Logotipo de la Indicacin Geogrfica de Licores de Hierbas de Galicia.

Las materias primas empleadas y cada etapa del proceso de elaboracin de

aguardientes y licores de hierbas est supervisada por tcnicos del consejo regulador,

atendiendo a los siguientes criterios previamente establecidos en el reglamento:

1. La elaboracin y el embotellado deben realizarse en instalaciones inscritas en

los registros del Consejo Regulador de los Aguardientes y Licores Tradicionales de

Galicia.

2. El aguardiente y licor de hierbas de Galicia se obtendrn por maceracin de

las hierbas en el aguardiente de Galicia o por destilacin del orujo en presencia de las

Pgina 33
INTRODUCCIN

hierbas. Tambin se podr elaborar mediante una combinacin de ambos procedimientos.

En el caso del licor de hierbas, el proceso de maceracin se har aadiendo las

hierbas al aguardiente de Galicia, al alcohol etlico de origen agrcola o a una mezcla de

ambos, siendo el contenido mnimo de aguardiente acogido a la Indicacin Geogrfica

Aguardiente de Galicia del 25% del total de alcohol absoluto. Adems el alcohol etlico de

origen agrcola debe cumplir las especificaciones del punto 1 del anexo I del Reglamento

(CE) n 110/2008.

3. En la elaboracin del aguardiente/licor de hierbas de Galicia se emplearn un

mnimo de tres especies de plantas. Se permite el uso de cualquier especie apta para uso

alimentario, entre las cuales se citan por ser de uso ms tradicional, las siguientes: menta,

manzanilla, hierba luisa, romero, organo, tomillo, cilantro, azahar, hinojo, regaliz, nuez

moscada y canela.

4. Para la edulcoracin se utilizarn uno o varios de los productos autorizados por el

Reglamento (CE) n 110/2008. La coloracin se puede completar con colorantes

alimentarios autorizados. Adems est permitido el uso de sustancias aromatizantes

naturales y prohibida la adicin de aromas y/o preparaciones aromatizantes, extractos o

esencias.

Finalmente, para comercializarse con la contraetiqueta de la Indicacin Geogrfica

Aguardiente de Hierbas/Licor de Hierbas de Galicia, las bebidas espirituosas debern

cumplir con una serie de parmetros analticos, con valores mximos y mnimos que se

recogen en el correspondiente reglamento y son los que se muestran en la Tabla 2.

Pgina 34
INTRODUCCIN

Tabla 2: Parmetros analticos regulados por la Indicacin Geogrfica de Licores y Aguardientes de


Galicia.

Aguardiente de hierbas Licor de hierbas

Mximo Mnimo Mximo Mnimo

Grado alcohlico (%) 50 37.5 40 20


Metanol, g/100 L a.a. 950 200 950 50
Acidez total en cido actico, g/100 L a.a. 150 - 150 -
Acetaldehdo (etanal), g/100 L a.a. 150 - 150 -
Acetato de etilo, g/100 L a.a. 250 - 250 -
Suma de alcoholes superiores (g/100 L a.a.)* 600 225 600 60
Cobre, mg/l de muestra 9 - 9 -
Contenido en azcares g/l - 100 - 100
(a.a.=alcohol absoluto) * 2-butanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-metil-propanol, 2-metil-1-butanol y 3-metil-1-
butanol

Adems de dichos parmetros analticos, el producto final deber cumplir una serie

de caractersticas organolpticas, en fase visual, olfativa y gustativa, que se recogen tambin

en el correspondiente reglamento. As, su aspecto deber ser traslcido y limpio y su color

ir desde amarillo paja a amarillo verdoso. Su aroma ser intenso, fino, delicado, con sabor,

amplio, con notas florales, con un marcado carcter del aguardiente de orujo del cual

procede completado con hierbas que la caracterizan y con ausencia de olor a humedad, a

quemado a suciedad y ausencia de notas acticas. En cuanto a la fase gustativa, su sabor

debe ser persistente, predominando el equilibrio entre el alcohol del destilado y las notas a

hierbas aromticas y especias, y con recuerdo a las caractersticas percibidas en la fase

olfativa.

Pgina 35
INTRODUCCIN

1.2. Aguardiente de orujo envejecido

La elaboracin de aguardiente envejecido en barrica de roble se recoge en el

reglamento del consejo regulador desde su creacin en 1989 (Orden del 5 de mayo de

1989).

Se conoce como Aguardiente envejecido al aguardiente de orujo que permanezca en

envases de madera de roble u otras especies (recogidas en el manual de calidad incluidas tras

la aprobacin del Pleno del Consejo Regulador) sin barniz ni revestimientos, estufada o no,

de capacidad igual o inferior a 1000 litros, de forma que permanezca esttica durante al

menos un ao, sin mezclas o combinaciones con otros aguardientes durante todo el tiempo

de envejecimiento. Durante el tiempo de envejecimiento, slo se autorizan los rellenos

necesarios, para cubrir mermas por evaporacin, (cmo mximo de un 1,5% trimestral (de

acuerdo con el artculo 90 del Real decreto 1165/1995, del 7 de julio por lo que se aprueba

el Reglamento de impuestos especiales) con aguardiente de orujo de igual tiempo de

envejecimiento. Su contraetiqueta se muestra en la Figura 4.

Figura 4: Logotipo de Indicacin Geogrfica de Aguardientes y Aguardientes envejecidos de Galicia.

En el aguardiente final se autoriza la mezcla de diferentes destilados envejecidos,

calificados previamente de acuerdo a lo establecido en el artculo 24 de la Orden del DOG

n 10 de 2012/1/16 y siendo supervisada la operacin por el rgano de control segn las

normas del manual de calidad. Asimismo se permite ajustar la coloracin del producto con

caramelo.

Pgina 36
INTRODUCCIN

Del mismo modo que los aguardientes y licores de hierbas, los aguardientes

envejecidos han de presentar una determinada composicin analtica en lo que respecta a

una serie de parmetros previamente establecidos. En la Tabla 3 se recogen dichos

parmetros analticos y su correspondiente intervalo de concentraciones.

Tabla 3: Parmetros analticos regulados por la Indicacin Geogrfica de Aguardientes y


Aguardientes envejecidos de Galicia.

Aguardiente de orujo envejecido


Mximo Mnimo
Grado alcohlico (%) 50 37.5
Metanol, g/ 100 L a.a. 950 200
Acidez total en cido actico, g/ 100 L a.a. 250 -
Acetaldehido (etanal), g/ 100 L a.a. 150 -
Acetato de etilo, g/ 100 L a.a. 250 -
Suma de alcoholes superiores* g/ 100 L
600 225
a.a.
Cobre, mg/L de muestra 9 -
(a.a.=alcohol absoluto) * 2-butanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-metil-propanol, 2-metil-1-butanol y 3-metil-1-
butanol

Adems, los aguardientes envejecidos debern presentar en fase visual un aspecto

limpio y translcido con color ambarino-tostado. Su aroma deber ser intenso, fino,

delicado y podr presentar recuerdos a vainilla, especias y frutos secos y con ausencia de

humedad, de sensacin a quemado, de suciedad y de notas acticas. Por lo que respecta a su

sabor, ste recordar a la materia prima de origen con presencia de las caractersticas

percibidas en la fase olfativa y a las del envejecimiento natural, y estar exento de elementos

extraos.

2. MATERIAS PRIMAS

Las materias primas empleadas en la elaboracin de licores y aguardientes de hierbas

y aguardiente envejecido y que ms pueden influir en su composicin son principalmente, el

Pgina 37
INTRODUCCIN

aguardiente de orujo, las plantas aromticas y medicinales (PAM) y la madera de roble de la

barrica.

2.1. Aguardiente de orujo


Tal y como se recoge en el correspondiente reglamento (Orden del DOG n 10 de

2012/1/16) el Aguardiente de orujo de Galicia es una bebida espirituosa (encuadrada en la

categora 6 del anexo II del Reglamento (CE) n 110/2008) obtenida, mediante la

destilacin por calentamiento con fuego directo o vapor acuoso, a partir de orujos

(conservados en condiciones anaerobias) y las de uva, fermentados y destilados, obtenidos

en el mbito geogrfico de la Comunidad Autnoma de Galicia con una graduacin mnima

del 37,5% vol.

Se establecen 9 subzonas tradicionalmente productoras de aguardiente de orujo:

Ribeiro, Valdeorras, Ras Baixas, Ribeira Sacra, Monterrei, Val do Mio-Ourense,

Betanzos, Ribeira do Ulla y Portomarn.

Se entiende por las de vinificacin: las sustancias slidas (sobre todo restos de

levaduras) acumuladas en el fondo de los depsitos tras la fermentacin del vino y los

correspondientes trasiegos; mientras que el orujo son los restos slidos (hollejo de uva,

pepitas y raspn) que quedan tras las etapas de despalillado y estrujado de la uva (Figura 5).

Figura 5: Orujo de uva blanca (izquierda) y las tintas de vinificacin (derecha).

La proporcin de las que pueden ser destiladas conjuntamente con el orujo ser

como mximo del 25% (m/m) (25 kg/100 kg de orujo), siendo la cantidad de alcohol

Pgina 38
INTRODUCCIN

procedente de stas no superior al 35% (v/v) de alcohol del producto final. La destilacin

tendr lugar en presencia de los orujos a menos de 86 % vol., autorizndose la redestilacin

con ese mismo grado alcohlico.

En cuanto a los aparatos utilizados en la destilacin podrn ser por calentamiento de

la masa a destilar (orujo y las) mediante fuego directo como son las tradicionales alqutara o

el alambique (Figura 6) o bien por arrastre de vapor: calderines de arrastre de vapor. Estos

equipos deben obtener destilados de calidad, conservando las caractersticas especficas de

los aguardientes de orujo.

Figura 6: Alqutara (izquierda), alambique (centro) y calderines (derecha).

La composicin analtica (para una serie de parmetros) de los aguardientes de orujo

est legislada y dicha composicin se ha de cumplir tanto si el aguardiente se comercializa

como tal, como si ste se utiliza como base en la elaboracin de licores o antes de

introducirse en la barrica para su envejecimiento.

Los parmetros legislados y sus valores mximos y mnimos se recogen en la Tabla

4.

Tabla 4: Parmetros analticos regulados por la Indicacin Geogrfica Aguardiente de

Galicia.

Pgina 39
INTRODUCCIN

Aguardiente de orujo
Mximo Mnimo
Grado alcohlico (%) 50 37.5
Metanol, g/100 L a.a. 950 200
Acidez total en cido actico, g/100 L a.a. 150 -
Acetaldehido (etanal), g/100 L a.a. 150 -
Acetato de etilo, g/100 L a.a. 250 -
Suma de alcoholes superiores* g/100 L a.a. 600 225
Cobre, mg/L de muestra 9 -
(a.a.=alcohol absoluto) * 2-butanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-metil-propanol, 2-metil-1-butanol y 3-metil-1-
butanol

En la composicin analtica del aguardiente, adems de los parmetros anteriores,

destaca la presencia de distintas familias de compuestos voltiles, principalmente alcoholes

superiores, steres etlicos, acetatos, acetales, aldehidos y cidos. La presencia y

concentracin de dichos compuestos en el aguardiente depender de las condiciones de

conservacin y fermentacin de la materia prima y del proceso de destilacin (Corts y col.,

2005; Corts y col., 2010; Da Porto, 2002; Da Porto y Decorti, 2008; Silva y Malcata,

1998, 1999). Adems de los compuestos anteriores, el aguardiente incluye en su

composicin aquellos compuestos voltiles que proceden de la variedad de uva,

mayoritariamente terpenos y C13-norisoprenoides y, que las condiciones de elaboracin,

fermentacin y destilacin, favorecen su presencia en el aguardiente (Diguez y col., 2003),

as como una serie de minerales. De acuerdo a su valor nutricional los minerales de los

alimentos se pueden clasificar en dos categoras: esenciales y no esenciales.

Esenciales: son aquellos elementos cuya ausencia o insuficiencia en la dieta humana

produce cambios en el metabolismo con las consecuentes enfermedades desarrolladas

despus de un periodo de tiempo. Este grupo lo forman elementos como por ejemplo el Na,

K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn y Fe.

Pgina 40
INTRODUCCIN

No esenciales: son aquellos elementos dainos para la salud humana debido a que no

son ni qumica ni biolgicamente degradables, as su concentracin aumenta a travs de la

cadena alimenticia en los organismos vivos. Entre estos elementos se encuentran el Pb y el

Cd.

Estos elementos presentes en los aguardientes pueden proceder de las materias

primas utilizadas (Orujo, madera utilizada para el envejecimiento), el tratamiento de los

cultivos y durante el proceso de manufactura del producto final. Segn el origen o su

procedencia se puede decir que los elementos proceden: de una fuente natural o primaria,

asociada a la madurez de la uva, variedad, tipo de suelo del viedo, condiciones climticas

durante el crecimiento de la uva, etc y fuentes secundarias, asociadas con impurezas

externas las cuales pueden alcanzar el producto final a travs de las partes slidas de las

uvas o durante los diferentes pasos en el proceso de elaboracin de estas bebidas.

En cuanto a las caractersticas organolpticas presentarn en fase visual un aspecto

transparente y limpio y sern incoloras. Su aroma ser intenso, fino, delicado, con

presencia de notas florales y/o frutales, y ausencia de olor a humedad, a quemado, a

suciedad y a notas acticas. Su sabor ser el propio de la materia prima de la que procede,

exento de elementos extraos y con recuerdos a las caractersticas percibidas en la fase

olfativa.

El aguardiente de Galicia se elaborar en instalaciones inscritas en los registros del

Consejo Regulador de los Aguardientes y Licores Tradicionales de Galicia.

Pgina 41
INTRODUCCIN

2.2. Plantas aromticas y medicinales (PAM)

Las plantas aromticas y medicinales (PAM) son especies vegetales que, como

producto de su actividad metablica, producen sustancias que tienen inmediato inters

teraputico (principios activos) o bien farmacutico (precursores para hemisntesis o

sustancias y mezclas de ellas usadas en el acondicionamiento de frmacos para su

administracin) (Bruneton, 2001; Paris & Moyse, 1976). Las PAM presentan

caractersticas biolgicas propias y una adaptacin diferenciada a las condiciones de clima y

suelo.

Tradicionalmente, distintas plantas aromticas y medicinales se utilizan como

materias primas para la elaboracin de licores y aguardientes de hierbas, confirindole al

destilado de partida no solo una serie de atributos sensoriales que intensifican su

aromaticidad, si no tambin propiedades medicinales.

En el caso concreto de los aguardientes y licores de hierbas de Galicia, en la ltima

modificacin del reglamento, DOG n10 2012/1/16 se recoge que cualquier planta apta para

uso alimentario podr ser utilizada para la elaboracin de este tipo de bebidas, siendo las de

uso ms tradicional: menta, manzanilla, hierba luisa, romero, organo, tomillo, cilantro,

azahar, hinojo, regaliz, nuez moscada y canela.

Las propiedades de las plantas aromticas y medicinales son conocidas desde

tiempos remotos, ya antes del 3000 a.C. se escribi el libro ms antiguo sobre plantas

medicinales en China, mientras que los sumerios en el 2500 a.C. ya grababan en tablas de

arcilla las propiedades curativas de las plantas.

En el siglo I el botnico y mdico Dioscrides hizo un compendio de unas 600

plantas que sus discpulos ampliaron hasta formar la obra Materia Mdica o El Dioscrides.

ste es un texto clave en la medicina occidental, en farmacia y en botnica, referencia para

Pgina 42
INTRODUCCIN

todos los mdicos durante ms de 1700 aos. Su traduccin al castellano se hizo en el siglo

XVI (Jardine, Secord, y Spary, 1996).

A partir del siglo XVIII se fueron sustituyendo las plantas por productos qumicos

extrados de ellas, como la morfina en 1803, extrada de Papaver somniferum (Goumon y

col., 2009). En 1897 el alemn Hoffmann obtuvo el cido acetilsaliclico de pureza

farmacolgica y comercializado como la aspirina de la cscara del sauce (Braa y col.,

2005) y en 1820 los franceses Pelletier y Caventou obtuvieron la quinina a partir de la quina

(Sneader, W.E., 2005).

La OMS (Organizacin Mundial de la Salud) a final de los aos 1970 promovi una

mayor atencin a la medicina tradicional y en 1991, en la 44 Asamblea Mundial de la Salud

adopt la resolucin 44-34 en la que insta a sus miembros a promover el empleo de

remedios tradicionales inocuos, eficaces y cientficamente vlidos.

De las caractersticas y registro de cada planta para ser considerada como planta

medicinal se encarga la Farmacopea (cdigo de especificaciones que han de satisfacer los

medicamentos y sus materias primas (Espaola, 1997).

Las plantas medicinales contienen uno o varios principios activos que sirven como

medicamento, o como base para su elaboracin. Son capaces de prevenir, aliviar o curar

enfermedades. Sus propiedades curativas se aplican en diferentes campos como la

Fitoterapia (herbalismo) o para tratamientos de belleza y en alimentacin natural.

En el proceso de formacin de estos principios activos colaboran distintos rganos de

la planta, principalmente las races y las hojas. La raz bombea la savia bruta (agua junto con

sales minerales y nitratos) y la reparte por todo el vegetal a travs del tallo mientras que las

hojas, reciben la savia bruta y mediante complejos sistemas enzimticos elaboran los

prtidos o protenas (principios inmediatos o alimenticios imprescindibles para la vida) y los

alcaloides (principios activos con accin fisiolgica especfica y energtica). Adems, en la

Pgina 43
INTRODUCCIN

fotosntesis el vegetal sintetiza los glcidos que constituyen los elementos de reserva de la

planta (Muoz, 1987).

Una parte de los glcidos se almacenan en diferentes rganos y otra se transforman

en compuestos secundarios: lpidos, aceites (terpenos y componentes aromticos que

constituyen las esencias y resinas), hetersidos (combinaciones de azcares y otras

sustancias activas), cidos orgnicos, etc. Las plantas medicinales tambin sintetizan en su

metabolismo taninos, vitaminas y sustancias antibiticas.

Entre los grupos de principios activos de las plantas destacan: los aceites esenciales

(principalmente terpenos y sus derivados), alcaloides (compuestos cuaternarios derivados de

la quinolena, piridina, pirimidina, etc.), flavonoides (flavonas), saponinas, glucsidos,

taninos, muclagos (polisacridos complejos formados por unidades de azcares y cido

urnico), minerales y vitaminas (Roldn, 1997).

Estos principios activos no se localizan de modo uniforme en los distintos rganos de

la planta, sino que cada uno de ellos contiene unos concretos. As:

La hoja, es la estructura en la que tiene lugar la fotosntesis y dnde se acumulan

principalmente: hetersidos, alcaloides y esencias.

El tallo, es va de paso entre las races y las hojas. Sus principios activos estn

localizados normalmente en la corteza y pueden encontrarse alcaloides, glucocidos,

compuestos fenlicos, flavonoides y taninos.

La raz, acta como rgano de reserva, y frecuentemente acumula principios activos

de tipo lactonas, glucsidos, saponsido, etc.

La flor, normalmente contiene tambin esencias y flavonoides que contribuyen a su

coloracin.

El fruto y la semilla, que acumulan principalmente esencias.

Pgina 44
INTRODUCCIN

Se puede establecer una clasificacin de las plantas medicinales atendiendo a la

naturaleza qumica de sus principios activos:

Plantas con glucsidos de distinta naturaleza: saponnicos (regaliz).

Plantas con taninos: tienen en su composicin qumica grupos fenlicos (roble,

castao).

Plantas con esencias: cilantro, eucalipto, hinojo, manzanilla, menta, romero, salvias,

tomillos.

Las plantas aromticas y medicinales pueden desarrollarse en condiciones diferentes

a las de su hbitat natural, aunque el rendimiento y calidad de sus principios activos pueden

verse afectados notablemente, ya que la planta debe adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones.

Existen tambin los principios inmediatos, constituidos por prtidos, glcidos y

lpidos. Estos principios no actan sobre las funciones fisiolgicas del organismo animal

pero son imprescindibles para mantenerse vivos. Constituyen la base nutritiva directa de los

animales herbvoros e indirecta de los carnvoros. Los vegetales que elaboran estas

sustancias son las Plantas Alimenticias y su clasificacin y registro figuran en el Cdigo

Alimentario.

A su vez, existen vegetales que poseen ambos tipos de sustancias: principios activos

e inmediatos y se utilizan por ello tanto en el campo teraputico como en el diettico.

2.2.1. La produccin de las PAM en Espaa


La Pennsula Ibrica, debido a su localizacin geogrfica y a su ecologa variada,

posee una flora medicinal y aromtica muy extensa y variada. Su produccin proviene, en

gran medida, de la recoleccin silvestre, pudindose establecer principalmente tres zonas

diferenciadas por el tipo de clima y suelo. Cada una de estas zonas produce distintas

especies de plantas aromticas y medicinales, silvestres o cultivadas:

Pgina 45
INTRODUCCIN

Las zonas occidentales y del Norte (Galicia, Cordillera Cantbrica, Len y Cordillera

Pirenaica), con predominio de clima atlntico y suelos cidos, son ricas en plantas

medicinales. Entre las especies que se pueden encontrar estn la genciana (Gentiana

lutea), rnica, valeriana (Valeriana officinalis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), equiseto y castaa de

Indias.

En el interior de la Pennsula (Sistema Ibrico y mesetas de Castilla La Mancha

(Cuenca y Guadalajara)), con suelos calizos y clima continental, predominan las plantas

esencieras. Entre las especies que se pueden encontrar en esta zona destacan el espliego

(Salvia lavandulifolia) y lavandn (Lavandula burnatii CT super), mejorana (Thymus

mastichina), romero (Rosmarinus officinalis), organo (Thymbra capitata), enebro

(Juniperus communis), hinojo (Foeniculum vulgare) y gayuba (Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi).

En Levante, Sierras del Sudeste hasta Granada y Almera, incluyendo sistema Btico

(Andaluca oriental) y Catalua, con predominio de suelos bsicos y clima mediterrneo,

predominan las plantas aromticas y condimentarias, pero sin excluir a las

medicinales. Las principales especies localizadas en esta zona son, el tomillo (rojo,

limonero, etc.) (Thymus vulgaris, T. zygis, T. hyemali.), mejorana (Thymus mastichina),

romero (Rosmarinus officinalis), salvia espaola (Salvia lavandulifolia), hinojo (Foeniculum

vulgare) y ans (Pimpinella anisum). En Sierra Morena y las sierras del Sur de Extremadura

se produce principalmente organo (Origanum vulgare), romero (Rosmarinus officinalis),

tomillo y jara (Halimium atriplicifolium) (Capdevila, 2007; Palacio Garca-Nieto, L.

2000).

Pese a que una gran parte de las plantas se producen de manera silvestre en cada

zona, para aquellas de mayor consumo, existen cultivos, ya sean convencionales o de

produccin ecolgica, esta ltima en menor medida, a fin de asegurar su produccin

mnima.

Pgina 46
INTRODUCCIN

Los principales cultivos corresponden a adormidera (Pavaper somniferum), azafrn

(Crocus sativus), pimiento para pimentn (Capsicum annuum), lpulo (Humulus lupulus),

lavandas y espliegos (Lavandula x hybrida, L. angustifolia, L. latifolia), ans (Pimpinela

anisum), comino (Cuminum cyminum), aloe (Aloe vera), menta (Mentha sp.), manzanilla

(Matricaria recutita), achicoria (Cichorium intybus), regaliz (Glycyrrhyza glabra) y endrino

(Prunus spinosa).

Otros cultivos que ocupan pequeas superficies son melisa (Melissa officinalis),

salvia (Salvia officinalis, S. lavandulifolia), tomillo (Thymus sp.), romero (Rosmarinus

officinalis), estragn (Artemisia dracunculus), cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), hisopo

(Hyssopus officinalis), organo (Origanum vulgare, O. virens), mejorana (Origanum

majorana), equincea (Echinacea purpurea), calndula (Calendula officinalis), hiprico

(Hypericum perforatum), hierba luisa (Lippia citriodora), ajedrea (Satureja montana),

manzanilla de Mahn (Santolina chamaecyparissus) y rnica (Arnica montana).

Segn la Asociacin Nacional Interprofesional de Plantas Aromticas y Medicinales

(ANIPAM), el cultivo (convencional y ecolgico) de las Plantas Aromticas, Medicinales y

Condimentarias (PAMC) ocupa en Espaa unas 7.000 hectreas, a la que hay que aadir las

plantas procedentes de la recoleccin silvestre de gran importancia cuantitativa.

En Galicia, al contrario de otras regiones espaolas (como Catalua que incluso

cuenta con Asociacin Catalana de Productores de Plantas Aromticas y Medicinales

(ACPPAM), no existe gran tradicin en el cultivo de plantas medicinales.

2.2.2. Compuestos aportados por las plantas


Las plantas pueden aportar compuestos que se clasifican, de modo general, en:

metabolitos primarios y metabolitos secundarios.

Pgina 47
INTRODUCCIN

Los metabolitos primarios (aminocidos, azcares, y cidos grasos) son

fundamentales para el organismo a travs de todos los principales reinos biolgicos y estn

involucrados en el metabolismo, en el crecimiento, en el mantenimiento y en la

supervivencia (Eastwood, 2001).

Los metabolitos secundarios (aminocidos no proteicos, alcaloides, fenoles e

isoprenoides), son compuestos de bajo peso molecular con gran importancia ecolgica, ya

que participan en los procesos de adaptacin de las plantas a su ambiente: por ejemplo el

establecimiento de la simbiosis con otros organismos y en la atraccin de insectos

polinizadores y dispersores de las semillas y frutos. Las plantas experimentan una sntesis

activa de estos metabolitos cuando son expuestas a condiciones adversas como el consumo

por herbvoros, el ataque por microorganismos (virus, bacterias y hongos), la competencia

por el espacio de suelo, la luz y los nutrientes entre las diferentes especies de plantas y la

exposicin a la luz solar u otros tipos de estrs abitico (Seplveda-Jimnez, Porta-

Ducoing y Rocha-Sosa, 2004).

Estos metabolitos secundarios son los responsables de la actividad teraputica

aportada por las plantas.

2.2.2.1. Metabolitos primarios

Dentro de los metabolitos primarios que forman parte de la composicin de las

plantas aromticas y medicinales, destacan los cidos grasos por ser una fuente importante

de combustible, ya que, cuando se metabolizan, producen grandes cantidades de ATP.

Muchos tipos de clulas del organismo humano pueden utilizar ya sea glucosa o cidos

grasos para este propsito. En particular, el corazn y el msculo esqueltico prefieren

cidos grasos, mientras que el cerebro puede utilizar cidos grasos como fuente de

Pgina 48
INTRODUCCIN

combustible (Ebert, Haller y Walton, 2003; Marin-Valencia y col., 2013), adems de

glucosa y cuerpos cetnicos.

a) Acidos grasos

Los cidos grasos son cadenas lineales de cidos carboxlicos que contienen un

nmero constante de tomos de carbono. La longitud de la cadena est entre 12 y 20 tomos

de carbono. En la Tabla 5 se muestra un listado de los principales cidos grasos, saturados e

insaturados, presentes en las plantas superiores, que vara de una especie a otra.

Tabla 5: cidos grasos presentes en las plantas superiores.

Nombre Estructura
cido larico CH3(CH2)10COOH
saturados
cidos
grasos

cido mirstico CH3(CH2)12COOH


cido palmtico CH3(CH2)14COOH
cido esterico CH3(CH2)16COOH

cido oleico CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH


insatura
cidos
grasos

dos

cido linoleico CH3(CH2)4CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH(CH2)7COOH


cido linolnico CH3CH2CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH-(CH2)7COOH

La biosntesis de cidos grasos tiene lugar en el citosol y se basa en la condensacin

cclica de unidades de dos carbonos siendo el acetil coenzima A el precursor, tal y como se

observa en la Figura 7.

Pgina 49
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 7: Ciclo de sntesis de los cidos grasos en los plastos de plantas superiores.

La primera etapa es la sntesis de la malonil CoA a partir de acetil CoA y CO2,

catalizada por el enzima acetil CoA carboxilasa (la regulacin de este enzima parece

controlar la velocidad de toda la sntesis de cidos grasos). Este malonil CoA reacciona con

ACP para generar malonil-ACP.

En el primer ciclo de la sntesis de un cido graso, el grupo acetato del acetil CoA se

transfiere a una cistena especfica del enzima condensador (3-cetoacil-ACP sintasa) y se

combina entonces con el malonil-ACP para formar acetoacetil-ACP.

Posteriormente se elimina el grupo cetona del carbono 3 por la accin de tres

enzimas para formar una nueva cadena de acilo (butiril-ACP) que tiene ahora cuatro

carbonos de longitud.

Pgina 50
INTRODUCCIN

El cido de cuatro carbonos y otra molcula de malonil-ACP son los nuevos sustratos

para el enzima condensador, lo que da lugar a la adicin de dos unidades de carbono y

alarga la cadena. El ciclo contina hasta que se aaden de 16-18 carbonos (Taiz y Zeiger,

2006).

2.2.2.2. Metabolitos secundarios

Los metabolitos secundarios se sintetizan en las plantas a partir de unos pocos

intermedios clave del metabolismo primario e incluyen aminocidos no proteicos,

alcaloides, fenoles e isoprenoides (Eastwood, 2001).

Los metabolitos secundarios protegen a las plantas de los herbvoros y microbios

patgenos, adems de servir como atrayentes de polinizadores, dispersadores de semillas y

como agentes en la competencia planta-planta. Poseen tambin funciones de soporte

estructural (lignina) o pigmentos (antocianinas) y tienen distribucin restringida en el reino

vegetal por lo que un determinado compuesto se encuentra con frecuencia en una sola

especie vegetal o grupo de especies relacionadas.

Los tres grupos principales de metabolitos secundarios, en relacin al criterio

biosinttico son:

a) Terpenos

Son el grupo mayoritario y, generalmente, son insolubles en agua. Los terpenos se

biosintetizan a partir de metabolitos primarios por dos rutas diferentes (ver Figura 8):

Ruta del cido mevalnico (activa en el citosol): dos molculas de acetil-CoA se

condensan para formar primero la acetoacetil-CoA, sta se condensa con otra de acetil-CoA

para formar la 3-hidroxi-3-metil-glutaril-CoA, precursor del cido mevalnico. ste es un

intermediario que, posteriormente, es pirofosforilado, descarboxilado y deshidratado para

Pgina 51
INTRODUCCIN

formar isopentenil difosfato (IPP). Estas molculas se condensan cabeza-cola, o cabeza-

cabeza para formar hidrocarburos polimricos, que se denominan terpenos.

Ruta del fosfato de metileritritol (MEP) (activa en los cloroplastos): tiene lugar

cuando el gliceraldehdo-3-fosfato y un derivado de dos carbonos del piruvato se combinan

para generar un intermediario que finalmente se convierte en IPP. As, los terpenos se

forman a partir de isopentenil difosfato y su ismero dimetilalil difosfato (DMAPP)

(precursores activados de 5 tomos de carbono) que se combinan para formar molculas

mayores (Pacheco, 2004; Taiz y Zeiger, 2006).

Figura 8: Rutas metablicas en la formacin de terpenos: ruta del cido mevalnico y ruta del fosfato de
metileritritol.

En funcin del nmero de tomos de carbono, los terpenos se clasifican en:

Pgina 52
INTRODUCCIN

a.1) Monoterpenos

Formados por terpenos de diez carbonos, es decir, dos unidades C5.

Dentro de este grupo se encuentran compuestos como el carvacrol y su ismero

timol, presentes en gran cantidad de plantas de las familias de las Lamiceas. En concreto, el

carvacrol (Figura 9), producto de la auto oxidacin de D-limoneno, es antibacteriano,

antifngico, antiinflamatorio, antisptico, antiespasmdico y expectorante. Incluso algunos

investigadores creen que puede tener propiedades anticancergenas. Por otro lado, el timol es

antibacteriano, antifngico, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante, antireumtico, antisptico,

antiespasmdico, desodorante y expectorante (Aeschbach y col., 1994; Higley, C. y

Higley, A., 2005; Kordali y col., 2008).

Figura 9: Carvacrol (izquierda) y timol (derecha).

Tambin pertenece a este grupo la pulegona (Figura 10), compuesto presente en la

menta y en la poleo menta (Siano y col., 2005). Es conocida su actividad antioxidante y

antibacteriana (Teixeira y col., 2012), sin embargo, el ismero (R)(+) presenta efectos

toxicolgicos en hgado y pulmones, mientras que el ismero (S)-(-) presenta una toxicidad

ms baja. El Comit Cientfico de los Alimentos (SCF) de la Comisin Europea aadi este

compuesto a la lista de sustancias sujetas a limitacin (Council Directive 88/388/EEC

1988). Los niveles mximos permitidos en productos alimenticios es de 25 mg/kg, 100

mg/kg en el caso de bebidas (con excepcin de 250 mg/kg en menta o bebidas saborizadas

con menta y 350 mg/kg en confitera elaborada empleando menta) (Siano y col., 2005).

Pgina 53
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 10: Pulegona.

a.2) Sesquiterpenos

Formados por 3 unidades C5.

Dentro de este grupo cabe destacar, el xido de Bisabolol A (Figura 11), compuesto

mayoritario en la manzanilla, que tiene aplicacin por sus propiedades medicinales como

antilogstico y espasmoltico (Weiss, 2001).

Figura 11: xido de bisabolol A.

a.3) Diterpenos

Formados por terpenos que tienen 20 carbonos o 4 unidades C5.

Cabe mencionar en este grupo, el cido carnsico (Figura 12), que se puede

encontrar en gran cantidad en el Rosmarinus officinalis y posee actividades antioxidantes,

antibacterianas, anticancergenas, evita la obesidad y es fotoprotector (Lee y col., 2007;

Munn-Bosch y Alegre, 2001).

Pgina 54
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 12: cido carnsico.

a.4) Triterpenos

Formados por 30 tomos de carbono.

a.5) Tetraterpenos

Formados por 40 tomos de carbono.

a.6) Politerpenoides

[C5]n, cuando n>8.

Muchas plantas contienen mezclas de monoterpenos y sesquiterpenos voltiles que

es lo que se conoce bajo el nombre de aceites esenciales.

b) Compuestos fenlicos

Los compuestos fenlicos de las plantas constituyen un grupo metablicamente

heterogneo. Existen dos rutas bsicas en la sntesis de los compuestos fenlicos en las

plantas: la ruta del cido siqumico y la del cido masnico (Figura 13).

Ruta del cido siqumico (presente en plantas, hongos y bacterias): convierte los

precursores de carbohidratos, derivados de la gliclisis y de la ruta de las pentosas fosfato,

en aminocidos aromticos, siendo el cido siqumico uno de los intermediarios.

La mayor parte de compuestos fenlicos de las plantas derivan de la fenilalanina por

eliminacin de una molcula de amonio para formar cido cinmico, catalizada la reaccin

por la fenilalanina amonio liasa (PAL). La actividad de esta enzima aumenta debido a

Pgina 55
INTRODUCCIN

factores ambientales como niveles de nutrientes bajos, luz e infeccin fngica. La regulacin

de la actividad en las plantas se hace compleja debido a la existencia de mltiples genes que

codifican para la PAL.

Las reacciones posteriores a la catalizada por la PAL dan lugar a la adicin de ms

grupos hidroxilo y otros sustituyentes. El cido trans-cinmico, el cido p-cumrico y sus

derivados son compuestos fenlicos simples llamados fenilpropanoides, porque contienen

un anillo de benceno y una cadena lateral de tres tomos de carbono.

Ruta del cido malnico: es una fuente importante de fenoles en hongos y bacterias,

pero poco empleada en plantas superiores.

Figura 13: Rutas metablicas en la formacin de fenoles: ruta del cido siqumico y ruta del cido malnico.

Los compuestos fenlicos presentes en las plantas se clasifican en dos grandes


grupos (Figura 14):

Pgina 56
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 14: Clasificacin de los compuestos fenlicos.

b.1) Fenoles simples

Estos compuestos estn muy extendidos en las plantas vasculares y se pueden

clasificar en:

b.1.1) Fenilpropanoides simples

Tienen un esqueleto carbonado bsico tipo fenilpropanoide. En este grupo cabe citar

el cido trans-cinmico, el cido p-cumrico y sus derivados (cido cafeico). El estragol

(Figura 15), es el compuesto mayoritario en el aceite esencial de muchas plantas como la

Ravensara anisata, Ocimum basilicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Artemisia dracunculus y

Croton zehntneri que son ampliamente utilizadas en medicina tradicional y aromaterapia.

Entre sus propiedades destacan: neurotrpico, antimicrobiano, antiespasmdico y

inmunoestimulante (Leal-Cardoso y col., 2004).

Pgina 57
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 15: Estragol.

b.1.2) Lactonas fenilpropanoides

Tambin llamadas cumarinas. Poseen un esqueleto fenilpropanoide.

b.1.3) Derivados del cido benzoico

Son fenilpropanoides que han perdido un fragmento de dos carbonos de la cadena

lateral.

Funciones de todos estos grupos: actan como defensa en las plantas frente a

insectos, herbvoros y hongos, destacando tambin la fototoxicidad de ciertas cumarinas, las

furanocumarinas.

b.2) Fenoles complejos


A partir de los fenoles simples se pueden sintetizar productos ms complejos, como

la lignina.

b.2.1) Lignina

Es una macromolcula fenlica compleja.

Despus de la celulosa, es la sustancia orgnica ms abundante en la planta. Es un

polmero altamente ramificado, formada, generalmente, por tres derivados fenilpropanoides:

alcoholes coniferlico, cumrico y sinaplico; que se sintetizan a partir de la fenilalanina a

travs de varios derivados del cido cinmico. Los alcoholes fenilpropanoides se unen en un

polmero por la accin de enzimas, que generalmente son intermediarios, en forma de

radicales libres. Las unidades de la lignina no parecen estar unidas de un modo nico y

repetitivo.

Pgina 58
INTRODUCCIN

La lignina tiene funcin protectora y acta como soporte mecnico. Su resistencia

evita que las plantas sean alimento para animales y su estabilidad qumica hace que sea

relativamente difcil de digerir para los herbvoros. La lignificacin bloquea el crecimiento

de patgenos y es una respuesta frecuente ante una infeccin o herida.

b.2.2) Flavonoides

Son polifenoles con esqueletos difenilpropanos (C6C3C6). Presentan efectos

bioqumicos y farmacolgicos, que les aportan propiedades como antioxidantes,

antiinflamatorios, antiplaquetrios y antialrgicos (Miean y Mohamed, 2001).

Estos compuestos pueden proceder de dos rutas metablicas diferentes: la ruta del

cido siqumico y la ruta del cido malnico. Segn el grado de oxidacin de la molcula

base, se obtienen cuatro grupos principales de flavonoides: antocianinas, flavonas,

flavonoles e isoflavonas.

Adems de los grupos hidroxilo en su molcula, tambin es frecuente encontrarse los

flavonoides unidos a molculas de azcares, aumentando su solubilidad en agua. En

contraposicin existen otros sustituyentes como los metilsteres o unidades modificadas de

isopentilo que le confieren carcter lipoflico (hidrofbico).

Antocianinas: Entre los pigmentos coloreados de las plantas se pueden establecer

dos grupos: los carotenoides (compuestos terpenoides amarillos, naranjas y rojos que sirven

como pigmentos auxiliares en la fotosnesis) y los flavonoides (compuestos fenlicos que

incluyen un amplio rango de sustancias coloreadas). El grupo ms extenso de flavonoides

pigmentados son las antocianinas, responsables de la mayora de colores rojo, rosa, morado

y azul de las plantas. La funcin de dicho color en las plantas es la de atraccin de animales

para la polinizacin y para la dispersin de las semillas.

Pgina 59
INTRODUCCIN

Las antocianinas son glicsidos que tienen, al menos, un azcar en posicin 3 y en

ocasiones en alguna otra posicin. Cuando carecen de dicho azcar adicional se denominan

antocianidinas. Tambin pueden presentarse como complejos supramoleculares junto a iones

metlicos quelados y flavonas.

El color de dichas molculas depende del nmero de grupos hidroxilo y metoxilo en

el anillo B de la antocianina, la presencia de cidos aromticos esterificados en el anillo

principal y del pH de las vacuolas celulares en las que se almacenan los pigmentos.

Flavonas y flavonoles: Ambos grupos de flavonoides, que se encuentran en las

flores, absorben a longitudes de onda cortas que no son visibles para los humanos, sin

embargo, actan como seales de atraccin para insectos que ven en el rango ultravioleta del

espectro. Como flavonas se pueden citar el luteolino y el apigenino (Figura 16) que se

encuentran presentes en los vegetales y en cantidades traza en los frutos (Miean y

Mohamed, 2001).

Figura 16: Apigenino (izquierda) y Luteolino (derecha).

En el caso de los flavonoles, estas seales se encuentran a modo de rayas, manchas o

crculos concntricos para guiar a los insectos y ayudarles a localizar el polen y el nctar, se

le conoce como guas de nctar. Entre los flavonoles destaca el quercetino (Figura 17), que

inhibe la oxidacin y citotoxicidad de lipoprotenas in vitro de baja densidad, adems puede

Pgina 60
INTRODUCCIN

reducir el riesgo de enfermedades coronarias o incluso el cncer. Un modelo de oxidacin in

vitro demostr que el quercetino presenta propiedades antioxidantes ms fuertes que las

tradicionales vitaminas (Miean y Mohamed, 2001).

Figura 17: Quercetino.

Ambos grupos de flavonoides tambin se encuentran en las hojas de las plantas

verdes. Su funcin es absorber la radiacin UV-B (280-320 nm) protegiendo a las clulas y

permitiendo el paso de la luz visible (fotosintticamente activa).

Isoflavonas: En su estructura, la posicin del anillo aromtico (anillo B) de los

flavonoides est cambiada (Figura 18). Las isoflavonas se encuentran normalmente en las

legumbres y tienen diferentes funciones, principalmente, actividad insecticida, efectos

antiestrognicos y propiedades anticancergenas.

Figura 18: Esqueleto bsico de los flavonoides.

Taninos: Son polmeros fenlicos vegetales con propiedades defensivas debido a su

toxicidad, que se suele atribuir a su capacidad de unirse a protenas de forma inespecfica.

Son normalmente toxinas que reducen el crecimiento y la supervivencia de muchos

Pgina 61
INTRODUCCIN

herbvoros cuando se aaden a sus dietas. Tambin actan como repelentes alimenticios

hacia gran variedad de animales, adems de como defensas contra microorganismos (estn

presentes en la parte central de muchos rboles y le ayudan a prevenir la podredumbre

producida por hongos o bacterias).

Tambin presentan propiedades beneficiosas los polifenoles (taninos) del vino tinto

por lo que su consumo moderado puede reducir el riesgo de una enfermedad coronaria.

Los taninos se pueden clasificar en:

- Taninos condensados: Tambin conocidos como proantocianidinas (puesto que

pueden hidrolizarse a antocianinas por tratamientos con cidos fuertes). Los taninos

condensados estn formados por la polimerizacin de unidades de flavonoides. Son

constituyentes frecuentes de las plantas leosas.

- Taninos hidrolizables: Son polmeros heterogneos (masas moleculares entre 600 y

3000) que contienen cidos fenlicos (sobre todo cido glico) y azcares simples. Se

hidrolizan fcilmente con cidos diluidos.

c) Alcaloides

Son compuestos que contienen nitrgeno en su estructura, formando parte de un

anillo heterocclico. Se encuentran, aproximadamente, en un 20% en las especies de plantas

vasculares. Muchos son alcalinos, a los valores de pH normales del citosol (pH de 7,2) o de

la vacuola (pH de 5 a 6), el nitrgeno est protonado y por tanto est cargado positivamente.

Por lo general son solubles en agua. Son los ms conocidos por sus efectos farmacolgicos

sobre los animales vertebrados. La mayora de alcaloides actan como defensa frente a

depredadores, especialmente mamferos, debido a su toxicidad.

Pgina 62
INTRODUCCIN

2.2.3. PAM de uso tradicional en la elaboracin de aguardientes y licores de hierbas


de Galicia

Entre las doce plantas utilizadas de modo tradicional para la elaboracin de estas

bebidas, se estudiaron las siguientes: la menta, la menta poleo, distintas especies de organo,

romero y distintas especies de tomillo (Lamiceas), adems se estudi la manzanilla

(Astercea), el cilantro e hinojo (Umbelferas), as como el regaliz (Leguminosa).

Pgina 63
Lamiceas

Menta
Nombre cientfico: Mentha piperita L.

Familia: Lamiceas.

Descripcin: es una planta herbcea perenne, glabra, fuertemente perfumada que crece hasta una altura de 30 a 90
Figura 19: Mentha piperita L.
cm (Samarth, Goyal, & Kumar, 2001). Es un hbrido natural estril de M. aquatica x M. spicata.

Cultivo: Su recoleccin se realiza entre los meses de junio, julio y septiembre. Crece especialmente en suelos con grandes niveles de retencin
de agua (McKay y col., 2006).

Partes utilizadas: las hojas y sumidades en flor.

Hbitat: nativa de la zona del Mediterrneo (Europa) y naturalizada en el norte de EE.UU. y Canad, adems se cultiva en muchas partes del
mundo (Ansari y col. 2000).

Propiedades y usos: Olor caracterstico y penetrante, sabor amargo. El aceite esencial es utilizado en la industria farmacutica y en medicina
tradicional debido a su efecto antiinflamatorio, antiespasmdico, antiemtico, diafortico, analgsico, estimulante, emenagogo y anticatarral, para
tratamiento contra nuseas, bronquitis, flatulencia, anorexia, antisptico, astringente, antioxidante, antifngico y antimicrobiano.Tambin es
utilizada en cosmtica, en alimentacin (como por ejemplo en la elaboracin de licores) y en agricultura (Bimakr y col., 2009; Iscan y col.,
2002; Kanatt y col., 2007; Lv y col., 2012; McKay y col., 2006; Vaverkov y col., 2009).
Composicin: en la Tabla 6 se recogen los principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la menta.

Tabla 6: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la Mentha piperita y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


hidrocarbonado
Monoterpeno

Posee efectos calmantes y sedativos para desrdenes nerviosos, problemas de corazn, clicos, asma, depresin Fragancia ctrica agradable (Moraes y col., 2009).
monocclico

limoneno adems de actividad anticancergena (Park y col., 2011), propiedades antimicrobianas, antioxidantes, Aporta un olor y sabor amargo y a alcanfor, dulce y
citotxicas y gastroprotectivas (Majnooni y col., 2012). ctrico (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005).

Acta como un agente antifngico y antimicrobiano y repelente de larvas (Mucciarelli y col., 2001). En
farmacia es utilizado como antisptico y posee propiedades carminativas, colerticas y colagogo. El mentol se Olor y sabor a menta (Galeottia y col., 2002).
mentol
emplea tambin en los preparativos externos como broncoltico y secretoltico (Galeottia y col., 2002).

()-mentona tiene un efecto analgsico, mientras que la (+)-menthona carece de propiedades analgsicas y de Aroma a menta, frescor (Guillot y col., 2006), fruta,
Monoterpenos oxigenados

mentona sabor (Zougagh y col., 2009). melocotn, dulce, herbceo, alcanforado y leoso
(Sigma-Aldrich. 2011).
monocclico

Aroma a herbceo, afrutado, naranja, menta, dulce,


acetato de Actividad insecticida (Samarasekera y col., 2008). leoso, alcanfor y aceitoso (Sigma-Aldrich. 2011).
mentilo

Precursor en la sntesis de mentona y mentol (Mahmoud y col., 2003). Sustancia txica por sus actividades Aroma a canela (especias), limn, herbceo, afrutado,
pulegona insecticidas y repelentes (Oliveira y col., 2011). menta y vainilla (Sigma-Aldrich. 2011).

Potenciador de la penetracin percutnea, descongestivo y estimulante de la piel en aromaterapia. Posee efectos


antitusivos y es til para el tratamiento de la bronquitis, la sinusitis y el reumatismo (Santos y Rao, 2000). Aroma a mentol (Goodner y col., 2006), acre, picante,
eucaliptol Secretoltico y antiinflamatorio. Remedio para bronquitis, sinusitis, resfriados y asma (Juergens y col., 2003). menta, frutas y eucalipto (Chen, Sheu y Wu, 2006).
Actividad antimicrobiana (Damjanovi-Vratnica y col., 2011).
hidrocarbonado
Sesquiterpeno

Olor dulce y floral (Goodner y col., 2006), leoso y


bicclico

Actividad antiinflamatoria y de anestesia local (Ghelardini y col., 2001).


cariofileno picante (Skld y col., 2006).
Poleo menta
Nombre cientfico: Mentha pulegium.

Familia: Lamiceas.
Figura 20: Mentha pulegium.

Descripcin: Poleo menta o simplemente poleo es una planta herbcea vivaz, que raramente sobrepasa el medio metro de altura y vive a orillas
de riachuelos o humedales. Su nombre procede de "pulex" del latn "pulga", ya que desde hace siglos se utiliz para ahuyentar a estos insectos
como repelente natural. Sus hojas enfrentadas y de forma lanceolada, son pequeas y con dientes marginales, vistas a contraluz observaremos
unos puntitos o bolsitas de esencia de poleo. Las flores del poleo aparecen a principios de verano y se agrupan en la axila de los pares de hojas
superiores, formando ramilletes. La flor es pequea y de color roscea o blanca. Toda la planta desprende un agradable aroma a menta,
especialmente sus hojas.

Cultivo: no es particularmente exigente respecto al terreno, lo importante es que sea un suelo frtil rico en humus, poroso, con pH neutro o
incluso ligeramente cido (pH 6-7) y bien drenado porque no quiere los encharcamientos. Hay que evitar absolutamente los terrenos pesados y
arcillosos.

Partes utilizadas: hojas y sumidades en flor.

Hbitat: Nativa de Amrica y prospera en el oeste, sur y centro de Europa, Asia, Irn, pases rabes y Etiopa.

Propiedades y usos: utilizada tradicionalmente en medicina debido a sus propiedades digestivas, para problemas de hgado y vescula biliar, la
amenorrea, la gota, los refriados, aumento de la miccin, enfermedades de la piel y es abortivo; tambin se utiliza en gastronoma como hierba
culinaria, en aromaterapia y cosmtica (Teixeira y col., 2012).
Composicin: en la Tabla 6 y Tabla 7 se pueden observar los principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la menta poleo. En el caso del
limoneno, mentol, mentona y pulegona sus propiedades se pueden consultar en la Tabla 6.

Tabla 7: Principales compuestos voltiles presenstes en la Mentha pulegium y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


Monoterpenos

monocclico

isomentona Es antiinflamatorio y antioxidante (Jung y col., 2012). Ligero olor a humedad (Ravid, Putievsky, y Katzir, 1994).
oxigenados

Es biolgicamente activo y tambin es usado en fragancias Fresco olor a alcanfor mentolado (Ravid, Putievsky, y
piperitona
(Telci y col., 2010). Katzir, 1994).
Organo
Nombre cientfico: Origanum vulgare.

Familia: Lamiceas.
Figura 21: Origanum vulgare.
Descripcin: planta herbcea perenne de hasta 60 cm de altura, aromtica, toda la planta est cubierta de pelos glandulares. Posee un tallo erecto,
rojizo, anguloso, ramificado en el pice. Con hojas opuestas, enteras, de forma oval a elptica. pice agudo. En los mrgenes presenta glndulas
ciliadas llenas de aceites esenciales. Las hojas superiores son ms pequeas que las inferiores. Las flores son de color rosa prpura o violeta.

Cultivo: Planta anual extensamente distribuida en la cuenca del Mediterrneo, en lugares soleados y ridos (Sahin y col., 2004).

Partes utilizadas: hojas y sumidades en flor.

Hbitat: originaria de Europa y Asia.

Propiedades y usos: Debido a su variedad qumica y aromtica, es utilizada en agricultura y en la industria farmacutica y de cosmtica;
tambin se utiliza como condimento en alimentos y bebidas alcohlicas, por su aroma picante, adems de ser utilizado como desinfectante
(Jerkovic y col., 2001; Sahin y col., 2004). Se ha empleado como remedio tradicional por sus propiedades espasmdicas, antimicrobianas,
expectorantes, carminativas y aromticas para la tos, desordenes digestivos y problemas menstruales (Sahin y col., 2004), adems de poseer
actividades citotxicas, antioxidantes y fngicas, dependiendo de su origen, cultivo, etapa vegetativa y pocas de crecimiento (Jerkovic y col.,
2001; Sahin y col., 2004).

Composicin: En la Tabla 8 se recogen los principales compuestos presentes en el organo.


Tabla 8: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en el Origanum vulgare y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales

hidrocarbonados
Precursor del carvacrol. Utilizado para aliviar dolores e inflamacin (Santana y col., Aroma dbil y a ctricos (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y
Monoterpenos

p-cimeno
2011). Demyttenaere, 2005).

-terpineno Aroma a verde-mentol (Goodner y col., 2006), dulce, a


Actividad antimicrobiana (Sato y col., 2007). madera y a ctrico (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y
Demyttenaere, 2005).
Antimicrobiano, fungicida, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante y antisptico (Phi, Kim y
Aroma picante, a tomillo y a organo (Sterckx y col., 2011,
Monoterpenos oxigenados

monocclicos

timol Jang, 2012;Reddy y col., 1998; Sahin y col., 2004;Zekovi, Lepojevic y Vuji,
Daz-Maroto y col., 2005).
2000).
Insecticida, fungicida, antisptico, antioxidante y antimicrobiano (Mockute y Aroma picante, a tomillo, a organo (Daz-Maroto y col.,
carvacrol Bernotiene, 1999;Rezvanpanah y col., 2011;Sahin y col., 2004; Zekovi, Lepojevic 2005), dulce, herbceo y aceitoso (Choi, Sawamura,
y Vuji, 2000). &Kondo, 2002).
Repelente de insectos, desinfectante, aromatizante, antifngico y antisptico Verde (Deterre y col., 2012), a menta o a ans (Garca y col.,
-terpineol (Baptistella y col., 2009). 2012).
Sesquiterpenos hidrocarbonados

germacreno Precursor en la biosntesis de otros sesquiterpenos (Noge y Becerra, 2009). Actividad


Aroma a cartn, a especias y alcanfor (Deterre y col., 2012).
D antibacteriana, antioxidante y fngica (Mukazayire y col., 2011).

Olor dulce, floral (Goodner y col., 2006), leoso y picante


bicclico

cariofileno Actividad antiinflamatoria y de anestesia local (Ghelardini y col., 2001).


(Skld y col., 2006).
Organo griego

Nombre cientfico: Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum, O. hirtum Link., O. heracleoticum auct. non L.

Familia: Lamiceas.
Figura 22: Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum.

Descripcin: es una planta perenne que se distingue de otras especies de organo debido a su tallo peludo, inflorescencias compactas, hojas y
clices densamente glandulares, brcteas verdes y flores blancas. Su florecimiento tiene lugar entre los meses de julio y septiembre.

Cultivo: se encuentra hasta niveles de 1500 metros, en suelos de piedra caliza, rara vez en serpentina y esquisto y es abundante en lugares secos
y soleados cerca de las costas. Aunque es ms bien comn en ecosistemas de tipo mediterrneo, tambin se puede encontrar en los bosques de las
montaas.

Partes utilizadas: flores y hojas.

Hbitat: tpico del Mediterrneo oriental: se encuentra principalmente en la parte sur de la pennsula de los Balcanes y en Turqua. Es la
subespecie ms comn en Grecia.

Propiedades y usos: es ampliamente usada como especia bajo el nombre de organo griego. Sus hojas y flores se utilizan como antisptico,
antiespasmdico, carminativo, colagogo, diafortico, emenagogo, expectorante, estimulante, para problemas estomacales y es ligeramente
tonificante.

Composicin: sus principales compuestos son el p-cimeno, -terpineno, timol y carvacrol (Vokou, Kokkini, y Bessiere, 1993) cuyas
propiedades pueden verse en la Tabla 8 del Origanum vulgare.
Organo turco u Organo de Creta
Nombre cientfico: Origanum onites L., Majorana onites L. Benth.
Familia: Lamiceas.
Figura 23: Origanum onites L.
Descripcin: es una planta perenne con tallos leosos que se caracteriza por un dimorfismo estacional, una adaptacin para hacer frente a la
sequa del verano (Vokou, Kokkini, y Bessiere, 1988). Se distingue de otras especies de organo debido a que es monocotilednea (Ozel Y
Kaymaz, 2004).

Cultivo: crece en colinas pedregosas y laderas rocosas, por lo general en la piedra caliza, ocasionalmente en zonas de sombra parcial. Su cultivo
se da hasta los 1400 metros de altura.

Partes utilizadas: hojas y flores.

Hbitat: crece salvaje del sur al sureste de Grecia, en sus islas y especialmente en el este de Europa (sur de Turqua).

Propiedades y usos: ampliamente utilizada como especia, como carminativo, antiespasmdico, estimulante, antisptico externo, antihelmntico
y diurtico (Aydn y col., 1996).

Composicin: los principales compuestos encontrados en la bibliografa para esta planta son: el p-cimeno, -terpineno, linalol y carvacrol
(Coskun y col., 2008), donde sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales pueden observarse en la Tabla 8 y 9.

Tabla 9: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en el Origanum onites L. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales

Propiedades antiepilpticas, hipnticas e hipotrmicas; efectos sedativos en el


Monoterpe Aroma ctrico, sabor dulce y afrutado (Baldwin y col., 2004);
Sistema Nervioso Central (Elisabetsky, Silva Brum, y Souza, 1999).Actividad
no acclico Linalol olor floral y a lavanda (Garca y col., 2012; Goodner y col.,
antimicrobiana (Bagamboula, Uyttendaele, y Debevere, 2004) y
oxigenado 2006).
antiinflamatoria (Damjanovi-Vratnica y col., 2011; Peana y col., 2002).
Romero
Nombre cientfico: Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Familia: Lamiceas.
Figura 14: Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Descripcin: planta perenne, arbustiva, con sabor alcanforado, de permanente floracin, se propaga por estacas. Ocasionalmente fructifica.
Presenta muchas variaciones por las condiciones climticas. Puede llegar a los 2 metros de altura en clima clido.

Cultivo: Clima templado, templado-clido y de montaa (se adapta a alturas desde los 1500 hasta los 2500 metros sobre el nivel del mar). No
exigente en cuanto a suelos,aunque se desarrolla mejor en los suelos con alta materia orgnica, en tierras ligeras, permeables, areno arcillosas,
calcreas y ridas pero soleadas; crece adecuadamente a plena luz y prefiere lugares semifros que brinden proteccin contra vientos fuertes. En
el caso de extraccin de aceites, se debe haber establecido el cultivo por lo menos 2 aos, cambiando la distancia de siembra.

Partes utilizadas: sumidades en flor y hojas.

Hbitat: Nativa del Mediterrneo y se encuentra en Amrica en variedad de climas.

Propiedades y usos: Es utilizado como condimento en cocina (Hussain y col., 2010; Okoh, Sadimenko y Afolayan, 2010). Presenta
propiedades antimutagnicas, antibacterianas, quimiopreventivas y antioxidantes, adems su aceite esencial tiene propiedades antispticas,
actuando como antisptico pulmonar, colertico y colagogo. Es empleado tambin en dolencias estomacales, por sus propiedades antidiarreicas y
acta como antirreumtico (Hussain y col., 2010; Okoh, Sadimenko y Afolayan, 2010).

Composicin: En la Tabla 10 se recogen los principales compuestos presentes en el romero.


Tabla 10: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en el Rosmarinus officinalis L. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


-Pineno: aroma floral (Deterre y col., 2012) y a pino
-pineno (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005).
Propiedades antimicrobianas, insecticidas y citotxicas (Wang y col., 2012).
hidrocarbonado

-Pineno: aroma a verde (Deterre y col., 2012),leoso y a pino


Monoterpeno

-pineno
bicclico

(Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005).

Actividad antimicrobiana, tripanocida, antiinflamatoria y citotxica (Mulyaningsih y


canfeno Aroma verde y a alcanfor (Zheng y col., 2004, Chen, Sheu y Wu, 2006).
col., 2010a).

Potenciador de la penetracin percutnea, descongestivo y estimulante de la piel en


aromaterapia. Posee efectos antitusivos, es til para el tratamiento de la bronquitis, la
Aroma a mentol (Goodner y col., 2006), acre, picante, menta, frutas,
eucaliptol sinusitis y el reumatismo (Santos y Rao, 2000). Secretoltico y antiinflamatorio. Se
monocclico

eucalipto (Chen, Sheu y Wu, 2006).


emplea como remedio para bronquitis, sinusitis, resfriados y asma (Juergens y col.,
2003). Presenta adems actividad antimicrobiana (Damjanovi-Vratnica y col., 2011).
Monoterpeno oxigenado

Repelente de insectos, desinfectante, aromatizante, antifngico y antisptico. Aroma a verde (Deterre y col., 2012),a menta o a ans (Garca y col.,
-terpineol
(Baptistella y col., 2009) 2012).

Aroma a alcanfor, rancio y aceitoso (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005),fuerte y


alcanfor Estimulante y analptico cardaco y respiratorio (Kaloustian, Pauli y Pastor, 2000).
aromtico (Maggi y col., 2011).

Utilizado para analgesia y anestesia; efectos sedantes y ansiolticos (Granger, Campbell


bicclico

y Johnston, 2005). Presenta actividad antimicrobiana, tripanocida, anti-inflamatoria y Aroma dulce y herbceo (Chen, Sheu y Wu, 2006)
borneol
citotxica (Mulyaningsih y col., 2010a).

acetato Posee olor alcanforado y a pino (Matsubara y col., 2011). Aroma suave a
de Actividad antiinflamatoria. (Matsubara y col., 2011).
flores (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005).
bornilo
hidrocarbonado
Sesquiterpeno

bicclico

cariofileno Olor dulce y floral (Goodner y col., 2006), leoso y picante (Skld y col.,
Actividad antiinflamatoria y de anestesia local (Ghelardini y col., 2001).
2006).
Tomillo
Nombre cientfico: Thymus vulgaris L.

Familia: Lamiceas.
Figura 25: Thymus vulgaris L.
Descripcin: es una planta perenne. Es una especie gynodioecious con individuos tanto hermafroditas (machos frtiles) como hembras (machos
estriles) (Gouyon y col., 1986).

Cultivo: en lugares soleados y secos. Crece sobre suelos calizos, arcillosos y menos frecuentemente en los silceos.

Partesutilizadas: las hojas y las sumidades en flor.

Hbitat: regiones Mediterrneas, Asia, Europa del Sur, Norte de frica (Badi y col., 2004).

Propiedades y usos: planta medicinal con propiedades biolgicas y farmacuticas (Maqtari y col., 2011). Su aceite esencial es conocido por
sus propiedades insecticidas, antimicrobianas, antibacterianas, antimicticas, antioxidantes y antifngicas. (Dawidowicz y col., 2008; Reddy y
col., 1998).

Composicin: en la Tabla 11 se recogen los principales compuestos presentes en el tomillo.


Tabla 11: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en el Thymus vulgaris L. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


Aroma dulce, a verde, hierba, mentol y a flores (Deterre y
Posee propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas (Ciftci y col.,

acclico
col., 2012; Goodner y col., 2006). Aroma a plstico
mirceno 2011). Acta como analgsico, antimutagnico, inhibidor de la
(Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005;
Monoterpenos hidrocarbonados

tirosinasa (Santosy SCorreia, 2009).


Deterre y col., 2012).
-Pineno: floral (Deterre y col., 2012); aroma a pino
-pineno Propiedades antimicrobianas, insecticidas y citotxicas (Wang (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005).
-pineno y col., 2012). -Pineno: verde (Deterre y col., 2012), leoso y a pino
(Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005).
monocclico

-terpineno
Actividad antimicrobiana (Sato y col., 2007). Aroma a verde-mentol (Goodner y col., 2006).

Precursor del carvacrol. Utilizado para aliviar dolores e Aroma dbil y a ctricos (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y
p-cimeno
inflamacin (Santana y col., 2011) Demyttenaere, 2005).

Propiedades antiepilpticas, hipnticas e hipotrmicas; efectos


sedativos en el Sistema Nervioso Central (Elisabetsky, Silva Aroma ctrico, sabor dulce y afrutado (Baldwin y col.,
acclico

linalol
Brum, y Souza, 1999).Actividad antimicrobiana (Bagamboula, 2004); olor floral y a lavanda (Garca y col., 2012;
Monoterpenos oxigenados

Uyttendaele, y Debevere, 2004) y antiinflamatoria Goodner y col., 2006).


(Damjanovi-Vratnica y col., 2011; Peana y col., 2002).
Antimicrobiano, fungicida, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante,
Aroma picante y a tomillo (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005;
timol antisptico (Phi, Kim y Jang, 2012; Reddy y col., 1998; Sahin y
Sterckx y col., 2011).
monocclico

col., 2004; Zekovi, Lepojevic y Vuji, 2000).

Insecticida, fungicida, antisptico, antioxidante y antimicrobiano


Aroma picante, a tomillo y a organo (Daz-Maroto y
carvacrol (Mockute y Bernotiene, 1999; Rezvanpanah y col., 2011;Sahin
col., 2005), dulce, herbceo y aceitoso (Choi, Sawamura,
y col., 2004; Zekovi, Lepojevic y Vuji, 2000).
&Kondo, 2002).
hidrocarbonados
Sesquiterpenos

bicclico

cariofileno Actividad antiinflamatoria y de anestesia local (Ghelardini y Olor dulce y floral (Goodner y col., 2006), leoso y
col., 2001). picante (Skld y col., 2006).
Tomillo de Creta
Nombre cientfico: Thymus longicaulis ssp.chaubardii.
Familia: Lamiceas. Figura 26: Thymus longicaulis ssp. chaubardii.
Descripcin: es una especie con largas ramas rastreras, algo leosas, sin floracin o con una inflorescencia terminal (Grujic y col., 2009).

Cultivo: le gustan los terrenos normales, calcreos, bien drenados. En zonas soleadas preferentemente. Con floracin de junio a agosto.

Partes utilizadas: la planta entera

Hbitat: nativa de Europa, norte de frica y Asia.

Propiedades y usos: acta como regulador de la presin sangunea (Tuzlac y Tolon, 2000), adems posee actividades antispticas,
expectorantes y espasmolticas que son probablemente debidas al contenido de los aceites esenciales y flavonoides (Grujic y col., 2009).

Composicin: los principales compuestos voltiles que presenta son el timol, p-cimeno, -terpineno y borneol (Azaz y col., 2004) (sus
propiedades pueden verse en la Tabla 11 de Thymus vulgaris L. y Tabla 12).
Tabla 12: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la Thymus longicaulis ssp. chaubardii y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


Utilizado en analgesia y anestesia; efectos sedantes y ansiolticos
Monoterpeno (Granger, Campbell y Johnston, 2005). Presenta actividad
oxigenado bicclico borneol antimicrobiana, tripanocida, anti-inflamatoria y citotxica Aroma dulce y herbceo (Chen, Sheu y Wu, 2006).
(Mulyaningsih y col., 2010a).
Tomillo sanjuanero o serpol
Nombre cientfico: Thymus serpyllum.
Familia: Lamiceas.
Figura 27: Thymus serpyllum.
Descripcin: planta medicinal perennede 10 a 25 cm de alto. Es una mata baja con tallos rastreros y hojas ssiles, en disposicin decusada con el
margen ciliado. Posee pequeas hojas verde oscuras y floracin rosa prpura y se renen en inflorescencias ms o menos globulosas, con
floracin en la primera mitad del verano. Es muy aromtica, con olor especiado y sabor especiado-aromtico y algo amargo.

Cultivo: se da en terrenos secos y arenosos preferentemente: suelos ridos y pobres. Suelo muy bien drenado. Necesita sol o semisombra (en la
sombra florecera poco).

Partes utilizadas: sumidades en flor y hojas.

Hbitat: Europa.

Propiedades y usos: se le atribuyen propiedades antispticas y expectorantes. Se utiliza tambin como estomacal, carminativo, en afecciones
renales y de la vejiga.

Composicin: los principales compuestos presentes en la composicin voltil del aceite esencial son: p-cimeno, -terpineno, linalol y carvacrol
(Mugnaini y col., 2013) (las propiedades de estos compuestos se pueden consultar en la Tabla 11 Thymus vulgaris L.).
Asterceas

Manzanilla
Nombre cientfico: Matricaria recutita L.

Familia: Asterceas. Figura 28: Matricaria recutita L.

Descripcin: Es una planta herbcea perenne de 30-50 cm de altura (anual). Se propaga con facilidad por semillas y esquejes. Florece de 60 a 75
das y tiene un ciclo de vida de 6 meses. Contiene una hormona de crecimiento que beneficia a sus acompaantes y concentra azufre, calcio y
potasio.

Cultivo: el pH del suelo puede estar entre 7 y 8; prefiere suelos franco arenosos, arcillosos y francos, especialmente si son permeables, ligeros y
algo hmedos.Se desarrolla en climas templados, fros y hmedos y se puede sembrar hasta los 2200 metros sobre el nivel del mar.

Partes utilizadas: Se utilizan sus captulos florales.

Hbitat: Nativa del Mediterrneo.

Propiedades y usos: Utilizada en la industria farmacutica, en la industria cosmtica y en la industria alimentaria (de Santayana y Morales,
2006).Su efecto farmacolgico est asociado a su aceite esencial por sus propiedades antiespasmdicas, antibacterianas, sedantes, relajantes,
antispticas, antialrgicas, antimicrobianas, efectos colerticos y colagogos, etc. (de Santayana y Morales, 2006; Nurzynska-Wierdak, 2011;
Orav, Kailas y Ivask, 2001).
Composicin: En la Tabla 13 se recogen los principales compuestos presentes en la manzanilla.

Tabla 13: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la Matricaria recutita L. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


acclico

Acta como feromona de alarma en especies de pulgn y se utiliza como insecticida Aroma a manzana, lavanda y lima; aroma herbceo,verde
(E)--farneseno
(Mller y Buchbauer, G., 2011). y a madera (para Farneseno)(Sigma-Aldrich. 2011).
hidrocarbonados
Sesquiteroenos

Propiedades antiinflamatorias, antialrgicas, antiespasmdicas y antimicrobianas


bicclico

Olor dulce, fresco y herbceo (Spanier, 2001).


camazuleno (Gardiner, 1999;Sashidhara,Verma y Ram, 2006). Antiflogstico, hepatoprotector y
antioxidante (Sashidhara,Verma y Ram, 2006).
monocclico

Analgsico, antibitico y anticancergeno, antiinflamatorio, antiirritante, antibacteriano y Aroma y sabor suave a madera, a pimienta y floral
-bisabolol no alrgico (Kamatou y Viljoen, 2010). Acciones antiinflamatorio, antibacterianas, (Moellhausen S.p.A.).
fungicidas, antiulcerosas y antispticas (Raal y col., 2003).
Sesquiterpenos oxigenados

bicclico

Efectos espasmolticos y actividad antiinflamatoria (Sashidhara,Verma y Ram, 2006; Oxido de Bisabolol B: aroma floral y a miel (Wu y col.,
bisabolol oxides (A y B)
Szke y col., 2004) 2005).

Aroma herbceo (Zellner y col., 2009), a quemado,


tricclico

Actividad inmunomoduladora, antimicrobiana y antitumoral (Raja Rajeswari,


espatulenol dulce, floral y agrio (Choi, Sawamura, &Kondo, 2002)
RamaLakshmi y Muthuchelian, 2011).
.
Umbelferas

Hinojo
Nombre cientfico: Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Figura 29: Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Familia: Umbelferas.

Descripcin: es una hierba aromtica anual (zbek y col., 2003), es monotpica y es una planta glabra, glauca perenne o bienal (dependiendo de
la variedad) de hasta 250 cm de altura. Tiene de tres a cuatro hojas pinadas, con un contorno ms o menos triangular, por lo general de 5-50 mm
de largo y filiforme, con lbulos acuminados cartilaginosos en el pice. Carece de spalos. Los ptalos son de color amarillo, oblongos, y
estrechos slo ligeramente en el pice. Tiene de cuatro a treinta rayos inflorescentes. El fruto es de 4 a 10,5 mm, ovoide y alargado (Conforti y
col., 2006).

Cultivo: en regiones templadas y subtropicales. Floracin a partir de junio y recoleccin de agosto a noviembre, cuando los frutos maduran y se
colorean de amarillo (Piccaglia y Marotti, 2001; Akgl y Bayrak, 1988).

Partes utilizadas: Los frutos o semillas.

Hbitat: Europa y Asia menor (zbek y col., 2003).

Propiedades y usos: Utilizada en cocina y en medicina tradicional como remedios caseros para tratamientos gastrointestinales y respiratorios.
Histricamente, los frutos del hinojo han tenido un importante papel en terapia clnica por su alto poder farmacolgico y baja toxicidad (Fang y
col., 2006; He y Huang, 2011). Posee propiedades antioxidantes (Oktay, Glcin y Kfrevioglu, 2003), analgsicas, antibacterianas y
antigngicas, y es utilizado como secretomotor, secretoltico, expectorante antisptico, como espasmoltico, carminativo, galactogogo durante la
lactancia de mujeres y como locin para ojos (He y Huang, 2011; MimicaDukiy col., 2003).
Composicin: la Tabla 14 recoge los principales compuestos del hinojo.

Tabla 14: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en el Foeniculum vulgare Mill. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales

Posee actividad larvicida, insecticida y antifngica (He y Huang, 2011;Zhao y col., Aporta un intenso y ligero olor y sabor a ans dulce (Coelho y col.,
Fenilpropenos

anetol
2012). 2003) y regaliz (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005).

Intenso y ligero aroma a ans dulce y olor herbceo, pero


estragol Actividad insecticida (Zhao y col., 2012). potencialmente txico (Zeller y Rychlik, 2007; Coelho y col., 2003).
Aroma a regaliz y sabor dulce (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005).
Monoterpenos hidrocarbonados

monocclico

Efectos calmantes y sedativos para desrdenes nerviosos, problemas de corazn, clicos,


limoneno Fragancia ctrica agradable (Moraes y col., 2009). Aporta un olor y
asma y depresin. Actividad anticancergena (Park y col., 2011). Propiedades
sabor amargo, a alcanfor, dulce y ctrico (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005).
antimicrobianas, antioxidantes, citotxicas y gastroprotectivas (Majnooni y col., 2012).
bicclico

Aroma floral (Deterre y col., 2012) y a pino


Terpenos

-pineno
Propiedades antimicrobianas y citotxicas (Wang y col., 2012). (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005).
Monoterpenos
oxigenados
bicclico

Menta, alcanfor, clido (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005), olor y sabor


Actividad antifngica e insecticida (He y Huang, 2011; Zhao y col., 2012).
fenchona amargo (Coelho y col., 2003).
Cilantro
Nombre cientfico: Coriandrum sativum L.
Familia: Umbelferas. Figura 30: Coriandrum sativum L.

Descripcin: es una hierba erecta con muchas ramas, tanto anual como perene y crece hasta los 20 cm de longitud. El tallo es dbil, suave, ligero
y de color verde. Las hojas son compuestas, delgadas, alternadas y fciles de romper. Los frutos son esfricos de alrededor de un centmetro de
dimetro con algunas crestas longitudinales. Son de color verde cuando estn tiernos y amarillo parduzco cuando maduran, tienen una dulce
fragancia (Maroufi y col., 2010).

Cultivo: hierba anual, crece en climas templados o de montaa y en zonas tropicales.

Partes utilizadas: se utilizan los frutos y las hojas.

Hbitat: nativa de Europa meridional y del norte de frica al suroeste de Asia (Maroufi y col., 2010).

Propiedades y usos: esta planta tiene importancia econmica ya que es utilizada como agente aromtico en alimentos, perfumes y cosmticos.
El t, tintura, decoccin o infusin de cilantro, son recomendados para dispepsia, anorexia, flatulencias, convulsiones, insomnio y ansiedad
(Msaada y col., 2007). Adems, su aceite esencial y extractos poseen propiedades antibacterianas, antioxidantes, antidiabticas, antispticas,
antiedmicas, emenagogas, anticancergenas y antimutagnicas (Deepa y Anuradha, 2011; Msaada y col., 2007).

Composicin: en la Tabla 15 recoge los principales compuestos del cilantro.


Tabla 15: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en el Coriandrum sativum L. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales

Posee propiedades antioxidantes y antibacterianas (Ciftci y col., 2011)


acclico

mirceno Dulce, verde, mentol (Goodner y col., 2006), a geranio (Zeller


Analgsico, antimutagnico, inhibidor de la tirosinasa (Santosy SCorreia,
y Rychlik, 2006).
2009).
Moterpenos hidrocarbonados

Efectos calmantes y sedativos para desrdenes nerviosos, problemas de corazn,


Fragancia ctrica agradable (Moraes y col., 2009). Aporta un
limoneno clicos, asma, depresin. Actividad anticancergena (Park y col., 2011)
olor y sabor amargo, a alcanfor y dulce (Daz-Maroto y col.,
Propiedades antimicrobianas, antioxidantes, citotxicas y gastroprotectivas
2005).
monocclico

(Majnooni y col., 2012).

p-cimeno Precursor del carvacrol. Utilizado para aliviar dolores e inflamacin (Santana y
Olor a aceite de mquina, verde-mentol (Goodner y col., 2006).
col., 2011).

-pineno -Pineno: aroma floral (Deterre y col., 2012).


Propiedades antimicrobianas, insecticidas y citotxicas (Wang y col., 2012).
-pineno -Pineno: aroma a verde (Deterre y col., 2012).

Propiedades antiepilpticas, hipnticas, hipotrmicas, produce efectos sedativos en


linalol el Sistema Nervioso Central (Elisabetsky, Silva Brum, y Souza, 1999). Posee Ctrico, sabor dulce y afrutado (Baldwin y col., 2004) Olor
ctividad antimicrobiana (Bagamboula, Uyttendaele, y Debevere, 2004) y floral y a lavanda (Garca y col., 2012; Goodner y col., 2006).
acclico

antiinflamatoria (Damjanovi-Vratnica y col., 2011; Peana y col., 2002).


Fragancia a fruta fresca (Sangwan, Sharma y Sangwan, 2007),
Monoterpenos oxigenados

acetato de Utilizado como aditivo en alimentos, como fragancias para los productos de
olor agradable, floral, rosa, a base de hierbas (Ravi, Prakash y
geranilo limpieza y perfumes, o como disolventes industriales (Bakkali y col., 2008).
Bhat, 2007).
monocclico

Repelente de insectos, desinfectante, aromatizante, antifngico y antisptico Aroma a verde (Deterre y col., 2012), a menta o a ans (Garca
-terpineol
(Baptistella y col., 2009). y col., 2012).
bicclico

Acta como estimulante, analptico cardaco y respiratorio (Kaloustian, Pauli y Aroma a alcanfor, rancio, aceitoso (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005),
alcanfor
Pastor, 2000). fuerte y aromtico (Maggi y col., 2011).
Leguminosas

Regaliz
Nombre cientfico: Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Figura 31 Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Familia: Leguminosas.

Descripcin: es un arbusto leoso alto y perenne. Tiene ciclos de produccin de varios aos. Tiene flores azules/violetas. Las races son de
forma cilndrica teniendo un dimetro de 0,5 a 2,5 cm y longitud de 15 a 20 cm. Sus tallos subterrneos y las races se utilizan con fines
medicinales (banolu, E.y banolu, ., 2000).

Cultivo: se encuentra en las llanuras herbosas secas y en las laderas soleadas (en especial de gran parte del norte de China) y tambin en las
estepas (asiticas hacia el oeste). Suele florecer de mayo a junio y se recolecta en otoo, a partir de los tres aos cuando la planta empieza a
secarse.

Habitat: se encuentra en la zona del Mediterrneo y Asia (RenJie, 2008).

Partes utilizadas: la raz desprovista de su corteza.

Propiedades y usos: utilizada en alimentacin debido a su gusto dulce y en remedios medicinales desde hace miles de aos. Es emoliente
(calmante, agente de recubrimiento), para aliviar enfermedades respiratorias (tales como alergias, bronquitis, dolores de garganta y tuberculosis),
para la acidez estomacal incluyendo ardor de estmago, gastritis, trastornos inflamatorios, enfermedades de la piel y problemas hepticos
(RenJie, 2008). Tambin poseen propiedades antipirticas, antimicrobianas, antiherpes, antitusivas, antivirales, ansiolticas y para tratamientos
contra la epilepsia. (Ambawade, Kasture y Kasture, 2002; Sabbioni y col., 2006). Es utilizada en productos farmacuticos, previene el
desarrollo del carcinoma heptico de la hepatitis C, presenta actividad antiviral contra coronavirus, estrgeno derivado por inhibir efectos
indeseados como alteraciones en coagulacin de la sangre y trombosis (Sabbioni y col., 2006).

Composicin: los principales componentes de los extractos de regaliz son flavonoides (glicsidos) y pequeas cantidades de cido glicirrcico
(Denisova y col., 2003).

Tabla 16: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la Glycyrrhiza glabra L. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Estructura Propiedades


Compuesto Propiedades medicinales
sensoriales
Triterpeno
Terpenos

Analgsico, antibitico, anticancergeno, antiinflamatorio, antiirritante, antibacteriano y


cido No descritas.
no alrgico. (Kamatou, y col., 2010).
glicirrcico
INTRODUCCIN

2.2.4. PAM aptas para uso alimentario

Desde el ao 2012 y a travs de una modificacin del reglamento vigente (Orden

del DOG n 10 del 2012/1/16) se permite, para la elaboracin de licores y aguardientes

de hierbas, el empleo de cualquier planta con la condicin de que sea apta para uso

alimentario. Esto ha supuesto ampliar notablemente las posibilidades de elaborar este tipo

de bebidas con caractersticas particulares en cada empresa, empleando plantas que

aportarn nuevos matices sensoriales y propiedades medicinales.

En este apartado se exponen las caractersticas del eucalipto, planta perteneciente

a la familia de las Mirtceas y que es de cultivo invasivo en Galicia, as como distintos

tipos de ajedreas (Satureja hortensis L., Satureja pilosa Velen. y Satureja thrymba)

pertenecientes a la familia de las Lamiceas, plantas estudiadas durante la estancia en el

departamento de Ciencia de los Alimentos y Nutricin Humana, en el laboratorio de

Qumica, de la Universidad de Agricultura de Atenas.

Pgina 86
Mirtceas

Eucalipto
Nombre cientfico: Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
Figura 32: Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
Familia: Mirtceas.
Descripcin: es un rbol dicotiledneo, nativo del sureste de Australia. Es un rbol de rpido crecimiento con un gran potencial para la
produccin de pulpa y papel (Evtuguin y col., 2001).

Cultivo: su cultivo tiene pocas exigencias con respecto al suelo, aunque requiere mucha humedad. La recoleccin se realiza entre abril y
septiembre; desecacin al sol.

Hbitat: se encuentra en pases subtropicales: sur de Europa, frica, Asia y Amrica.

Partes utilizadas: las hojas de las ramas viejas.

Propiedades y usos: su aceite esencial ha sido utilizado tradicionalmente en perfumes y fragancias, adems de utilizarse como antisptico,
antipirtico, analgsico y en tratamientos contra la diabetes (Ahlem y col., 2009), adems estudios recientes han demostrado que el eucalipto es
tambin antiperglicmico (Ahlem y col., 2009). Posee actividades antimicrobianas, fungicidas, pesticidas y acaricidas (Salari y col., 2006;
Singh y col., 2012). Galicia posee un rea forestal de eucaliptos entorno al 12% siendo su tala entorno al 47%. Las hojas de este rbol son un
subproducto de esta tala y los extractos de las hojas se han aprobado como aditivos alimentarios (Takahashi, Kokubo y Sakaino, 2004) por ello
la utilizacin de sus hojas puede resultar de gran utilidad tanto por las propiedades que puede aportar a los licores/aguardientes de hierbas de
Galicia como para la economa de la regin debido al aprovechamiento del subproducto de la tala.

Composicin: en la Tabla 17 se muestran las propiedades medicinales y sensoriales de los principales compuestos del eucalipto.
Tabla 17: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en el Eucalyptus globulus Labill. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


Efectos calmantes y sedativos para desrdenes nerviosos, problemas de corazn,
limoneno clicos, asma, depresin. Actividad anticancergena (Park y col., 2011) Fragancia ctrica agradable (Moraes y col., 2009), con un olor y sabor
hidrocarbonados
Monoterpenos

Propiedades antimicrobianas, antioxidantes, citotxicas y gastroprotectivas amargo, a alcanfor y dulce (Daz-Maroto y col., 2005).
(Majnooni y col., 2012).
-Pineno: aroma floral (Deterre y col., 2012), a pino
-Pineno (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis y Demyttenaere, 2005).-Pineno: aroma
Propiedades antimicrobianas, insecticidas y citotxicas (Wang y col., 2012).
-Pineno verde (Deterre y col., 2012), leoso y a pino (Baranauskiene,Venskutonis
Monocclicos

y Demyttenaere, 2005).
Potenciador de la penetracin percutnea, descongestivo y estimulante de la piel en
aromaterapia. Posee efectos antitusivos y, se emplea en el tratamiento de la
Monoterpenos oxigenados

eucaliptol bronquitis, la sinusitis y el reumatismo (Santos y Rao, 2000). Adems es Aroma a mentol (Goodner y col., 2006), a acre, picante, menta, frutas y
secretoltico, antiinflamatorio y se utiliza como remedio para resfriados y asma eucalipto (Chen, Sheu y Wu, 2006).
(Juergens y col., 2003). Posee actividad antimicrobiana (Damjanovi-Vratnica y
col., 2011).
Repelente de insectos, desinfectante, aromatizante, antifngico y antisptico Aroma a verde (Deterre y col., 2012), a menta o a ans (Garca y col.,
-terpineol
(Baptistella y col., 2009). 2012).

trans-
Actividad antimicrobiana (Damjanovi-Vratnica y col., 2011). Aroma a alcanfor, a pino, y a menta fresca (Leffingwell, 2001).
pinocarveol
bicclicos
Sesquiterpenos
hidrocarbonad

cariofileno Olor dulce, floral (Goodner y col., 2006), leoso y picante (Skld y col.,
Actividad antiinflamatoria y se utiliza para anestesia local (Ghelardini y col., 2001).
2006).
os

Aroma a cartn, papel, madera, polvo, verde, a plstico, fritura y a


aromadendreno Actividad antimicrobiana (Mulyaningsih y col., 2010b).
tricclicos

alcohol (Deterre y col., 2012).


oxigena
erpenos
Sesquit

Fragante y dulce (Chen, Sheu y Wu, 2006).Aroma a madera, herbceo,


dos

globulol Actividad antimicrobiana (Mulyaningsih y col., 2010b).


verde, floral y resinoso (Choi, Sawamura, &Kondo, 2002).
Lamiceas

Ajedrea hortcola
Nombre cientfico: Satureja hortensis L.
Familia: Lamiceas. Figura 33: Satureja hortensis L.

Descripcin: Es una planta herbcea anual cuya altura vara entre los 20 y 40 cm.

Posee un tallo erecto con numerosas ramificaciones. Las hojas son blandas, de contorno linear o linearlanceolado, con el extremo ligeramente
redondeado y cubiertas de pelos cortos. Las flores son pequeas y se disponen de forma agrupada en las axilas foliares, con un color blanco o
rosado. Su florecimiento comienza a finales de primavera y dura hasta principios de otoo.

Cultivo: requiere clima templado y buena exposicin. No es exigente en cuanto a suelos, prospera en livianos, arenosos pedregosos y calcreos,
e incluso en los ridos; crece mejor en suelos sueltos, profundos y frtiles.

Partes utilizadas: las hojas, flores y tallos (Gllce y col., 2003).

Hbitat: originariamente era la cuenca oriental del Mediterrneo y las costas del Mar negro aunque actualmente est extendida por todo el
Mediterrneo.

Propiedades y usos: se ha utilizado en comida como saborizante y en medicina tradicional como carminativo, estomacal, antidiarreico y
diurtico. En ensayos farmacolgicos y biolgicos, los extractos y fracciones de S. hortensis L. presentaron efectos antiespasmdico,
antidiarreico, antioxidante y antibacteriano (Hajhashemi, Ghannadi, y Pezeshkian, 2002).

Composicin: en la Tabla 18 se recogen los principales compuestos encontrados en la ajedrea hortcola.


Tabla 18: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la Satureja hortensis L. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales

-terpineno Actividad antimicrobiana (Sato y col., 2007). Aroma a verde-mentol (Goodner y col., 2006).
hidrocarbonados
Monoterpenos

Plantas y aceites esenciales que contienen este compuesto se usan en


pociones de medicina popular y cosmticos, como especias en la Agradable olor a limones (Araujo y col.,
-terpineno
cocina y como aditivo saborizante en bebidas alcohlicas y en la 1996).
industria alimentaria (Araujo y col., 1996).
monocclico

Precursor del carvacrol. Utilizado para aliviar dolores e inflamacin Olor a aceite de mquina, verde-mentol
p-cimeno
(Santana y col., 2011). (Goodner y col., 2006).

Antimicrobiano, fungicida, antiinflamatorio, antioxidante, antisptico


Aroma picante y a tomillo (Daz-Maroto y
timol (Phi, Kim y Jang, 2012; Reddy y col., 1998; Sahin y col., 2004;
Monoterpenos

col., 2005; Sterckx y col., 2011)


oxigenados

Zekovi, Lepojevic y Vuji, 2000).

HO

Insecticida, fungicida, antisptico, antioxidante y antimicrobiano Aroma picante, a tomillo, a organo (Daz-
carvacrol (Mockute y Bernotiene, 1999; Rezvanpanah y col., 2011;Sahin y Maroto y col., 2005), dulce, herbceo y
col., 2004;Zekovi, Lepojevic y Vuji, 2000). aceitoso (Choi, Sawamura, &Kondo, 2002).
Satureja pilosa Velen.
Nombre cientfico: Satureja pilosa Velen.
Familia: Lamiceas. Figura 34 Satureja pilosa Velen.

Descripcin: pequeo arbusto de 10-25 cm de largo. Con tallo leoso muy ramificado en la base. Los tallos florales son numerosos. Hojas
caulinarias, enteras, de agudas a acuminadas y cuneadas en la base y glandular-punteada por debajo. Hojas florales ssiles, espatuladas-
oblanceoladas. Corolas de color blanco o lila claro con manchas de color prpura en la parte inferior del labio. Estambres incluidos, anteras de
color prpura-marrn, con filamentos blancos.

Cultivo: crece en lugares rocosos, en los mrgenes de los ros y en los claros de los bosques, a altitudes entre 50 y 950 metros, ascendiendo a
veces hasta los 1500 metros (Dardioti y col., 2012).
Partes utilizadas: hojas y flores.
Hbitat: el gnero Satureja se distribuye desde la zona Mediterrnea a Europa, oeste de Asia, norte de frica, las islas Canarias y el sur de
Amrica (Satil y col., 2002).
Propiedades y usos: utilizadas como especia (Dardioti y col., 2012).
Composicin: los principales compuestos voltiles presentes en su aceite esencial son el carvacrol, timol, p-cimeno y linalol (Azaz y col., 2002;
Dardioti y col., 2012) (las propiedades de estos compuestos, excepto las del linalol, pueden verse en la Tabla 18 de Satureja hortensis L.).

Tabla 19: Principales compuestos voltiles presentes en la Satureja pilosa Velen. y sus propiedades medicinales y sensoriales.

Familia Compuesto Estructura Propiedades medicinales Propiedades sensoriales


Propiedades antiepilpticas, hipnticas, hipotrmicas y efectos sedativos
oxigenado
Monoterp

acclico

en el Sistema Nervioso Central (Elisabetsky, Silva Brum, y Souza, Ctrico, sabor dulce y afrutado (Baldwin y
linalol
enos

1999). Actividad antimicrobiana (Bagamboula, Uyttendaele, y col., 2004). Olor floral y a lavanda (Garca
s

Debevere, 2004) y antiinflamatoria (Damjanovi-Vratnica y col., y col., 2012; Goodner y col., 2006).
2011; Peana y col., 2002).
Ajedrea rosa o fina. Zaatar rumi (hisopo Romano) o zaatar franji (hisopo Europeo)
Nombre cientfico: Satureja thrymba.
Familia: Lamiceas. Figura 35: Satureja thrymba.

Descripcin: la ajedrea rosa o fina, es una planta pequea perenne, leosa con pequeas espirales, tiene un follaje pequeo, de forma redondeada
hacia los extremos y se une al tallo por medio de un rabillo corto, tambin es oloroso y ligeramente enmaraado con pequeas flores rosas.

Cultivo: se desarrolla bien en terrenos ridos y tierras poco frtiles. Florece en los meses de primavera y verano.

Partes utilizadas: hojas y partes florales.

Hbitat: Mediterrneo oriental. Es una planta silvestre en los pases mediterrneos orientales.

Propiedades y usos: uso culinario: en Creta se utiliza preferentemente como planta de t. En otros lugares se usa para condimentar los guisos,
carnes a la brasa (especialmente cordero) y verduras. El t fuerte hecho con esta planta, es utilizado tambin para limpiar y purificar los barriles
de vino cada ao antes de que el vino nuevo se traslade desde las cubas de fermentacin.

Por otro lado, es antibacteriana y antifngica debido al alto contenido en timol y carvacrol (ztrk, 2012). Es tambin antinociceptivo y
antiinflamatoria. Posee efecto carminativo, antiespasmdico, digestivo y antisptico, as como para casos de diarrea (problemas gastrointestinales
en general).

Composicin: sus principales componentes son el carvacrol, timol, -terpineno y p-cimeno (Azaz y col., 2005; ztrk, 2012) (sus propiedades
pueden verse en la Tabla 18 de Satureja hortensis L.).
INTRODUCCIN

2.2.5. Tcnicas de extraccin de aceites esenciales

Para la extraccin de aceites esenciales de las plantas aromticas y medicinales,

con vistas a su posterior caracterizacin y cuantificacin, existen diferentes tcnicas de

extraccin.

2.2.5.1. Tcnicas tradicionales. Extraccin slido-lquido

Esta tcnica de extraccin se basa en la capacidad de un disolvente, o de una

mezcla, de extraer selectivamente uno o varios solutos que forman parte de una muestra

slida (Olmedo, 2005). Si se utilizan disolventes polares se disolvern mejor los

compuestos inicos y las molculas polares; si el disolvente es apolar, disolver mejor

sustancias apolares. Dentro de este tipo de extraccin destacan las siguientes:

a) Soxhlet

La extraccin tiene lugar cuando el disolvente, presente en el baln, se evapora

debido a las temperaturas alcanzadas por encima de su punto de ebullicin. El vapor

asciende hasta la parte superior del equipo dnde se refrigera, condensa y cae en el

interior del cartucho de celulosa que contiene la muestra. En esta etapa, entran en

contacto la planta y el disolvente. Una vez que el cartucho se llena de disolvente y

alcanza la parte superior del sifn (Figura 36), se produce el reflujo y, el extracto

formado por disolvente y los compuestos extrados de la planta, caen al baln. Esta

operacin se repetir continuamente (varios ciclos) teniendo de cada vez (en cada nuevo

ciclo), disolvente limpio en contacto con la muestra. Esta tcnica es til para ciertas

extracciones cuantitativas de compuestos estables trmicamente, sin embargo, presenta

tambin algunas desventajas para su aplicacin.

Pgina 93
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 36: Equipo de extraccin Soxhlet.

Ventajas

Bajo consumo de disolvente.

No necesita supervisin durante el proceso de extraccin.

Desventajas

Tcnica violenta: descomposicin trmica de la muestra.

No es adecuada para extracciones a gran escala.

b) Maceracin

Es un procedimiento que se basa en extraer los principios activos de la planta

sumergida en el disolvente (Fonnegra, R., Fonnegra, F. G. y Jimnez, 2007). Se debe

colocar la cantidad de muestra (planta) en un envase y agregar el disolvente

seleccionado en la proporcin requerida (relacin planta-disolvente) (Figura 37). El

tiempo de extraccin puede variar desde horas hasta semanas en funcin de: la

agitacin, el contenido en humedad de la planta, la temperatura y el nmero de veces

que se repite la extraccin. Esta tcnica es til para la extraccin de compuestos en baja

concentracin debido a que stos se enlazan fuertemente y/o difunden muy despacio.

Pgina 94
INTRODUCCIN

Al igual que otras tcnicas, la maceracin presenta ventajas y desventajas en su

aplicacin.

Figura 37: Maceracin de manzanilla (izquierda) y eucalipto (derecha) con Orujo.

Ventajas

Simple y barata.

Bajo consumo de disolvente.

Puede dar buenas y selectivas extracciones.

Desventajas

Los analitos pueden ser suficientemente solubles sin agitar y/o con bajo
calentamiento, cuando no se requiere puesto que se utiliza para la extraccin de
compuestos en baja concentracin.

c) Destilacin a vapor

La destilacin a vapor es una tcnica utilizada para la extraccin de compuestos

voltiles insolubles en agua (aislados como una mezcla) desde distintas matrices,

incluidas las plantas.

El principio de la destilacin a vapor se basa en la Ley de Dalton: la presin total

de vapor de un sistema de dos disolventes inmiscibles (en este caso el agua y el aceite

Pgina 95
INTRODUCCIN

esencial) es igual a la suma de sus presiones de vapor parciales. As el punto de

ebullicin de la mezcla bajo presin atmosfrica ser ligeramente inferior a 100 C y,

por tanto, incluso constituyentes con puntos de ebullicin en torno a 300 C (alcoholes

sesquiterpnicos) pueden aislarse.

La difusin y los efectos de matriz juegan un importante papel durante el

proceso de destilacin. Cuando las plantas aromticas presentan todo el aceite en la

superficie, por ejemplo en los pelos glandulares, la difusin apenas interviene y el

tiempo de extraccin es corto, siendo todos los componentes del aceite rpidamente

arrastrados. Sin embargo, cuando el aceite est presente en semillas o material leoso, la

velocidad de destilacin est determinada por efectos de matriz y por la difusin. As,

los hidrocarburos (que permanecen asociados a otros constituyentes como por ejemplo

el material graso y se disuelven menos en agua, inhibiendo una rpida difusin a la

superficie) destilan ms lentamente que los correspondientes alcoholes a pesar del

hecho de que los primeros tienen menor punto de ebullicin (Walton y Brown, 1999).

En lneas generales, la destilacin a vapor se considera una tcnica selectiva

debido a que slo los compuestos voltiles de elevado punto de ebullicin, entre 100 y

350C son extrados.

Adems, es una tcnica simple debido a que no son necesarios aparatos caros o

etapas especiales previas a la extraccin.

Por ltimo, se considera una tcnica limpia debido a que los aceites no tienen

color o poseen un color amarillo claro, por contener slo los componentes voltiles. Los

extractos no poseen materiales grasos u otros materiales apolares.

La destilacin a vapor presenta, tambin ventajas y desventajas:

Pgina 96
INTRODUCCIN

Ventajas

Selectiva para compuestos voltiles (aceites esenciales).

Tcnica simple y barata.

Slo emplea agua como disolvente.

Es adecuada para extracciones a escala preparativa.

Permite la obtencin de extractos limpios.

Desventajas

Slo adecuada para compuestos voltiles polares.

Posible descomposicin de la muestra debido a la presencia de agua y altas


temperaturas.

No adecuada para concentraciones del orden de mg.

La destilacin cuantitativa implica tiempos de destilacin largos.

La composicin del destilado vara durante la destilacin.

Existen dos tipos de destilacin:

La verdadera destilacin a vapor, en la cual el vapor se forma en un generador

separado y es arrastrado a travs de la planta. Esta tcnica es la que se aplica para la

preparacin industrial de aceites esenciales.

La hidrodestilacin: donde la planta es suspendida en agua a ebullicin y donde

el vapor es generado in situ. Esta variante de la destilacin a vapor se emplea a escala de

laboratorio para la preparacin de aceites esenciales.

Hidrodestilacin (aparato tipo Clevenger)

Este tipo de destilacin es utilizada para la determinacin cuantitativa de aceites

esenciales de acuerdo a la Farmacopea Europea. En el equipo empleado para llevar a

cabo la hidrodestilacin tiene lugar una destilacin continua del aceite esencial (Figura

38).

Pgina 97
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 38: Equipo de hidrodestilacin tipo Clevenger.

Durante el proceso de extraccin por hidrodestilacin, el aceite, que es ms

ligero que el agua, es recogido en la parte del aparato Clevenger, mientras que el agua

vuelve al baln de destilacin.

A continuacin se recogen las principales ventajas y desventajas que presenta

est tcnica de extraccin:

Ventajas

Fcil montaje.

Fcil manejo de sustancias con tamao de partcula pequeo.

Desventajas

Algunos componentes de los aceites esenciales como los steres son sensibles a
la hidrlisis, algunos monoterpenos y aldehdos pueden polimerizar.

Compuestos oxigenados como fenoles tienen tendencia a ser solubles en agua,


as que no pueden ser recuperados fcilmente.

Es una operacin ms lenta que la destilacin con arrastre de vapor (por


ejemplo).

Pgina 98
INTRODUCCIN

Destilacin-extraccin por arrastre de vapor tipo Likens y Nickerson

Esta tcnica se aplica para la extraccin de pequeas cantidades de voltiles o

cuando los voltiles presentes en la muestra tienen una significativa solubilidad en agua

(como el hexanal). Esta tcnica combina a su vez la hidrodestilacin y la extraccin con

un disolvente orgnico ms ligero que el agua.

En la fase vapor tiene lugar una extraccin del hidrodestilado, que contiene los

compuestos voltiles de la planta, con un disolvente orgnico altamente voltil (por

ejemplo el dietileter) (Figura 39). A continuacin, tanto el vapor como el disolvente

orgnico condensan y debido a la diferente densidad y al diseo del equipo, las dos

fases lquidas vuelven cada una a su correspondiente baln. Una vez los compuestos

voltiles entran en el pequeo matraz que contiene el disolvente orgnico, son atrapados

debido a que sus puntos de ebullicin (entre 100 y 300C), son ms elevados que los del

propio disolvente orgnico. Tras finalizar la extraccin, el disolvente orgnico puede

eliminarse.

Figura 39: Equipo de destilacin-extraccin de Likens-Nickerson.

Pgina 99
INTRODUCCIN

Como todas las tcnicas, la destilacin-extraccin de Likens-Nikerson, presenta

ventajas y desventajas.

Ventajas

Utiliza pequeas cantidades de disolvente.

Puede obtener una concentracin alta de voltiles en poco tiempo y poder


minimizar la degradacin trmica trabajando a presin reducida.

Desventajas

No es adecuada para voltiles termolbiles.

2.2.5.2.Nuevas tcnicas de extraccin. Extraccin slido-lquido/fluido

a) Extraccin acelerada con disolventes (ASE)

Es una tcnica de reciente aplicacin, totalmente automatizada. La extraccin

acelerada con disolventes se puede considerar como una mejora de la tcnica tradicional

Soxhlet. Permite extraer los compuestos voltiles presentes en una muestra empleando

disolventes hasta los 200 C y 200 atmsferas de presin. Estas condiciones de elevada

presin permiten que durante la extraccin, pese a trabajar a elevada temperatura, el

disolvente no ebulla, lo que se traduce en una extraccin ms eficiente.

Figura 40: Equipo de ASE: celda donde se coloca la muestra (izquierda) y equipo completo (derecha).

Pgina 100
INTRODUCCIN

La extraccin tiene lugar dentro de la celda de extraccin, donde se coloca la

muestra (planta), previamente pulverizada, junto con tierra de diatomeas para eliminar

cualquier humedad que pueda interferir en el proceso de extraccin (Figura 40). Por las

caractersticas de la muestra preparada, es necesario colocar adems un filtro, para

evitar el paso de planta y/o tierra de diatomeas durante la extraccin al vial que contiene

el extracto final. El proceso de extraccin puede repetirse varias veces (varios ciclos) y

a cada ciclo se le asigna un tiempo de contacto entre la muestra y el disolvente.

A continuacin se muestran las ventajas y desventajas que presenta esta tcnica

de extraccin:

Ventajas

Es ms rpida que los procedimientos de extraccin lquida tradicionales (menos


de 15 minutos frente a 2-24 horas).

Emplea menos cantidad de disolvente (menos de 15 mL para unos 10 gramos de


muestra, frente a los 50-500 mL de otras tcnicas).

Es ms eficaz independientemente de la matriz.

Es automatizable y puede extraer muestras secuencialmente.

El desarrollo de mtodos es mucho ms sencillo.

Desventajas

Las extracciones son ms completas, pero menos selectivas.

Requiere el empleo de temperaturas ms altas que en la extraccin con Fluidos


Supercrticos (SFE).

El equipo tiene un precio elevado.

b) Extraccin con fluidos supercrticos (SFE)

Los fluidos supercrticos son sustancias que a presiones y temperaturas

superiores a los valores supercrticos (Tc y Pc) adquieren propiedades intermedias entre

los gases y los lquidos. De este modo poseen, por un lado, una densidad cercana a la

Pgina 101
INTRODUCCIN

de un lquido, teniendo as la capacidad de disolucin de los lquidos y, por otro, la

capacidad de difusin constante de un gas, lo que hace que haya una rpida

transferencia de masa. Adems presentan muy baja tensin superficial y por tanto

penetran fcilmente en diferentes matrices.

El fluido ms comnmente utilizado es el CO2 cuyos valores de temperatura y

presin crticas son de 31C y 73 atm.

Sin embargo, esta tcnica presenta una serie de ventajas y desventajas que

conviene tener presentes durante la extraccin.

Ventajas

No emplea disolventes orgnicos (buena para el medio ambiente y barata).

Permite extracciones rpidas.

Cuidadosa con el medioambiente. Con 100% de CO2 no se necesitan pasos de


eliminacin de disolvente.

Selectiva.

El poder de disolucin es variable segn el valor de la presin.

Desventajas

Menos til para productos muy polares.

Se necesitan aparatos complejos.

Utiliza altas presiones.

Son difciles de extraer materiales de plantas frescas.

La recoleccin del extracto es compleja

Las extracciones con fluidos supercrticos son rpidas, cuidadosas con el

medioambiente y a veces ms selectivas que las tcnicas mencionadas anteriormente.

Esto se debe a que la presin y temperatura tienen una fuerte influencia sobre la

Pgina 102
INTRODUCCIN

densidad y, en consecuencia, sobre la capacidad de disolucin. Se puede fraccionar

simplemente aumentando la presin. Sin embargo, estos fluidos supercrticos presentan

desventajas: el CO2 puro tiene poca capacidad de disolucin (solo puede extraer

materiales apolares (por ejemplo: grasas, ciertos triterpenos y aceites esenciales)). Para

mejorar dicha capacidad de disolucin se aaden lo que se denominan cosolventes, que

son disolventes que se unen al fluido (en tanques de premezcla, con una segunda bomba

o previamente a la adicin a la celda de extraccin) mejorando el poder de disolucin.

Uno de los cosolventes ms utilizados es el metanol. Adems, presenta la desventaja de

ser poco selectiva cuando hay grandes cantidades de componentes apolares que no nos

interesan. Finalmente, a escala laboratorio esta tcnica es muy costosa, por el

equipamiento y por el elevado coste del CO2. Sin embargo, la extraccin con fluidos

supercrticos es vlida para la extraccin, a pequea escala, de metabolitos secundarios

apolares, trmicamente lbiles.

Figura 41: Equipo de extraccin con fluidos supercrticos.

Pgina 103
INTRODUCCIN

Segn se puede observar en el esquema de la Figura 41, la bombona de CO2

proporciona CO2 lquido a travs de una bomba modificada de HPLC el cual, al entrar

en el horno, se convierte en un fluido supercrtico. Si es necesario, una segunda bomba

modificada puede aadir un pequeo porcentaje de metanol u otro disolvente polar al

CO2 para aumentar la solubilidad y la extraccin de compuestos polares. La extraccin

tiene lugar en una celda con paredes gruesas de acero inoxidable, que contiene la

muestra. La muestra puede ser pre-mezclada con arena inerte, zeolitas o perlas de vidrio

para aumentar la superficie de extraccin o para evitar el desplazamiento fsico de las

pequeas partculas de muestra por el fluido. La extraccin puede ser esttica, dinmica

o una combinacin de ambas. La extraccin esttica es comparable a la maceracin y es

ms til cuando los efectos de matriz y la difusin son importantes. La extraccin

dinmica es ms til cuando la solubilidad en el fluido es un problema. Por supuesto,

un paso dinmico tambin es necesario para arrastrar cualquier analito libre. La

temperatura y la presin en el recipiente de extraccin pueden ser reguladas y

normalmente se encuentra entre 35-150C y 120-680 atm, respectivamente. Despus de

dejar la celda, el fluido es descomprimido a presin atmosfrica con un restrictor (puede

ser un trozo de tubo de pequeo dimetro). Finalmente los analitos extraidos son

separados del CO2 gaseoso en una trampa: puede ser una trampa lquida al final del

restrictor, colocando un pequeo volumen de disolvente voltil. Este sistema presenta

como desventaja la prdida de extracto debido a la formacin de aerosol y la prdida de

disolvente durante el entrampamiento. En este sentido, es ms adecuado emplear una

trampa slida (el gas y los analitos pasan a travs de bolas de acero (enfriadas), silica o

material C18 que retienen los analitos. Tras la trampa puede ser eluido con un pequeo

volumen de disolvente orgnico para producir un extracto analizable.

Pgina 104
INTRODUCCIN

2.3.La madera de roble: el gnero Quercus

2.3.1. Antecentes: de las nforas (civilizacin greco-romana) a las barricas


(civilizacin celta y hasta nuestros das)

El origen de la crianza en madera surge cuando el vino empez a transportarse

desde las zonas de produccin hasta las zonas de consumo. La primera constancia que

se tiene de ello es del III milenio a. C. en Mesopotamia dnde no existan viedos y el

vino era transportado en tinajas de barro desde las zonas montaosas del norte-noroeste,

Siria y Armenia (de donde es originaria la vid). Posteriormente, los fenicios mejoraron

los envases, debido a la fragilidad del material y a su dificultosa manipulacin, pasando

a las ligeras nforas. Ms tarde se usaron pellejos u odres fabricados con cueros curtidos

e impermeabilizados con resinas (pero estos materiales proporcionaban olores y

sabores) (Figura 42).

Durante la era romana (753 a.C.-476), en los pases del norte, los celtas

utilizaban depsitos de madera de gran volumen donde se elaboraban y almacenaban los

vinos, dicho material se encontraba en el entorno y poda ser trabajado con gran

facilidad. Se pas as a recipientes de transporte de pequeo volumen: barricas, barriles,

pipas, toneles y similares con capacidades entre 200 a 500 litros (Viriot y col., 1993).

Figura 42: Evolucin de los envases de transporte y almacenaje del vino.

Pgina 105
INTRODUCCIN

Tras la cada del Imperio Romano y transcurridos muchos aos, su transporte

continu realizndose en recipientes de madera, utilizando sobre todo la de roble, por

ser un material abundante en la zona de produccin de los vinos y, adems, por sus

diversas propiedades: muy poco permeable, gran durabilidad natural, fisurabilidad,

suavidad, flexibilidad, estanqueidad y resistencia (Flanzy, 2003).

En el siglo XVII el Reino de Francia, ante las necesidades de madera de roble

que precisaba para la construccin naval, impuls una poltica del cultivo del roble en

su territorio. Existen alrededor de 2.534.000 hectreas de robledales cultivados, con un

ciclo productivo de 150 a 200 aos, donde se explotan anualmente unos 3,5 millones de

m3 de madera al ao (Hidalgo-Togores, 2002).

En nuestro pas, esta madera empez a escasear debido a sus diversos usos

(principalmente la construccin naval), pero una vez explotados los robledales locales

no se repusieron sino que se empez el empleo de roble trado del continente americano

o el empleo de nuevas especies de maderas variadas para tonelera (acacia, fresno,

eucalipto, haya, chopo y pino) debido a la abundancia de productos que construa el

tonelerero. El roble y el castao finalmente se impusieron debido a que eran las nicas

especies capaces de modificar favorablemente los caracteres gustativos y olfativos de

los diversos vinos y aguardientes producidos.

En el siglo XX el desarrollo de otros materiales de almacenamiento y transporte

(botellas, cisternas metlicas, de plstico o acero inoxidable) se limit el uso de los

toneles. A principio de los aos 80 slo los buenos vinos seguan utilizando la barrica

ya que por entonces slo parecan presentar desventajas: elevado coste y problemas de

higiene y de mantenimiento. Pero en los ltimos 30 aos se han redescubierto las

Pgina 106
INTRODUCCIN

numerosas ventajas del envejecimiento y es que la madera modifica el vino y

aguardiente hasta tal punto que se considera un elemento indispensable en la evolucin

del producto.

2.3.2. Caractersticas de la madera de roble

El envejecimiento de vinos y bebidas espirituosas es un proceso utilizado para

estabilizar el color, mejorar la limpidez y enriquecer las caractersticas sensoriales del

producto. Todo ello es debido al flujo de oxgeno que penetra a travs de los poros de la

madera de la barrica lo que favorece reacciones redox y la formacin de nuevos

compuestos estables derivados de los antocianos y taninos. Esta tcnica es muy utilizada

para producir bebidas espirituosas como: el brandy francs armaac, el whisky bebida

originaria de Irlanda y Escocia envejecida tradicionalmente en roble blanco, brandy y la

grappa italiana (De Rosso y col., 2009).

El gnero Quercus est compuesto de alrededor de 250 especies, aunque solo

una quincena de ellas se emplean en tonelera debido a sus caractersticas (Vivas, 2005):

Hermtica: estas especies poseen una madera de corazn (duramen, ver

Figura 43) con numerosas tlides (estructura que obstruye la cavidad de los elementos

conductores del xilema) en los vasos de la madera que confieren a las barricas la

propiedad de estanqueidad frente a los lquidos.

Pgina 107
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 43: Partes de la seccin transversal de un tronco.

Gran facilidad de curvarse bajo la accin de calor, vapor o agua caliente.

Excelente porosidad a los gases.

Posibilidad de formar durante el proceso de tostado, compuestos que suponen un

aporte positivo al producto con el que estn en contacto.

Presencia de molculas astringentes pero pocos productos amargos fcilmente

eliminables por el secado y lixiviado natural.

Ligereza relativa: permite la construccin de recipientes de poco peso en

relacin con su capacidad.

Resistencia del material al ataque de los microorganismos.

2.3.3. Especies de roble utilizados para el envejecimiento

Las especies de roble que tienen importancia para la industria tonelera son:

2.3.3.1.Robles blancos de amrica del norte: Quercus alba L.

Se caracteriza por ser la madera menos tnica y porosa (debido al fenmeno de

la tilosis que consiste en que una vez la madera ha sido utilizada se tapan los poros). Es

una madera ms dura, densa, difcil de trabajar y ms pesada y durable que la Europea

(Hidalgo-Togores, 2002). Sin embargo, es muy aromtica, por su elevado contenido en

Pgina 108
INTRODUCCIN

-metil--octalactona y, por ello, adecuada para el envejecimiento de vinos (Chatonnet

y Dubourdieu, 1998).

2.3.3.2.Robles europeos de tipo Rubra (Quercus petraea Liebl.) y


pedunculado (Quercus robur L.)

El roble pedunculado (Quercus robur) mayoritario en la parte centro oeste y sur

de Francia (tipo Limousin), crece formando bosques bajos sobre suelos arcillo-calcreos

y granticos. Los crecimientos anuales son regulares y dan un grano grueso. La madera

del Quercus robur o pedunculata es la ms tnica, con muchos polifenoles extrables y

la menos aromtica, adems de ser la ms porosa y permeable, lo que la hace poco

adecuada para la crianza de vinos y ms apta para el envejecimiento de aguardientes

(Chatonnet y Dubourdieu, 1998).

El roble ssil (Quercus petraea) predomina en el centro y noreste de Francia y

en toda Europa del Este. Los bosques son gestionados en montes altos sobre suelos

arcillo-silceos bastante pobres. Los crecimientos anuales son bajos, lo que da un grano

apretado. La madera Quercus petraea o sessilis por su parte es moderadamente tnica y

bastante aromtica, con mayor contenido en metil-octalactona y en eugenol que en las

otras regiones. Presenta una mayor complejidad que la madera de Quercus alba, siendo

ambas especialmente aptas para la crianza de vinos ((Chatonnet y Dubourdieu, 1998;

Hidalgo-Togores, 2002).

La clasificacin de la madera de roble tambin se establece con respecto a su

origen geogrfico en el que influye el tipo de grano, existiendo en el roble francs dos

procedencias patrn, Figura 44 (Vivas, 1995):

Roble de Limousin, recibe este nombre por proceder de la regin del mismo

nombre. Es una zona relativamente ms clida que la de los bosques del centro de

Pgina 109
INTRODUCCIN

Francia, dnde los rboles crecen ms rpido y por tanto la madera es menos densa con

grano ms grueso y ms porosa, permitiendo una mayor entrada de aire a travs de sus

poros por lo que se usa casi exclusivamente para la crianza de Coac al conllevar un

proceso ms oxidativo.

Figura 44: Distintas regiones francesas entre las que se encuentran: Limousin y Allier.

Roble de Allier es calificado como de grano fino. Los veranos ms fros de los

bosques del centro de Francia, producen en cambio un crecimiento de los robles ms

lento resultando una madera ms densa y de menor porosidad, que se adeca muy bien

para la crianza de vinos finos.

A continuacin se muestras las dos fichas con las principales caractersticas de

las tres subespecies de Quercus utilizado para el envejecimiento tanto de vino como de

bebidas espirituosas: el roble europeo (Quercus robur y Quercus petraea) y roble

americano (Quercus alba).

Pgina 110
ROBLE EUROPEO

Nomenclatura y tipos:
Nombre botnico: Quercus robur L. (equivalente al Q. petraea, al Q. pedunculate y al Q. sessilis). Figura 45: Distribucin del Quercus robur L.
(izquierda) y Quercus petraea (derecha) en
Nombre comercial: Roble comn (Quercus robur L.) y roble albar (Q. petraea (Matts). Liebl.). Espaa.

Nombre vernculo: roble, carballo (Galicia), ariza (Pas Vasco), roura (Catalua).

Caractersticas:
Descripcin: madera de fibra recta, con anillos de crecimiento muy marcados. Albura color claro, el color del duramen vara desde el
amarillo al marrn. Marcas verticales con color oscuro en la seccin.
Procedencia: Europa, Asia menor y Norte de frica. En Espaa, las principales explotaciones se encuentran en la franja norte de la
pennsula. En Galicia es ms comn el Quercus robar y en Catalua el Quercus petraea.
Propiedades tecnolgicas: madera durable frente a la accin de hongos, y medianamente durable ante xilfagos y termitas. Aptitud
media para el aserrado (excepto la madera verde), mecanizado, cepillado y clavado. Buena aptitud para el encolado y barnizado, aunque para el
segundo se recomienda un tratamiento previo de tapaporos. Secado muy lento, con riesgo de fendas superficiales.
Aplicaciones: se emplea en carpintera, en tonelera, construccin naval, mobiliario y ebanisteras.
Propiedades fsicas y mecnicas: Cortante: 9-10 N/mm2
Densidad: 650-750 kg/m3 Flexin esttica: 90-140 N/mm2
Dureza: 3,5-4,5 (semidura) Compresin axial: 50-60 N/mm2
Mdulo de elasticidad: 10500-14500 N/mm2 Compresin perpendicular: 12 N/mm2
ROBLE AMERICANO

Nomenclatura y tipos:
Nombre botnico: Quercus alba.
Figura 46: Distribucin de Quercus alba en E.E.U.U.
Nombre comn: Roble blanco americano.
Otros nombres: roble blanco del norte, roble blanco del sur, roble blanco verdadero, roble blanco, roble castao de pantano, roble
castao (Q. prinus, Q. montana), roble sobrecopa (Q. lyrata), roble castao de pantano (Q. michauxii).

Caractersticas:
Descripcin: el duramen es entre amarillo claro-marron a medio-marrn, a veces con tinte rosado. La albura es de color claro. Es de fibra
recta, con una textura de medio a gruesa, y con los rayos ms largos que el roble rojo. Cuenta con grandes anillos de crecimiento distintos y
algunos rayos medulares pueden estar presentes.
Procedencia: Norte Amrica o la zona oriental de Canad.
Propiedades tecnolgicas: madera dura y pesada, con baja rigidez y resistencia media a la rotura y flexin. Tambin tiene muy buenas
propiedades de flexin al vapor. Es fcil de mecanizar, clavar, pegar, atornillar y teir. Madera de secado lento. Dada su alta tasa de contraccin,
bajo condiciones de humedad variables, es susceptible a algn movimiento.
Aplicaciones: se emplea en aplicaciones estructurales, exteriores e interiores, en la fabricacin de tonelera de licores y vinos y en
carpintera, para suelos y muebles.

Propiedades fsicas y mecnicas:


Densidad: 755 (estacionada)- 1009 (madera verde) kg/m3.
INTRODUCCIN

2.3.4. Compuestos aportados por la madera de roble

Inmediatamente tras su tala, la madera contiene una gran cantidad de agua (hasta

un 70%), muchos compuestos polifenlicos de gusto amargo (exceso de elagitaninos,

cumarinos) y pocos compuestos aromticos interesantes. Es necesario secar la madera

para transformarla (para que pierda el agua y tengan lugar reacciones fsico-qumicas

que afinan su calidad). Durante este perodo, denominado de maduracin, la madera

pierde el exceso de compuestos tnicos desagradables, estabiliza sus dimensiones y

desarrolla su potencial aromtico, especialmente por la transformacin de precursores

de aromas hasta entonces inodoros, como es el caso de las cis-metiloctalactonas

(Chatonnet y col. 1992).

Tras este proceso, tiene lugar el tostado, que permite eliminar el exceso de

taninos y de sustancias amargas que a veces presenta la madera as como atenuar la

sensacin de madera, reduciendo su contenido en -lactonas y otros compuestos de

carcter vegetal presentes antes del tostado. Se produce la degradacin trmica

superficial de los componentes de la madera de roble que afecta a los principales

polmeros parietales de la madera, especialmente a las hemicelulosas y la lignina, para

producir un gran nmero de productos dedegradacin (Chatonnet y Boidron, 1989,

Chatonnet et al., 1989, Cutzach et al., 1997). Algunos de estos compuestos son bien

conocidos por ser capaces de afectar, a menudo positivamente, al gusto y el aroma de

los productos envejecidos en toneles, aportando diferentes componentes de la madera

segn la intensidad del tostado.

Durante el proceso de envejecimiento tiene lugar, por tanto, el aporte de un

conjunto de compuestos aromticos que contribuirn a la complejidad de la bebida que

Pgina 113
INTRODUCCIN

se est envejeciendo. Paralelamente se producir, un incremento en el contenido en

cido actico, no deseable, as como la cesin de una serie de polifenoles de la madera,

que contribuirn a estabilizar el color, en el caso de los vinos o, a aportar tonalidad, en

el caso del aguardiente.

En lneas generales, la composicin de la madera de roble es la que se recoge en

la Figura 47 (Fernndez de Simn y Cadaha, 2007):

Figura 47: Composicin de la madera del gnero Quercus.

2.3.4.1.Compuestos voltiles

Entre la familia de compuestos aromticos ms importantes que la barrica puede

aportar al vino o destilado, cabe citar:

a) Furanos y heterocclicos aromticos

Compuestos que provienen de los polisacridos de la madera durante el proceso

de tostado (reaccin de Maillard: reaccin entre los azcares y la materia nitrogenada

(protenas)). Los aldehdos furnicos provienen de la pirlisis de los polisacridos y las

furanonas y piranonas de la reaccin de Maillard. (Chatonnet y col., 1999). Estas

Pgina 114
INTRODUCCIN

familias de compuestos aportan aromas a tostado, a caramelo o almendras tostadas (De

Rosso y col., 2009).

b) Aldehidos voltiles y fenilcetonas

Son un grupo de compuestos voltiles que provienen de la lignina y que son

liberadas durante el proceso de tostado (Chatonnet y col., 1999). En este grupo destaca

la vainillina, que aporta aroma a vainilla, siendo la ms importante por su impacto

sensorial al presentar un bajo umbral de percepcin (320 ppb (Cutzach y col., 1997;

Fernndez de Simn, Cadaha y jalocha, 2003; Marn y col., 2005). Tambin se

encuentra el siringaldehdo, el coniferaldehdo, el sinapaldehdo, con umbrales de

percepcin ms elevados (>50000 ppb en el caso del siringaldehdo (Fernndez de

Simn, Cadaha y Jalocha, 2003)) y por tanto de menor impacto global al aroma. Las

relaciones existentes entre el contenido entre aldehdos benzoicos y cinmicos se han

utilizado para establecer diferencias entre productos envejecidos en roble y castao y

entre barriles tostados o sin tostar (De Rosso y col., 2009).

c) Fenoles voltiles

Son un grupo de compuestos que presentan una amplia gama de aromas con

umbrales de percepcin muy variados. Son responsables del carcter picante y

ahumado del roble (Cutzachy col., 1997). El eugenol es un compuesto que se

caracteriza por sus tpicas propiedades sensoriales, notas a clavo y picantes, y por

presentar un bajo umbral de percepcin (500 ppb (Cadaha y col., 2001; De Rosso y

col., 2009; Fernndez de Simn y col., 2008). Sin embargo, varios de los fenoles

voltiles presentes en la madera, si se aportan en exceso, pueden resultar desagradables,

como el 4-etilfenol que aporta olor a cuero o sudor de caballo.

Pgina 115
INTRODUCCIN

En la Figura 48 se muestran los principales compuestos fenlicos aportados, al vino o

destilado, por la madera de roble tras el proceso de tostado.

Figura 48: Fenoles aportados por la madera de roble tras el tostado.

d) Lactonas

Provienen de la degradacin de los lpidos de la madera y aportan, entre otros,

aromas a coco. Son consideradas como los compuestos voltiles del roble ms

importantes que contribuyen al perfil sensorial de bebidas alcohlicas envejecidas en

barrica. La madera de roble presenta dos ismeros, cis y trans -methyl--octalactone,

reponsables del olor caracterstico del roble, y que se encuentran presentes en la madera

sin tostar. Al principio del tueste la cantidad del ismero cis aumenta, pero si el tostado

es largo, puede haber una destruccin total de estos compuestos (Cadaha y col., 2001).

Las madera de las especies Q. petraea y Q. alba tienen mayor cantidad de lactona total

que la especie Q. robur, siendo Q. alba ms rica en el ismero cis (Cerdn, Rodrguez

Mozaz y Ancn Azpilicueta, 2002).

Pgina 116
INTRODUCCIN

e) El cido actico

En la barrica de primer uso tambin hay un aporte importante de cido actico

libre al vino o destilado. Este cido se produce durante el proceso de tostado, mediante

hidrlisis, a partir de la hemicelulosa de la madera. Se puede llegar a producir hasta 0,15

mg/L (Cutzach y col., 1997).

2.3.4.2.Los polifenoles

El grupo de los taninos es el ms importante dentro de los polifenoles presentes

en la madera de la barrica. Los taninos se denominan polifenoles hidrolizables porque

durante su hidrlisis cida liberan una molcula de glucosa y una de cido glico

(taninos glicos) o de cido elgico (taninos elgicos).

Los taninos glicos son la base de taninos usados en enologa para prevenir

oxidaciones y estn formados por una molcula de glucosa cuyos oxidrilos (OH) estn

total o parcialmente esterificados con molculas de cido glico. Son taninos muy

amargos pero se encuentran en poca cantidad en el roble por lo que su aporte sensorial

es muy bajo.

Los taninos elgicos son los ms importantes y abundantes en la madera de

roble. Tienen un notable impacto sensorial y cumplen un importante papel en la

evolucin del vino o destilado, extrayndose durante el proceso de crianza o

envejecimiento del orden de los 200-300 mg/L. Se transforman durante la crianza: se

oxidan a quinonas (que a su vez son oxidantes secundarios). Facilitan los fenmenos

oxidativos del vino o destilado y mantienen el potencial redox a un nivel elevado,

evitando la formacin de compuestos tiolados con aromas desagradables, a reducido.

Pgina 117
INTRODUCCIN

De estructura muy compleja dan una notable sensacin de amargor y

astringencia y, en exceso, aportan gusto a tabla.

Existen otros polifenoles menos importantes como son los cidos fenlicos,

entre los que destaca el cido glico (que aporta acidez) y el cido elgico (menos

cido) y que participaran como copigmentadores; los flavonoles, que pueden dar algo

de amargo y astringencia y las cumarinas, que son hetersidos derivados de los cidos

cinmicos, como la escopolina y la asculina, que se caracterizan por aportar sensaciones

gustativas muy amargas.

En general, las especies Quercus alba y Q. petraea presentan menores

contenidos de elagitaninos que la especie Q. robur, por lo que resultan ms apropiadas

para el aejamiento del vino, mientras que ste ltimo es ms idneo para

envejecimiento de destilados.

2.3.5. Presentacin del roble para envejecimiento de bebidas

2.3.5.1. La barrica

Se le denomina barrica (Figura 49), cuba, o tonel a

un recipiente de madera utilizado para la crianza de vino y/o aguardiente.

sta, oxigena el aguardiente lentamente y le aporta textura y aroma para

suavizar su sabor. Una madera buena para hacer barricas ha de presentar buena

permeabilidad, baja porosidad, as como densidad y tamao del anillo adecuado, alta

resistencia mecnica, facilidad de hendido y alta durabilidad.

Pgina 118
INTRODUCCIN

Figura 49: Barrica.


Existen numerosos trabajos acerca del uso de la barrica para el envejecimiento

de todo tipo de bebidas alcohlicas de alta graduacin: aguardientes de vino envejecido

(Caldeira, Mateus, & Belchior, 2006; Caldeira y col., 2010; Canas, Casanova, &

Belchior, 2008; Onishi, Guymon, & Crowell, 1977; Quesada Granados y col.,

1996), aguardiente de sidra (Blanco Gomis, Muro Tamayo, & Mangas Alonso, 2003;

Mangas y col., 1996a; Mangas y col., 1996b), pero ningn trabajo previo acerca del

envejecimiento de Orujo gallego en barrica.

2.3.5.2.Las virutas

Las virutas (Figura 50) son trozos de madera cuyo objetivo es lograr la

liberacin de compuestos de la madera a la bebida con la que est en contacto, de forma

ms rpida y econmica que la de la barrica. Esta propiedad se debe a su pequeo

tamao que le confiere una elevada superficie de intercambio as como mayor velocidad

de extraccin de compuestos.

Figura 50: Virutas de roble francs: fresco, tostado ligero, medio y alto (de izquierda a derecha).

Su aplicacin enolgica en el vino est aceptada por varios pases includo

Espaa. En el ao 2001 la Organizacin Internacional de la Via y el Vino (OIV)

Pgina 119
INTRODUCCIN

incluy el uso de productos procedentes de madera de roble en el marco de la resolucin

OENO 9/2001, y en diciembre de 2005 (Resolucin OENO 3/2005) se aprob la

inclusin de la utilizacin de virutas de roble en la lista de prcticas enolgicas

autorizadas en la Unin Europea. En el caso concreto de los aguardientes de orujo

envejecidos, su uso no est autorizado, precisamente por su carcter de bebida

tradicional que contempla una etapa de envejecimiento esttico en barrica de roble

durante al menos 1 ao.

Su uso tiene aplicaciones como la maduracin o crianza de los vinos as como

durante la fermentacin (Gutirrez Afonso, 2002). Cada vez son ms los estudios sobre

su influencia (Ortega-Heras y col., 2010; Frangipane, Santis, & Ceccarelli, 2007;

Del lamo y col., 2008; Fan, Xu and Yu, 2006; Rodrguez-Bencomo y col., 2009)

concluyendo que aunque resulta una opcin interesante a las barricas para determinados

tipos de vino, las caractersticas de los vinos resultantes no son siempre las mismas

(Arribas, 2011). Las principales ventajas del empleo de virutas en prcticas enolgicas

son:

Un mejor dominio de los aportes de la madera, adaptables a cada estilo de

bebida a envejecer.

Una mayor flexibilidad y facilidad de aplicacin, con ms posibilidades de

correccin.

Un descenso en los costes de produccin.

Todo ello hace que esta tecnologa sea una excelente alternativa o complemento

a la barrica tradicional.

Pgina 120
INTRODUCCIN

Existen tambin diferentes trabajos en la biliografa que hacen referencia al uso

de virutas en brandis y otras bebidas espirituosas obtiendo similares conclusiones que

en el caso de los trabajos realizados con vino (Beceanu y Anghel, 2006; Canas,

Casanova y Belchior, 2008; Fan, Xu y Yu, 2006).

Sin embargo, su empleo no se contempla en el caso de los aguardientes de orujo

envejecidos como susititutivo de la barrica, si no como apoyo en la toma de decisiones a

la hora de determinar el tipo de roble y tostado ms adecuado para el envejecimiento de

un aguardiente con unas caractersticas analticas y sensoriales concretas.

2.3.6. Barrica vs virutas


La forma en la que se presenta la madera para envejecimiento (polvo, granular,

virutas, duelas o barricas) influye bastante en la aportacin de compuestos procedentes

de la madera durante el proceso de maceracin/fermentacin, aunque los resultados a

largo plazo son comparables. En este sentido, el comportamiento de la barrica no se

puede extrapolar al resto de aportes de madera.

Cuanto ms pequeas sean las dimensiones de la madera, ms rpida es la

extraccin puesto que hay mayor superficie de contacto producindose una rpida

difusin de los compuestos de la madera a la bebida a envejecer. Sin embargo, los

tiempos de armonizacin son similares una vez los componentes se han difundido en

dicha bebida. Esto tiene las siguientes consecuencias:

La armonizacin se produce casi simultneamente a la extraccin en el caso de

la barrica, mientras que el fenmeno de toma de madera caracterstico tiene lugar al

cabo de pocas semanas, por extraccin de siringaldehdo (compuesto relacionado con el

carcter serrn/tabln, que desaparece durante la crianza).

Pgina 121
INTRODUCCIN

Esta toma de madera en el caso del polvo o las virutas de diferentes

dimensiones aparece al cabo de pocos das, puesto que la totalidad del siringaldehdo se

extrae rpidamente. Se requieren despus varias semanas para que desaparezca. El

comportamiento vara segn sean virutas o duelas y segn la granulometra de la

madera.

El envejecimiento parece ms rpido e intenso cuanto ms pequea es la

granulometra de la madera. Despus parece disminuir, ya que el carcter desagradable

del tabln desaparece y el aroma se estabiliza.

El envejecimiento mediante virutas es ms intenso que el envejecimiento en

barrica durante las primeras semanas de extraccin. Durante el proceso, se presenta una

fase desagradable donde la expresin de la madera aparece como dominante sobre la

expresin de la bebida a envejecer. La prctica y la experiencia permiten al bodeguero

saber el tiempo ptimo de envejecimiento para conseguir una integracin ptima. Una

vez en el mercado, las bebidas envejecidas con virutas resultan a menudo comparables

con sus equivalentes elaborados en barrica.

Los aportes de madera que permitan llegar al objetivo deseado en el perfil

sensorial del producto, vendrn condicionados por la calidad de la materia prima y del

proceso de fabricacin de virutas, duelas o barricas y por la edad en el caso de duelas y

barricas (Bteau, & Roig Sosa, 2006).

3. LEGISLACIN

3.1. Aguardiente de orujo y Aguardiente de orujo Envejecido

3.1.1. Regional

Pgina 122
INTRODUCCIN

Diario Oficial de Galicia -DOG- 22.05.89: Por la Orden de la Consellera de

Agricultura, Ganadera y Montes de 5 de mayo de 1989, se reconoce la Indicacin

Geogrfica Orujo de Galicia.

DOG 01.03.99: La Orden de la Consellera de Agricultura, Ganadera y Poltica

Agroalimentaria de 15 de febrero de 1999, aprueba el Reglamento de la I. G. Orujo de

Galicia y de su Consejo Regulador, que fue modificado por: Orden de 4 de mayo de

2001 (DOG 15.05.01), Orden de 8 de septiembre de 2004 (DOG 04.10.04) y la Orden

de 22 de febrero de 2005 (DOG 02.03.05)

3.1.2. Estatal

BOE 11.07.01: Orden del Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacin, de

21 de junio de 2001, que ratifica el Reglamento de la Indicacin Geogrfica Orujo de

Galicia y de su Consejo Regulador; modificado por la Orden APA 2668/2005, de 20 de

julio de 2005 (Boletn Oficial del Estado -BOE- 15.08.05)

ORDEN APA/2668/2005, de 20 de julio, por la que se dispone la publicacin de

la Orden de 8 de septiembre de 2004, de la Consejera de Poltica Agroalimentaria y

Desarrollo Rural de la Junta de Galicia, por la que se modifica el Reglamento de la

indicacin geogrfica Orujo de Galicia y de su Consejo Regulador, y de la Orden de 22

de febrero de 2005, por la que se modifica dicha Orden.

BOE 26.03.14 (nmero 74), REAL DECRETO 164/2014, de 14 de marzo, por

el que se establecen normas complementarias para la produccin, designacin,

presentacin y etiquetado de determinadas bebidas espirituosas.

REGLAMENTO (CE) nmero 110/2008 DEL PARLAMENTO EUROPEO

Y DEL CONSEJO de 15 de enero de 2008 relativo a la definicin, designacin,

Pgina 123
INTRODUCCIN

presentacin, etiquetado y proteccin de la indicacin geogrfica de bebidas

espirituosas y por el que se deroga el Reglamento (CEE) no 1576/89 del Consejo.

3.1.3. Internacional

OENO 9/2001: en el ao 2001 la Organizacin Internacional de la Via y el

Vino (OIV) incluy el uso de productos provenientes de madera de roble en el marco de

la resolucin.

Resolucin OENO 3/2005: en diciembre de 2005 se aprob la inclusin de la

utilizacin de virutas de roble en la lista de prcticas enolgicas autorizadas en la Unin

Europea.

3.2. Aguardientes y licores de hierbas

3.2.1. Regional
DOG 22.05.89: Orden de la Consellera de Agricultura, Gandera e Montes del 5

de mayo de 1989 se reconoce la Indicacin Geogrfica Orujo de Galicia.

DOG 01.03.99: Orden de la Consellera de Agricultura, Gandera e Poltica

Agroalimentaria de 15 de febrero de 1999, aprueba el Reglamento de la I.G. Orujo de

Galicia y su Consejo Regulador, que fue modificado por: Orden de 4 de mayo de 2001

(DOG 15.05.01), Orden de 8 de septiembre de 2004 (DOG 04.10.04) e la Orden de 22

de febrero de 2005 (DOG 02.03.05) por la que se incluyen estos productos en el mbito

de proteccin del reglamento.

Orden del 3 de enero de 2012 por la que se aprueba el Reglamento de las

indicaciones geogrficas Aguardiente de Galicia, Aguardiente de Hierbas de Galicia,

Licor de Hierbas de Galicia y Licor Caf de Galicia, e de su consello regulador comn,

Pgina 124
INTRODUCCIN

el Consello Regulador de las Indicaciones Geogrficas de los Aguardientes y Licores

Tradicionales de Galicia.

3.2.2. Nacional

BOE 11.07.01: Orden del Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentacin, de

21 de junio de 2001, que ratifica el Reglamento de la Indicacin Geogrfica Orujo de

Galicia e su Consejo Regulador; modificado por la Orden APA 2668/2005, de 20 de

julio de 2005, (BOE 15.08.05) que incluy estos productos dentro del mbito de

proteccin del reglamento.

3.3. Legislacin PAM

BOE 18.5.1963. Orden de 7 de mayo de 1963: dicta normas para el cultivo de

plantas medicinales relacionadas con los estupefacientes. Se prohbe el cultivo de estas

plantas medicinales a quienes no posean autorizacin otorgada por Sanidad.

BOE 15.10.1973, p. 19866-19867. Orden de 3 de octubre de 1973: establece

que los preparados constituidos exclusivamente por una o varias especies vegetales

medicinales o sus partes enteras, trociscos o polvos, debern ser inscritos en un registro

especial en los servicios correspondientes de la Direccin General de Sanidad.

Orden de 25 de noviembre de 1981 y su desarrollo (BOE 26.11.1981, p.

27758), que ser desarrollada por O. de 17 de septiembre de 1982 (BOE 29.9.1982, p.

26682- 26686), cataloga los principios activos que pueden contener las especialidades

farmacuticas publicitarias dentro de dos grupos: A) especies vegetales medicinales y/o

sus extractos, tinturas, cocimientos u otras preparaciones galnicas.B) qumicos;

habindose modificado el anexo de la Orden en diferentes ocasiones.

Pgina 125
INTRODUCCIN

BOE 05.10.1983 (n 238), p. 27012- 27013.Orden de 26 de septiembre de

1983. Se ordena una vez ms que se debern inscribir como preparados a base de

especies vegetales medicinales los que, de acuerdo con su naturaleza y caractersticas,

deban incluirse en el Registro especial a que hace referencia la O. de 3 de octubre de

1973.

BOE 18.12.1985 (n 302) p. 39894-39895. Orden de 10 de diciembre de 1985.

Regula los mensajes publicitarios referidos a medicamentos. Los criterios reguladores

del contenido de todos los mensajes publicitarios son: de identificacin, de veracidad,

de lealtad sanitaria, o de correcto uso.

BOE 22 diciembre, (n 306) pp. 38228-38246. Ley 25/1990, del

Medicamento: dedica el art. 42 a las plantas medicinales. En el apartado 1establece que

las plantas y sus mezclas as como los preparados obtenidos de plantas en formas de

extractos, liofilizados, destilados, tinturas, cocimientos o cualquier otra preparacin

galnica que se presente con utilidad teraputica, diagnstica o preventiva, seguirn el

rgimen de las especialidades farmacuticas, y aade una lista de plantas cuya venta al

pblico estar restringida o prohibida por razn de su toxicidad.

Y en el apartado 3 de esta Ley se recoge que podrn venderse libremente al

pblico las plantas tradicionalmente consideradas como medicinales y que se ofrezcan

sin referencia a propiedades teraputicas, diagnsticas o preventivas, quedando

prohibida su venta ambulante.

BOE 12.4.1995, (n 87) p. 10972-10976. El RD 294/1995 y su desarrollo de

24 de febrero: regula la Farmacopea Espaola.

BOE 31.12.1997.La Ley 66/1997, de 30 de diciembre crea la Agencia

Espaola del Medicamento como organismo autnomo de organizacin y

Pgina 126
INTRODUCCIN

funcionamiento de la Administracin General del Estado, adscrito al Ministerio de

Sanidad y Consumo.

El RD 520/1999 regula entre las funciones que tiene la Agencia del

Medicamento el conceder, modificar, denegar, suspender o revocar la autorizacin de

especialidades de plantas medicinales y proponer la lista de plantas cuya venta al

pblico estar restringida o prohibida por razn de su toxicidad.

BOE 31.3.1999. El RD 520/1999 de 26 de marzo aprueba el Estatuto de la

Agencia Espaola del Medicamento. Corresponde a la Subdireccin General del

Medicamento de uso veterinario la gestin de una serie de funciones, entre ellas el

conceder modificar, denegar, suspender o revocar la autorizacin de comercializacin

de especialidades farmacuticas de uso veterinario fabricados industrialmente, en los

que se incluyen los medicamentos, estupefacientes y psictropos, los medicamentos de

plantas medicinales con destino a animales.

El RD 520/1999 regula entre las funciones que tiene la Agencia del

Medicamento (art. 5.17) el conceder, modificar, denegar, suspender o revocar la

autorizacin de especialidades de plantas medicinales y proponer la lista de plantas cuya

venta al pblico estar restringida o prohibida por razn de su toxicidad.

La Real Farmacopea Espaola aprobada en 1996, en conformidad con la Ley

del Medicamento, deber incluir monografias de sustancias medicinales y excipientes

destinados a uso humano.

La Real Farmacopea Espaola acoge an un nmero muy escaso de

monografas relativas a plantas medicinales.

La mayora de las especies vegetales registradas como infusiones de uso en

alimentacin, dependientes del Ministerio de Agricultura, se encuentran incluidas a su

Pgina 127
INTRODUCCIN

vez en la reglamentacin de especies vegetales medicinales, cuyo registro depende del

Ministerio de Sanidad.

An en Espaa falta por desarrollar la Ley del Medicamento en lo concerniente

a la lista de plantas restringidas o prohibidas en razn de su toxicidad (art. 42.2).

El vaco legal sobre plantas medicinales existente en Espaa ha motivado la

disputa existente entre los farmacuticos y herbolarios.

La peligrosidad del uso inadecuado de las plantas medicinales ha motivado la

retirada por parte de la Agencia de Evaluacin del Medicamento de numerosos

productos ilegales que se comercializan en herboristeras, los cuales por su composicin

son medicamentos y que no haban sido evaluados por sanidad antes de su

comercializacin.

3.4.Legislacin madera de roble (Quercus robur y Quercus petraea)


Boletn Oficial del Estado- BOE 29.03.1994 (n 75). Catlogo Nacional de

materiales de base para la produccin de Material Forestal de Reproduccin

seleccionado para las especies Quercus robur y Quercus petraea, 17 de marzo de 1994.

BOE 12.05.2000 (n 114). Sistema de la Organizacin para la Cooperacin y el

Desarrollo Econmico (OCDE)- RESOLUCIN de 27 de abril de 2000, de la Direccin

General de Agricultura, por la que se publica el Catlogo Nacional de las Regiones de

Procedencia relativo a diversas especies forestales.

Pgina 128
OBJETIVOS Y PLAN DE TRABAJO
OBJETIVOS Y PLAN DE TRABAJO

OBJETIVOS Y PLAN DE TRABAJO

La posibilidad de adquirir un producto bajo un sello de calidad, Indicacin

Geogrfica o Denominacin de Origen, ofrece garantas al consumidor sobre las

materias primas empleadas, su procesado, su composicin analtica y sensorial y sobre

su etiquetado. El control que se realiza a lo largo de todas las etapas de elaboracin y

comercializacin va encaminado a garantizar su autenticidad. As, aquellos productos

que en su etiquetado reflejen un sello de calidad ofrecen una garanta adicional al

consumidor sobre su calidad y origen.

Amparar un nuevo producto en un reglamento ya existente, o definir una nueva

reglamentacin, implica llevar a cabo unos estudios previos, que incluyan adems de

ensayos de laboratorio una recopilacin histrica que avale la tradicin de dicho

producto. Las Indicaciones Geogrficas de los Aguardientes y Licores Tradicionales de

Galicia, amparan la elaboracin y comercializacin de aguardiente de orujo,

aguardiente de orujo envejecido, aguardiente de hierbas y licores de hierbas y caf. El

aguardiente de orujo y el aguardiente de orujo envejecido se encuentran incluidos en el

reglamento desde su creacin en 1989, lo que justifica que exista un importante nmero

de trabajos cientficos publicados relacionados con la composicin y caractersticas

analticas del aguardiente de orujo. Sin embargo, la mayor produccin de aguardiente de

orujo frente a la que se somete a proceso de envejecimiento puede ser la causa de que

no existan hasta la fecha trabajos relacionados con la caracterizacin de dichas bebidas

envejecidas. Por otro lado, en 2004, se incluyeron en el correspondiente reglamento, los

aguardientes de hierbas y los licores de hierbas y caf. Esta nueva inclusin respondi a

varios criterios, de tipo econmico, por el importante excedente en la produccin de

Pgina 131
OBJETIVOS Y PLAN DE TRABAJO

aguardiente, social, para responder al nuevo perfil de consumo y, cultural, buscando

recuperar productos tradicionales de Galicia, garantizando su elaboracin y calidad. Sin

embargo, estos productos se han incluido en el reglamento adaptando sus caractersticas

y composicin analtica a las previamente definidas para el aguardiente de orujo, al no

existir estudios previos que permitiesen fijar unos parmetros concretos. Este aspecto ha

llevado consigo que el avance en el conocimiento de estos nuevos productos haya

supuesto posteriores revisiones del reglamento, en las que se establecieron

modificaciones relativas a su composicin analtica, en lo que a contenidos mximos y

mnimos de algunos parmetros se refiere.

Bajo la premisa de disponer de mayor conocimiento sobre los productos

amparados bajo las Indicaciones Geogrficas de los Aguardientes y Licores

Tradicionales de Galicia se definieron los objetivos principales de esta tesis doctoral,

que gir en torno al estudio del aguardiente envejecido y de los aguardientes y licores

de hierbas tradicionales. La importancia de los resultados obtenidos expuestos en la

parte experimental de la presente memoria radica tambin en el hecho de que el

conocimiento de estos productos puede ser extrapolable a cualquier bebida alcohlica

similar, elaborada en otras zonas, donde se empleen las mismas materias primas y bajo

un mismo proceso de elaboracin.

La caracterizacin de licores y aguardientes de hierbas se inici con un estudio

previo de las plantas aromticas y medicinales (PAM) utilizadas como materias primas

en su elaboracin. La caracterizacin de los aceites esenciales de cada una de las PAM,

y que se consideran los responsables de sus propiedades medicinales y aromticas,

implic la aplicacin de distintas tcnicas analticas de extraccin slido-lquido. As, se

ensayaron tcnicas tradicionales como: Soxhlet, la hidrodestilacin tipo Clevenger

Pgina 132
OBJETIVOS Y PLAN DE TRABAJO

(HD), la destilacin-extraccin tipo Likens-Nickerson (SDE-LN) y, dos nuevas tcnicas

de reciente aplicacin como son la extraccin acelerada con disolventes (ASE) y la

tcnica de extraccin con fluidos supercrticos (SFE).

Adems de las materias primas, se llev a cabo un estudio de optimizacin del

proceso de elaboracin basado en la maceracin de las plantas en aguardiente. El

objetivo fijado fue valorar la influencia de distintas variables como porcentaje de etanol

en el aguardiente inicial, relacin cantidad planta/disolvente o tiempo de extraccin, en

la capacidad de extraccin de los principios activos de las plantas por parte del alcohol.

En el caso de la influencia de la madera de roble en contacto con el Orujo se

procedi a un estudio similar al anterior, pero en este caso utilizando virutas de roble de

distinto grado de tostado, tamao y origen.

Una vez caracterizadas las materias primas y optimizado el proceso de

elaboracin, se procedi a la caracterizacin analtica del producto final. En esta etapa

de la tesis se llev a cabo la caracterizacin analtica de las principales marcas de

aguardientes envejecidos y de aguardientes y licores de hierbas de Galicia, presentes en

el mercado. Dicha caracterizacin se centr en la evaluacin de la composicin fenlica

y voltil, identificando aquellos compuestos relacionados con sus propiedades

medicinales y con sus caractersticas analticas y sensoriales. En el caso de los

aguardientes envejecidos se determin, adems, el contenido en metales.

Para la consecucin de los objetivos globales propuestos se establecieron los

siguientes objetivos parciales:

Pgina 133
OBJETIVOS Y PLAN DE TRABAJO

Optimizar distintos parmetros en cada una de las tcnicas analticas

encaminadas a la extraccin de un compuesto caracterstico (quimiotipo) de cada planta

aromtica y medicinal objeto de estudio.

Comparar dos tcnicas tradicionales de destilacin a vapor para la extraccin del

aceite esencial de plantas silvestres y cultivadas de la familia de las Lamiceas:

hidrodestilacin con aparato tipo Clevenger y destilacin-extraccin con aparato tipo

Likens-Nickerson.

Comparar las distintas tcnicas de extraccin utilizadas en la obtencin del

aceite esencial de cada una de las plantas estudiadas en funcin de su caracterizacin

y/o cuantificacin con distintas tcnicas cromatogrficas y espectromtricas (CG-FID,

CG-MS, HPLC-DAD, HPLC-uv/vis, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) y espectroscpicas (RAMAN

dispersivo e IR-TF).

Optimizar los parmetros de maceracin, plantas-aguardiente y virutas-

aguardiente, implicados en la elaboracin de las correspondientes bebidas alcohlicas.

Caracterizar, a travs de su composicin fenlica y voltil, los aguardientes y

licores de hierbas comerciales de la Indicacin Geogrfica de los Aguardientes y

Licores de Galicia.

Caracterizar los Aguardientes envejecidos en funcin de su composicin voltil,

fenlica y mineral.

Pgina 134
MATERIALS AND METHODS
MATERIALS AND METHODS

MATERIALS AND METHODS


1. MATERIALS

1.1. The Plants.

Dried seeds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) and from coriander

(Coriandrum sativum L.), leaves from mint (Mentha piperita), oregano (Origanum

vulgare), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and from

eucalyptus (Eucaliptus globulus Labill.), roots from licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) and

flowers from chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) were commercially purchased from a

leader phytotherapy company from Spain. According to the information provided by the

company, all samples were grown in certified organic area under continental climate

conditions. The plants were air dried at room temperature and vacuum packed in plastic

bags (100 g).

Dried leaves and flowers from summer savory (Satureja hortensis, wild), Balkan

savory (Satureja pilosa, wild), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium, wild), Cretan thyme

(Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii, wild) and from thyme (Thymus vulgaris,

cultivated), leaves from summer savory (Satureja hortensis, cultivated), thyme (Thymus

vulgaris L., cultivated), wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L., commercially distilled

essential oil), true greek oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, commercially

distilled essential oil), Cretan oregano (Origanum onites, commercially distilled

essential oil), and from Pink savory (Satureja thrymba, commercially distilled essential

oil), were obtained from different areas of Greece. The last four samples concern

essential oils characterized as commercially distilled were kindly provided by the

company Bioparnon (Astros, Arcadia, Peloponnesus, Greece).

Pgina 137
1.2. Oak fragments
Chips and granular French and American oak wood were provided by Laffort

(Gipuzkoa, Spain). The samples have been previously dried air and then subjected to

various toasted levels. The French oak was present at three level of toast (light, medium

and high) and fresh, American oak and mix oak at medium toast level. All samples were

stored in polyethylene containers of 7.5 Kg of capacity.

1.3. The grape marc distillate.

The grape marc distillate was provided by a local winery whose grape marc

distillates follow the guidelines of the Regulating Council. Twenty-five liters were

bottled and translated to the laboratory for the corresponding analysis and experimental

assays.

1.4. Commercial aged/herb grape marc distillates and herb liqueurs.

1.4.1. Aged distillates


A set of fifteen commercial grape marc distillates from Galicia (Orujo) aged in

wooden barrels from the species Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) (Origin: Limousin

(France) and Galicia (Spain)), Quercus alba (American oak) and Quercus petraea

(Origin: Allier, French oak) were supplied by Regulating Council of the Geographic

Indication Spirits and Traditional Liqueurs from Galicia after certification. According to

the information given by the producers, samples were bottled after an aging period (1-6

years) in 225 L wooden barrels, previously used in vinification process.

1.4.2. Herb liqueurs and spirits


A total of twenty-eight samples of commercial herb liqueurs and spirits from

different companies, belonging to the Geographic Indication Spirits and Traditional

Liqueurs from Galicia, were subjected to analysis. All of them were elaborate

Pgina 138
MATERIALS AND METHODS

according with the Geographic Indication rules and their composition and sensory

characteristics were also controlled, so their origin and authenticity are guaranteed.

Herb liqueurs elaboration, include a first stage of maceration of several medicinal and

aromatic plants (minimum 3) in grape marc distillate. After a minimum maceration

process (a period time fixed by the company), the macerate was diluted, sweetened with

sugar or caramel and filtered before being bottled. The type of aromatic plant employed

in the maceration, and the number of which depends on the process of particular

elaboration of the company.

1.5. Chemicals and standards:

1.5.1. Chemicals

Siliceous Earth purified and calcined (USP-NF) RRS-CODEX was supplied by

Panreac (Barcelona, Spain). Commercial grade (more than 99%) liquid carbon dioxide

was supplied by Carburos Metlicos (Madrid, Spain). Magnesium sulfate anhydrous

(powder) was purchased from Malinckrodt AR, Analytical reagent (Japan). Ethanol

absolute was purchased from Prolabo (Barcelona, Spain).

a) GC Chemicals. The solvents ethanol (analytical grade) and methanol

were supplied from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). The solvents hexane, diethyl ether

and methanol were supplied by SigmaAldrich (Steinheim, Germany). Ethyl acetate

was supplied by Panreac (Barcelona, Spain). Ethanol was purchased from Analar

Normapur (VWR) (Barcelona, Spain). Diethyl ether (DEE) (analytical grade solvents)

stabilized with BHT with purity more than 99.7% and acetone were purchased from

Carlo Erba Reagenti SpA (Radano, MI, Italy).

b) HPLC chemicals. Methanol (HPLC gradient grade), formic acid,

acetonitrile (for HPLC, 99.9%) and trifluoroacetic acid (99.8%) were purchased from

Pgina 139
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Panreac (Barcelona, Spain). The Milli-Q water was from a Millipore system (Bedford,

MA).

1.5.2. Standards

a) Flame atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry

(FFAS/FAES) standards used. Stock standard solutions of Cu, Mn, Fe (1.000 0.002

g/L) were obtained from Panreac (Barcelona, Spain). Ca and K (1 g/L with 2% HNO3)

with High-Purity Analytical standards were obtained from CPA-chem (Berlin,

Germany). Zn, Mg and Na (1 g/L with 4% HNO3) were obtained from SCP Science

(Courtaboeuf, France). La (III) and CsCl were obtained from Panreac (Barcelona,

Spain).

b) Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) standards

used. Stock standard solutions of Al, Cd and Pb (2% HNO3) were obtained from

CaPurAn CPA multielement (Berlin, Germany).

c) GC standards used. Estragole, bisabolol oxide A, eucalyptol, linalool,

-terpineol, citronellol, nerol, geraniol, benzaldehyde, menthol, eugenol, isoeugenol,

guaiacol, -pinene, 2-phenyl ethanol, 2-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-propanol, 1-

butanol, 3-methyl-butanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, 5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol

(carvacrol), 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol), (R)-(+)-pulegone (purity more than

98%) and ()-5-Butyl-4-methyldihydro-2(3H)-furanone (whiskey lactone) were

supplied by SigmaAldrich (Steinheim,Germany). Alkane standard solution C8C20,

acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, 3-octanol, phenyl-ethyl acetate, -ionone, -ionone, -

damascenone, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 2-methyl-1-butanol

were purchased from Fluka (Steinheim, Germany). Thymol, citral, limonene, ethyl

butyrate, thymol, trans-anethol, and -undecanolactone were acquired to Acros Organics

Pgina 140
MATERIALS AND METHODS

(Madrid, Spain). DL-Menthol (>98%) was acquired to Avocado. Isoamyl acetate was

from Panreac (Barcelona, Spain).

d) HPLC standards used. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid)

monohydrate, sinapic acid (3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid),

syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde), syringic acid (3,5-dimethoxy-

4-hydroxybenzoic acid), benzyl alcohol (phenylmethanol), furfural (furan-2-

carbaldehyde) and vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) were purchased from

Fluka (Madrid, Spain). Benzoic acid, coniferaldehyde (4-hydroxy-3-

methoxycinnamaldehyde), ferulic acid (trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid),

isoferulic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid), p-coumaric acid (4-

hydroxycinnamic acid), sinapaldehyde (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-

hydroxycinnamaldehyde), and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, quercetin-2-hydrate, luteolin (2-

(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)- 5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromenone), apigenin (5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-

hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one), ()-eriodictyol((2S)-2-(3,4-

Dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromanone), carnosic ((4aR,10aS)-5,6-dihydroxy-

1,1-dimethyl-7-propan-2-yl-2,3,4,9,10,10a-hexahydrophenanthrene-4a-carboxylic acid)

and rosmarinic ((2''R'')-2-[[(2''E'')-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]]oxy]-3-

(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid) acid all of them of HPLC grade ( 95%), 5-

hydroxymethyl furfural, vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol), vanillic

acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid), acetovanillone (4-hydroxy-3-

methoxyacetophenone), and glycyrrhizic acid ((3,18)-30-hydroxy-11,30-dioxoolean-

12-en-3-yl 2-O--D-glucopyranuronosyl--D-glucopyranosiduronic acid) were supplied

by Sigma Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). Protocatechualdehyde (3,4-

dihydroxybenzaldehyde), vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol), and

vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3- methoxybenzoicacid) were purchased from SAFC.

Pgina 141
MATERIALS AND METHODS

2. METHODS

2.1. Extraction methods

2.1.1. Liquid-liquid extraction (volatiles extraction)


In an erlenmeyer conical flask with stopper, 1 mL of internal standard (3-

octanol, 48 mg L-1) and a magnetic stir bar were added to 30 mL of sample (herb

liqueur) or standard, (for the sample: previously diluted with 20 mL of distilled water in

order to reduce the alcohol content of the sample and improve the extraction process).

Each sample/standard was extracted three times with 4, 2 and 2 mL of diethyl ether:

hexane (1:1), respectively, at 300 rpm during 5 min. In each extraction, after 5 min at

room temperature in a separator funnel, the organic phase was separated from the

aqueous layer. The diethyl ether: hexane extracts were transferred, without

concentration, into a screw-cup vial and subjected to gas chromatography analysis.

Extractions of volatiles from each sample/standard were made in triplicate.

2.1.2. Solid-liquid extractions

a) Soxhlet extraction

Soxhlet experiments were performed with a BehrotestEquipment for Soxhlet

Extraction (extraction system with six individual extractors (1 sample each) with linear

configuration (Dsseldorf, Germany)). In each extraction, 5 g of dried plant were

weighed in cellulose extraction thimbles (33 mm 94 mm, thickness 1.5 mm purchased

from Schleicher&Schuell (Dassel (Germany)), previously homogenized and grinded

with coffee grinder (Moulinex (France)). The extraction took place using a solvent

volume of 150 mL. Each solvent (hexane, diethylether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and

methanol) was brought to its corresponding boiling point. The final extract was

evaporated in a rotavapor R-215 Buchi (Frankfurt, Germany) at 25C and the resulting

Pgina 142
MATERIALS AND METHODS

oleoresin extract was dissolved in 10 mL of the solvent used in each case. All

extractions were done in duplicate.

b) Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)

The accelerated solvent extraction of essential oils from the different plants of

study was performed with a DIONEX extractor, ASE 350 from Vertex technics

(Barcelona, Spain). The extraction was done by weighing 5 grams of sample, previously

milled and mixed with diatomaceous earth to remove any moisture that could remain.

The resultant sample was placed in a stainless steel cell of 22 mL. According to

literature in ASE technique it is recommended to use the same solvent as in Soxhlet

technique, so the extraction took place using methanol as solvent because it was found

to be the optimal solvent in the Soxhlet technique. Once the extract obtained by ASE

technique was evaporated with a TurboVap LV CaliperLifeSciences (Cardiff, UK)

under N2, temperature of 35C and a pressure of 12 psi, the resulting oleoresin was

redissolved in 10 mL of methanol. All extractions were done in duplicate.

c) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)

The equipment used was a THAR supercritical extraction (Pittsburgh, USA)

with an extraction pressure controller, a temperature controller, a cosolvent pump, a

preheater, a CO2 pump and an extractor.

In the first stage, it was turned the PolyScience 9000 series circulator (Illinois,

USA) cryostat on to 270.15K. This was carried out one hour prior to analysis to keep

both, the ducts for circulating the CO2 before passing through the pump and the CO2

pump head, cold and thus avoiding pumping problems. Temperatures were selected for

the heat exchanger (depending on the temperature applied to the heater of sample

extract), heater of sample extract (varying according to the experimental design), inside

Pgina 143
MATERIALS AND METHODS

the extractor (the same than heater of sample extract) and separator (temperature 25C

and atmospheric pressure (because it is collected all the extract without fractionation)).

Subsequently it was selected the value of pressure (pressure is another design variable

which depends on the experimental design). The CO2 flow was 40 g/min according to

literature. Methanol volume was previously selected in those cases in which cosolvent

was also used. Time was counted once temperature and pressure operating conditions

were reached. When the extraction was finished, the oleoresin was recovered from the

manifold wall with methanol. The final extract was evaporated in a rotavapor R-215

Buchi (Frankfurt, Germany) at 25 C and the resulting oleoresin extract was dissolved

in 10 mL of methanol.

According to the literature: the particle size influenced the extraction stage, 50

grams of fennel seeds were previously grounded with a coffee grinder (Moulinex,

France). The grounded plant was placed in a nylon basket, and this basket was placed in

another one covered with glass beads of size mesh 2 mm (glass beads were purchased

by Merck (Madrid, Spain)), to prevent that samples were moved along vessel of 1L

capacity.

d) Hydrodistillation (HD)

Different quantity of plant (depending on the initial amount of sample provided)

was used for the distillation using Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oil.

Distillation lasted 3 hours and the essential oil obtained was dried with magnesium

sulfate anhydrous and kept in freezer until the analysis.

Pgina 144
MATERIALS AND METHODS

e) Simultaneous steam Distillation-solvent Extraction (SDE)

SDE of the essential oil was performed using Likens-Nickerson. 5.5 mL of

diethyl ether (1.5 mL in the main body of the apparatus and 4 mL in the extracting

solvent flask) were used as extracting solvent. The sample flask was heated above the

boiling point of water, while the cold finger was cooled with a solution of glacial water

and sodium chloride (< 0 C). A nitrogen-containing balloon was adjusted to the purge

gas inlet in order to avoid oxidation reactions. Total duration of procedure was 1 hour.

2.2. Total phenols (FOLIN index)

The total phenolic content analysis for plant extracts was done using the Folin-

Ciocalteau method described by literature. In this method, there is a chemical reaction

(reduction), the transfer of electrons in alkaline medium from phenolic compounds

present in the plant extracts to phosphomolybdic/phosphotungstic acid complexes (blue

products) that we measured with a spectrophotometer apparatus (Cintra 6

Spectrophotometer, GBC Scientific Equipments, Madrid, Spain) at 760 nm. A

calibration curve of gallic acid was performed and results were expressed in mg gallic

acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry plant. All determinations were performed in duplicate.

Total phenols for aged commercial grape marc distillates and herb liqueurs were

measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent according to other method found in literature.

In parallel, the index of total polyphenols was determined measuring the absorbance of

each sample, previously diluted 20 or 100 times, at 280 nm (A280) employing a 1 cm

quartz cuvette. Total polyphenol index was determined by the following equation:

IPT=A280nm*dilution factor

The quantification of total phenols was carried out using a calibration curve with

known concentrations of gallic acid (GAE).

Pgina 145
MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.3. Color parameters

Hue can be defined as the property of light by which the color of an object is

classified by humans in group wavelengths (in reference to the spectrum) into color

categories such as red, blue, green or yellow. While the Color intensity is the degree at

which a color appears like its brightness or lightness.

Color intensity, absorbance measurements of undiluted samples at a wavelength

of 420 (yellow), 520 (red) and 620 nm (violet), and Hue were also evaluated employing

an optical quartz 1 mm path length cuvettes and a UV-Vis Cintra 6 Spectrophotometer

(GBC Scientific Equipments, Madrid, Spain). The equations for the color intensity and

hue (which is obtained according to the (EEC method 1990) are as follows:

Color intensity (CI) = A420nm+A520nm+A620nm

Hue=A420nm/A520nm

2.4. Antioxidant activity (DPPH)

The molecule ,-diphenyl--picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical) is a stable free

radical due to the delocalization of the spare electron over the molecule, this

delocalization gives the characteristic violet color with an absorption band in methanol

that is measured at 515 nm. When the solution of DPPH was mixed with a hydrogen

donor substance, the ,-diphenyl--picrylhydrazyl pass to the reduced form ,-

diphenyl- -picrylhydrazine (decolorized). This reaction is a model of the reactions

taking place in an oxidizing system such as the autoxidation of unsaturated substances,

and the DPPH radical is intended to represent the free radicals formed in the system

whose activity is to be suppressed by the hydrogen donor substance. The radical

scavenging activity was determined using the DPPH method described by literature.

Pgina 146
MATERIALS AND METHODS

The results were expressed as inhibition of free radical by DPPH in percent (I%) and it

is calculated with the following equation:

I%=(Ablank-Asample/Ablank)x100

Where: Ablank is the absorbance of the control (all reagents except the sample)

Asample is the absorbance of the sample (essential oil)

Measures were done in duplicate.

2.5. Macerated preparation

a) Plant macerated. Around four liters of grape marc spirit were necessary

for the preparation of the plants macerated of the fifteen experiments (with duplicates)

of the Box-Benhken design. Different ethanol contents (%v/v) in the initial distillate

were prepared. To do this, the original grape marc distillate (70%) was diluted (55% and

40%) with distilled water and the ethanol content was measured with a Gay-Lussac

Breathalyzer. Different plant quantities were weighed (4.8, 3 and 1.2 g) to obtain

different concentration of plants in the macerated (40 g/L, 25 g/L and 10 g/L

respectively) and it was added one hundred and twenty milliliters of the corresponding

grape marc distillate. The headspace was avoided with glass beads. It was used opaque

bottles and these bottles were kept in the dark. According to the experiment, macerates

were filtered under vacuum at the first, third or fifth week and kept at -40C in the dark

to avoid evolution in the final product.

b) Oak fragments macerated. Around six and a half liters of grape marc

distillate were necessary for the preparation of the different aged grape marc distillates

of the fifteen experiments (with duplicates) of the Box-Benhken design and for the

optimal experiments carried out step-by-step. For the Box-Benhken design as in the

Pgina 147
MATERIALS AND METHODS

previous experiment, samples with different ethanol content (%v/v) were prepared

(70%, 55% and 40%). Different chips oak quantities were weighed (0.6, 1.8 and 3 g) to

obtain different concentrations during the maceration (5 g/L, 15 g/L and 25 g/L

respectively) and it was added one hundred and twenty milliliters of the corresponding

grape marc distillate. The procedure after obtaining the final product was the same than

in plant macerated.

For the study of the influence of the geographical region of the oak, the size of

pieces used and the toast level, the optimal conditions obtained in the Box-Benhken

design were applied in American, French or a mix of both oaks in appearance of chips

or granular pieces.

2.6. Characterization and quantification of samples

2.6.1. Characterization

2.6.1.1. Characterization by GC-MS

a) Characterization of Volatile compounds in commercial aged grape marc

distillates and herb liqueurs. The GC was a Finningan Trace DSQ (Thermo, Austin,

TXUSA). The column was an HP Innowax (60 m x 0.25 mm id, film thickness 0.25

m) from Agilent (Agilent Technologies, Deutschland, Germany). The injector

temperature was 250 C. The oven was programmed for aged samples: 15min at 60 C,

increasing at 3 C/min to 200 C; and for herb liqueurs: 5 min at 60 C, then 1.5C min-1

to 80 C and finally to 225 C at a rate of 3 C min-1. The carrier gas was He, at a flow

rate of 1.1mL/min. Mass spectra were acquired in the electron impact mode (ionization

energy, 70 eV; source temperature, 200 C) at 5 scans s-1, using full scan with a mass

acquisition from m/z 10 to 1000.

Pgina 148
MATERIALS AND METHODS

The identification of volatile compounds was based on the matching of mass

spectra of the compounds with the reference mass spectra of the NIST library. The

identification of chromatographic peaks was also confirmed by comparing retention

times with those of pure compounds.

b) Characterization of Volatile profile of plant extracts: terpenes, fatty acids,

phenylpropenes. The volatile composition of the extracts of plants was determined

using an Agilent 7820 A gas chromatograph (Santa Clara, CA, USA) equipped with an

Agilent 5975 series MSD and a non-polar column HP-5MS (5% diphenyl, 95%

dimethylpolysiloxane, 30 mx 0.25 mmi.d. x 0.25 m film thickness) with a ramp

temperature and operating in the electron impact mode (70 eV) with transfer line and

ion source temperatures maintained at 230C. The injector temperature was kept at

250C, whereas the quadrupole was 150C. Carrier gas used was H2 (from Hydrogen

generator AD-180 Series, CINEL (Padova, Italy)) with a flow of 1.5 ml/min. The

amount of sample injected was 0.5 L (in splitless mode). The oven temperature was

programmed as follows: 50-220C (2.5C/min), 220-300C (10C/min).

The compounds extracted were tentatively identified. It was carried out by

comparison of their mass spectra with spectral data from the NIST (National Institute of

Standards and Technology) library. It was confirmed by using the Kovats retention

indexes on the HP-5MS and similar columns (DB-5MS, DB-5 and HP-5). The Kovats

retention indexes were calculated for all volatile constituents using an n-alkane standard

solution C8-C20 according to the following equation:

t r ( unknown) t r ( n )
RI = 100 + n + ( N n)
t r ( N ) t r ( n )

Where:

Pgina 149
MATERIALS AND METHODS

RI is the retention index, n and N are the number of carbon atoms in the smaller

and larger n-alkane respectively and tr is the retention time.

The semiquantitative procedure was performed by comparing the areas of peaks,

and this semiquantification provides what proportion of each compound is in the

aromatic profile of the extract of plant according to the technique used for each

extraction.

c) Characterization of Volatile profile of essential oils: terpenes, fatty acids

and phenylpropenes (Greece). The chemical composition of essential oils was

determined using a Hewlett-Packard 5890 II GC, equipped with a HP 5972 MS detector

and a non-polar column Rtx-5MS (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 m film thickness).

Injector and MS transfer line temperatures were set at 220 and 290 C, respectively,

while the detector was operating in the electron impact mode (70 eV). Helium was used

as the carrier gas with a flow of 1 mL/min. The amount of sample manually injected

was 1 L (in splitless mode). The hydrodistilled samples were prediluted in acetone at a

1:50 ratio; while SDE samples were injected without prior dilution. The oven

temperature was programmed to increase from initial 60 C to final 250 C with a rate of

3C/min.

Chromatographic peaks were identified based on retention times, mass spectra of

authentic compounds when available, Adams (2007), NIST 98 and WILEY 275

libraries of mass spectra and published data (Adams, 2007).

2.6.1.2. Characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR)

FT-IR spectra were recorded only for the essential oils obtained by HD and the

commercially distillated ones, due to lack of sufficient essential oil amount in the case

of SDE. FTIR spectra of essential oils were recorded using Thermo Nicolet 6700 FTIR

Pgina 150
MATERIALS AND METHODS

spectrophotometer (Thermo Electron Corporation, Madison, WI, USA) operating in the

region 4000400 cm1, equipped with a Nichrome source, a KBrbeamsplitter and

adeuteratedtriglycine sulfate (DTGS) detector. Final spectrum was acquired after a total

of 100 scans with 4 cm1 resolution. Each spectrum was recorded placing one drop of

essential oil between two ZnSe round crystal windows (each 13x2 mm, ThermoSpectra-

Tech.), using the built-in OMNIC (version 7.3, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.) software.

All spectra were processed with the same software by application of the automatic

smooth procedure (which uses the Savitsky-Golay algorithm, 95-pointmoving second-

degree polynomial) and the baseline was corrected using the automatic baseline

correct function (polynomial).

Three libraries (carvacrol chemotype, thymol chemotype and pulegone chemotype)

were created using the OMNIC software. Each library included the spectrum of an

essential oil known a priori to belong to the specific chemotype through its comparison

to the spectrum of the pure standard. The spectroscopic region used was 1500-800 cm-1,

considered to be the fingerprint region due to it is significance regarding deformation,

bending and ring vibrations. Spectra of the essential oils under study were compared to

all three libraries. The match value resulting from each comparison expresses the

probability of a spectrum belonging to each chemotype.

2.6.1.3. Characterization by dispersive-RAMAN

Raman spectra were recorded only for the essential oils obtained by HD and the

commercially distillated ones. An Advantage 785 series Near-Infrared Raman

spectrometer from DeltaNu (Wokingham, UK) coupled with a 785 nm diode excitation

laser and a charged coupled devices (CCD) detector was used to collect Raman spectra

of the essential oil under study. Essential oil sample was introduced in a 1mL clear glass

Pgina 151
MATERIALS AND METHODS

tube (VWR International, USA). Resolution used was 5 cm-1 and the spectral area

recorded was 2000-200 cm-1. A manual side-to-side adjuster allowed sample adjustment

for maximum optical efficiency. The spectra were collected with the NuSpec software

provided by the manufacturer. Final spectrum of each sample was the average of ten

spectra; while integration time was set at 10 s. Spectra were further processed using

OMNIC (version 7.3) software. Spectral library was created as described for the FT-IR

method; however, in this case, the spectral region of 1800-400 cm-1 was selected, as the

main bands of the chemotypes under study appeared within this.

2.6.2. Quantification

2.6.2.1. Quantification of volatile profile by GC-FID

Volatile compounds were analyzed using an Agilent 7890A gas chromatograph

equipped with a flame ionization detection (FID) system (Agilent Technologies,

Deutschland, Germany).

a) Commercial aged grape marc distillates: for determination of the volatile

compounds (methanol, ethylacetate, acetaldehyde, 2-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-

propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-butanol), 1mL of an internal

standard solution (5 g of 4-methyl-2-pentanol per 1 L of ethanol) was added to a 10 mL

sample of aged Orujo. The organic extract (1 mL) of each sample was directly injected

into the chromatograph. The compounds were separated in a Zebron ZB-WAX (60 m x

0.25mm i.d., film thickness x 0.25 mm) from Phenomenex (Torrance, CA, USA).

Injections were made in split mode (1:10). The injector temperature was 250 C and the

oven was programmed for 15min at 60 C, increasing at 3 C/min to 200 C. The carrier

gas was hydrogen, at a flow rate of 1.1mL/min. The chromatographic conditions of the

FID were: temperature, 260 C; H2, 40 mL/min; air, 400 mL/min; auxiliary gas (N2), 25

Pgina 152
MATERIALS AND METHODS

mL/min. Quantitative analyses were made by employing the corresponding response

factor in the reference solution, according to the internal standard method.

Determinations were made in triplicate.

b) Commercial herb liqueurs: determination of volatile compounds after

extraction liquid-liquid with diethyl ether. The organic extract (2 L) of each sample

was directly injected into the chromatograph. The capillary column used was a Zebron

ZB-WAX (60 m x 0.25 mm id, film thickness 0.25 m) from Phenomenex (Torrance,

CA, USA). The gas chromatographic operation conditions were as follows: injector

temperature: 250 C, detector temperature: 260C, carrier gas: hydrogen at a constant

flow rate of 1.1 mL min-1; make-up gas: nitrogen 25 mL min-1. The detector gas flow

rates were: hydrogen, 40 mL min-1; air, 350 mL min-1. The oven temperature program

was 5 min at 60 C, then 1.5C min-1 to 80C and finally to 225C at a rate of 3C min-1.

The injection was made in split mode (1:5).

Quantitative analyses were made employing the corresponding response factor

(RF) in the reference solution, according to the internal standard method.

c) The main chemotype quantification from the extracts of plants was separated in

a HP-5 (5% phenyl methyl siloxane, 30 m 0.32 mm i.d. 0.25 m film thickness)

capillary column. The volume of the sample injected was 0.5 L (in splitless mode (15

mL/min at 0.75 min). Carrier gas was hydrogen with a flow rate 1.5 mL/min. The oven

temperature was programmed from 50 C at a rate of 2.5 C/min to 220C and from 220

C at a rate of 10 C/min to 300 C. The injector and detector temperatures were

respectively 250 C and 260 C. Quantification was carried out by preparing a

calibration curve of six points with concentrations between: estragole: 40-650 mg/L

with a r2: 0.998; eucalyptol, menthol and thymol: 40-1500 ppm.

Pgina 153
MATERIALS AND METHODS

d) The quantification of bisabolol oxide A, linalool and eucalyptol in the macerated

plants and vanillin and whiskey lactone in accelerated aged grape marc distillates was

with a column HP-INNOWax (Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 60m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25

m film thickness). The volume of the samples (previously diluted) injected was 1 L.

The oven temperature was programmed as follows: 60 C during 15 minutes then, since

60 C to 230 C at 3C/min. Injector and detector temperatures were 250 C and 260 C.

The flow of H2 was: 1 mL/min. Mode split with a split ratio 10:1.

e) The Essential oil volatile profile of Greek samples in Greece was quantified and

semi-quantified using a Hewlett-Packard 5890 II GC, equipped with flame ionization

detector (FID) and a non-polar column RtX-5MS (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 m film

thickness). The volume of the samples manually injected was 1 L (in splitless mode).

Helium was used as the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The oven temperature

was programmed in the same way as for GC-MS analysis. The injector and detector

temperatures were 220C and 300 C respectively.

Quantification was carried out based on a six-point calibration curve for each

compound under study.

The semi-quantification procedure was performed by comparing the areas of

peaks, in order to determine the proportion of each compound present in the aromatic

profile with respect to the technique used for isolating the essential oil from the plant

tissues.

2.6.2.2. HPLC quantification

a) HPLC-DAD. The quantification of glycyrrhizic acid in the macerated

licorice in Orujo was carried out with an Agilent 1200 series HPLC system equipped

with a diode-array UV-vis detector (DAD, model G1315B). The column used was

Pgina 154
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Zorbax SB-Aq reverse-phase column 5 m, 4.6 mm i.d. x 150 mm (Agilent, Palo Alto,

CA) with a guard column. The wavelength used in DAD was of 254 nm, as we can

check before because the standard spectrum presented a maximum band at this

wavelength. The mobile phases were water (A) and acetonitrile (B) both with a 0.05%

(w/w) of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). The gradient elution was as follows: 20% B

(t=0min) to 40% B (t=10 min) and during 5 minutes at this proportion, 40% B to 50% B

in 1 minute and to 50% B to 20% B (1 minute) and at this proportion during 3 minutes.

Injection volume was 20 L. The flow rate was of 0.8 mL/min.

b) HPLC-UV/VIS. All samples of aged grape marc spirits and herb liqueurs were

filtered through 0.45 m pore membranes of cellulose acetate (Sartorius, Goettingen

Germany) before the analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An

Agilent Technologies 1200 series system consisting of a quaternary pump (G1311A), an

injector, a degasser (G1322A), a Multiple Wavelength Detector (MWD, UV/VIS)

(Agilent, Palo Alto, CA) and a Zorbax SB-Aq reverse-phase column 5 m, 4,6 mm i.d.

x 150 mm (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA) with a guard column. Samples of 20 L of aged

spirit or calibration standards were injected onto the column and eluted with the

following gradient: solvent A (methanol) and solvent B (2,5% formic acid in Milli-Q

water, v/v) at a flow rate of 1mL/min. Zero time conditions were 100% B, after 35 min

the pumps were adjusted to 52% B and 48% A, at 56 min to 100% A until the end of

analysis at 65 min. Detection was carried out at 276 4 nm.

The identification of some cinnamic acids, phenolic and furanic aldehydes and

their derivatives was done comparing retention times with those of pure standards. All

determinations were made in duplicate.

c) Phenolic profile: HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The characterization and

quantification of some phenolic compounds in Lamiaceae plant extracts were analyzed

Pgina 155
MATERIALS AND METHODS

in a Thermo Scientific (Olten, Switzerland) equipped with an automatic injector and

coupled to a HPLC Thermo Finnigan Spectra System UV 6000 LP and a quadrupole

MS: Finnigan TSQ Quantum Discovery equipped with an electrospray ionization

interface. The optimum conditions of the interface were as follows: ESI-negative; spray

voltage: -3000 V, sheath gas pressure (N2): 10 psi, auxiliary gas pressure: 0 psi and

capillary temperature 380 C. The chromatographic separation was on a Kinetex XB-

C18 100 , LC Column (2.6 m, 100 x 4.6 mm i.d) (Phenomenex, UK) with a stationary

Phase with iso-butyl side chains and with TMS endcapping. The injection volume was 5

L and the flow rate was set to 1 mL/min. All data were collected as negative-ion

spectra while the MS was performing a full mass scan at the range of 250-400 uma. The

mobile phase consisted of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in deionized water (solvent A) and

methanol (solvent B), starting from 70% solvent A to 50% solvent A (5.7 min), from

50% to 0% solvent A (5 min), constant at 0% solvent A (5,3 min), from 0% to 70%

solvent A (1 min) and then constant at 70% solvent A for 4 min for reconditioning of

the column. Phenolic compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and

mass spectra with those of standards compounds. Quantification was carried out by

preparing a calibration curve.

2.6.2.3. ICP-MS and FAAS/FAES for the determination of mineral


composition

For the determination of minerals in aged grape marc distillates, ICP-MS was

used for Al, Cd and Pb determinations. A Thermo Elemental X7 ICP-MS (Thermo

Electron Corp., Waltham, USA) operating in standard mode and in X7 configuration,

i.e. with a Peltier cooled impact bead spray chamber and single piece quartz torch.

FAAS/FAES were used for Cu, Mn, Zn, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and K determinations.

Varian SpectrAA- 220 (flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with

Pgina 156
MATERIALS AND METHODS

double beam optics and Deuterium background correction). The analyses were carried

out using an air/acetylene flame.

2.7. Sensory analysis

Commercial aged Orujo samples were also sensorially evaluated. The tasting

panel was composed by 8 assessors, 5 males and 3 females ranging in age from 31 to 55

years, all of them members of the official panel of Geographic Indication Spirits and

Traditional Liqueurs from Galicia and with great experience in the sensory analysis of

assessing orujo spirits, both aged and young, at least on a monthly basis. The sensory

analysis was performed in a professional room, composed by 20 independent tasting

booths, and designed according to the International Organization for Standardization

ISO 8589. Before evaluation, during three training sessions (12 h) a collected of six

representative samples was tested by the panelist in order to generate relevant

appearance and taste attributes. All samples tasted were commercially available. The

aim of these sessions was develop a common vocabulary for the description of the

sensory attributes of aged Orujo samples. In the first phase of this training, the judges

identified thirty-three descriptors (13 for appearance and 20 for taste). By round-table

discussion and consensus, the panel selected and refined the attributes that best describe

their perceptions. Synonymous, hedonic and irrelevant descriptors were also eliminated

by using statistical methods described in ISO 11035. Finally, the attributes generated

were reduced to 8 (3 for appearance and 5 to taste). The judges evaluated the intensity

of the descriptive parameters and the qualifying parameters (in visual, aroma, taste,

aftertaste and general impression) using the evaluation form shown, and previously used

and defined by the same panelists to sensorially evaluate young and aged distillate from

grape marc (Orujo).

Pgina 157
MATERIALS AND METHODS

The tasters were asked to score each attribute using a structured scale (0, no

perception; 1, very low; 2, low; 3, middle; 4, high; and 5, very high intensity). The

panel also scored the overall quality of the Orujo between 0 (without quality) and 50

(maximum quality).

The samples were presented to the panel using the official glasses of the

corresponding Regulation Commission coded and in random order, at room temperature

and in a tasting room. Mineral water was provided for mouth rinsing between distillate

samples.

Tasting was carried out in the morning during five sessions on different days, to

avoid fatigue in the tasters due to the high degree of alcohol in the aged grape marc

distillates (37.5-50% (v/v)).

Experimental macerated with plants, obtained in optimal conditions, were also

sensorially evaluated to determine the influence of the obtained color in the consumer`s

preferences. The consumers study was conducted among people aged between 18

(Spanish legal age of first alcohol use) and 70 years old. Each consumer evaluated the

15 experiments (samples) of each plant with their respective tasting notes. Each

experiment was randomly numbered with three digit codes.

The question for the consumer was: How do you like the color of this sample?,

and the sample was rated with score 1-9 knowing that 1 is that the sample dislike

extremely, 5 is neither likes nor dislikes and 9 is that the sample which likes extremely.

2.8. Odour Activity Values

Odour Activity Value (OAV) is defined as the ratio between the concentration of

a volatile compound in a sample and its odour perception threshold value. Volatile

compounds with OAV1 are considered to contribute directly and individually to the

Pgina 158
MATERIALS AND METHODS

aroma and they are commonly appointed the most important volatile compounds or the

most active odorants. The rest of volatiles with OAV<1, could increase the aromatic

notes of other compounds through synergistic effects and therefore contribute to the

global aroma. To evaluate the contribution of each volatile compound to herb liqueurs

aroma, the OAV was calculated, according to the corresponding threshold value from

literature.

2.9. Statistical analysis

One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied to establish whether

significant differences (p<0.05) existed between the values obtained for the mean

concentration of each compound or analytical parameter determined in the different

samples analyzed. The results obtained were analyzed using XLstat-Pro (Addinsoft).

Multivariate analysis was employed including the five major compounds (for the

extracts from Greek plants), i.e. compounds with concentration equal or higher than

20% in any sample and extraction technique (pulegone, carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene

and -terpinene). Statistical analysis of GCFID data was performed using JMP version

8.0 (SAS Institute, 2008).

Cluster analysis was performed for each essential oil isolation technique in order

to validate the samples chemotype, using the hierarchical centroid method. Linear

discriminant analysis was used to classify samples into the a priori defined chemotypes

regardless of the acquisition technique. Statistical analysis of GCFID data was

performed using JMP version 8.0 (SAS Institute, 2008).

The Multiple Range Fisher test (least significant difference) was applied to

establish whether significant differences (p<0.05) existed between the values obtained

Pgina 159
MATERIALS AND METHODS

for the mean concentration of each chemical parameter in the different aged grape marc

distillates analyzed. The results obtained were analyzed using XLstat-Pro (Addinsoft).

The Multiple Range Test (the Least Significant Difference (LSD)) was applied

to confirm the results obtained. The results obtained were analyzed using XLstat-Pro

(Addinsoft).

Pearsons correlations between some compounds identified and other parameters

were also calculated. The results obtained were analyzed using XLstat-Pro (Addinsoft).

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied: a) to investigate the possible

differences amongst the four Lamiaceae plants, according to the extraction technique

used; b) on sensory descriptors, in order to group the samples with similar

compositions; c) to evaluate the relationship among the mineral composition and

samples using the correlation matrix, to remove the effect of scale, because

concentrations differed significantly among the minerals identified; d) on phenol

compounds and impact odorants (OAV1); e) in general to try the characterization and

differentiation of the samples analyzed. The results obtained were analyzed using

XLstat-Pro (Addinsoft).

A statistical program Statistica 5.0 was used for regression analysis of the Box-

Behnken design data. Bonded of the model was judged statistically by coefficient of

determination r2, and its statistical significance was evaluated by a F-test. Dependent

variables were optimized using an application of commercial software (Solver,

Microsoft Excell 2010, Redmon, WA, USA). An experiment with optimal conditions

was performed to validate the model.

2.10. Box Behnken response surface methodology

Pgina 160
MATERIALS AND METHODS

An incomplete factorial design with three factors and three levels, including

three replicates at the center point (0), providing a second order response surface was

carried out for each extract plant evaluated and plant macerated in order to optimize the

independent variables that affect the extraction in the extraction techniques and in the

process of the maceration of plants. The coded values of the independent variables were

-1, 0 and 1. A polynomial quadratic equation was fitted to correlate the response

variables to the independent variables:

y = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2 + b3x3 + b12x1x2 + b13x1x3 + b23x2x3 + b11x12 + b22x22 +

b33x32

where y is the predicted response; b0 is the model constant; x1, x2, x3 are the

independent variables (coded); b1 , b2 and b3 are linear coefficients; b12 , b13 and b23 are

cross product coefficients, and b11 , b22 and b33 are the quadratic coefficients. Dependent

variables were optimized using an application of commercial software (Solver,

Microsoft Excell 2007, Redmon, WA, USA). For statistical calculations, the

independent variables (xi) were coded as xi according to the following equation:

Where, xi is the dimensionless coded value of the independent variable, x0 is the

value of independent variable at the center point and X is the step change. The

goodness-of-fit of the regression model was obtained from the coefficient of

determination r2 and the adjusted coefficient of determination. For each run, predicted

values were calculated from the regression equation.

Pgina 161
RESULTADOS
RESULTADOS

CARACTERIZACIN ANALTICA DE LAS PLANTAS AROMTICAS Y


MEDICINALES. APLICACIN DE DISTINTAS TCNICAS DE
EXTRACCIN

Caracterizacin de los extractos de hinojo (Foeniculum vulgare) y cuantificacin


del estragol: Optimizacin y comparacin de las tcnicas extraccin acelerada
con disolventes (ASE) y Soxhlet.

En este trabajo se llev a cabo la optimizacin de dos tcnicas de extraccin

slido-lquido aplicadas en semillas de hinojo (Foeniculum vulgare), por tratarse de una

de las plantas de uso tradicional utilizadas en la elaboracin de licores y aguardientes de

Galicia. Para la tcnica tradicional Soxhlet, se procedi en primer lugar a la

optimizacin del disolvente ms adecuado encaminado a lograr una mayor extraccin

de compuestos que aseguren la caracterizacin de la planta y, que permita extraer en

mayor proporcin el quimiotipo que la caracteriza, que en el caso del hinojo es el

estragol. La importancia del estudio de este compuesto tambin se basa en que es un

potencial carcingeno, de ah que el estudio de qu variables afectan ms a su

extraccin sea de gran inters, bien para evitarlas en la obtencin de un extracto libre de

dicho compuesto, o bien para optimizar dichas variables y liberar a las semillas de

hinojo del mismo. Se seleccionaron disolventes con diferentes polaridades: hexano (no

polar), dietileter, acetato de etilo, etanol y metanol (mxima polaridad).

Los resultados obtenidos pusieron de manifiesto que los disolventes que

presentaban un mayor poder de extraccin de los compuestos de inters en las plantas

(terpenos y cidos grasos) eran los disolventes polares prticos: etanol y metanol.

Cuantitativamente, se obtuvieron mejores resultados con el metanol, por lo que se

seleccion como el disolvente a emplear en las distintas tcnicas de extraccin. As

mismo, la etapa de caracterizacin del hinojo reflej que el compuesto ms abundante

era el estragol. Una vez escogido el disolvente se procedi a la optimizacin del tiempo

Pgina 165
RESULTADOS

de extraccin, tomando como referencia 4 y 8 horas. Los resultados obtenidos

mostraron que el tiempo no implicaba un aumento en el nmero de compuestos

extrados, aunque s en su concentracin. La eleccin de 4 horas como tiempo de

extraccin se bas en que resultaba suficiente para la caracterizacin analtica

cualitativa de las plantas, con el consiguiente ahorro energtico y de tiempo de anlisis.

La segunda tcnica a optimizar fue la extraccin acelerada con disolventes

(ASE). En esta tcnica se utiliz un diseo experimental (Box-Behnken) cuyas variables

independientes con ms influencia para su optimizacin fueron: nmero de ciclos de

extraccin (1,2 y 3), tiempo de contacto disolvente-planta (3,5 y 7 min) y temperatura

aplicada durante la extraccin (75, 100 y 125 C). Como variable dependiente del

diseo experimental se estableci el contenido en estragol, por ser el quimiotipo del

hinojo o compuesto voltil ms abundante,. El disolvente utilizado fue el metanol,

elegido previamente en la tcnica Soxhlet.

Como resultado del diseo se obtuvo que las tres variables influyeron bastante

en la extraccin del estragol de las semillas de hinojo, siendo ptimos sus valores

mximos: 3 ciclos, 7 minutos y 125C.

La comparacin entre ambas tcnicas de extraccin dio como resultado que la

tcnica ASE aporta en 30 minutos similares resultados (6.60 g de estragol/kg de planta

seca) que en 8 horas de la tcnica Soxhlet (6.99 g estragol/kg de planta seca), adems

esta tcnica es ms respetuosa con el medioambiente puesto que utiliza muy poca

cantidad de disolvente orgnico (alrededor de 15 mL) frente a Soxhlet (150 mL) y

mucho menor tiempo de extraccin lo que repercute en un menor coste econmico.

Pgina 166
RESULTADOS

Resultados de estudios adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se muestran en

el anexo I.

Optimizacin de la cantidad de estragol en semillas de hinojo mediante


extraccin con fluidos supercrticos (dixido de carbono-metanol) utilizando un
diseo Box-Behnken. Caracterizacin de los extractos de hinojo.

En este trabajo se procedi a la optimizacin de la tcnica de extraccin con

fluidos supercrticos. Como fluido se utiliz el CO2 que se considera como ideal debido

a que no es txico, ni inflamable, y presenta una baja temperatura crtica. Para la

optimizacin se aplic de nuevo, un diseo experimental para determinar en pocos

experimentos, cules son las variables independientes que ms afectan al proceso. Para

ello se escogieron: la temperatura (313.15, 323.13 y 333.15 K), la presin (10, 17.5 y 25

MPa) y el tiempo de extraccin (1, 2.5 y 4 horas). Una vez optimizadas estas variables

teniendo en cuenta la cantidad de estragole, se procedi a la optimizacin de distintos

porcentajes de metanol (0%, 3% y 6%) utilizado como cosolvente para mejorar el poder

de extraccin del fluido (CO2).

Como resultados se obtuvieron que los mximos valores de dichas variables

independientes: 24 MPa, 333.15 K y 3.41 horas as como una cantidad intermedia del %

de metanol (3%) favorecen la extraccin mxima de estragole obteniendo una

concentracin ptima de 1320 260 mg estragol/kg de planta seca. Dentro de esas

variables la que ms influencia tuvo fue la presin, aunque tambin destaca la

interaccin presin-temperatura. Evitando dichas condiciones se puede extraer un aceite

esencial libre de estragol o en baja proporcin, o bien empleando esas variables ptimas

obtendremos unas semillas libres de dicho compuesto y preparadas para su posterior

utilizacin. Estos resultados son de suma importancia dado el potencial carcingeno del

estragol, tal y como se mencion anteriormente.

Pgina 167
RESULTADOS

Adems, en este trabajo se llev a cabo la comparacin analtica de dos

subespecies caractersticas del hinojo cultivadas dentro de la pennsula ibrica: la dulce

o vulgare y la piperitum o amarga. Para este fin, se compararon los tres compuestos

presentes en mayor proporcin de estas subespecies: fenchn, trans-anetol y estragol.

Estudios llevados a cabo previamente establecen que distintas proporciones de

estragol/trans-anetol dentro de la subespecie vulgare se deben a diferentes hbitats

donde crece el hinojo. Segn Barazani y col., (1999), en hbitats lluviosos la

proporcin de estragol es mayor, lo que se corrobora con los datos obtenidos en esta

tesis, donde se analiz hinojo del Norte de Espaa, que present composicin similar al

analizado por Miguel y col., (2010) sobre hinojo de Portugal, debido a la climatologa

similar en ambas zonas. Por el contrario los datos aportados por Daz-Maroto y col.,

(2005) acerca del mismo tipo de hinojo crecido en el medio-sur de Espaa con clima

menos lluvioso, dio como resultado el trans-anetol como compuesto mayoritario. Por su

parte, la subespecie piperitum analizada present datos de composicin similares a los

de hinojo procedente del centro de Portugal (Cavaleiro, Roque y da Cunha, 1993;

Coelho y col., 2003) y del centro de Espaa (Daz-Maroto y col., 2006) dnde, en

general, se obtuvieron proporciones ms igualadas de los 3 compuestos mayoritarios

antes mencionados obteniendo quimiotipos mixtos. Resultados de estudios adicionales,

discusiones y metodologas se muestran en el anexo II.

Efecto de las tcnicas de extraccin Soxhlet, ASE y SFE en la composicin voltil


(CG-MS/CG-FID) y fenlica (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) de los aceites esenciales de
plantas de la familia de las Lamiceas.

Siguiendo con la caracterizacin de plantas de uso tradicional en la elaboracin

de Licores y Aguardientes de Galicia, en este estudio se aplicaron las tcnicas de

extraccin previamente optimizadas: Soxhlet, extraccin acelerada con disolventes

Pgina 168
RESULTADOS

(ASE) y extraccin con fluidos supercrticos (SFE). El objetivo de este trabajo fue la

caracterizacin y cuantificacin fenlica y voltil de cuatro plantas pertenecientes a la

familia de las Lamiceas: Mentha piperita L., Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus

officinalis L. y Thymus vulgaris L.

Tres de las plantas estudiadas mostraron ser quimiotipos mixtos (varios

compuestos con % de area menor del 50%): Mentha piperita L.: mentol/mentona,

Rosmarinus officinalis L.: eucaliptol/canfor y Origanum vulgare: carvacrol/timol. Por

otra parte el Thymus vulgaris L. con alto porcentaje en timol, es lo que se conoce como

quimiotipo puro (un nico compuesto con porcentaje de rea superior al 50%).

Adems de la caracterizacin (CG-MS) se procedi a la cuantificacin (CG-

FID) de los principales quimiotipos de cada planta, comparando de este modo las

distintas tcnicas de extraccin. En general la cuantificacin de cada compuesto voltil

mostr similares valores para cada una de las tres tcnicas utilizadas, probablemente

debido a que previamente fueron optimizadas.

En el caso de la composicin fenlica, se utiliz la tcnica HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

tanto para la identificacin como para la cuantificacin de dichos compuestos. Los

extractos obtenidos con las tcnicas ASE y Soxhlet presentaron las mayores

concentraciones de los compuestos estudiados. cido carnsico (Rosmarinus officinalis

L.) y cido rosmarnico (Mentha piperita) fueron los compuestos cuantitativamente ms

abundantes. Estos dos compuestos son los principales responsables de las propiedades

antioxidantes de los fenoles (Lu y Foo, 2001; Erkan y col., 2008).

La mayora de compuestos fenlicos determinados mostraron correlaciones de

Pearson positivas con el contenido fenlico total (valores de r superiores a 0.7 en el caso

Pgina 169
RESULTADOS

del cido rosmarnico y de eriodictyol) y negativas con la actividad antioxidante

(principalmente para el contenido fenlico total (-0.754), eriodictyol (-0.754) y

quercerin (-0.548)).

Los mayores porcentajes de inhibicin (capacidad antioxidante) los mostraron

los extractos de las plantas Thymus vulgaris L. (56-62%) y Rosmarinus officinalis L.

(57-63%) utilizando las tcnicas ASE y Soxhlet. En el caso del contenido fenlico total

los valores ms altos se obtuvieron aplicando la tcnica ASE en las plantas Mentha

piperita (4.09 g de equivalentes de cido glico/100 gramos de planta seca) y Origanum

vulgare (3.04 g de equivalentes de cido glico/100 gramos de planta seca).

Por ltimo, el anlisis de componentes principales mostr que 5 de las variables

de estudio y los 12 extractos de muestras de las 3 diferentes tcnicas de extraccin,

permitieron explicar el 85.09% del total de variancia. Las muestras fueron diferenciadas

de acuerdo a la tcnica de extraccin aplicada. Los extractos obtenidos con ASE y

Soxhlet se caracterizan por los mismos compuestos o parmetros, mientras que las

muestras extradas con SFE fueron localizadas en el mismo cuadrante y no se

caracterizan por ningn compuesto o parmetro estudiado, al igual que los extractos de

Thymus vulgaris. Los extractos de ASE y Soxhlet de la Mentha piperita por su parte

estn localizados en el primer cuadrante y estuvieron ms influenciados por la presencia

de cido rosmarnico y el contenido fenlico total. Los extractos de Origanum vulgare

estuvieron caracterizados por los compuestos eriodictiol y quercetin, mientras que los de

Rosmarinus officinalis estuvieron fuertemente relacionadas con el cido carnsico y la

actividad antioxidante. Resultados de estudios adicionales, discusiones y metodologas

se muestran en el anexo III.

Pgina 170
RESULTADOS

Determinacin de quimiotipos en plantas de la familia de las Lamiceas


utilizando CG-MS, y las tcnicas espectroscpicas IR-TF and RAMAN dispersivo
y cuantificacin mediante CG-FID.

Durante la estancia predoctoral en el laboratorio de Qumica del Departamento

de Ciencia de los alimentos y Nutricin Humana de la Universidad de Agricultura de

Atenas a cargo del profesor Petros A. Tarantilis, se llev a cabo la extraccin del aceite

esencial de plantas cultivadas y silvestres recogidas en distintas partes de Grecia. A tal

fin se aplicaron dos tcnicas tradicionales de destilacin a vapor: la hidrodestilacin

(HD) con aparato tipo Clevenger y la tcnica modificada destilacin-extraccin

simultnea por arrastre de vapor tipo Likens-Nickerson (SDE-LN). El aceite esencial

obtenido de cada planta fue caracterizado segn distintas tcnicas analticas. Mediante

la aplicacin de CG-MS se clasificaron los aceites esenciales de las distintas plantas

segn sus quimiotipos, agrupndose en quimiotipos puros o quimiotipos mixtos. Los

aceites esenciales con quimiotipos puros (% de reas de su principal quimiotipo 50%)

correspondieron a las siguientes plantas: Mentha pulegium (pulegona quimiotipo) (73-

79%), Origanum onites (63%), Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (70 %), Satureja

hortensis silvestre (HD) (53%) y Thymus serpyllum (carvacrol quimiotipo) (72%) y

Thymus vulgaris 52 (timol quimiotipo) (52-58%). De igual modo, se identificaron los

aceites esenciales quimiotipos mixtos de las plantas: Satureja hortensis silvestre (SDE-

LN), Satureja hortensis cultivada (43/27%-34/31%), Satureja thrymba (24/31%),

Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii (carvacrol/-terpineno) (44/19%), Satureja pilosa

(carvacrol/timol) (42/20%), Thymus vulgaris 37 (timol/p-cimeno) (47/19%-41/26%).

El uso del anlisis de conglomerados utilizando los datos de % de rea obtenidos

por CG-FID permiti establecer la conclusin anterior, sin embargo, el uso de parcelas

cannicas no ofreci resultados tan claros debido a que entre quimiotipos puros

Pgina 171
RESULTADOS

carvacrol y carvacrol/-terpineno quimiotipo mixto y entre los quimiotipos timol y

timol/p-cimeno no fue factible una separacin tan clara de dichos grupos. Por otro lado,

las citadas tcnicas cromatogrficas presentan varias desventajas como son el tiempo y

que se trata de tcnicas destructivas y laboriosas que requieren el empleo de disolventes

orgnicos.

Por todo ello se emplearon dos tcnicas espectroscpicas: Raman dispersivo y la

espectroscopa de infrarrojo con transformada de Fourier que eliminan parte de los

inconvenientes previamente citados. Ambas tcnicas no requieren el uso de disolventes

y permiten trabajar con las muestras sin etapa de preparacin previa por lo que se

reduce el tiempo y el coste de anlisis.

Para el uso de dichas tcnicas se crearon tres libreras diferentes: pulegona,

carvacrol y timol quimiotipo. Se utilizaron las mismas muestras como referencia para la

creacin de las libreras, estableciendo previamente, mediante patrones, a qu

quimiotipo perteneca cada uno de los espectros utilizados de referencia. Ambas

tcnicas permitieron perfectamente la separacin de los distintos aceites esenciales de

las plantas en distintos quimiotipos principales. La tcnica IR-TF fue la que present

mayores porcentajes de coincidencia (88-100%) para todos los quimiotipos. Sin

embargo, dicha tcnica registr tambin altos porcentajes de coincidencia para carvacrol

y timol, perteneciendo la planta slo a uno de los dos quimiotipos (llegando a un 66%

de coincidencia). Por su parte la librera Raman fue ms restrictiva ya que present slo

altos porcentajes en los quimiotipos a los que perteneca cada planta (aunque en general

en menor porcentaje que la tcnica previamente mencionada: 76-100%). En el caso del

aceite esencial de la Satureja pilosa donde es carvacrol el quimiotipo (76 %), la librera

Pgina 172
RESULTADOS

Raman tambin present alto porcentaje de thymol (49%), debido a que esta planta es

un quimiotipo mixto de ambos compuestos.

Por ltimo se procedi a la cuantificacin por CG-FID de los quimiotipos de las

plantas para comparar las dos tcnicas de extraccin: HD tipo Clevenger (3 horas de

extraccin) y SDE tipo Likens-Nickerson (1 hora de extraccin). En todos los casos la

primera tcnica extrajo mayor concentracin aunque cabe mencionar que los tiempos de

extraccin no son equivalentes. Aunque la aplicacin de la hidrodestilacin implique un

mayor tiempo de extraccin, al emplear nicamente agua como disolvente la sigue

haciendo una tcnica de uso ms frecuente debido a su cuidado con el medioambiente.

Resultados de estudios adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se muestran en el anexo

IV.

CARACTERIZACIN DE MUESTRAS COMERCIALES: AGUARDIENTES


ENVEJECIDOS EN BARRICA DE ROBLE Y AGUARDIENTES Y LICORES
DE HIERBAS

AGUARDIENTE ENVEJECIDO EN BARRICA DE ROBLE

Caracterizacin mediante anlisis qumico y sensorial de aguardientes


envejecidos en madera de roble.

Una primera aproximacin en la caracterizacin de distintas muestras

comerciales de aguardiente envejecida en distintas especies de roble: roble americano:

Quercus alba y roble europeo: Quercus petraea y Quercus robur y a distinto tiempo de

envejecimiento, fue llevada a cabo. En dicha caracterizacin se tuvieron en cuenta

parmetros fsico-qumicos y atributos sensoriales. Para la caracterizacin sensorial se

cont con la colaboracin del panel de cata oficial de las Indicaciones Geogrficas de

los Aguardientes y Licores tradicionales de Galicia.

Pgina 173
RESULTADOS

Los parmetros fsico-qumicos controlados por el correspondiente Consejo

regulador que se determinaron en las muestras analizadas dependen de las materias

primas de partida, de las condiciones de fermentacin, de la tcnica de destilacin

utilizada y del proceso de envejecimiento. La relacin de parmetros estudiados fueron:

El grado alcohlico, que debe estar comprendido entre 50-37.5% v/v en dicho

rango se encontraron todas las muestras objeto de estudio,

El contenido en metanol, establecido entre 950-200g/Hl alcohol absoluto (a.a.).

En las muestras analizadas su contenido estuvo entre 200 y 881 g/HL a.a.

La acidez total cuya mxima cantidad ser de 250 g cido actico/HL a.a.. En

las muestras analizadas su contenido se situ en el intervalo de 124 y 270g cido

actico/HL a.a.. El cido actico se incrementa durante el envejecimiento

probablemente debido a las reacciones de oxidacin del etanol y de la extraccin de la

madera (Caldeira y col., 2010);

El acetaldehdo, compuesto voltil formado durante la oxidacin espontnea o

microbiana mediada durante la fermentacin alcohlica de la materia prima. Su

concentracin est influenciada tambin por el sistema de destilacin, la madera y el

tiempo de envejecimiento (Rodrguez Madrera, Blanco Gomis y Mangas Alonso,

2003). En el proceso de envejecimiento el contenido en acetaldehdo aumenta debido a

procesos de oxidacin. Su cantidad mxima permitida es de 150g/HL a.a., mientras que

en las muestras se encontraron concentraciones entre 35 y 140 g /HL a.a., valores

mucho mayores que los encontrados en la bibliografa para otro tipo de bebidas

similares: whisky, tequila, ron, coac, grappa, vodka con valores entre 7.63-12.4 g/HL

a.a.

Pgina 174
RESULTADOS

El acetato de etilo cuya cantidad mxima permitida es de 250g/HL a.a., es el

acetato ms abundante producido durante el metabolismo secundario de las levaduras

utilizadas durante la fermentacin alcohlica del orujo, aunque tambin es el producto

de la esterificacin del cido actico y as aumenta su concentracin durante el proceso

de envejecimiento. En las muestras se encontraron valores entre 68 y 156 g/HL a.a.

contribuyendo a las notas florales y afrutadas en el aroma del destilado.

Los alcoholes superiores (2-butanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-metil-1-

butanol y 3-metil-1-butanol) deben presentar una concentracin comprendida entre

600-225g/HL a.a.. En las muestras se detectaron concentraciones entre 262-406 g/HL

a.a. Los factores que influyen son la concentracin de aminocidos, la cepa de levadura,

las condiciones de fermentacin (pH, temperatura y tiempo) y el proceso de destilacin.

Si su concentracin no es muy alta, se relacionan positivamente con la calidad sensorial

del destilado. Su concentracin puede aumentar con el envejecimiento debido a la

evaporacin del etanol.

La cantidad de cobre (mg/L) cuya concentracin mxima permitida es de 9

ppm. Sus principales fuentes en los destilados se deben al equipo de destilacin y al

tratamiento con CuSO4 en las uvas. Su concentracin encontrada en el envejecimiento

es parecida a la que suelen presentar los aguardientes de orujo sin envejecer indicando

que el proceso de envejecimiento no contribuye al aumento de este compuesto.

Para el anlisis sensorial de las muestras se emple la ficha de cata oficial del

consejo regulador, que utiliza en las catas de calificacin del producto. Los parmetros

descriptivos evaluados fueron en la fase visual: transparencia, brillantez y color, en el

aroma: afrutado, floral, herbceo, ensilado, cabezas, en el gusto: dulce, denso-graso,

picante-caustico, astringente y alcohlico, en el postgusto: afrutado, floral, herbceo y

persistencia. Los parmetros de calificacin en las muestras: en la fase visual: calidad,

Pgina 175
RESULTADOS

en el aroma: intensidad, finura y franqueza, en el gusto: calidad, persistencia, finura y

fragancia, en la impresin general: harmona y autenticidad.

Los resultados obtenidos tras la evaluacin del panel mostraron que la muestra

de aguardiente envejecida durante 60 meses en Quercus robur y la envejecida durante

144 meses en Quercus petraea presentaron un perfil sensorial similar con gran

intensidad en todos los parmetros sensoriales evaluados. Por el contrario, las muestras

peor valoradas fueron las de aguardiene envejecido durante 72 meses en barrica de

Quercus petraea y la de mezcla de destilados envejecidos durante 42 meses en

diferentes especies de roble. Las muestras envejecidas en Quercus robur y Quercus

alba durante un periodo de 72 meses mostraron un perfil sensorial similar aunque la

intensidad de los atributos fue superior para la muestra de aguardiente envejecida en

roble francs. Las puntuaciones obtenidas para dichas muestras permiten concluir que el

tiempo de envejecimiento no influy en la puntuacin sino ms bien la especie de roble

utilizada en el envejecimiento.

Por ltimo se llev a cabo un anlisis de componentes principales (PCA) de los

parmetros descriptivos. En un PCA inicial se analizaron los 17 descriptores sensoriales

con diferencias significativas entre las muestras. Los dos primeros componentes

principales: PC1 con un 47.53% y PC2 con un 29.39% permitieron explicar el 76.92%

de la varianza total.

El PCA mostr una buena separacin de las muestras en cuatro grupos de

acuerdo al origen y especie de roble utilizado en el proceso de envejecimiento: grupo 1,

formado por Quercus petraea Allier durante 72 meses de envejecimiento y se

caracteriza por notas herbceas en el postgusto. Grupo 2, muestras envejecidas en

Quercus robur durante 60 y 72 meses y Quercus petraea Allier durante 144 meses y

Pgina 176
RESULTADOS

muestra envejecida en una mezcla de barricas de roble durante 14 meses: se asocian a

atributos positivos como la persistencia y notas aromticas como afrutado y floral

ambos en nariz y postgusto. Grupo 3, formado por la muestra de Quercus alba durante

72 meses de envejecimiento se encuentra en el centro del grfico. Por ltimo el cuarto

grupo, muestras envejecidas durante 42 meses en mezcla de diferentes robles: se asocia

con aromas negativos en nariz: cabezas y ensilado. Resultados de estudios

adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se muestran en el anexo V.

Valoracin de minerales en aguardientes envejecidos mediante espectrometra de


absorcin atmica con llama y espectrometra de emisin atmica con llama e
ICP-MS. Caracterizacin y evaluacin de la seguridad de su consumo

Siguiendo con la caracterizacin de los aguardientes comerciales envejecidos en

barrica de roble, en este trabajo se procedi al estudio de su perfil mineral. Se

estudiaron distintos minerales que se pueden clasificar atendiendo a su valor nutricional

como: esenciales y no esenciales. En el primer grupo se encuentran el Na, K, Ca, Mg,

Zn, Cu, Mn y Fe cuya ausencia o insuficiencia tras un periodo de tiempo en la dieta

humana produce cambios en el metabolismo con el consecuente desarrollo de

enfermedades. El otro grupo de minerales, los no esenciales, entre los que se encuentran

el Pb y Cd, son dainos debido a que no son degradables ni qumica ni biolgicamente

por lo que su ingesta hace que se acumulen en el organismo.

La determinacin del contenido metlico en las muestras de aguardiente

envejecida se llev a cabo mediante el empleo de tres tcnicas analticas. Para los

elementos esenciales Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn (elementos traza) y Ca y Mg (macroelementos)

con concentraciones del orden de ppm se utiliz la espectrometra de absorcin atmica

con un atomizador de llama. Para la determinacin de los macroelementos Na y K se

utiliz la espectrometra de emisin atmica, mientras que para los elementos no

Pgina 177
RESULTADOS

esenciales Al (elemento traza), Cd y Zn (metales pesados), que se encuentran en muy

pequea concentracin (del orden de ppb), se utiliz la tcnica de plasma de

acoplamiento inductivo asociado a la espectrometra de masas (ICP-MS).

Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que Na (3.56-13.87 ppm), K (9.32-116.55

ppm) y Ca (1.74-11.58 ppm) fueron los elementos presentes en mayor concentracin en

todas las muestras analizadas. Ciertos autores (Ibanez y col., 2008; Pohl, 2009; Varju,

1972) mencionan que su concentracin junto con la de Mg (0.32-4.35 ppm) aumenta

debido a la dilucin del aguardiente original con agua (fuente secundaria). Sin embargo

Camen y col. (2000) indicaron que el contenido de Na tambin puede aumentar

durante el envejecimiento en barrica (fuente primaria o natural). Por otro lado dentro del

mismo productor que usar agua con la misma calidad y composicin mineral se han

encontrado diferencias en la cantidad de los siguientes metales: K, Na, Ca y Mg y por

tanto su concentracin se deber en parte a la aportada por la madera de roble utilizada

en la elaboracin. As la madera de roble americana (Quercus alba) aport mayor

cantidad de K, Ca y Mg. Sin embargo en el caso del Na su concentracin fue

significativamente mayor en muestras envejecidas en Quercus robur de Galicia.

Al (69.70-752.1 ppb) fue el elemento no esencial presente en mayor

concentracin mientras que el menor fue el de Cd (0.05-0.77 ppb). El Al (248.4-381.6

ppb) y Pb (34.4-112.5 ppb) estn presentes en altas concentraciones en las muestras de

Quercus alba. El Cu (0.47-9.00 ppm) (dado que su concentracin est regulada, todas

las muestras presentaron valores por debajo de su concentracin estipulada mxima de 9

ppm) y Pb (1.12-112.5 ppb) estn presentes en bajas concentraciones lo cual refleja las

buenas prcticas en la elaboracin tanto del aguardiente base como del producto final el

aguardiente envejecido. El Pb puede proceder de las reparaciones que se llevan a cabo

Pgina 178
RESULTADOS

en los alambiques (Soufleros et al., 2004), pero tambin del agua y de los tratamientos

en el viedo. Mientras que el cobre adems de proceder del equipo de destilacin puede

tener su origen en el agua contaminada utilizada en la dilucin del Orujo y de los

fertilizantes y tratamientos aplicados al viedo (fuentes secundarias).

El Zn (0.39-0.41 ppm) se detect en altas concentraciones en las muestras

envejecidas en Quercus alba mientras que el Fe (0.30-0.33 ppm) fue mayor en las

muestras de Quercus robur de Galicia.

Teniendo en cuenta las concentraciones obtenidas para cada mineral y un

consumo mximo de 50 mL por persona y da tenemos que la ingesta de aguardiente de

orujo envejecido en barrica de roble contribuye en pequeas dosis a la ingesta diaria de

los elementos esenciales estudiados. Adems comparando el contenido mineral con

otras bebidas alcohlicas, el aguardiente de orujo envejecido en las barricas de distintas

especies de roble mostr un contenido mineral ms bajo en aquellos minerales que

puedan no ser tan beneficiosos para la salud humana mostrando as la correcta

elaboracin de este tipo de bebidas.

Por otro lado el anlisis de componentes principales (PCA) permiti la

clasificacin de las diferentes especies de barricas en funcin de su composicin

mineral. 3 componentes principales explicaron el 75.05% de la variabilidad.

El componente 1 explic el 39.3% y se asocia con Zn (0.869), Fe (0.844), Cu

(0.788) y Cd (0.770). El componente 2 explic el 23.5% y se asocia al Ca (0.686) y Al

(0.636). El componente 3 explico el 12.1% de la variacin acumulada y est

principalmente correlacionada con el K (0.713) y Mn (0.623).

Los dos principales componentes que representan el 62.91% del total de

variabilidad establecieron la clasificacin clara de las muestras basndose en la especie

de barrica pero sin tener en cuenta el tiempo de envejecimiento que no mostr

Pgina 179
RESULTADOS

influencia en el contenido mineral. As Orujo envejecido en Quercus alba se caracteriz

por altos contenidos en Ca, Mg, Al y Cu. En el lado opuesto, se situaron las muestras de

aguardiente envejecidas en Quercus petraea. Aquellas muestras que pertenecen a

mezclas de aguardientes envejecidas en barricas de distinto origen, se correlacionaron

con el contenido en K, mientras que los aguardientes envejecidos en Quercus robur

estuvieron caracterizadas por la presencia de Na, Zn, Fe y Cd. Resultados de estudios

adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se muestran en el anexo VI.

Primera aproximacin a la caracterizacin analtica de aguardientes envejecidos


en barrica en base a su composicin fenlica, atributos sensoriales y parmetros
de color.

Siguiendo con la caracterizacin de Aguardientes de orujo envejecidos en

barricas de distintas especies de roble en este caso el trabajo se bas en la determinacin

de su composicin fenlica (analizada por HPLC-UV-Visible), medida de la actividad

antioxidante, su contenido fenlico total, intensidad colorante y matiz as como la

caracterizacin de sus atributos sensoriales llevados a cabo por un panel entrenado.

El contenido fenlico total, determinado mediante el mtodo de Folin, mostr

los mayores resultados en las muestras envejecidas en barricas de Quercus robur

(Galicia) (5590352 mg de equivalentes de cido glico/L), as como tambin la

intensidad de color (2.320.34) mientras que ambos parmetros presentaron el menor

contenido en las muestras procedentes de barricas de Quercus alba (contenido fenlico

total: 121144.1mg de equivalentes de cido glico/L; intensidad colorante: 0.680.15).

El matiz mostr su valor ms bajo en el caso de muestras envejecidas en madera de

Quercus robur (Limousin) (4.780.30) mientras que el resto no mostr diferencias

significativas (valores entorno a 5.510.3 de media).

Pgina 180
RESULTADOS

Entre los cidos, aldehdos y alcoholes benzoicos, el cido glico present

concentraciones significativamente ms altas, presentando su concentracin mxima en

los destilados envejecidos en Quercus robur de Galicia (58.159.23 ppm) aunque

tambin aparecieron en aquellos envejecidos en barricas de Quercus petraea Allier

(15.571.29 ppm). La presencia de este compuesto depende del nivel de tostado de la

madera puesto que este compuesto se degrada a altas temperaturas (Litchev, 1989). Los

cidos vainllicos y sirngicos aumentan su concentracin con el nivel de tostado

durante el tratamiento termal. Ambos proceden de la oxidacin de su correspondiente

aldehdo y aparecen en concentracin ms alta en destilados envejecidos en Quercus

robur de Galicia (2.821.45 ppm y 5.750.69 ppm respectivamente), mientras que

aquellos en contacto con Quercus robur de Limousin presentaron los valores ms bajos

(<LOQ y 1.200.05 ppm respectivamente). Por su parte la vainillina es el aldehdo

fenlico ms importante en el aroma de los destilados puesto que presenta un bajo

umbral de percepcin, adems de contribuir con notas positivas a vainilla. Su

concentracin fue superior en los destilados envejecidos en Quercus robur (Galicia)

(5.711.57ppm). Por su parte otro aldehdo fenlico, siringaldehido se encontr en

mayor concentracin que la vainillina (concentraciones entre 3.21-12.16 ppm). Un

alcohol fenlico, el alcohol vainllico tambin est presente en mayores concentraciones

en aguardiente envejecida en Quercus robur (Galicia) (2.470.36 ppm) y ausente en la

misma variedad de Limousin y en Quercus alba (<LOD).

Los coeficientes de correlacin de Pearson entre los compuestos fenlicos

analizados, mostraron alta correlacin positiva (0.714) entre el cido vainllico y el

sirngico, compuestos procedentes de la degradacin de la lignina: Adems tambin

fueron positivamente correlacionados con compuestos del tipo guaiacil como son el

siringaldehdo y el sinapaldehdo. Por su parte, el cido glico mostr altas

Pgina 181
RESULTADOS

correlaciones positivas con la mayora de fenoles cidos y sus correspondientes

aldehdos analizados. Los cidos cinmicos tambin mostraron alta correlacin entre

ellos.

En cuanto al estudio organolptico, ste se llev a cabo por el panel oficial de la

Denominacin Geogrfica de Aguardientes y Licores de Galicia.

El anlisis de los resultados obtenidos reflejaron como los Orujos envejecidos en

Quercus robur de Galicia alcanzaron los mayores valores de los parmetros descriptivos

seguido por la misma especie procedente de Limousin. Orujos envejecidos en Quercus

petraea mostraron valores negativos tanto en algunas notas de la cata gustativa, debido

a ser las ms punzantes-picantes y alcohlicas y debido a que en su fase visual

mostraron los valores ms bajos en cuanto a su transparencia y brillantez. Sin embargo

junto a los Orujos envejecidos en Quercus alba presentaron similares valores positivos

de gusto relativo a su dulzor y al atributo denso-aceitoso.

Por otro lado tambin se realizaron correlaciones de Pearson entre los

compuestos fenlicos y los atributos sensoriales relativos al gusto. Se encontraron

correlaciones positivas entre los cidos fenlicos (benzoicos: cido glico, sirngico y

benzoico y cinmicos: ferlico, isoferlico y sinpico) con los descriptores negativos en

boca: notas astringentes y alcohlicas. Por otro lado los aldehdos fenlicos (benzoicos:

protocatecualdehdo y siringaldehido y cinmicos: sinapaldehdo) mostraron

correlaciones positivas con los atributos positivos: dulce y denso-aceitoso. Los

compuestos 4-hidroxibenzaldehdo y cido p-cumrico fueron negativamente

correlacionados con atributos positivos mientras que el alcohol, aldehdo y cido

vainllico mostraron fuertes correlaciones positivas con la nota alcohlica.

Pgina 182
RESULTADOS

Los parmetros de color y los 3 atributos visuales tambin fueron

correlacionados. Los resultados mostraron que la tonalidad es el parmetro con ms

valoracin positiva en las muestras envejecidas.

Por ltimo se llev a cabo un anlisis de los componentes principales para ver la

separacin entre las muestras de aguardiente de orujo envejecido en las distintas

barricas y teniendo en cuenta los fenoles determinados y las caractersticas cromticas

como variables, que explicaron el 88.32% de la variabilidad entre las muestras.

Las muestras se clasificaron en cuatro grupos: el primero relativo a las muestras

de Quercus robur de Galicia estuvo caracterizado por la presencia de cido glico,

sirngico y sinpico, el contenido fenlico total y la intensidad colorante. En el grupo

dos estn las muestras de la misma especie de roble pero de Limousin muy poco

caracterizadas. El tercer grupo perteneciente a las muestras de Quercus alba se

relacionaron con el contenido en siringaldehdo y sinapaldehdo. Por ltimo el cuarto

grupo compuesto por destilados envejecidos en Quercus petraea se posicion en el

centro del grfico. Resultados de estudios adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se

muestran en el anexo VII.

AGUARDIENTES Y LICORES DE HIERBAS DE GALICIA

Compuestos fenlicos y odorantes en los licores de hierbas comerciales


elaborados por maceracin de plantas aromticas y medicinales en los destilados
de orujo.

En este trabajo se llev a cabo la caracterizacin fenlica por HPLC-UV-visible

y voltil por CG-FID, de 28 licores de hierbas comerciales pertenecientes a la

Indicacin Geogrfica de Aguardientes y Licores Tradicionales de Galicia,

Para la extraccin de la composicin voltil se procedi a utilizar la tcnica de

extraccin lquido-lquido utilizando dietilter:hexano (1:1) como fase orgnica. Se

Pgina 183
RESULTADOS

determinaron 32 compuestos pertenecientes a las familias: terpenos, alcoholes,

compuestos carbonlicos, C13-norisoprenoides, fenoles voltiles y lactonas. Entre los

compuestos encontrados, el 2-feniletanol (73.45%) es el ms abundante. Puede proceder

tanto de los destilados como de las plantas utilizadas en la elaboracin. Dentro de los

terpenos destaca el linalol con un 2.16% de abundancia. Este compuesto tambin puede

proceder tanto del destilado como de las plantas, entre estas ltimas es el principal

compuesto presente en el cilantro (Msaada y col., 2007) y el azahar (Arey, Corchnoy y

Atkinson, 1991) pero tambin se puede encontrar en bajas proporciones en el romero

(Gachkar y col., 2007), la menta (Duarte y col., 2005), hierba luisa (Pascual y col.,

2001) y en la nuez moscada (Piras y col., 2012). Otro terpeno encontrado es el mentol

(2.17%). Este compuesto no forma parte de la composicin de los aguardientes de

orujo, por tanto su presencia deriva de las plantas utilizadas en la elaboracin. El mentol

est presente, principalmente, en la menta (Iscan y col., 2002). Lo mismo ocurre con el

timol que es el principal compuesto encontrado en el tomillo (Giordani y col., 2004)

aunque tambin se encuentra en menor concentracin en el organo (Figiel y col.,

2010), y en el romero (Flamini y col., 2002).

Los C13-norisoprenoides estn presentes en menor proporcin pero son

igualmente importantes en el aroma global debido a sus bajos umbrales de percepcin.

Los acetatos y esteres etlicos de cidos voltiles son el grupo de compuestos

voltiles, procedentes del destilado, cualitativamente ms abundante en la composicin

de estos licores: butirato de etilo (2.49%) octanoato de etilo (2.60%) y decanoato de

etilo (2.77%) son los ms abundantes.

Entre los fenoles voltiles destaca el eugenol (2.18%) que puede proceder tanto

del destilado (muy baja proporcin) como de las plantas utilizadas. Su alta

Pgina 184
RESULTADOS

concentracin en los licores analizados parece indicar que su presencia deriva de las

plantas empleadas en la elaboracin. Eugenol, es uno de los principales compuestos de

la canela (Kueffer y col., 2007) pero tambin puede aparecer en baja proporcin del

romero (Celiktas y col., 2007). Algo parecido sucede con el trans-anetol procede,

mayoritariamente, del hinojo (Damjanovic y col., 2005).

Con el fin de evaluar la importancia de cada uno de los compuestos voltiles

identificados en el aroma global de los licores analizados, la concentracin de cada uno

de ellos se correlacion con su umbral de percepcin (datos de la bibliografa). Los

resultados obtenidos mostraron que el 56% de los compuestos presentaron unos valores

de actividad odorante por encima de 1. Todos los fenoles voltiles y C13-

norisoprenoides contribuyen directamente al aroma global aumentando las notas

especiadas y florales respectivamente. La vainillina tambin contribuye a las notas

especiadas. Dos terpenos el linalol y el citronelol y un alcohol superior el 2-fenil etanol

mostr altos valores de actividad odorante aumentando las notas florales en las

muestras. Por otro lado los acetatos y esteres etlicos de cidos voltiles procedentes de

la fermentacin alcohlica y del proceso de destilacin mostraron altos valores de OAV

proporcionando notas afrutadas.

Los resultados de las actividades odorantes permitieron agrupar los compuestos

en 6 series aromticas de acuerdo a sus parecidos descriptores odorantes, de esta forma

se pudo evaluar el aroma global de los licores de hierbas. Los resultados mostraron que

especiado fue la serie aromtica ms importante para describir estos licores.

Afrutado, floral y vegetal fueron series que tuvieron gran influencia, mientras que

dulce y a frutos secos no contribuyeron directamente al aroma global.

Al igual que los compuestos voltiles, los compuestos fenlicos tambin pueden

proceder tanto del destilado como de las plantas utilizadas en el proceso de elaboracin.

Pgina 185
RESULTADOS

Estos compuestos presentan actividad antioxidante y efectos positivos sobre la salud

humana. El 5-hidroximetilfurfural y el cido benzoico fueron los compuestos

encontrados en mayor proporcin, mientras que el alcohol vainllico, la vainillina y la

acetovainillona fueron los encontrados en menor cantidad debido a que estn ms

ligados al envejecimiento en madera (son compuestos derivados de la lignina).

Los cidos fenlicos como el cido vainillico y el benzoico son compuestos con

propiedades anticancergenas y protegen de enfermedades del corazn (Mattila y

Kumpulainen, 2002), estos compuestos se encuentran en altas concentraciones en las

plantas empleadas en la elaboracin de licores y aguardientes de hierbas. El primero se

ha encontrado en el hinojo (Cai y col., 2004) y en cantidades traza en el romero

(Cuvelier, Richard y Berset, 1996) y ambos compuestos se han encontrado en

extractos de tomillo (trbov y col., 2004).

Por otro lado la vainillina puede ser aadida al licor como saborizante natural

para aumentar el aroma de los licores (DOG, 2012).

El furfural y el HMF se forman por la deshidratacin de las pentosas y hexosas

durante el proceso de almacenamiento y destilacin del orujo aunque tambin pueden

proceder del caramelo aadido para colorear y endulzar los licores. Esto justificara las

altas concentraciones de HMF encontradas en algunas muestras analizadas.

Por ltimo los datos se sometieron a anlisis de componentes principales (PCA)

para determinar la influencia fenlica y voltil sobre la composicin de los licores de

hierbas.

El primer PCA se llev a cabo con los 7 fenoles analizados en las 28 muestras.

Los dos primeros componentes principales PC1 (con 57.80%) y PC2 (con 17.58%)

representaron el 75.37% del total de la varianza.

Pgina 186
RESULTADOS

El PC1 se caracteriz por la concentracin de alcohol vainillico, acetovanillona,

furfural y los cidos vainillicos y benzoicos, mientras que el PC2 se caracteriz por el

HMF con valor positivo mientras que la vainillina fue negativamente correlacionada.

Debido a la alta dispersin de las muestras teniendo en cuenta la composicin fenlica,

no existe una clara separacin estadstica. Slo la muestra 15 localizada en el lado

positivo del PC2 fue caracterizada por un alto contenido en HMF, por otro lado las

muestras 2,8, 9, 18, 19 y 26 localizadas en el lado positivo de PC1 se caracterizaron por

el alcohol vainllico, la acetovanillona, el furfural y los cidos benzoicos y vainllicos.

El segundo PCA se llev a cabo con la concentracin de los 8 odorantes de

impacto (voltiles con OAV1). Los dos primeros componentes principales, PC1 con

38.13% y PC2 con 22.83% supusieron el 60.96% del total de varianza.

El PC1 se correlacion positivamente con el citronelol, alfa-ionona, linalol y

beta-damascenona y el 2-fenil etanol (primer grupo de muestras) y negativamente con el

isoeugenol, mientras que el PC2 mostr valores positivos y altos con los esteres etlicos

de los cidos voltiles (decanoato, octanoato, hexanoato y butirato de etilo) y la beta-

ionona (segundo grupo de muestras), mientras que el eucaliptol y el timol (tercer grupo

de muestras) contribuyeron al lado negativo del mismo componente principal.

Resultados de estudios adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se muestran en el anexo

VIII.

MACERADOS DE PLANTAS AROMTICAS Y MEDICINALES (PAM) Y DE


FRAGMENTOS DE MADERA.

Optimizacin del grado alcoholico, la concentracin de planta y el tiempo de


maceracin durante la maceracin experimental de plantas utilizando un diseo
experimental Box-Behnken.

Tras un primer estudio de la caracterizacin de las muestras comerciales de

licores de hierbas, en este trabajo se procedi a un estudio de qu variables relacionadas

Pgina 187
RESULTADOS

con la maceracin presentaran ms influencia en la extraccin de ciertos compuestos de

importancia en el producto final. La maceracin experimental se llev a cabo con

distintas partes de plantas: las partes florales de la Matricaria recutita L., las semillas

del Coriandrum sativum L. la raz de la Glycyrrhiza glabra L. y las hojas del

Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Para ello se llev a cabo un diseo experimental Box-

Behnken en el que se tomaron como variables independientes las relativas al proceso de

maceracin: concentracin de planta, tiempo de maceracin y grado alcohlico del

aguardiente. Como variables dependientes se establecieron los compuestos voltiles: el

xido de bisabolol A en la manzanilla, el linalol en el cilantro y el eucaliptol en el

eucalipto, mientras que para el regaliz se cuantific su principal fenol, el cido

glicrrico.

En general, los resultados obtenidos pusieron de manifiesto que la concentracin

de planta tuvo un efecto positivo mayor que el grado alcohlico del aguardiente base y

el tiempo. El tiempo de maceracin no fue significativo excepto para el cido glicrrico

extrado en la Glycyrrhiza glabra L. que tuvo un efecto negativo, pues la extraccin de

la mxima cantidad de cido glicrrico se produjo al valor de tiempo de maceracin

menor.

Se evalu tambin la concentracin aportada por algunos de los compuestos

estudiados, que en ciertas concentraciones pueden presentar efectos nocivos para la

salud humana. Para el caso del linalol (cilantro) el Comit Internacional de Expertos

FAO / OMS en Aditivos Alimentarios (JECFA) estableci una ingesta diaria aceptable

de 0-0.5 mg linalol/kg de peso corporal, sabiendo que la concentracin mxima

obtenida en el macerado para el linalol fue de 154.35 5.72 ppm y teniendo en cuenta

una persona de 70 kg de peso que consuma al da 50 mL de licor/aguardiente de hierbas

Pgina 188
RESULTADOS

tenemos una ingesta de 0.11 0.00 mg/kg de peso corporal/da, la cual est dentro del

lmite recomendado por la FAO/OMS.

Para el caso del cido glicrrico, Fu y col., (2005) expusieron que la ingesta

diaria en periodos mayores a 6 semanas de ms de 1g GA/da puede inducir el sndrome

de retencin de sodio y excrecin de potasio causando edemas e hipertensin. Teniendo

en cuenta que la concentracin mxima encontrada para este compuesto fue de 1812.3

96.36 ppm y, basndonos en el peso y el consumo diario expresado para el linalol, se

obtiene una ingesta diaria de 0.0010.000 g/kg de peso corporal/da, cantidad mucho

menor para producir dicho sndrome.

Por ltimo, en el caso del eucaliptol DeVicenzi y col., (2002) establecieron una

ingesta diaria tolerable (TDI) de 0.1 mg/kg de peso corporal y teniendo en cuenta la

concentracin ptima obtenida de 922.65 48.25 ppm en este caso dio una TDI de 0.66

0.03 de mg/kg de peso corporal. En este caso se excedi la cantidad tolerable

diariamente recomendada 6 veces, por lo que dichas condiciones ptimas en el caso del

eucalipto deben ser evitadas.

Otras variables dependientes tambin se estudiaron: el contenido fenlico total,

que present los valores mximos de 12.96 0.32 mg GAE/g de planta seca para el

caso de la manzanilla, el mayor contenido fenlico se present en el eucalipto: 36.12

1.12 mg GAE/g de planta seca y 9.02 0.12 mg GAE/ g de planta seca para el regaliz,

mientras que las variables independientes utilizadas no fueron suficientes para extraer

fenoles totales del cilantro. La variable independiente con mayor influencia fue el grado

alcohlico del aguardiente base, Esta variable independiente tambin fue la que ms

contribuy a la intensidad colorante (con valores entre 0.36 en el caso del cilantro a 0.93

en el eucalipto) y al matiz (de 10.88 en el cilantro a 23.12 en el eucalipto).

Pgina 189
RESULTADOS

Por ltimo se llev a cabo un estudio de consumidores (52 personas), con un

grupo de personas de edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 70 aos de edad a las que

se les pregunt cunto le gusta el color de cada uno de los experimentos llevados a cabo

para cada macerado de planta. En este estudio el porcentaje de etanol ms bajo condujo

a una mayor valoracin del color por parte de los consumidores. La intensidad de color

ms alta no fue la ms evaluada por los consumidores, al contrario de lo que se ha

deducido de otro estudio de consumidores llevado a cabo en vino (Parpinello y col.,

2009).

De modo general, los resultados obtenidos en este estudio permiten concluir que

la variable independiente con ms influencia fue la concentracin de planta utilizada en

la maceracin.

Resultados de estudios adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se muestran en

el anexo IX.

Optimizacin del proceso acelerado de envejecimiento del aguardiente utilizando


el diseo experimental Box-Benhken. Influencia del origen del roble, el tamao del
fragmento y el nivel de tostado sobre la composicin analtica del producto final.

Un estudio similar al de las plantas se llev a cabo para evaluar la influencia de

fragmentos de roble sobre la composicin final del aguardiente de orujo.

En primer lugar tuvo lugar la optimizacin utilizando el diseo experimental

Box-Benhken de una serie de parmetros: distintos porcentajes de etanol del Orujo

utilizado en el envejecimiento (40 %v/v, 55% v/v y 70%v/v), distintas concentraciones

de fragmentos de roble (virutas) (5g/L, 15g/L y 25g/L) y distintos tiempos de

envejecimiento (2 semanas, 4 semanas y 6 semanas) utilizando para ello virutas de roble

francs (Quercus petraea) de tostado medio. Para llegar a obtener la optimizacin de

dichas variables independientes, se evaluaron una serie de variables dependientes con

Pgina 190
RESULTADOS

transcendencia en el producto final: dos compuestos con gran influencia sobre las

caractersticas organolpticas del destilado envejecido final: la vainillina con notas a

vainilla y bajo umbral de percepcin y la whiskey lactona con notas a coco, el contenido

fenlico total mediante dos mtodos (el ndice de fenoles totales y el contenido fenlico

total con el mtodo Folin-Ciocalteau), la capacidad antioxidante (con el mtodo del

DPPH) y dos parmetros de color (la tonalidad y la intensidad de color) que influirn en

la aceptacin del producto por parte del consumidor.

Como resultado se obtuvo que el tiempo de maceracin fue la variable que no

present apenas influencia en el proceso, mientras que la concentracin de virutas fue

en todos los casos excepto para la whiskey lactona (en este caso fue el % en etanol la

variable que ms influy) la variable con mayor efecto en el Orujo envejecido.

Tras el proceso de optimizacin se procedi a evaluar qu influencia tenan

distintos tamaos de partcula de roble, distintos grados de tostado y distintas

procedencias de roble sobre el envejecimiento del aguardiente. Para ello se cont con

roble americano (Quercus alba) de tostado medio en virutas y roble granular, roble

francs (Quercus petraea) en virutas y granular, sin tostar, y tres tipos distintos de

tostado: ligero, medio y alto y por ltimo una mezcla de ambos robles granulares de

tostado medio. Se tomaron como fijas las variables independientes ptimas de la

vainillina puesto que es un compuesto presente no solo en la madera sin tostar, sino que

su concentracin aumenta con los distintos tratamientos de tostado haciendo que su

concentracin sea de inters en este estudio. As, adems de evaluar su concentracin,

tambin se evaluaron las dems variables estudiadas en el proceso de optimizacin: el

contenido fenlico total, la capacidad antioxidante y los parmetros de color.

Pgina 191
RESULTADOS

En general, el roble granular, el tostado medio y la subespecie francesa Quercus

petraea present los mayores valores de las variables de estudio.

Resultados de estudios adicionales, discusiones y metodologas se muestran en

el anexo X.

Pgina 192
CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS

The results obtained in the different experimental parts of this research allowed

obtaining several important conclusions about the analytical composition of the raw

materials, the optimization of the elaboration process and the characterization of the

corresponding alcoholic beverages, using optimized analytical tecniques. The most

important conclusions obtained were:

Extraction techniques and Aromatic and Medicinal plants

Results from the optimization, step-by-step, for Soxhlet technique in extracts

from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds showed that methanol, as polar protic solvent,

and 4 hours of extraction were the best conditions for the complete characterization of

the studied plant.

Applying a box-behnken experimental design for the optimization of ASE and

SFE techniques in extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds showed that the

optimum values of the independent variables were 3 cycles, 7 minutes and 125C for

ASE technique to obtain a maximum estragole quantity of 6.60 g estragole/kg dry plant,

whereas for SFE technique, 240 bar, 60C and 3.41 hours with 3% of methanol as

cosolvent (used to enhance the power of extraction of CO2) allowed to obtain a

maximum quantity of 1.32 g estragole/kg dry plant.

Estragole is a potential carcinogen agent so, from an industrial point of view, the

manufacturing of fennel-containing products requires avoiding the optimal conditions

using SFE and ASE techniques in order to reduce the maximum concentration of

estragole in the oleoresin.

Pgina 195
CONCLUSIONS

ASE technique was presented as the most suitable quantitatively technique,

since using a shorter period of time (approximately 30 min) and smaller amounts of

organic solvent (15 mL), showed similar concentration of the examined compound

versus SFE and Soxhlet techniques. Qualitatively, Soxhlet technique presented greater

number of compounds identified in the essential oil, and SFE was the most specific

technique because providing similar amount of volatile compounds than the other two

techniques, extracted few amount of phenols.

Hydrodistillation (HD), using Clevenger apparatus delivered significantly higher

amounts of compounds than Simultaneous steam Distillation - solvent Extraction

(SDE), using Likens-Nickerson apparatus, being more environmental friendly due to

use only water during the extraction procedure.

The chromatographic methods (GC-MS) for Spanish Lamiaceae plants and

chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR and dispersive Raman) for Greek

Lamiaceae plants used revealed that there were significant differences at the essential

oil chemotype among plants of the Lamiaceae family studied of different genus, within

the same genus and even within the same species.

The combination of the proposed FT-IR and Raman based methods with the

creation of spectral libraries are rapid, non-destructive, do not require any sample

pretreatment and enables the pure or mixed chemotypes determination of Lamiaceae

Greek plant essential oils versus chromatographic technique studied.

Elaboration process

Pgina 196
CONCLUSIONS

Box-Behnken experimental design applied to optimize the maceration process of

plants in distillate showed that for the main compound and for the consumer valuation

of color of each plant macerated, the concentration of plant was the independent

variable with higher positive effect. For total phenolic content (TP) and

spectrophotometric parameters of color was the ethanol content in the distillate, the

independent variable with more influence, whereas, time of maceration showed the

lowest effect on the extraction of the dependent variables of study.

In optimal maceration conditions, the concentrations of main compounds

observed on plant macerates, which can have toxic effects on human health, were in the

recommendable range. Only the eucalyptol from the Eucalyptus globulus Labill. exceed

six times the recommended tolerable daily intake value, so the optimum independent

variables must be avoided.

In the optimization of accelerated aged grape marc distillates the independent

variable with higher effect was the concentration of oak chips studied in the Box-

Behnken experimental design for all dependent variables, except in whiskey lactone that

the ethanol content (%v/v) was the variable more important. The contact time did not

have significant effect on the parameters evaluated.

The characteristics of the oak fragment with more influence in the extraction

process of the dependent variables studied in the experimental design were the small

particle size: granular, the oak origin: French and the level toast: medium.

Final beverages: herb liqueurs and aged grape marc distillates

a) Aged grape marc distillates

The commercial aged grape marc distillates analyzed showed significant

differences in sensory profile, phenolic and mineral composition attributed mainly to

Pgina 197
CONCLUSIONS

the origin and species of the wood used in the aging process and less to the contact time

with the barrel. Also, they revealed significant differences in physicochemical

composition but mainly owing to the initial composition of the distillate.

Orujo aged in Quercus alba showed higher value for the majority of the

minerals determined whereas those aged in Quercus petraea showed the lowest

contents.

Quercus robur from Limousin showed the lower corresponding values of the

phenol compounds determined, whereas distillates aged in Quercus robur from Galicia

showed the highest concentration for the majority of the phenol compounds, total

phenols, colorant intensity and hue values. So, employing Quercus robur from Galicia

will also increase the typicity and differentiation of the distillates produced in this area

reducing economical costs.

Most of the phenolic compounds determined and the color parameters were

positively correlated among them and with the sensory attributes defined by tasters.

The results obtained in the sensory evaluation concluded that the combination of

aged Orujo from Quercus robur with aged Orujo from Quercus alba will provide the

best qualities of each oak species. The product obtained will result in a highly sensory

valued beverage.

The lower mineral content and the physicochemical parameters (being within the

range established by Regulatory Council) in aged orujo distillates showed the good

manufactures process. A moderate consumption of these alcoholic drinks can contribute

positively to the human bodys requirements for essential elements and phenolic

compounds (attributed to have antioxidant properties) studied.

Pgina 198
CONCLUSIONS

b) Herb liqueurs

The volatile compounds and phenols evaluated in commercial herb liqueurs

showed significant differences in their concentration among the samples.

Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural where the phenols found in higher

concentration and they are mainly due to the caramel employed in the liqueur

elaboration during sweetening. Other phenols determined, with potentially protective

factors against cancer and heart disease, like vanillic and benzoic acid, could be

extracted from plants.

2-phenylethanol, the volatile compound more abundant in the samples analyzed,

with linalool, eugenol and trans-anethole may have their origin in the plants and/or in

the Orujo, whereas, menthol and thymol only can be extracted from the plants

macerated.

18 volatiles showed OAV1, being considered as impact odorants and classified

into six odorant series. Spicy, fruity and floral were the series that most contribute to the

aroma profile of the evaluated liqueurs.

Pgina 199
BIBLIOGRAFA
BIBLIOGRAFA

BIBLIOGRAFA

Aeschbach, R., Lliger, J., Scott, B. C., Murcia, A., Butler, J., Halliwell, B., & Aruoma,

O. I., 1994. Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and

hydroxytyrosol.Food and Chemical Toxicology, 32(1), 31-36.

Ahlem, S., Khaled, H., Wafa, M., Sofiane, B., Mohamed, D., Jean-Claude, M., &

Abdelfattah, E. F., 2009. Oral administration of Eucalyptus globulus extract

reduces the alloxan-induced oxidative stress in rats. Chemico-biological

interactions, 181(1), 71-76.

Akgl, A., & Bayrak, A., 1988. Comparative volatile oil composition of various parts

from Turkish bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare).Food Chemistry,

30(4), 319-323.

Ambawade, S. D., Kasture, V. S., & Kasture, S. B., 2002.Anticonvulsant activity of

roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra.Indian journal of pharmacology,

34(4), 251-255.

Ansari, M. A., Vasudevan, P., Tandon, M., & Razdan, R. K., 2000.Larvicidal and

mosquito repellent action of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil.Bioresource

Technology, 71(3), 267-271.

Araujo, I. B., Souza, C. A. M., De-Carvalho, R. R., Kuriyama, S. N., Rodrigues, R. P.,

Vollmer, R. S., Alves, E.N., & Paumgartten, F. J. R., 1996. Study of the

embryofoetotoxicity of -terpinene in the rat.Food and chemical toxicology,

34(5), 477-482.

Arribas, M. V. M., 2011. El vino (Vol. 20).Editorial CSIC-CSIC Press.

Pgina 203
BIBLIOGRAFA

Aydn, S., ztrk, Y., Beis, R., & Hsn Can Baer, K., 1996. Investigation of

Origanum onites, Sideritis congesta and Satureja cuneifolia essential oils for

analgesic activity.Phytotherapy Research, 10(4), 342-344.

Azaz, D., Demirci, F., Satil, F., Kurkcuoglu, M., & Baser, K. H. C., 2002.

Antimicrobial activity of some Satureja essential oils.Zeitschrift fur

Naturforschung C-Journal of Biosciences, 57(9-10), 817-821.

Azaz, A. D., Irtem, H. A., Kurkcuoglu, M., & Baser, K. C., 2004. Composition and the

in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of some Thymus

species.Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung c, 59(1/2), 75-80.

Azaz, A. D., Krkcoglu, M., Satil, F., Can Baser, K. H., & Tmen, G., 2005. In vitro

antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some Satureja essential

oils.Flavour and fragrance journal, 20(6), 587-591.

Badi, H. N., Yazdani, D., Ali, S. M., & Nazari, F., 2004. Effects of spacing and

harvesting time on herbage yield and quality/quantity of oil in thyme, Thymus

vulgaris L. Industrial Crops & Products, 19(3), 231-236.

Bagamboula, C. F., Uyttendaele, M., & Debevere, J., 2004.Inhibitory effect of thyme

and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene

towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri.Food microbiology, 21(1), 33-42.

Baher, Z. F., Mirza, M., Ghorbanli, M., & Bagher Rezaii, M., 2002.The influence of

water stress on plant height, herbal and essential oil yield and composition in

Satureja hortensis L. Flavour and Fragrance journal, 17(4), 275-277.

Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D., & Idaomar, M., 2008.Biological effects of

essential oilsA review.Food and chemical toxicology, 46(2), 446-475.

Pgina 204
BIBLIOGRAFA

Baldwin, E. A., Goodner, K., Plotto, A., Pritchett, K., & Einstein, M., 2004. Effect of

volatiles and their concentration on perception of tomato descriptors.Journal of

food science, 69(8), S310-S318.

Baptistella, L. H. B., Imamura, P. M., Melo, L. V. D., & Castello, C., 2009. Preparation

of (+)--Terpineol from (+)-limonene: monoterpenes with pleasant odor in a

project for undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Qumica Nova, 32(4),

1069-1071.

Baranauskiene, R., Venskutonis, P.R.y Demyttenaere, J.C.R., 2005. Sensory and

instrumental evaluation of sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.)

aroma.Flavour Fragr. J; 20, 492500.

Beceanu D., & Anghel, R. M., 2006 . Studies regarding the utilisation of wood chips on

the quality improvement of some natural chips. Revista Cercetri Agronomice n

Moldova, vol. 2, Iai.

Bteau, J., & Roig Sosa, G., 2006. Los chips de roble como herramienta de vinificacin

y crianza. Revista Catalana de Enlogos. http://www. acenologia. com.

Septiembre.

Bimakr, M., Rahman, R. A., Taip, F. S., Chuan, L. T., Ganjloo, A. y Hamid J. S.,

2009. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive flavonoid

compounds from spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Leaves. European Journal of

Scientific Research, 33, 679-690.

Blanco Gomis, D., Muro Tamayo, D., & Mangas Alonso, J. J., 2003. Evolution of

sugars in cider brandy aged in oak barrels: a contribution to its characterization.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(4), 923-926.

Pgina 205
BIBLIOGRAFA

Braa, M. F., Del Ro, L. A., Trives, C., & Salazar, Y. N., 2005. La verdadera historia

de la Aspirina. In Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia (Vol. 71,

No. 4, pp. 813-819).

Bruneton, J., 2001: farmacognosia. fitoqumica. plantas medicinales. 2 edicin.

editorial acribia, s. a. pp. 1099.

Cadaha, E., Muoz, L., Fernndez de Simn, B., & Garca-Vallejo, M. C., 2001.

Changes in low molecular weight phenolic compounds in Spanish, French, and

American oak woods during natural seasoning and toasting.Journal of

agricultural and food chemistry, 49(4), 1790-1798.

Caldeira, I., Mateus, A. M., & Belchior, A. P., 2006. Flavour and odour profile

modifications during the first five years of Lourinh brandy maturation on

different wooden barrels. Analytica chimica acta, 563(1), 264-273.

Caldeira, I., Anjos, O., Portal, V., Belchior, A. P., & Canas, S., 2010. Sensory and

chemical modifications of wine-brandy aged with chestnut and oak wood

fragments in comparison to wooden barrels. Analytica chimica acta, 660(1), 43-

52.

Canas, S., Casanova, V., & Pedro Belchior, A. 2008. Antioxidant activity and phenolic

content of Portuguese wine aged brandies. Journal of food composition and

analysis, 21(8), 626-633.

Capdevila, M..C. Las plantas aromticas y medicinales. Descripcin de las especies

fundamentales. Principios activos. 18,19,20 de enero, 2007. Jornadas tcnicas

dedicadas a plantas aromticas y medicinales, 11.

Pgina 206
BIBLIOGRAFA

Cerdn, T. G., Rodrguez Mozaz, S., y Ancn Azpilicueta, C., 2002. Volatile

composition of aged wine in used barrels of French oak and of American oak.

Food Research International, 35(7), 603-610.

Chatonnet, P., & Dubourdieu, D., 1998. Comparative study of the characteristics of

American white oak (Quercus alba) and European oak (Quercus petraea and Q.

robur) for production of barrels used in barrel aging of wines. American Journal

of Enology and Viticulture, 49(1), 79-85.

Chatonnet, P., Cutzach, I., Pons, M., & Dubourdieu, D., 1999.Monitoring toasting

intensity of barrels by chromatographic analysis of volatile compounds from

toasted oak wood.Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 47(10), 4310-4318.

Chen, H., Sheu, M. y Wu, C., 2006. Characterization of Volatiles in Guava (Psidium

guajava L. cv. Chung-Shan-Yueh-Pa) Fruit from Taiwan.Journal of Food and

Drug Analysis, 14, 398-402.

Choi, H. S., Sawamura, M., & Kondo, Y., 2002. Characterization of the key aroma

compounds of Citrus flaviculpus Hort. ex Tanaka by aroma extraction dilution

analysis. Journal of food science, 67(5), 1713-1718.

Ciftci, O., Ozdemir, I., Tanyildizi, S., Yildiz, S., & Oguzturk, H., 2011. Antioxidative

effects of curcumin, -myrcene and 1, 8-cineole against 2, 3, 7, 8-

tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver. Toxicology

and Industrial Health, 27(5), 447-453.

Coelho, J.A.P., Pereira, A.P., Mendes, R.L., y Palavra, A.M.F., 2003. Supercritical

carbon dioxide extraction of Foeniculum vulgare volatile oil.Flavour Fragr.

J.,18, 316-319.

Coelho, E., Coimbra, M. A., Nogueira, J. M. F., & Rocha, S. M., 2009. Quantification

approach for assessment of sparkling wine volatiles from different soils, ripening

Pgina 207
BIBLIOGRAFA

stages, and varieties by stir bar sorptive extraction with liquid desorption.

Analytica Chimica Acta, 635(2), 214-221.

Conforti, F., Statti, G., Uzunov, D., & Menichini, F., 2006.Comparative chemical

composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis L.

leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (Ucria) coutinho seeds.

Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 29(10), 2056.

Corts, S., Gil, L., & Fernndez, E., 2005. Volatile composition of traditional and

industrial Orujo spirits. Food Control, 16(4), 383-388.

Corts, S., Salgado, J. M., Rodrguez, N., & Domnguez, J. M., 2010. The storage of

grape marc: Limiting factor in the quality of the distillate. Food control, 21(11),

1545-1549.

Coskun, S., Girisgin, O., Krkcoglu, M., Malyer, H., Girisgin, A. O., Krmer, N., &

Baser, K. H., 2008.Acaricidal efficacy of Origanum onites L. essential oil

against Rhipicephalus turanicus (Ixodidae).Parasitology research, 103(2), 259-

261.

Cutzach, I., Chatonnet, P., Henry, R., & Dubourdieu, D., 1997. Identification of volatile

compounds with a toasty aroma in heated oak used in barrelmaking.Journal of

agricultural and food chemistry, 45(6), 2217-2224.

Da Porto, C., 2002. Volatile composition of grappa low wines using different methods

and conditions of storage on an industrial scale. International journal of food

science & technology, 37(4), 395-402.

Da Porto, C., & Decorti, D., 2008. Effect of cooling conditions on separation of volatile

compounds in grappa using tray and packed columns without reflux.

International journal of food science & technology, 43(4), 638-643.

Pgina 208
BIBLIOGRAFA

Damjanovi-Vratnica, B., akov, T., ukovi, D. y Damjanovi, J., 2011.

Antimicrobial effect of essential oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

from Montenegro. Czech J. Food Sci., 29, 277284.

Dardioti, A., Karousou, R., Lanaras, T., & Kokkini, S., 2012. Diversity of Satureja

pilosa subsp. origanita essential oils: A new oregano from East Mediterranean.

Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 40, 178-183.

Dawidowicz, A. L., Rado, E., Wianowska, D., Mardarowicz, M. y Gawdzik, J., 2008.

Application of PLE for the determination of essential oil components from

Thymus vulgaris L. Talanta, 76, 878884.

De Rosso, M., Cancian, D., Panighel, A., Dalla Vedova, A., & Flamini, R., 2009.

Chemical compounds released from five different woods used to make barrels

for aging wines and spirits: volatile compounds and polyphenols. Wood science

and technology, 43(5-6), 375-385.

De Santayana, M. P., & Morales, R., 2006. Manzanillas ibricas: historia y usos

tradicionales. Revista de fitoterapia, 6(2), 143-153.

Deepa, B., & Anuradha, C. V., 2011. Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L.

seed extract. Indian journal of experimental biology, 49(1):30-38.

Del lamo, M., Nevares, I., Gallego, L., Martin, C., & Merino, S., 2008. Aging markers

from bottled red wine aged with chips, staves and barrels. analytica chimica acta,

621(1), 86-99.

Denisova, S. B., Galkin, E. G., Danilov, V. T., & Murinov, Y. I., 2003. Mono-and

dioses of Glycyrrhiza glabra root. Chemistry of natural compounds, 39(3), 237-

239.

Deterre, S., Rega, B., Delarue, J., Decloux, M., Lebrun, M., & Giampaoli, P., 2012.

Identification of key aroma compounds from bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)

Pgina 209
BIBLIOGRAFA

products: essential oil and maceratedistillate extract. Flavour and fragrance

journal, 27(1), 77-88.

Daz-Maroto, M. C., Daz-Maroto, I. J., Snchez-Palomo, E., y Prez-Coello, M. S.,

2005. Volatile components and key odorants of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare

Mill.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous

distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Journal of Agricultural

and Food Chemistry, 53, 5385-5389.

Diguez, S. C., de la Pea, M. L. G., & Gmez, E. F., 2003. Approaches to spirit aroma:

contribution of some aromatic compounds to the primary aroma in samples of

Orujo spirits. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51(25), 7385-7390.

Eastwood, M. A., 2001. A molecular biological basis for the nutritional and

pharmacological benefits of dietary plants.QJM, 94(1), 45-48.

Ebert, D., Haller, R. G., & Walton, M. E., 2003. Energy contribution of octanoate to

intact rat brain metabolism measured by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

spectroscopy. The Journal of neuroscience, 23(13), 5928-5935.

Elisabetsky, E., Silva Brum, L. F., & Souza, D. O., 1999.Anticonvulsant properties of

linalool in glutamate-related seizure models.Phytomedicine, 6(2), 107-113.

Espaola, R. F., 1997. Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Secretaria General Tcnica,

Centro de Publicaciones, Madrid.

Evtuguin, D. V., Neto, C. P., Silva, A. M., Domingues, P. M., Amado, F. M., Robert,

D., & Faix, O., 2001. Comprehensive study on the chemical structure of dioxane

lignin from plantation Eucalyptus globulus wood. Journal of agricultural and

food chemistry, 49(9), 4252-4261.

Pgina 210
BIBLIOGRAFA

Fan, W., Xu, Y., & Yu, A., 2006. Influence of oak chips geographical origin, toast level,

dosage and aging time on volatile compounds of apple cider. Journal of the

Institute of Brewing, 112(3), 255-263.

Fang, L., Qi, M., Li, T., Shao, Q., & Fu, R., 2006. Headspace solvent microextraction-

gas chromatographymass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile compounds

from Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical

analysis, 41(3), 791-797.

Fernndez de Simn B, Cadaha E., 2007. Tratamiento de la madera de roble para

tonelera centro de investigacin forestal. Revista enologa n4. CIFOR-INIA.

Madrid.

Fernndez de Simn, B., Cadaha, E., Sanz, M., Poveda, P., Perez-Magario, S., Ortega-

Heras, M., & Gonzlez-Huerta, C., 2008. Volatile compounds and sensorial

characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in

Spanish rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels. Journal of

agricultural and food chemistry, 56(19), 9046-9055.

Flanzy, C., 2003. Enologa: Fundamentos cientficos y tecnolgicos. Mundi-Prensa

Libros.

Fonnegra, R., Fonnegra, F. G., & Jimnez, J. R., 2007. Plantas medicinales aprobadas

en Colombia. 2nd Ed. Universidad de Antioquia, medelln, Colombia, p. 353.

Frangipane, M. T., Santis, D. D., & Ceccarelli, A., 2007.Influence of oak woods of

different geographical origins on quality of wines aged in barriques and using

oak chips. Food chemistry, 103(1), 46-54.

Galeotti, N., Di Cesare Mannelli, L., Mazzanti, G., Bartolini, A., & Ghelardini, C.,

2002. Menthol: a natural analgesic compound. Neuroscience letters, 322(3), 145-

148.

Pgina 211
BIBLIOGRAFA

Garcia, C. V., Quek, S. Y., Stevenson, R. J., & Winz, R. A., 2012. Characterisation of

bound volatile compounds of a low flavour kiwifruit species: Actinidia eriantha.

Food chemistry, 134(2), 655-661.

Gardiner, P., 1999. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita, Anthemis nobilis). The Longwood

Herbal Task Force. Available at: http://www. mcp. edu/herbal/monographs. htm.

Ghelardini, C., Galeotti, N., Di Cesare Mannelli, L., Mazzanti, G. y Bartolini, A., 2001.

Local anaesthetic activity of -Caryophyllene. Il Farmaco 56, 387389.

Goodner K.L., Mahattanatawee K., Plotto A, Sotomayor J.A., y Jordn M.J., 2006.

Aromatic profiles of Thymus hyemalis and Spanish T. vulgaris essential oils by

GCMS/GCO.Industrial Crops and Products, 24, 264268

Goumon, Y., Laux, A., Muller, A., & Aunis, D., 2009, September. Morfina endgena a

nivel central y perifrico. In Anales de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia

(Vol. 75, No. 3).

Gouyon, P. H., Vernet, P., Guillerm, J. L., & Valdeyron, G., 1986. Polymorphisms and

environment: the adaptive value of the oil polymorphisms in Thymus vulgaris L.

Heredity, 57(1), 59-66.

Granger, R. E., Campbell, E. L., & Johnston, G. A., 2005. (+)-And ()-borneol:

efficacious positive modulators of GABA action at human recombinant 122L

GABAA receptors. Biochemical pharmacology, 69(7), 1101-1111.

Grujic Jovanovic, S., Marin, P. D., Dzamic, A., & Ristic, M., 2009. Essential oil

composition of Thymus longicaulis from Serbia.Chemistry of natural

compounds, 45(2), 265-266.

Guillot, S., Peytavi, L., Bureau, S., Boulanger, R., Lepoutre, J.-P., Crouzet, J. y Schorr-

Galindo, S., 2006. Aroma characterization of various apricot varieties using

Pgina 212
BIBLIOGRAFA

headspace-solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass

spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Food Chemistry, 96, 147

155.

Gllce, M., Skmen, M., Daferera, D., Agar, G., zkan, H., Kartal, N., Polissiou, M.,

Skmen, A., & Sahin, F., 2003. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant

activities of the essential oil and methanol extracts of herbal parts and callus

cultures of Satureja hortensis L. Journal of Agricultural and food chemistry,

51(14), 3958-3965.

Gutirrez Afonso, V. L., 2002. Sensory descriptive analysis between white wines

fermented with oak chips and in barrels. Journal of food Science, 67(6), 2415-

2419.

Hajhashemi, V., Ghannadi, A., & Pezeshkian, S. K., 2002. Antinociceptive and anti-

inflammatory effects of Satureja hortensis L. extracts and essential oil. Journal

of ethnopharmacology, 82(2), 83-87.

He, W. y Huang, B., 2011. A review of chemistry and bioactivities of a medicinal spice:

Foeniculum vulgare. Journal of Medicinal plants research, 5, 3595-3600.

Higley, C., & Higley, A., 2005. Quick Reference Guide for Using Essential Oils. 9th

Edn. Abundant Health Publishing. Orange, USA, p.6.

Hussain, A. I., Anwar, F., Chatha, S. A. S., Jabbar, A., Mahboob, S., & Nigam, P. S.,

2010. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and

antibacterial activities. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 41(4), 1070-1078.

banolu, E., & banolu, ., 2000.Foaming behaviour of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

extract. Food chemistry, 70(3), 333-336.

Pgina 213
BIBLIOGRAFA

Iscan, G., Kirimer, N., Kurkcuoglu, M., Baser, K. H. C. y Demirci, F.,

2002.Antimicrobial screening of Mentha piperita essential oils.J. Agric.Food

Chem., 50, 3943-3946.

Jardine, N., Secord, J. A., & Spary, E. C. (Eds.)., 1996. Cultures of natural

history.Cambridge University Press.

Jerkovic, I., Mastelic, J., Milos, M. y Milos, M., 2001. The impact of both the season of

collection and drying on the volatile constituents of Origanum vulgare L. ssp.

hirtum grown wild in Croatia.International Journal of Food Science and

Technology, 36, 649-654.

Juergens, U.R., Dethlefsen, U., Steinkamp, G., Gillissen, A., Repges, R. y Vetter, H.,

2003. Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma:

a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Respiratory Medicine, 97, 250-256.

Jung, E., Byun, S., Kim, S., Kim, M., Park, D., & Lee, J., 2012. Isomenthone protects

human dermal fibroblasts from TNF--induced death possibly by preventing

activation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(10),

3514-3520.

Kaloustian, J., Pauli, A. M., & Pastor, J., 2000. Evolution of camphor and others

components in the essential oils of two labiate species during the biological

cycle.Analusis, 28(4), 308-315.

Kamatou, G. P., & Viljoen, A. M., 2010.A review of the application and

pharmacological properties of -bisabolol and -bisabolol-rich oils.Journal of

the American Oil Chemists' Society, 87(1), 1-7.

Kanatt, S. R., Chander, R.y Sharm, A., 2007. Antioxidant potential of mint (Mentha

spicata L.) in radiation-processed lamb meat.Food Chemistry, 100, 451458.

Pgina 214
BIBLIOGRAFA

Kordali, S., Cakir, A., Ozer, H., Cakmakci, R., Kesdek, M., & Mete, E., 2008.

Antifungal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated from

Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carvacrol, thymol and p-

cymene. Bioresource Technology, 99(18), 8788-8795.

Leal-Cardoso, J. H., B. G. Matos-Brito, J. E. G. Lopes-Junior, K. V. Viana-Cardoso, A.

B. Sampaio-Freitas, R. O. Brasil, A. N. Coelho-de-Souza, and A. A. C.

Albuquerque, 2004. Effects of estragole on the compound action potential of the

rat sciatic nerve.Brazilian journal of medical and biological research, 37(8),

1193-1198.

Leffingwell, J. C., 2001. Chirality and odour perception.Leffingwell & Associates.

http://www.leffingwell.com/chirality/-pinene.htm.

Lee, J. J., Jin, Y. R., Lee, J. H., Yu, J. Y., Han, X. H., Oh, K. W., Hong, J.T., Kim, T.-J.

y Yun, Y. P. , 2007. Antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene

from Rosmarinus officinalis.Planta medica, 73(2), 121.

Litchev, V., 1989. Influence of oxidation processes on the development of the taste and

flavour of wine distillates. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 40, 31-

35.

Lv, J., Huang, H., Yu, L., Whent, M., Niu, Y., Shi, H., ...& Yu, L. L., 2012. Phenolic

composition and nutraceutical properties of organic and conventional cinnamon

and peppermint.Food Chemistry, 132(3), 1442-1450.

Maggi, F., Mrtonfi, P., Conti, F., Cristalli, G., Papa, F., Sagratini, G., & Vittori, S.,

2011. Volatile components of whole and different plant parts of bastard balm

(Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae) collected in Central Italy and Slovakia.

Chemistry & biodiversity, 8(11), 2057-2079.

Pgina 215
BIBLIOGRAFA

Mahmoud, S. S. y Croteau, R. B., 2003. Menthofuran regulates essential oil

biosynthesis in peppermint by controlling a downstream monoterpene reductase.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 100, 1448114486.

Majnooni, M., Mansouri, K., Gholivand, M., Mostafaie, A., Mohammadi-Motlagh, H.,

Afnanzade, N., Abolghasemi, M. y Piriyaei, M., 2012.Chemical composition,

cytotoxicity and antioxidantactivities of the essential oil from the leaves of

Citrus aurantium L.African Journal of Biotechnology, 11, 498-503.

Mangas, J., Rodrguez, R., Moreno, J., & Blanco, D., 1996a. Volatiles in distillates of

cider aged in American oak wood. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,

44(1), 268-273.

Mangas, J., Rodrguez, R., Moreno, J., Surez, B., & Blanco, D., 1996b. Evolution of

aromatic and furanic congeners in the maturation of cider brandy: A contribution

to its characterization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(10),

3303-3307.

Maqtari, A., Ahmed, M. A., Alghalibi, S. M., & Alhamzy, E. H., 2011.Chemical

composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris from

Yemen.Turkish Journal of Biochemistry/Turk Biyokimya Dergisi, 36(4).

Marn, J., Zalacain, A., De Miguel, C., Alonso, G.L., & Salinas, M.R., 2005. Stir bar

sorptive extraction for the determination of volatile compounds in oak-aged

wines. Journal of Chromatography A, 1098(1), 1-6.

Marin-Valencia, I., Good, L. B., Ma, Q., Malloy, C. R., & Pascual, J. M., 2013.

Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal

and glucose transporter I-deficient (G1D) brain. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow

& Metabolism, 33(2), 175-182.

Pgina 216
BIBLIOGRAFA

Maroufi, K., Farahani, H. A., & Darvishi, H. H., 2010. Importance of coriander

(Coriandrum sativum L.) between the medicinal and aromatic plants.Advances

in environmental biology, 4(3), 433-436.

Matsubara, E., Fukagawa, M., Okamoto, T., Ohnuki, K., Shimizu, K., & Kondo, R.,

2011. (-)-Bornyl acetate induces autonomic relaxation and reduces arousal level

after visual display terminal work without any influences of task performance in

low-dose condition. Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan), 32(2), 151-157.

McKay, D. L. y Blumberg, J. B., 2006. A review of the bioactivity and potential health

benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytother.Res., 20, 619633.

Miean, K. H., & Mohamed, S. (2001). Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol,

luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants.Journal of agricultural

and food chemistry, 49(6), 3106-3112.

MimicaDuki, N., Kujundi, S., Sokovi, M., & Couladis, M., 2003.Essential oil

composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.obtained by

different distillation conditions. Phytotherapy Research, 17(4), 368-371.

Mockute, D., & Bernotiene, G., 1999. The main citral-geraniol and carvacrol

chemotypes of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides L. growing wild in

Vilnius district (Lithuania). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 47(9),

3787-3790.

Mockute, D., Bernotiene, G. y Judzentiene, A., 2001. The essential oil of Origanum

vulgare L. ssp. vulgare growing wild in Vilnius district

(Lithuania).Phytochemistry, 57, 65-69.

Moellhausen S.p.A; http://www.moellhausen.com/flavor_and_fragrance_materials-1-

macro--.aspx

Pgina 217
BIBLIOGRAFA

Moraes, T. M., Kushima, H., Moleiro, F. C., Santos, R. C., Machado Rocha, L. R.,

Marques, M. O., Vilegas, W. y Hiruma-Lima, C. A., 2009. Effects of limonene

and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: Role of

prostaglandins and gastric mucus secretion. Chemico-Biological Interactions,

180, 499505.

Msaada, K., Hosni, K., Taarit, M. B., Chahed, T., Kchouk, M. E., & Marzouk, B.,

2007.Changes on essential oil composition of coriander (Coriandrum sativum

L.) fruits during three stages of maturity.Food chemistry, 102(4), 1131-1134.

Mucciarelli, M., Camusso, W., Bertea, C.M. y Maffei, M., 2001. Effect of (+)-pulegone

and other oil components of Mentha x piperita on cucumber respiration.

Phytochemistry, 57, 91-98.

Mugnaini, L., Nardoni, S., Pistelli, L., Leonardi, M., Giuliotti, L., Benvenuti, M.

N.,Pisseri, F., & Mancianti, F., 2013. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus

serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine

dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Mycoses, 56(3), 333-337.

Mukazayire, M. J., Tomani, J. C., Stvigny, C., Chalchat, J. C., Conforti, F., Menichini,

F., & Duez, P., 2011. Essential oils of four Rwandese hepatoprotective herbs:

Gas chromatographymass spectrometry analysis and antioxidant activities.

Food chemistry, 129(3), 753-760.

Mller, M., & Buchbauer, G., 2011.Essential oil components as pheromones.A

review.Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 26(6), 357-377.

Mulyaningsih, S., Youns, M., El-Readi, M.Z., Ashour, M.L., Nibret, E., Sporer, F.,

Herrmann, F., Reichling, J. y Wink, M., 2010a. Biological activity of the

Pgina 218
BIBLIOGRAFA

essential oil of Kadsura longipedunculata (Schisandraceae) and its major

components.Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17, 227-229.

Mulyaningsih, S., Sporer, F., Zimmermann, S., Reichling, J., & Wink, M., 2010b.

Synergistic properties of the terpenoids aromadendrene and 1, 8-cineole from the

essential oil of< Eucalyptus globulus against antibiotic-susceptible and

antibiotic-resistant pathogens.Phytomedicine, 17(13), 1061-1066.

Munn-Bosch, S., y Alegre, L., 2001. Subcellular compartmentation of the diterpene

carnosic acid and its derivatives in the leaves of rosemary.Plant physiology,

125(2), 1094-1102.

Muoz, F., 1987. Plantas medicinales y aromticas: Estudio, cultivo y procesado.

Mundi-Prensa Libros.

Muoz, J. G., 2006. Maderas: apuntes de construccin. Editorial Visin Libros.

Raja Rajeswari, N., RamaLakshmi, S., & Muthuchelian, K., 2011. GC-MS analysis of

bioactive components from the ethanolic leaf extract of Canthium dicoccum

(Gaertn.) Teijsm & Binn.J Chem Pharm Res, 3, 792-798.

Noge, K., & Becerra, J. X., 2009. Germacrene D, a common sesquiterpene in the genus

Bursera (Burseraceae). Molecules, 14(12), 5289-5297.

Nurzynska-Wierdak, R., 2011. The essential oilf of Chamomilla recutita (L.). Rausch

cultivated and wild growing in Poland. Pharmacia, 24(2), 197-206.

Okoh, O. O., Sadimenko, A. P., & Afolayan, A. J., 2010. Comparative evaluation of the

antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. obtained

by hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction methods. Food

chemistry, 120(1), 308-312.

Pgina 219
BIBLIOGRAFA

Oktay, M., Glcin, I. y Kfrevioglu, O. I., 2003. Determination of in vitro antioxidant

activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT - Food Science and

Technology, 36, 263271.

Oliveira, R.A., S, I.C.G., Duarte, L.P.y Oliveira, F.F., 2011. Volatile constituents of

Mentha pulegium L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Revista

Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais,13, 165-169.

Olmedo, M. J. C., 2005. Experimentacin en qumica: qumica orgnica, ingeniera

qumica. Ed. Univ. Politc. Valencia.

Onishi, M., Guymon, J. F., & Crowell, E. A. (1977). Changes in some volatile

constituents of brandy during aging. American Journal of Enology and

Viticulture, 28(3), 152-158.

Orav, A., Kailas, T., & Ivask, K., 2001.Volatile constituents of Matricaria recutita L.

from Estonia.In Proceedings-Estonian academy of sciences chemistry (Vol. 50,

No. 1, pp. 39-45).Truekitud ou.

Ortega-Heras, M., Prez-Magario, S., Cano-Mozo, E., & Gonzlez-San Jos, M. L.,

2010. Differences in the phenolic composition and sensory profile between red

wines aged in oak barrels and wines aged with oak chips. LWT-Food Science

and Technology, 43(10), 1533-1541.

zbek, H., Ura, S., Dlger, H., Bayram, I., Tuncer, I., ztrk, G., & ztrk, A.,

2003. Hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.Fitoterapia,

74(3), 317-319.

Ozel, M. Z., & Kaymaz, H., 2004. Superheated water extraction, steam distillation and

Soxhlet extraction of essential oils of Origanum onites.Analytical and

bioanalytical chemistry, 379(7-8), 1127-1133.

Pgina 220
BIBLIOGRAFA

ztrk, M., 2012. Anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Savoury (Satureja

thymbra L.) with identified major terpenes of the essential oil. Food Chemistry,

134(1), 48-54.

Pacheco, D., & Pachecho Leal, D., 2004. Bioqumica mdica. Limusa.

Palacio Garca-Nieto, L., 2000. Las plantas medicinales y aromticas. Una alternativa

de futuro para el desarrollo rural. Boletn ICE Econmico: Informacin

Comercial Espaola, (2652), 29-39.

Paris, R.; Moyse, H., 1976: Matire mdicale. Vol. 2-3. Ed. Masson. Paris.

Park, H. M., Lee, J. H., Yaoyao, J., Jun, H. J. y Lee, S. J., 2011.Limonene, a natural

cyclic terpene, is an agonistic ligand for adenosine A2A receptors. Biochemical

and Biophysical Research Communications, 404, 345348.

Parpinello, G. P., Versari, A., Chinnici, F., & Galassi, S., 2009. Relationship among

sensory descriptors, consumer preference and color parameters of Italian

Novello red wines. Food Research International, 42(10), 1389-1395.

Peana, A. T., D'Aquila, P. S., Panin, F., Serra, G., Pippia, P., & Moretti, M. D. L.,

2002. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of

essential oils.Phytomedicine, 9(8), 721-726.

Phi, K.T., Kim, G. y Jang, H., 2012. In vitro and intracellular antioxidant capacity of

thymylmethylether as a major component in Blumea lanceolaria (Roxb.) druce

leaf oil.Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50,15831588.

Piccaglia, R., & Marotti, M., 2001.Characterization of some Italian types of wild fennel

(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 49(1),

239-244.

Quesada Granados, J., Villaln Mir, M., Lopez Garcia-Serrana, H., & Lopez Martinez,

M. C., 1996. Influence of aging factors on the furanic aldehyde contents of

Pgina 221
BIBLIOGRAFA

matured brandies: aging markers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,

44(6), 1378-1381.

Raal, A., Arak, E., Orav, A., & Ivask, K., 2003.Comparacin de aceites esenciales de

Matricaria recutita L. de origen diverso.Ars Pharmaceutica, 44, 159-165.

Ravi, R., Prakash, M. y Bhat, K. K., 2007.Aroma characterization of coriander

(Coriandrum sativum L.) oil samples. Eur Food Res Technol, 225, 367374.

Ravid, U., Putievsky, E., & Katzir, I., 1994. Enantiomeric distribution of piperitone in

essential oils of some Mentha spp., Calamintha incana (Sm.) Heldr.and

Artemisia judaica L. Flavour and fragrance journal, 9(2), 85-87.

Ravid, U., Putievsky, E., & Katzir, I., 1994. Chiral gc analysis of menthone and

isomenthone with high enantiomeric purities in laboratorymade and commercial

essential oils. Flavour and fragrance journal, 9(3), 139-142.

Reddy, B., Angers, P., Gosselin, A., & Arul, J., 1998.Characterization and use of

essential oil from Thymus vulgaris against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus

stolonifer in strawberry fruits.Phytochemistry, 47(8), 1515-1520.

RenJie, L., 2008. Optimization of extraction process of Glycyrrhiza glabra

polysaccharides by response surface methodology.Carbohydrate polymers,

74(4), 858-861.

Rezvanpanah, S., Rezaei, K., Golmakani, M. T., & Razavi, S. H., 2011. Antibacterial

properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer

savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation.Brazilian Journal of

Microbiology, 42(4), 1453-1462.

Rodriguez-Bencomo, J. J., Ortega-Heras, M., Perez-Magarino, S., & Gonzalez-Huerta,

C., 2009. Volatile compounds of red wines macerated with Spanish, American,

Pgina 222
BIBLIOGRAFA

and French oak chips. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 57(14), 6383-

6391.

Roldn, A. A., 1997. 100 plantas medicinales escogidas: Una gua de plantas de todo el

mundo seleccionadas por su valor teraputico (Vol. 175). Edaf.

Sabbioni, C., Ferranti, A., Bugamelli, F., Forti, G. C., & Raggi, M. A.,

2006.Simultaneous HPLC analysis, with isocratic elution, of glycyrrhizin and

glycyrrhetic acid in liquorice roots and confectionery products.Phytochemical

Analysis, 17(1), 25-31.

Sabon, I., de Revel, G., Kotseridis, Y., & Bertrand, A., 2002. Determination of volatile

compounds in Grenache wines in relation with different terroirs in the Rhone

Valley. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 50(22), 6341-6345.

Sahin, F., Gllce, M., Daferera, D., Skmen, A., Skmen, M., Polissiou, M., Agar, G.

y zer, H. , 2004. Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract

of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Food

Control, 15, 549557.

Salari, M. H., Amine, G., Shirazi, M. H., Hafezi, R., & Mohammadypour, M., 2006.

Antibacterial effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract on pathogenic bacteria

isolated from specimens of patients with respiratory tract disorders. Clinical

Microbiology and Infection, 12(2), 194-196.

Samarasekera, R., Weerasinghe, I.S.y Hemalal, K.D.P., 2008. Insecticidal activity of

menthol derivatives against mosquitoes.Pest Management Science, 64, 290-295.

Samarth, R. M., Goyal, P. K., & Kumar, A., 2001. Modulatory effect of Mentha piperita

(Linn.) on serum phosphatases activity in Swiss albino mice against gamma

irradiation.Indian journal of experimental biology, 39(5), 479-482.

Pgina 223
BIBLIOGRAFA

Sangwan, N. S., Sharma, P. K., & Sangwan, R. S., 2007. Geranyl acetate esterase is

commonly present but linalyl acetate esterase occurrence is highly limited in

plants. Flavour and fragrance journal, 22(3), 173-177.

Santana, M. F., Quintans-Jnior, L. J., Cavalcanti, S. C. H., Oliveira, M. G. B.,

Guimares, A. G., Cunha, E. S.,Melo, M. S., Santos, M. R. V., Arajo, A. A. S.

y Bonjardim, L. R., 2011. p-Cymene reduces orofacial nociceptive response in

mice. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 21, 1138-1143.

Santos, F.A., y Rao, V.S.N., 2000. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-

cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. Phytotherapy

research, 14, 240-244.

Santos, P. M., & SCorreia, I., 2009. Adaptation to myrcene catabolism in

Pseudomonas sp. M1: An expression proteomics analysis. Proteomics, 9(22),

5101-5111.

Sashidhara, K. V., Verma, R. S., & Ram, P., 2006. Essential oil composition of

Matricaria recutita L. from the lower region of the Himalayas.Flavour and

fragrance journal, 21(2), 274-276.

Satil, F., Tmen, G., Akelik, A., & Baser, K. H. C., 2002.Comparative morphological,

anatomical, ecological and chemical studies on endemic Satureja parnassica

subsp. sipylea from Turkey.Acta Botanica Croatica, 61(2), 207-220.

Sato, K., Krist, S. y Buchbauer, G., 2007. Antimicrobial effect of vapours of geraniol,

(R)-()-linalool, terpineol, -terpinene and 1,8-cineole on airborne microbes

using an airwasher. Flavour Fragr. J.,22, 435437.

Pgina 224
BIBLIOGRAFA

Seplveda-Jimnez, G., Porta-Ducoing, H., & Rocha-Sosa, M., 2004. La participacin

de los metabolitos secundarios en la defensa de las plantas. Rev Mex Fitopatol,

21, 355-363.

Siano, F., Catalfamo, M., Cautela, D., Servillo, L., & Castaldo, D., 2005. Analysis of

pulegone and its enanthiomeric distribution in mint-flavoured food

products.Food additives and contaminants, 22(3), 197-203.

Sigma-Aldrich. 2011. Flavors and fragrances 20112012 catalog. Milwaukee, WI:

Sigma-Aldrich Fine Chemicals Company.

Silva, M. L., & Malcata, F. X., 1998. Relationships between storage conditions of grape

pomace and volatile composition of spirits obtained therefrom. American

Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 49(1), 56-64.

Silva, M. L., & Malcata, F. X. , 1999. Effects of time of grape pomace fermentation and

distillation cuts on the chemical composition of grape marcs. Zeitschrift fr

Lebensmitteluntersuchung und-Forschung A, 208(2), 134-143.

Singh, H. P., Kaur, S., Negi, K., Kumari, S., Saini, V., Batish, D. R., & Kohli, R. K.,

2012. Assessment of in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus

citriodora (lemon-scented Eucalypt; Myrtaceae) and its major constituents.LWT-

Food Science and Technology, 48(2), 237-241.

Skld, M., Karlberg, A.T., Matura, M.y Brje, A., 2006. The fragrance chemical b-

caryophylleneair oxidation and skin sensitization. Food and Chemical

Toxicology, 44, 538545.

Sneader, W. E., 2005. Drug Discovery (The History). Wiley, Chichester, UK.

Spanier, A. M. (Ed.)., 2001. Food flavors and chemistry: advances of the new

millennium (Vol. 274). Royal Society of Chemistry.

Pgina 225
BIBLIOGRAFA

Sterckx, F. L., Missiaen, J., Saison, D., & Delvaux, F. R., 2011. Contribution of

monophenols to beer flavour based on flavour thresholds, interactions and

recombination experiments. Food chemistry, 126(4), 1679-1685.

Szke, ., Mday, E., Tyihk, E., Kuzovkina, I. N., & Lemberkovics, ., 2004. New

terpenoids in cultivated and wild chamomile (in vivo and in vitro).Journal of

Chromatography B, 800(1), 231-238.

Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. Fisiologia vegetal. 3.ed. Porto Alegre, Artmed, 2004. 719p.

Takahashi, T., Kokubo, R., & Sakaino, M., 2004. Antimicrobial activities of eucalyptus

leaf extracts and flavonoids from Eucalyptus maculata. Letters in applied

microbiology, 39(1), 60-64.

Teixeira, B., Marques, A., Ramos, C., Batista, I., Serrano, C., Matos, O., Neng, N. R.,

Nogueira, J. M. F., Saraiva, J.A., and Nunes, M. L., 2012. European pennyroyal

(Mentha pulegium) from Portugal: Chemical composition of essential oil and

antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts and essential oil. Industrial

Crops and Products, 36(1), 81-87.

Telci, I., Demirtas, I., Bayram, E., Arabaci, O., & Kacar, O., 2010. Environmental

variation on aroma components of pulegone/piperitone rich spearmint (Mentha

spicata L.). Industrial crops and products, 32(3), 588-592.

Hidalgo-Togores, J., 2002. Tratado de Enologa. Madrid (Spain): Ediciones Mundi-

Prensa.

Tuzlac, E., & Tolon, E., 2000. Turkish folk medicinal plants, part III: ile (stanbul).

Fitoterapia, 71(6), 673-685.

Pgina 226
BIBLIOGRAFA

Vaverkov, ., Mistrkov, I. y Holl, M., 2009. Qualitative properties of Mentha

piperita (L.) after application of the fungicide Hattrick DP-50.Plant Soil

Environ., 55, 454459.

Viriot, C., Scalbert, A., Lapierre, C., & Moutounet, M., 1993.Ellagitannins and lignins

in aging of spirits in oak barrels.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,

41(11), 1872-1879.

Vivas, N., 1995.The notion of grain in cooperage.J. Sci. Tech. Tonnellerie, 1, 17-32.

Vivas, N., 2005. Manual de tonelera: destinado a usuarios de toneles. Mundi-Prensa

Libros.

Vokou, D., Kokkini, S., & Bessiere, J. M., 1988. Origanum onites (Lamiaceae) in

Greece: distribution, volatile oil yield, and composition. Economic Botany,

42(3), 407-412.

Vokou, D., Kokkini, S., & Bessiere, J. M., 1993.Geographic variation of Greek oregano

(Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) essential oils.Biochemical Systematics and

Ecology, 21(2), 287-295.

Walton, N. J., & Brown, D. E. (Eds.), 1999.Chemicals from plants: perspectives on

plant secondary products. World Scientific.

Wang, W., Li, N., Luo, M., Zu, Y., & Efferth, T., 2012. Antibacterial activity and

anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of

its main components. Molecules, 17(3), 2704-2713.

Weiss RF. 2001. Weisss Herbal Medicine. Thieme: Stuttgart, New York.

Wu, S., Krings, U., Zorn, H., & Berger, R. G., 2005. Volatile compounds from the

fruiting bodies of beefsteak fungus Fistulina hepatica (Schaeffer: Fr.) Fr. Food

chemistry, 92(2), 221-226.

Pgina 227
BIBLIOGRAFA

Zekovi, Z., Lepojevic, .,& Vuji, D., 2000. Supercritical extraction of thyme

(Thymus vulgaris L.).Chromatographia, 51(3-4), 175-179.

Zeller, A., & Rychlik, M., 2006. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel

tea.Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54(10), 3686-3692.

Zeller, A., & Rychlik, M., 2007.Impact of estragole and other odorants on the flavour of

anise and tarragon.Flavour and fragrance journal, 22(2), 105-113.

Zellner, B. D., Amorim, A. C. L., Miranda, A. L. P. D., Alves, R. J., Barbosa, J. P.,

Costa, G. L. D., & Rezende, C. M., 2009. Screening of the odour-activity and

bioactivity of the essential oils of leaves and flowers of Hyptis Passerina Mart.

from the Brazilian Cerrado.Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 20(2), 322-332.

Zhao, N. N., Zhou, L., Liu, Z. L., Du, S. S., & Deng, Z. W., 2012. Evaluation of the

toxicity of the essential oils of some common Chinese spices against Liposcelis

bostrychophila.Food Control, 26(2), 486-490.

Zheng, C. H., Kim, T. H., Kim, K. H., Leem, Y. H., & Lee, H. J., 2004.

Characterization of potent aroma compounds in Chrysanthemum coronarium

L.(Garland) using aroma extract dilution analysis. Flavour and fragrance journal,

19(5), 401-405.

Zougagh, M., Aranda, P., Castaeda, G.yRos, A., 2009. Supercritical fluid extraction

achiral liquid chromatography with circular dichroism detection for the

determination of menthone enantiomers in natural peppermint oil samples.

Talanta, 79, 284288.

http://www.farodevigo.es/galicia/2012/01/09/medio-rural-localizara-vinedos-

abandonados-galicia-impulsar-aprovechamiento/612629.html).

Pgina 228
BIBLIOGRAFA

http://www.medioruralemar.xunta.es/areas/alimentacion/produtos_de_calidade/augarde

ntes_e_licores_tradicionais/augardente/ (Xunta de Galicia- Consellera do medio

rural e do mar).

http://www.anipam.es/ (ANIPAM)

Pgina 229
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF
PUBLICATIONS
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF BREWING

Name of the Journal: Journal of the Institute of Brewing.

ISSN: 0046-9750.

Publisher: INST BREWING.

Journal country: England.

Impact factor in 2013: 0,837.

Impact factor the last 5 years: 1,122.

Category: Food Science & technology. Journal Rank in 2013: 82/123 (Quartile 3).

Characterization by chemical and sensory analysis of commercial grape

marc distillate (Orujo) aged in oak wood. Journal of the Institute of Brewing

(2012), 118(2): 205-212. DOI: 10.1002/jib.25.

Pgina 233
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

FOOD CONTROL

Name of the Journal: Food Control.

ISSN: 0956-7135.

Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD.

Journal country: England.

Impact factor in 2013: 2.819.

Impact factor the last 5 years: 3.038.

Category: Food Science & Technology. Journal Rank in 2012: 17/123 (Quartile 1).

Assessment of minerals in aged grape marc distillates by FAAS/FAES and

ICP-MS. Characterization and safety evaluation. Food Control (2014), 35(1): 49-

55. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.06.031.

Pgina 234
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

INDUSTRIAL CROPS AND PRODUCTS

Name of the Journal: Industrial Crops and Products.

ISSN: 0926-6690.

Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV.

Journal country: Netherlands.

Impact factor in 2013: 3,208.

Impact factor the last 5 years: 3,559.

Category: Agronomy. Journal Rank in 2013: 6/78 (Quartile 1).

Characterization of fennel extracts and quantification of estragole:

Optimization and comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and Soxhlet

techniques. Industrial Crops and Products (2014), 52: 528-536. DOI:

10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.11.028.

Estragole quantity optimization from fennel seeds by Supercritical Fluid

Extraction (carbon dioxide-methanol) using a Box-Behnken design.

Pgina 235
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

Characterization of fennel extracts. Industrial Crops and Products (2014), 60:186-

192. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.05.027.

Determination of chemotypes in Lamiaceae plants using GC-MS, FT-IR and

dispersive-RAMAN spectroscopic techniques and GC-FID quantification.

Industrial Crops and Products. Industrial Crops and Products (2014), 62: 22-33.

DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.08.003.

Optimization of the process of plant maceration in grape marc distillates to

obtain healthier herb liqueurs (sent to survey).

Pgina 236
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

FOOD TECHNOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

Name of the Journal: Food Technology and Biotechnology.

ISSN: 1330-9862.

Publisher: Faculty Food Technology Biotechnology.

Journal country: Croatia.

Impact factor in 2013: 0,977.

Impact factor the last 5 years: 1,321.

Category: Food Science & Technology. Journal Rank in 2013: 72/123 (Quartile 3).

First Approach to the Analytical Characterisation of Barrel Aged Grape

Marc Distillates by Phenolic Compounds and Colour Parameters. Food

Technology and Biotechnology (2014). Accepted.

Pgina 237
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS

Name of the Journal: Phytochemical analysis.

ISSN: 0958-0344.

Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL.

Journal country: England.

Impact factor in 2013: 2.450.

Impact factor the last 5 years: 2.542.

Category: Chemistry, analytical. Journal Rank in 2013: 30/76 (Quartile 2).

Effect of Soxhlet, ASE and SFE Extraction Techniques in Volatile (GC-

MS/GC-FID) and Phenolic Composition (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) of Lamiaceae

Essential Oils (2014). DOI: 10.1002/pca.2537.

Pgina 238
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS

Name of the Journal: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis.

ISSN: 0889-1575.

Publisher: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE.

Journal country: UNITED STATES.

Impact factor in 2013:2,259.

Impact factor the last 5 years: 2.799.

Category: Food Science & Technology . Journal Rank in 2013: 32/123 (Quartile 2).

Journal of Food Composition and


Analysis
3,143
3,500
3,000 2,423 2,259
Impact factor

2,500 2,079 2,088


2,000
1,500
1,000
0,500
0,000
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year

Aroma-Impact Odorants and Phenolic Compounds in Commercial Herb

Liqueurs Elaborated by Maceration of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Grape

Marc Distillates (sent to survey).

Pgina 239
CRITERION OF QUALITY OF PUBLICATIONS

JOURNAL OF FOOD ENGINEERING

Name of the Journal: Journal of food engineering.

ISSN: 0260-8774.

Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD .

Journal country: England.

Impact factor in 2013: 2,576.

Impact factor the last 5 years: 2,984.

Category: Food Science & Technology. Journal Rank in 2013:23 /123 (Quartile 1).

Journal of Food Engineering


2,576
2,6
2,5 2,414
Impact factor

2,4 2,313 2,313


2,3
2,168
2,2
2,1
2
1,9
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Year

Optimization of accelerated aging grape marc distillate process using Box-

Benhken design (sent to survey).

Pgina 240
ANNEXES
ANEXXES

ANEX I: Characterization of fennel extracts and quantification of estragole:


Optimization and comparison of accelerated solvent extractionand Soxhlet techniques.

ANEX II: Estragole quantity optimization from fennel seeds by supercritical fluid
extraction (carbon dioxidemethanol) using a BoxBehnkendesign. Characterization of
fennel extracts.

ANEX III: Effect of Soxhlet, ASE and SFE Extraction Techniques in Volatile (GC-
MS/GC-FID) and Phenolic Composition (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS) of Lamiaceae Essential
Oils.

ANEX IV: Comparative chemotype determination of Lamiaceae plants by means of


GC-MS, FT-IR and dispersive-Raman spectroscopic techniques and GC-FID
quantification.

ANEX V: Characterization by chemical and sensory analysis of commercial grape marc


distillate (Orujo) aged in oak wood.

ANEX VI: Assessment of minerals in aged grape marc distillates by FAAS/FAES and
ICP-MS. Characterization and safety evaluation.

ANEX VII: First Approach to the Analytical Characterization of Barrel-Aged Grape


Marc Distillates by Phenolic Compounds and Color Parameters.

ANEX VIII: Aroma-Impact Odorants and Phenolic Compounds in Herb Liqueurs


Elaborated by Maceration of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants in Grape Marc Distillates.

ANEX IX: Optimization of the process of plant maceration in grape marc distillates to
obtain healthier herb Liqueurs.

ANEX X: Optimization of accelerated aging grape marc distillate process using Box-
Benhken design.

Pgina 243
Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Industrial Crops and Products


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/indcrop

Characterization of fennel extracts and quantication of estragole:


Optimization and comparison of accelerated solvent extraction
and Soxhlet techniques
Raquel Rodrguez-Solana a,b , Jos Manuel Salgado c , Jos Manuel Domnguez a,b ,
Sandra Corts-Diguez a,b,
a
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sciences Faculty, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n, 32004 Ourense, Spain
b
Laboratory of Agro-food Biotechnology, CITI-Tecnpole, Parque Tecnolgico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Vinas, Ourense, Spain
c
IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) is an aromatic plant used, among other applications, in the produc-
Received 3 June 2013 tion of traditional herbal liqueurs. In this study, essential oils from fennel were extracted applying two
Received in revised form 4 November 2013 techniques, Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracts obtained were characterized
Accepted 17 November 2013
by GC-MS. Taking into account that estragole is the major constituent of fennel and due to recent stud-
ies pointed out its possible carcinogenic properties; this compound was also quantied by GC-FID. The
Keywords:
quantication method showed good linearity (r2 = 0.998) and precision (RSD < 5%) with low values of
Foeniculum vulgare Miller
detection (LOD) and quantication (LOQ) limits. A BoxBehnken design was used to correlate three inde-
Estragole
ASE
pendent variables (temperature, contact time sample-solvent and number of cycles) with the amount of
Soxhlet estragole extracted. Meanwhile, the response surface methodology was applied to optimize the extrac-
BoxBehnken design tion of estragole by ASE. The optimal conditions were 125 C, 7 min and 3 cycles. On the other hand, the
Soxhlet technique was studied step-by-step. Two variables were optimized: time (4 and 8 h) and solvents,
according to their polarity. Methanol and 4 h of extraction showed the best results both qualitatively and
quantitatively. The Soxhlet technique provided higher performance of extraction and greater amounts
of compounds extracted compared to ASE, but similar concentration of estragole. The shorter time of
extraction and the lower amount of solvent used justify the ASE technique choice to characterize fennel
essential oils.
2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction medicinal plant, fennel is traditionally used for making herbal


liqueurs by maceration or distillation process with Orujo (the
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) is an Apiaceae family plant name of grape marc distillate in the North of Spain) (Damjanovic
and native from the Mediterranean area. There are two subspecies et al., 2005; Piccaglia and Marotti, 2001).
of the Foeniculum vulgare: piperitum with bitter seeds and vulgare In recent years, estragole has become the subject of several
with sweet seeds (He and Huang, 2011). The vulgare subspecies is research due to its being the major compound in fennel and also
characterized by having as main compounds the phenylpropenes: because this volatile compound could possess potential carcino-
anethole and estragole, followed by bicyclic oxygenated monoter- genic properties (Raffo et al., 2011; Zeller and Rychlik, 2006).
pene fenchone and the monocyclic monoterpene hydrocarbon To extract and characterize the essential oils from fennel, which
limonene (Daz-Maroto et al., 2006). can provide aromatic and medicinal properties to distillates dur-
Traditionally, fennel has been used to avor foods, to make ing the liqueur making process, two analytical techniques were
liqueurs, in perfumery industry (Gross et al., 2002) and as a home applied: Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). Both
remedy to gastrointestinal and respiratory tract symptoms (Raffo techniques are based on solidliquid extraction. The rst is a tradi-
et al., 2011). Due to the known properties as an aromatic and tional technique that is time-consuming and uses large volumes of
organic solvents (environmentally unfriendly) but it is currently
used because of its high recovery. ASE technique is an alterna-
Corresponding author at: Department of Chemical Engineering, Sciences Fac- tive to the classical extraction method Soxhlet because it uses
ulty, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n, 32004 Ourense, Spain. high pressure (that keeps the solvent below its boiling point) and
Tel.: +34 988387416. slightly higher temperatures (that accelerates the extraction kinet-
E-mail address: smcortes@uvigo.es (S. Corts-Diguez). ics) obtaining similar results to traditional solvent extraction. ASE is

0926-6690/$ see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.11.028
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536 529

used in order to reduce the extraction time and volume of solvents Table 1
Solvents used during the Soxhlet extraction with their physicochemical
and therefore, reduce laboratory time and costs (Heemken et al.,
characteristics.
1997; Nakatsu et al., 2000; Raaman, 2006; Romanik et al., 2007).
The optimization of a method can be carried out step-by-step or Solvent Polarity Boiling ( C)
Index
using an experimental design (Rajaei et al., 2005). Several studies
have been carried out on plants using different extraction solvents Non polar Hexane 0 68.85
(with different polarities to evaluate the inuence on the extrac- Diethyl ether 2.8 34.60
Aprotic Ethyl acetate 4.3 77.10
tion yield and on the extract composition) (Almeida et al., 2012;
Polar Protic Ethanol 5.2 78.40
Tsimogiannis et al., 2006). In this study we assayed different sol- Methanol 6.6 64.70
vents and times of extraction to evaluate if this latter variable has
an inuence on extracting more volatile compounds from fennel
seeds.
Furthermore, an experimental design was applied to model and system with six individual extractors (1 sample each) with lin-
optimize ASE technique for the extraction of volatile compounds ear conguration (Dsseldorf, Germany)). A total of 50 g of the
from fennel. The modeling tool is known as response surface previously homogenized fennel seeds was used in the determina-
methodology (RSM) using the BoxBehnken design of experi- tion of their essential oils by Sohxhlet. In each extraction, 5 g of
ments. The RSM technique can simulate and optimize complex dried fennel seeds were weighed in cellulose extraction thimbles
processes from relatively few experimental combinations of vari- (33 mm 94 mm, thickness 1.5 mm purchased from Schleicher &
ables (Annadurai and Sheeja, 1998; Zhao et al., 2012). BoxBehnken Schuell (Dassel (Germany)), previously homogenized and grinded
design method employs a spherical design with excellent pre- with coffee grinder (Moulinex (France)). The extraction took place
dictability within the design space (Nath and Das, 2011). This design using a solvent volume of 150 mL. Each solvent (hexane, diethyl
has already been used in optimization process of essential oils ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol) was brought to its cor-
extraction among others, from tobacco leaves, Satureja hortensis responding boiling point. The nal extract was evaporated in a
and soybean (Jokic et al., 2010; Khajeh, 2011; Zhang et al., 2012). rotavapor R-215 Buchi (Frankfurt, Germany) at 25 C and the result-
In this study we focused on the optimization and compari- ing oleoresin extract was dissolved in 10 mL of the solvent used
son between Soxhlet and ASE techniques to improve the volatile in each case. All extractions were done in duplicate. The physico-
characterization of fennel with the aim of evaluating the potential chemical characteristics of the ve solvents assayed are showed in
volatiles that this aromatic plant gives to the herbal Orujo Liqueurs. Table 1.
Also, optimizing the quantication method to evaluate the quantity
of estragole present in the fennel seeds could be useful to improve 2.2.1.2. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The accelerated sol-
the making process of herbal liqueurs avoiding a higher concentra- vent extraction of essential oils from fennel seeds was performed
tion of this possibly harmful for health oil. with a DIONEX extractor, ASE 350 from Vertex technics (Barcelona,
Spain). 160 g of the homogenized sample from fennel seeds was
2. Materials and methods necessary to their essential oil characterization. The extraction
was done by weighing 5 grams of sample, previously milled and
2.1. Materials mixed with diatomaceous earth to remove any moisture that could
remain. The resultant sample was placed in a stainless steel cell of
2.1.1. Samples 22 mL. According to Heemken et al. (1997) in ASE technique it is
Dried seeds from fennel (F. vulgare Miller) were commer- recommended to use the same solvent as in Soxhlet technique, so
cially purchased from a leader phytotherapy company from Spain. the extraction took place using methanol as solvent because it was
According to the information provided by the company, fennel was found to be the optimal solvent in the Soxhlet technique.
grown in certied organic area under continental climate condi- Once the extract obtained by ASE technique was evaporated
tions. Fennel seeds were air dried at room temperature and vacuum with a TurboVap LV Caliper LifeSciences (Cardiff, UK) under N2 at
packed in plastic bags (100 g). a temperature of 35 C and a pressure of 12 psi, the resulting ole-
Five bags from different lots (500 g) were mixed in order to oresin was redissolved in 10 mL of methanol. All extractions were
obtain a homogenous sample previous to the essential oil extrac- done in duplicate.
tion by ASE and Soxhlet techniques, avoiding possible errors due to
the different initial composition in the fennel seeds. Until analysis
the whole sample was preserved in a hermetically sealed packag- 2.2.2. Experimental design and statistical analysis
ing. Temperature, time and cycle number affect aromatic com-
pounds extraction by ASE techniques. An incomplete factorial
design with three factors and three levels (Boxt and Behnken, 1960)
2.1.2. Reagents was used to optimize these parameters. Experiments (15 runs)
The solvents hexane, diethyl ether and methanol and the were carried out in a single base block, of which three were repli-
standard estragole were supplied by SigmaAldrich (Steinheim, cates at the center point measuring experimental error. The level
Germany), ethyl acetate by Panreac (Barcelona, Spain) and ethanol of independent variables studied and denition of dimensionless
was purchased from Analar Normapur (VWR) (Barcelona, Spain). coded of the independent variables are given in Table 2. For sta-
Alkane standard solution C8 C20 was purchased from Fluka (Stein- tistical calculations, the independent variables were coded as x1
heim, Germany). Siliceous Earth puried and calcined (USP-NF) (coded temperature), x2 (coded cycle number) and x3 (coded time).
RRS-CODEX was supplied by Panreac (Barcelona, Spain). The correspondence between coded and uncoded variables was t-
ted according to the linear equations showed in Table 2, which
2.2. Methods were deduced from their respective variations limits. The depen-
dent variable was y1 (estragole, g/kg). The experimental data were
2.2.1. Optimization of fennel seeds extraction evaluated by response surface methodology using Statistica 5.0
2.2.1.1. Soxhlet extraction. Soxhlet experiments were performed software. Effect of each independent variable to the response was
with a Behrotest Equipment for Soxhlet Extraction (extraction tted by polynomial quadratic equation, Eq. (1), which includes
530 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536

Table 2 Carrier gas was hydrogen with a ow rate 1.5 mL/min. The oven
Levels of independent variables and dimensionless coded variables denition (xi ).
temperature was programmed from 50 C at a rate of 2.5 C/min to
Independent Units Levels 220 C and from 220 C at a rate of 10 C/min to 300 C. The injector
variables and detector temperatures were respectively 250 C and 260 C.
1 0 1 xi Quantication was carried out by preparing a calibration curve

of six points with concentrations between: 40 and 650 mg/L with a
T (X1 ) C 75 100 125 x1 = (T 100/25)
CN(X2 ) 1 2 3 x2 = (CN 2/1) r2 : 0.998.
t (X3 ) Min 3 5 7 x3 = (t 5/2)

T: temperature; CN: cycle number; t: time; xi : dimensionless coded value of inde- 3. Results and discussion
pendent variables.

3.1. Characterization and optimization


linear, interaction and quadratic terms:
3.1.1. Characterization of fennel extracts
y = b0 + b1 x1 + b2 x2 + b3 x3 + b12 x1 x2 + b13 x1 x3 + b23 x2 x3 Firstly, in order to optimize both extraction techniques, ASE and
+ b11 x12 + b22 x22 + b33 x32 (1) Soxhlet, the volatile prole from fennel was dened to evaluate the
most important compounds that should be extracted.
Table 3 shows the families of volatile compounds identied in
where y is predicted response, b0 is the model constant, x1 , x2 , fennel seeds with both techniques (Soxhlet and ASE) and the exper-
x3 are independent variables (coded), b1 , b2 and b3 are linear coef- imental retention indeces (RI), together with the theoretical RI of
cients, b12 , b13 and b23 are cross product coefcients and b11 , b22 the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In those
and b33 are the quadratic coefcients. Dependent variables were cases in which no RI values for our column (HP-5MS) were obtained,
optimized using an application of commercial software (Solver, the identication was considered valid based on RI values of sim-
Microsoft Excell 2007, Redmon, WA, USA). ilar columns (HP-5, DB-5 and DB- 5MS). An error range of 20 of
experimental value in respect to the theoretical value selected was
2.2.3. Characterization and quantication of fennel extracts taken into account.
compounds The volatile prole of fennel obtained with both extraction tech-
2.2.3.1. Characterization by GC-MS. The chemical composition of niques was similar (Table 3), although differed in the proportion of
the extracts was determined using an Agilent 7820A gas chro- the diverse groups of compounds present in oil extracts. In compar-
matograph (Santa Clara, CA, USA) equipped with an Agilent 5975 ison to the compounds obtained by ASE, Soxhlet allowed to extract
series MSD and a non-polar column HP-5MS (5% diphenyl, 95% more volatiles from fennel, listed in Table 3 under the subgroup
dimethylpolysiloxane, 30 m 0.25 mm i.d. 0.25 m lm thick- called others. Qualitatively Soxhlet technique provides greater
ness) with a ramp temperature and operating in the electron number of compounds allowing a more complete fennel seed oil
impact mode (70 eV) with transfer line and ion source temperatures characterization.
maintained at 230 C. The injector temperature was maintained at
250 C, whereas that of quadrupole was 150 C. Carrier gas used was
3.1.2. Optimization of essential oils extraction from fennel seeds
H2 (from Hydrogen generator AD-180 Series, CINEL (Padova, Italy))
with Soxhlet
with a ow of 1.5 mL/min. The amount of sample injected was
The optimization of the Soxhlet technique was carried out step-
0.5 L (in splitless mode). The oven temperature was programmed
by-step, with a variance in the solvent and the extraction time.
as follows: 50220 C (2.5 C/min), 220300 C (10 C/min).
Different solvents yield extracts with different composition (Wang
The compounds extracted were tentatively identied. The iden-
and Weller, 2006). Two extraction times (4 and 8 h) were assayed
tication was carried out by comparison of their mass spectra with
to evaluate the inuence of this variable in the mass yield per-
spectral data from the NIST (National Institute of Standards and
cent extracted (Bicchi et al., 2000; Almeida et al., 2012). The results
Technology) library. It was conrmed by using the retention indices
obtained in the solvent optimization were used as a reference to
on the HP-5MS and similar columns (DB-5MS, DB-5 and HP-5). The
determine this variable in the ASE technique.
retention indeces were calculated for all volatile constituents using
Six volatile compounds were extracted with all solvents assayed
a n-alkane standard solution C8 C20 according to Eq. (2):
   as it can be seen in Table 4 (a). Among these common compounds,
tr(unknown) tr(n) three of them, the phenylpropenes: estragole and anethole and the
RI = 100 n + (N n) (2) oxygenated monoterpene: fenchone, are characteristic of the vul-
tr(N) tr(n)
gare fennel subspecies (Daz-Maroto et al., 2006). Table 4(b) shows
where RI is the retention index, n and N are the number of carbon the rest of volatile compounds identied in fennel according to
atoms in the smaller and larger n-alkane respectively and tr is the the solvent applied. Similarities were observed as a function of the
retention time. polarity of the solvent used. Thus, protic polar solvents extracted
The semiquantitative procedure was performed by comparing more oxygenated monoterpenes, while non-polar or polar aprotic
the areas of peaks, and this semiquantication provides what pro- solvents showed a greater number of volatile compounds grouped
portion of each compound there is in the aromatic prole of the as others (aldehydes, ketone, among others). Based on these
extract of plant according to the technique used for each extraction. results, it is important to point out those terpenes from plants,
as constituents of essential oils, are widely used as natural a-
2.2.3.2. Quantication by GC-FID. The amount of estragole was vor additives in food, as fragrance in perfumes, and in traditional
exactly quantied due to the importance of this volatile compound and alternative medicine aromatherapy (Rahman and Choudhary,
in the oil composition of fennel. The estragole quantication from 2011). Consequently, considering that this study was focused on
the extracts of fennel seeds was carried out in an Agilent 7890A the characterization of fennel seeds in order to evaluate their con-
gas chromatograph equipped with ame ionization detector (FID). tribution on Galician grape marc liqueurs, the main objective was
A HP-5 (5% phenyl methyl siloxane, 30 m 0.32 mm i.d. 0.25 m to determine the more suitable solvent to perform the extraction
lm thickness) capillary column was used. The volume of the sam- based on the higher amount of volatile compounds extracted. In this
ples injected was 0.5 L (in splitless mode (15 mL/min at 0.75 min). sense, results in Table 4(a) show that the concentration of estragole
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536 531

Table 3
Volatile compounds from fennel identied according to their experimental retention index (RI) from Soxhlet and ASE and from Literature.

Family Compound RISOXHLET RIASE RILiterature

Acyclic trans--Ocimene 1036 1039


Monoterpene hydrocarbons Monocyclic D-Limonene 1025 1025 1030
-Terpinene 1055 1055 1060

Eucalyptol 1031 1028 1038


trans-p-2,8-Menthadien-1-ol 1121 1119 1105
cis-Verbenol 1130 1133
Monocyclic
cis-Limonene oxide 1132 1134
Oxygenated monoterpenes cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol 1215 1217 1231
Carvone 1238 1239 1242
Fenchone 1082 1084 1083
Bicyclic Camphor 1140 1138 1145
Fenchyl acetate 1230 1229 1232

Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 1842 1838


Sesquiterpene oxygenated Acyclic
Hexahydrofarnesol 1843

Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons Tricyclic -Ylangene 1366 1366 1364

Estragole 1194 1198 1196


Phenylpropenes simple
Anethole 1279 1280 1301
Phenyl derivatives
Phenylpropene derivatives Methyleugenol 1404 1404 1410
Other p-Propyl-Anisole 1205 1205 1185

Methyl palmitate 1994 1926 1927


Fatty acids Saturated
Palmitic acid 1968 1980 1964

Fatty alcohol Ethylhexanol 1028 1029

Butoxyethoxyethanol 1191 1192


cis-3,3-dimethyl-1--cyclohexanethanol 1228 1225
Undecanal 1306 1308
Butoxyethoxyethyl acetate 1371 1366
Dodecanal 1407 1412
2,6-Di-tert-butylbenzoquinone 1458 1472
Others
Butylated hydroxytoluene 1507 1513
Diethyl phthalate 1590 1603
Isopropyl laurate 1629 1618
2,2,7,7-Tetramethyltricyclo[6.2.1.0(1,6)]undec-4-en-3-one 1745 1730
Ethane, 1,2-diphenoxy 1794 1810.6
cis-7-hexadecenal 1798 1798

(a potential carcinogen compound) increases with the polarity of matrix. In contrast, other compounds present in essential oils from
the solvent assayed. For the rest of compounds, results in Table 4(b) fennel are considered as anticancer as anethole (Gori et al., 2012).
suggest that the polar protic solvents were also the most suitable Due to the importance of estragole present in extracts, ASE
for fennel oil sohxlet extraction. technique was optimized with reference to this volatile compound
Between the protic polar solvents, methanol was selected, due to using response surface methodology by Box and Behnken experi-
its higher percentage of extraction of the characteristic bitter fennel mental design. This tool allows obtaining the optimal levels of the
compounds: estragole 8789%, anethole 1.722.22% and fenchone three selected factors which can affect ASE technique.
3.354.07%, comparing to those achieved using ethanol: estragole Table 6 shows the designed matrix of coded variables, as well
8687%, fenchone 1.852.83% and anethole 1.542.31%. as the experimental and predicted data of dependent variable
Regarding the extraction time, 4 h were selected, because this y1 , meanwhile Table 7 lists the regression coefcients and their
period of time was enough to characterize the volatile composition statistical signicance based on a t test and probability (P) with
of this plant, obtaining the same compounds as in prolonged times, signicance levels of = 0.01%. A larger magnitude of t-test and
thus reducing considerably the corresponding laboratory costs. smaller P-value denote greater signicance of the corresponding
coefcient (de Lima et al., 2010). The same table shows the coef-
3.1.3. Optimization of ASE operational conditions by cient of determination r2 , F value as well as the probability (P).
BoxBehnken design and statistical analysis r2 is the percentage of variation of the dependent variable to be
ASE technique was applied to fennel seeds using methanol as explained by the independent variables in the model. It is used to
solvent according to the optimal conditions obtained by Soxhlet measure the goodness of t. The value of r2 was found to equal
technique. As shown in Table 5, the main compound of the extracts 0.9839, while theoretically a value close to 1 shows a good t of the
from fennel seeds resulting from the ASE extraction technique was model. In addition, the statistical signicance of the model was vali-
estragole (80.7483.53%). Hexadecanoic acid (6.568.19%), fen- dated by both the F-test (33.9449) and the small value of probability
chone (3.083.56%) and D-limonene (1.833.30%) were the next (0.0005).
compounds from fennel, in terms of abundance. Estragole is a Additionally, as it can be seen in Fig. 1, a good t between
typical compound of F. vulgare, which has been reported to be a car- observed and predicted values was observed. The Pareto chart
cinogen substance (Bristol, 2011). However, the effect of estragole (Fig. 2) shows the absolute value of each independent variable in
as a single substance can be misleading, because this compound is decreasing order of relative frequency from left to right. A verti-
present in the form of a complex herbal extract (Gori et al., 2012). cal line was also used to designate which effects were statistically
Thus, studies on the effect of herbal extracts should be taken into signicant at 95% condence level. Cycle number and the inter-
account to evaluate carcinogenic of estragole in the normal food action of time and temperature had a greater effect on estragole
532 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536

Table 4
Characterization of fennel by Soxhlet technique.

a. Volatile compounds from fennel common to all solvents assayed

Compound Solvent

Non polar Aprotic polar Protic polar

DEE H EA E M

Area (%)

4h 8h 4h 8h 4h 8h 4h 8h 4h 8h

Fenchone 0.88 0.96 1.15 1.31 1.27 1.56 1.85 2.83 3.35 4.07
cis-p-Mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol 0.22 0.27 0.32 0.40 0.21 0.32 0.33 0.26 0.19 0.27
(-)-Carvone 1.22 1.34 2.89 2.95 2.16 2.33 1.56 0.95 0.47 0.70
Estragole 66.06 66.81 79.71 84.91 80.33 80.62 86.26 87.37 89.00 87.63
p-propyl-Anisole 1.81 1.36 2.00 2.05 1.82 1.73 2.03 3.25 2.67 2.61
Anethole 1.50 1.43 1.65 1.56 1.63 1.61 1.54 2.31 2.22 1.72

b. The rest of volatile compounds identied in fennel seeds according to the solvent employed

Solvent

Non polar Aprotic polar Protic polar

DEE H EA E M

Area (%)

4h 8h 4h 8h 4h 8h 4h 8h 4h 8h

D-limonene 3.08 4.28 7.32 7.50 1.82 1.11 0.27 0.18


-Terpinene 0.30 0.33

Eucalyptol 0.45 0.27 0.36 0.38


trans-p-Menth-2,8-dien-1-ol 0.23 0.12 0.22
cis-Limonene oxide 0.12 0.18
Camphor 0.10 0.09 0.14
Fenchyl acetate 0.26 0.21 0.34

Ylangene 0.23 0.25 0.12 0.13 0.09 0.09

Hexahydrofarnesyl acetone 1.74 1.36 1.96 1.11 0.68


Hexahydrofarnesol 1.13 0.75 0.68 0.18 0.07 0.07

Methyleugenol 0.07 0.09

Palmitic acid 1.82 3.42 1.15 1.98 3.54 3.05 1.79 0.74 0.50 0.96
Methyl palmitate 0.43 1.17 0.40 0.76 0.35 0.19 0.34

Ethylhexanol 3.12 2.51

Butoxyethoxyethanol 0.36 0.51 0.78


cis-3,3-dimethyl-1--cyclohexanethanol 0.23 0.21
Undecanal 0.30 0.45
Butoxyethoxyethyl acetate 0.42 0.11
Dodecanal 2.06 3.23 1.80 1.28
2,6-Di-tert-butylbenzoquinone 0.70 0.69
Butylated hydroxytoluene 13.67 13.66 0.44 0.38
Diethyl phthalate 0.64 0.20
Isopropyl laurate 0.33 0.37
2,2,7,7-Tetramethyltricyclo[6.2.1.0(1,6)]undec-4-en-3-one 0.50 0.39
Ethane, 1,2-diphenoxy 0.17
cis-7-hexadecenal 0.33 0.21 0.64 0.23 0.18 0.07

EA (ethyl acetate); DEE (diethyl ether); H (hexane); E (ethanol); M (methanol).

extraction. Consequently, Fig. 3 displays the response surface plot The experimental result was 6.60 g/kg, thus proving the validity of
for estragole (y1 ) as a function of temperature and cycle number at the model.
xed time (7 min). It can be observed that lower temperatures and
cycle number do not favor the extraction. On the other hand, opti- 3.2. Quantication of estragole. Method validation
mal extraction of estragole was detected under maximum value of
parameters. In this study, a GC-FID method for determining and quantifying
In order to select the optimal conditions of ASE, the Solver estragole in essential oils from ASE and Soxhlet techniques was
application of Microsoft Excel was used to obtain the maxi- developed.
mum amount of estragole extraction predicted by the model
(y1 = 6.55 g/kg). The optimal values for the independent variables 3.2.1. Linearity
were: 125 C, 3 cycles and 7 min. Validation of the model results was The linearity was evaluated through the standard curves ranging
performed by a conrmatory experiment with the optimal values. from 40 to 650 mg/L by diluting appropriate amounts of estragole
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536 533

Table 5
Characterization and semi-quantitation of fennel seeds extracts by ASE technique. Exposure of the different parameters evaluated in the BoxBenhken design.

Experimental number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
T ( C) 75 125 75 125 75 125 75 125 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
cycle number 1 1 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 3 2 2 2
t (min) 5 5 5 5 3 3 7 7 3 3 7 7 5 5 5
Compound Area (%)

trans--Ocimene 0.20 0.12 0.14 0.24 0.16 0.19 0.17 0.25 0.23 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.21

D-Limonene 2.19 1.83 1.99 2.61 2.49 2.64 2.62 2.58 3.30 3.05 2.85 2.51 2.87 3.01 2.69
-Terpinene 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.19 0.14 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.19 0.19 0.15 0.13 0.18 0.19 0.18

Eucalyptol 1.01 0.98 0.97 1.05 0.99 0.96 0.97 1.13 1.36 1.03 1.22 0.96 1.19 1.06 0.91
trans-p-2,8-Menthadien-1-ol 0.14 0.11 0.14 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.11 0.15 0.14
cis-Verbenol 0.17 0.16 0.17 0.20 0.19 0.19 0.18 0.23 0.19 0.21 0.20 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.16
cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol 0.26 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.22 0.21 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.23 0.21
Carvone 0.33 0.31 0.29 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.30 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.27 0.29 0.30 0.35

Fenchone 3.08 3.13 3.14 3.41 3.39 3.38 3.30 3.36 3.56 3.56 3.44 3.36 3.25 3.26 3.46
Camphor 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.12 0.11 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.12
Fenchyl acetate 0.20 0.25 0.22 0.26 0.23 0.26 0.23 0.26 0.23 0.24 0.23 0.23 0.25 0.23 0.23

-Ylangene 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07

Estragole 83.23 83.03 83.27 82.09 83.16 82.58 82.59 82.04 80.74 81.86 82.29 83.53 81.64 81.55 82.69
p-propyl-Anisole 0.13 0.14 0.17 0.44 0.17 0.20 0.12 0.13 0.68 0.54 0.19 0.16 0.22 0.17 0.14
Anethole 0.91 0.90 0.93 1.11 1.00 1.00 1.04 1.01 1.42 1.28 1.14 1.15 1.29 1.24 1.06
Methyleugenol 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.06

Methyl palmitate 0.21 0.29 0.25 0.29 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.26 0.22 0.16 0.20 0.17 0.15 0.22 0.17
Palmitic acid 7.56 8.19 7.78 7.31 7.05 7.38 7.55 7.72 7.08 6.84 7.07 6.56 7.71 7.76 7.17

Table 6
BoxBehnken experimental design for optimization of ASE. Dimensionless coded of independent variables, observed and predicted data of dependent variable.

Runs Independent variables Dependent variable

x1 x2 x3 y1 (observed) y1 (predicted)
g/kg g/kg

1 1 1 0 4.41 4.39
2 1 1 0 4.04 3.91
3 1 1 0 4.50 4.63
4 1 1 0 5.54 5.56
5 1 0 1 6.05 5.95
6 1 0 1 5.18 5.20
7 1 0 1 4.85 4.83
8 1 0 1 5.93 6.03
9 0 1 1 4.84 4.95
10 0 1 1 5.61 5.58
11 0 1 1 4.45 4.49
12 0 1 1 5.86 5.75
13 0 0 0 5.24 5.22
14 0 0 0 5.20 5.22
15 0 0 0 5.23 5.22

Table 7
Regression coefcients and statistical parameters.

Regression coefcients Standard error t P

b0 5.23* 0.012 434.608 <0.0001


b1 0.11* 0.007 14.946 0.0044
b11 0.15* 0.011 13.308 0.0056
b2 0.47* 0.007 64.031 0.0002
b22 0.46* 0.011 42.154 0.0006
b3 0.07* 0.007 10.021 0.0098
b33 0.42* 0.011 39.077 0.0007
b12 0.35* 0.011 33.867 0.0009
b13 0.49* 0.011 46.837 0.0005
b23 0.16* 0.011 15.372 0.0042

Correlation and statistical signicance parameters

r r2 r2 Adjusted Fexp P

y1 0.9919 0.9839 0.9549 33.9449 0.0005

P: probability; r: multiple correlation coefcient; r2 : determination coefcient. = 0.01%.


*
Signicant coefcient at 99%
534 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536

Observed vs. Predicted Values stock solution (1516 mg/L) with methanol and prepared in trip-
6.5 licate. Three calibration curves were prepared in the same day
with the following concentrations (40, 94, 190, 500 and 650 mg/L).
8
5
Linearity was evaluated through the relationship between the con-
6.0
12 centration of estragole and the absorbance obtained through the
4 10 GC-FID method. The range was linear with a value of r2 = 0.998.
5.5
Predicted Values

6
14 1315
3.2.2. Sensitivity. Limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ)
5.0
9 The limit of detection (LOD) is the lowest amount of the analyte
7
in a sample that can be detected by analytical procedures, while the
3
11 limit of quantitation (LOQ) is the lowest amount of analyte in the
4.5 1
sample that can be quantitatively determined with dened preci-
sion. Limits were estimated by measuring ten replicates of a blank
4.0 2 sample, by duplicate, and calculating the standard deviation from
the measured. In our case, it was the solvent used in the extraction,
3.5
i.e. methanol.
3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 Eqs. (3) and (4) were used for their determinations:
Observed Values
Sblank
LOD = 3 (3)
Fig. 1. Predicted versus experimental values. m

Sblank
LOQ = 10 (4)
m
where Sblank is the blank standard deviation and m is the slope of
the calibration curve.
Table 8 shows the values of both limits.

3.2.3. Accuracy
The accuracy can be dened as the degree to which the pre-
dicted value of an analyte in a sample corresponds to the observed
value. The accuracy of the analytical method was determined by
the standard addition method according to which the same vol-
ume of sample (fennel extract) was added previously to all asks.
Further it was added to one of them a blank corresponding to
methanol, while in the others asks, known quantities of estragole
standard were added (80% (230 mg/L), 100% (288 mg/L) and 120%
(346 mg/L) of the analytical concentration of estragole in the sam-
ple). The sample was previously diluted ve times to ensure that the
estragole concentration was included in the concentration range of
the calibration curve. The percent recoveries (mean %RSD of two
replicates) of estragole were calculated.
The result obtained by standard additions (312 mg/L) was con-
Fig. 2. Pareto chart of the independent variable effects on the response. (L) lineal
sistent with that obtained by another method of calibration, the
and (Q) quadratic.
calibration curve (321 mg/L), meaning no reected matrix effects
(Table 8).

3.2.4. Precision
The precision expresses the closeness of agreement between a
series of measurements obtained from multiple sampling of the
same homogeneous sample under the prescribed conditions. Pre-
cision of the method was determined by repeatability (intraday
precision) and intermediate precision (interday precision) analyz-
ing seven solutions of the same standard concentration on the same
day (intraday) and daily for 6 times over a period of one week (inter-
day). The results were expressed as %RSD of the measurements.
Results in Table 8 shows that the intraday (repeatability) and
interday (reproducibility) precision had similar and low values
around 1% (relative standard deviation (RSD)) (RSD < 5% for the
acceptance criteria).

3.3. Quantication of estragole in the fennel extracts to compare


both techniques

Tables 5, 6 and 9 show the concentration of estragole from


fennel after extraction with optimized conditions of ASE and Soxh-
Fig. 3. Effect of cycle number and temperature on estragole extraction. let techniques. In the case of Soxhlet (Table 9), the concentration
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536 535

Table 8
Validation parameters.

Standard Calibration curve r2 LOD (mg/L) LOQ (mg/L) Accuracy (recovery Intra-day repeatability Inter-day repeatability
(%) and RSD) (RSD %) (RSD %)

Estragole Y = 3.5188x + 13.868 0.998 0.04 0.14 97.30/0.02 1.57 1.11

r2 is the determination coefcient; LOD is the limit of detection; LOQ limit of quantitation; RSD is the relative standard deviation.

Table 9 Despite the complexity of the matrix of a plant, no matrix effects


Quantication of estragole by GC-FID for Soxhlet technique.
were detected measuring the sample with standard additions and
Soxhlet technique obtaining similar value for calibration curve.
The quantication method of estragole content showed good
Solvent and time used g estragole/kg dry sample
linearity reected in its high regression coefcient (r2 = 0.998), low
H (4 h) 0.12
LOD and LOQ and good precision intra and interday.
H (8 h) 0.26
DEE (4 h) 0.25 The use of BoxBehnken experimental design was suitable for
DEE (8 h) 1.09 carrying out the optimization of three variables conducting few
EA (4 h) 0.27 experiments and obtaining a good prediction of the optimal value.
EA (8 h) 0.51 Consequently, from an industrial point of view, the manufactur-
E (4 h) 0.51
E (8 h) 1.91
ing of fennel-containing products (not aimed to the human intake),
M (4 h) 5.77 the use of ASE technique under the optimal condition dened in
M (8 h) 6.99 the current work, would represent a considerably reduction in the
EA (ethyl acetate); DEE (diethyl ether); H (hexane); E (ethanol); M (methanol). nal costs as well as an increment in the amount of those volatile
compounds recovered which characterize the essential oils of this
aromatic plant.
of estragole extracted increased with the polarity of the solvent.
So, the polar protic solvents extracted the highest concentration Conict of interest
of estragole from fennel, mainly when methanol was used. This
may be because methanol is a small molecule that can better form The authors declare that there are no conicts of interest.
hydrogen bridges with estragole, extracting it in greater quantity.
Finally, longer extraction time (from 4 to 8 h) and higher number Acknowledgements
of cycles signicantly increase the quantity of extracted estragole
(double or even more than three times its value). We are grateful for the nancial support of this work to the Span-
Meanwhile, using the ASE technique, an increase in the con- ish Ministry of Science and Innovation (project CTQ2011-28967)
centration of estragole was observed maximizing the conditions which has partial nancial support from the FEDER funds of the
chosen in the research. ASE extraction was favored by higher num- European Union. Jos Manuel Salgado is grateful for Postdoctoral
ber of cycles, larger contact time between solvent and sample and fellowship (EX-2010-0402) of Education Ministry of Spanish Gov-
also at higher temperature (3 cycles, 7 min and 125 C). Therefore, ernment.
its performance in terms of optimization conditions is similar to
the technique Soxhlet as well as concentration value. However, for
References
the ASE technique, the experiment was performed in only about
30 min, obtaining a yield of 6.60 g/kg of dried plant, while Soxhlet Almeida, P.P., Mezzomo, N., Ferreira, S.R.S., 2012. Extraction of Mentha spicata L.
needed 8 h to achieve similar yield, 6.99 g/kg of dried plant. volatile compounds: evaluation of process parameters and extract composition.
Consequently, quantitatively considering estragole extraction, Food Bioprocess Technol. 5, 548559.
Annadurai, G., Sheeja, R.Y., 1998. Use of BoxBehnken design of experiments for the
ASE would be a more suitable technique, because it reduces the adsorption of verox red using biopolymer. Bioprocess Eng. 18, 463466.
volume of solvent (about ten times less (from 150 mL to a con- Bicchi, C., Binello, A., Rubiolo, P., 2000. Determination of phenolic diterpene antioxi-
sumption of approximately 15 mL), as well as it is less demanding dants in Rosemary (Rosmarinus ofcinalis L.) with different methods of extraction
and analysis. Phytochem. Anal. 11, 236242.
in time, needing 30 min in comparison to the 8 h needed for Soxhlet Box, G.E.P., Behnken, D.W., 1960. Three level design for the study of quantitative
extraction. variables. Technometrics 2, 455475.
Bristol, D.W., 2011. NTP 3-month toxicity studies of estragole (CAS No. 140-67-0)
administered by gavage to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Toxic Rep. Ser. 82,
4. Conclusions 1111.
Damjanovic, B., Lepojevic, Z., Zivkovic, V., Tolic, A., 2005. Extraction of fen-
nel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds with supercritical CO2 : comparison with
The variables used for the optimization of ASE and Soxhlet hydrodistillation. Food Chem. 92 (1), 143149.
techniques of extraction were appropriate since they had great de Lima, C.J.B., Coelho, L.F., Da Silva, G.P., Alvarez, G.L.M., Contiero, J., 2010. L (+)
inuence on the results obtained. The polarity of the solvents is lactic acid production by new Lactobacillus rhamnosus B 103. J. Microb. Biochem.
Technol. 2 (3), 6469.
an essential variable when choosing the afnity for a series of Daz-Maroto, M.C., Prez-Coello, M.S., Esteban, J., Sanz, J., 2006. Comparison of the
compounds. In this study, methanol (polar protic solvent) was pre- volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) from Cen-
sented as the most suitable solvent for the extraction of compounds tral Spain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 68146818.
Gori, L., Gallo, E., Mascherini, V., Mugelli, A., Vannacci, A., Firenzuoli, F., 2012. Can
of higher interest in the aromatic plants such as the terpenes,
estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human
phenylpropenes and fatty acids. health? A fennel safety update. Evid. Based Compl. Altern. Med. 2012, 110.
ASE technique was presented as the most suitable quantitatively Gross, M., Friedman, J., Dudai, N., Larkov, O., Cohen, Y., Bar, E., Ravid, U., Putievsky,
E., Lewinsohn, E., 2002. Biosynthesis of estragole and t-anethole in bitter fennel
technique, since using a shorter period of time (approximately
(Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Var. vulgare) chemotypes. Changes in SAM: phenyl-
30 min) and using smaller amounts of organic solvent (methanol, propene O-methyltransferase activities during development. Plant Sci. 163,
15 mL), similar concentration of the examined compound versus 10471053.
Soxhlet technique were obtained. He, W., Huang, B., 2011. A review of chemistry and bioactivities of a medicinal spice:
Foeniculum vulgare. J. Med. Plants Res. 5 (16), 35953600.
Qualitatively, Soxhlet technique presented greater number of Heemken, O.P., Theobald, N., Wenclawiak, B.W., 1997. Comparison of ASE and
compounds in fennel seed essential oil. SFE with Soxhlet, sonication, and methanolic saponication extractions for the
536 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 52 (2014) 528536

determination of organic micropollutants in marine particulate matter. Anal. Rajaei, A., Barzegar, M., Yamini, Y., 2005. Supercritical uid extraction of tea seed
Chem. 69, 21712180. oil and its comparison with solvent extraction. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 220,
Jokic, S., Zekovic, Z., Vidovic, S., Sudar, R., Nemet, I., Bilic, M., Velic, D., 2010. Super- 401405.
critical CO2 extraction of soybean oil: process optimization and triacylglycerol Romanik, G., Gilgenast, E., Przyjazny, A., Kaminski, M., 2007. Techniques of preparing
composition. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45, 19391946. plant material for chromatographic separation and analysis. J. Biochem. Biophys.
Khajeh, M., 2011. Optimization of process variables for essential oil components Methods 70, 253261.
from Satureja hortensis by supercritical uid extraction using BoxBehnken Tsimogiannis, D., Stavrakaki, M., Oreopoulou, V., 2006. Isolation and characterization
experimental design. J. Supercrit. Fluids 55, 944948. of antioxidant components from oregano (Origanum heracleoticum). Int. J. Food
Nakatsu, T., Lupo, A., Chinn, J., Kang, R., 2000. Biological activity of essential oils Sci. Technol. 41, 3948.
and their constituents. In: Rahman, A. (Ed.), Bioactive Natural Products (Part B). Wang, L., Weller, C.L., 2006. Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from
Elsevier, Netherlands, pp. 571633. plants. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 17, 300312.
Nath, K., Das, D., 2011. Modeling and optimization of fermentative hydrogen pro- Zeller, A., Rychlik, M., 2006. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel
duction. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 85698581. tea. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 36863692.
Piccaglia, R., Marotti, M., 2001. Characterization of some Italian types of wild fennel Zhang, X., Gao, H., Zhang, L., Liu, D., Ye, X., 2012. Extraction of essential oil
(Foeniculum vulgare Mill). J. Agric. Food. Chem. 49, 239244. from discarded tobacco leaves by solvent extraction and steam distilla-
Raaman, N., 2006. Phytochemical Techniques, 1st ed. New India Publishing, New tion, and identication of its chemical composition. Ind. Crop Prod. 39,
Delhi. 162169.
Raffo, A., Nicoli, S., Leclercq, C., 2011. Quantication of estragole in fennel herbal teas: Zhao, L.C., He, Y., Deng, X., Yang, G.L., Li, W., Liang, J., Tang, Q.L., 2012. Response sur-
implications on the assessment of dietary exposure to estragole. Food Chem. face modeling and optimization of accelerated solvent extraction of four lignans
Toxicol. 49, 370375. from fructus schisandrae. Molecules 17, 36183629.
Rahman, A., Choudhary, M.I., 2011. Anti-obesity Drug Discovery and Development,
vol. 1. Bentham, Pakistan.
Industrial Crops and Products 60 (2014) 186192

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Industrial Crops and Products


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/indcrop

Estragole quantity optimization from fennel seeds by supercritical


uid extraction (carbon dioxidemethanol) using a BoxBehnken
design. Characterization of fennel extracts
Raquel Rodrguez-Solana a,b , Jos Manuel Salgado c , Jos Manuel Domnguez a,b ,
Sandra Corts-Diguez a,b,
a
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sciences Faculty, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n, 32004 Ourense, Spain
b
Laboratory of Agro-food Biotechnology, CITI-Tecnpole, Parque Tecnolgico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Vinas, Ourense, Spain
c
Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Oleoresin extraction from fennel seeds using a supercritical uid extraction (SFE) was carried out.
Received 15 January 2014 BoxBehnken experimental design was used to optimize the SFE variables: pressure (10, 17.5, and
Received in revised form 14 May 2014 25 MPa), temperature (313.15, 323.15, and 333.15 K) and time of extraction (1, 2.5, and 4 h). Different
Accepted 19 May 2014
percentages of methanol (0, 3, and 6%) were also evaluated to improve the extraction of the correspond-
ing volatile compounds. Besides volatile prole characterization of fennel seeds, the amount of estragole
Keywords:
was determined (by gas chromatography-ame ionization detector (GC-FID)) due to its recent concern in
BoxBehnken design
being considered a potential carcinogen agent. The optimal values of SFE variables for methanol extracts
Essential oils
Estragole
were high levels of pressure (24 MPa), 333.15 K of temperature, 3.41 h of extraction time, and an inter-
Fennel mediate value of methanol percentage (3%), obtaining an optimal value of 1320 260 mg of estragole/kg
SFE dry plant. The volatile prole of the methanol extracts was evaluated by gas chromatographymass
spectrometry (GCMS) obtaining mainly, terpenes, phenyl derivatives, and fatty acids.
2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction populations of Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare and concluded that


high proportions of estragole respect trans-anethole were associ-
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. is an Apiaceae family plant native from ated with high yearly rainfall. Other authors (Daz-Maroto et al.,
the Mediterranean area. Its essential oil or oleoresin is valuable 2005; Piccaglia and Marotti, 2001) argue that the ratio of estragole,
for their pharmacological properties like balsamic, cardiotonic, trans-anethole, and fenchone varies depending on the phenological
digestive, lactogogue, and for their antimicrobial, and antioxidant state and origin of the seeds.
properties (Damjanovic et al., 2005). Evaluate the exactly amount of estragole in different plants,
In literature there are different proportions of major fennel mainly in fennel seeds, has been of great importance in recent years
essential oils compounds of the same variety, vulgare. Daz-Maroto due to this volatile compound was declared to be a carcinogen
et al. (2005) showed that estragole, and trans-anethole were the substance (De Vincenzi et al., 2000; Gori et al., 2012) being rec-
most abundant volatile compounds in the essential oils from ommended a limit of 0.05 mg/kg in food to avoid a high value of
Iberian Peninsula (Spain) fennel seeds, where trans-anethole was human daily intake of this compound.
the major constituent of the extracts. In other research, about Por- Among other extraction techniques, there are several research
tuguese fennel seeds, Miguel et al. (2010) founded that estragole works related to the extraction of fennel essential oil from fen-
was the most abundant compound in their essential oils. Barazani nel using supercritical uid extraction (SFE) (Coelho et al., 2003;
et al. (1999) studied the chemical variation among indigenous Daz-Maroto et al., 2006; Moura et al., 2005; Pereira and Meireles,
2007; Ravid et al., 1983; Reverchon et al., 1999; Schlemitz and
Pfannhauser, 1997; Simandi et al., 1999; Yamini et al., 2002; Zizovic
et al., 2007). Supercritical uid extraction is a separation process
Corresponding author at: Laboratory of Agro-food Biotechnology, CITI-
where the substances are dissolved in a uid which is able to mod-
Tecnpole, Parque Tecnolgico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Vinas, Ourense, Spain.
Tel.: +34 988 387 416; fax: +34 988 387 401. ify its dissolving power under specic conditions above their critical
E-mail address: smcortes@uvigo.es (S. Corts-Diguez). temperature (Tc ) and pressure (Pc ) (supercritical region) (Ravents

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.05.027
0926-6690/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 60 (2014) 186192 187

et al., 2002). Supercritical uids have the best properties from the Table 1
Variables of supercritical uid extraction parameters in BoxBehnken design.
liquid and gas: solvating capabilities (ability to penetrate into the
micropores of a solid structure) and transport properties (good Variables in BoxBehnken design
dissemination) (Ravents et al., 2002; Scalia et al., 1999). The prop-
1 0 1
erties of a supercritical uid are used to extract selectively a specic
T (K) 313.15 323.15 333.15
compound or to fractionate mixtures by changing the temperature
P (MPa) 10.0 17.5 25.0
and pressure without any phase change (Ravents et al., 2002). t (h) 1.0 2.5 4.0
Among the supercritical uid, carbon dioxide is considered the sol-
vent that in the supercritical state may be considered the ideal.
Carbon dioxide is non-toxic and non-ammable, it is cost-effective puriss, p.a. (99.8%), (GC) was supplied by SigmaAldrich (Stein-
and it has a low Tc (304.15 K). Therefore, thermal samples decompo- heim, Germany). Alkane standard solution C8 C20 was purchased
sition is reduced, and it is easily removed from the extract following from uka (Steinheim, Germany).
decompression (Scalia et al., 1999; Sovilj Milan et al., 2011).
CO2 , alone as the extractant, has low efciency to extract organ-
2.3. Supercritical uid extraction (SFE) of essential oils from
ics from a sample matrix, therefore, to improve the extraction
fennel seeds
efciency; modier uids (cosolvents) are used. Methanol is one
of the most commonly used solvents in the SFE of polar analytes
2.3.1. Sample preparation
(Casas et al., 2007; Nasri et al., 2012). This solvent is capable of
According to the study of Damjanovic et al. (2005), which
hydrogen-bonding and dipole-dipole interactions with compounds
explained that the particle size inuenced the extraction stage, 50
from plants (Murga et al., 2000). Yamini et al. (2002) already used
grams of fennel seeds were previously grounded, for 30 s, with a
this cosolvent for the extraction of fennel essential oil because
coffee grinder (Moulinex, France). The grounded fennel was placed
methanol enhanced the solubility of solutes in supercritical CO2 .
in a nylon basket, and this basket was placed in another one covered
But so far, it has not been carried out a study of the opti-
with glass beads of size mesh 2 mm (glass beads were purchased by
mal variables for the supercritical uid extraction of essential
Merck (Madrid, Spain)), to prevent that sample were moved along
oils from fennel using an experimental design, particularly the
vessel of 1 L capacity.
BoxBehnken design. However, Tang et al. (2012) and recently
studies of our research group (Rodrguez-Solana et al., 2014)
showed good results in the optimization of several extraction tech- 2.3.2. Supercritical uid extraction
niques to fennel characterization using this statistical design. In The equipment used was a THAR supercritical extraction (Pitts-
other research papers (Erkucuk et al., 2009) SFE was optimized, burgh, USA) with an extraction pressure controller, a temperature
using a BoxBehnken design, to dene the essential oil prole of controller, a cosolvent pump, a preheater, a CO2 pump and an
different plants. BoxBehnken design allows in few experiments, extractor.
optimize variables as well as predict the optimal conditions to In the rst stage, it was turned the PolyScience 9000 series cir-
obtain more quantity of extract from the experiments performed. culator (Illinois, USA) cryostat on to 270.15 K. This was carried out
In the present study it was carried out the optimization of 1 h prior to analysis to keep both, the ducts for circulating the
involved variables in SFE using an experimental BoxBehnken CO2 before passing through the pump and the CO2 pump head,
design taking as reference the amount of estragole extracted. In cold and thus avoiding pumping problems. Table 1 shows the
order to improve the extraction process, methanol as cosolvent was variables selected in SFE extraction according to previous stud-
added in different percentages to improve the solubilization of the ies (Damjanovic et al., 2005; Garca-Risco et al., 2011; Simandi
volatile compounds present in the fennel seeds. et al., 1999; Yamini et al., 2002). Temperatures were selected for
the heat exchanger (depending on the temperature applied to the
heater of sample extract), heater of sample extract (varying accord-
2. Materials and methods ing to the experimental design), inside the extractor (the same
than heater of sample extract) and separator (temperature 298.15 K
2.1. Samples and atmospheric pressure (because it is collected all the extract
without fractionation)). Subsequently it was selected the value of
Dried seeds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) were com- pressure (pressure is another design variable which depends on
mercially purchased from a leader phytotherapy company from the experimental design). The CO2 ow was 40 g/min according to
Spain. According to the information provided by the company, Garca-Risco et al. (2011).
fennel was grown in certied organic area under continental cli- Methanol volume was previously selected in those cases in
mate conditions. Fennel seeds were air dried at room temperature which cosolvent was also used.
and vacuum packed in plastic bags (100 g). The plantation is cer- Time was counted once temperature and pressure operating
tied as organic. Specically, near the source of the River Duero conditions were reached.
(Northwester Spain) to 1200 m of altitude. Plants are grown in a When the extraction was nished, the oleoresin was recovered
continental climate zone and are cultured, collected and dried in from the manifold wall with methanol.
the station accurately. The nal extract was evaporated in a rotavapor R-215 Buchi
Eight bags from different lots (800 g) were mixed in order to (Frankfurt, Germany), at 25 C and 5200 Pa, and the resulting oleo-
obtain a homogenous sample previous to the essential oil extrac- resin extract was dissolved in 10 mL of methanol.
tion by SFE, avoiding possible errors due to the different initial
composition in the fennel seeds. Until analysis the whole sample
2.4. BoxBehnken experimental design
was preserved in a hermetically sealed packaging.
An experimental design based on the response surface method
2.2. Chemicals was proposed to optimize the yield of extraction (expressed as
mg of estragole/kg dry plant). BoxBehnken design is a three level
Commercial grade (more than 99%) liquid carbon dioxide was incomplete factorial design useful for estimating the coefcients
supplied by Carburos Metlicos (Madrid, Spain). Methanol grade in a second degree polynomial (Box and Behnken, 1960). The
188 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 60 (2014) 186192

Table 2
Matrix of experimental design, experimental and predicted values of estragole.

Run Temperature (K) Pressure (MPa) Time (h) mg of estragole/kg dry plant

Observed Predicted

1 1.00 1.00 0.00 13.06 19.72


2 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.66 6.65
3 1.00 1.00 0.00 28.83 23.84
4 1.00 1.00 0.00 93.76 87.10
5 1.00 0.00 1.00 32.79 46.39
6 1.00 0.00 1.00 33.88 49.15
7 1.00 0.00 1.00 23.75 24.06
8 1.00 0.00 1.00 69.50 71.48
9 0.00 1.00 1.00 10.56 21.46
10 0.00 1.00 1.00 28.30 50.84
11 0.00 1.00 1.00 15.52 8.55
12 0.00 1.00 1.00 59.07 63.75
13 0.00 0.00 0.00 79.10 74.15
14 0.00 0.00 0.00 74.94 74.15
15 0.00 0.00 0.00 68.41 74.15

behavior of the system was explained by the following second- follows: 50220 C (323.15493.15 K) (2.5 C/min) (275.65 K/min),
degree polynomial equation: 220300 C (493.15573.15 K) (10 C/min) (283.15 K/min).
   The compounds extracted were tentatively identied. It was car-
y = 0 + i xi + ij xi xj + ii xi2 (1) ried out by comparison of their mass spectra with spectral data from
the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) library.
where y1 is the extraction yield, 0 is the constant, i is the lin- It was conrmed by using the Kovats retention indexes on the HP-
ear coefcient, ij , is the second-order coefcient, ii is the linear 5MS and similar columns (DB-5MS, DB-5 and HP-5). The Kovats
quadratic coefcient and xi and xj are the coded independent vari- retention indexes were calculated for all volatile constituents using
ables. The tting of the polynomial model equation was expressed a n-alkane standard solution C8 C20 according to the following
by the coefcient of determination r2 and the adjusted coefcient equation:
of determination r2 adj . Independent variables were temperature   
(x1 , 313.15333.15 K), pressure (x2 , 1025 MPa), time (x3 , 14 h). tr(unknown) tr(n)
KI = 100 + n + (N n) (3)
Dependent variable was % area total. The design consisted of 15 tr(N) tr(n)
runs and three replicates at the central point (runs 1315). The
BoxBehnken design matrix is shown in Table 2 along with exper- where KI is the Kovats retention index, n and N are the number of
imental data and predicted response. For statistical calculations, carbon atoms in the smaller and larger n-alkane respectively and
the independent variables (Xi ) were coded as xi according to the tr is the retention time.
following equation: The semiquantitative procedure was based on the comparison
of peak areas.
(xi x0 )
xi = (2)
X
where xi is the dimensionless coded value of the independent vari- 2.5.2. Quantication by GCFID
able, X0 is the value of independent variable at the center point and The amount of estragole was exactly quantied due to the
X is the step change. importance of this volatile compound in the oil composition of
A statistical program Statistica 5.0 was used for regression anal- fennel. The estragole quantication from the extracts of fennel
ysis, bonded of the model was judged statistically by coefcient of seeds was carried out in an Agilent 7890 A gas chromatograph
determination r2 , and its statistical signicance was evaluated by equipped with ame ionization detector (FID). A HP-5 (5% phenyl
a F-test. Dependent variable was optimized using an application of methyl siloxane, 30 m 0.32 mm i.d. 0.25 m lm thickness) cap-
commercial software (Solver, Microsoft Excell 2010, Redmon, WA, illary column was used. The amount of the samples injected was
USA). An experiment with optimal conditions was performed to 0.5 L (in splitless mode (15 mL/min at 0.75 min)). Carrier gas
validate the model. was hydrogen with a ow rate 1.5 mL/min. The oven tempera-
ture was programmed from 50 C (323.15 K) at a rate of 2.5 C/min
(275.65 K/min) to 220 C (493.15 K) and from 220 C (493.15 K) at a
2.5. Characterization and quantication of the fennel extracts rate of 10 C/min (283.15 K/min) to 300 C (573.15 K). The injector
and detector temperatures were respectively 250 C (523.15 K) and
2.5.1. Characterization by GCMS 260 C (533.15 K).
The volatile composition of fennel extracts was determined Quantication was carried out by preparing a calibration curve
using an Agilent 7820 A gas chromatograph (Santa Clara, CA, USA) of six points with concentrations between 40 and 650 ppm with a
equipped with an Agilent 5975 series MSD and a non-polar column r2 : 0.998.
HP-5MS (5% diphenyl, 95% dimethylpolysiloxane, 30 m 0.25 mm The results of the optimized estragole yield (with different %
i.d. 0.25 m lm thickness) with a ramp temperature and oper- of cosolvent) were expressed as mg of estragole/kg dry plant or
ating in the electron impact mode (70 eV) with transfer line and directly in % according to the following equation:
ion source temperatures maintained at 230 C (503.15 K). The
injector temperature was kept at 250 C (523.15 K), whereas the  EW 
quadrupole was 150 C (423.15 K). Carrier gas used was H2 (from Yield (%) = 100
PW
Hydrogen generator AD-180 Series, CINEL (Padova, Italy)) with
a ow of 1.5 ml/min. The amount of sample injected was 0.5 L where EW: extract weight after solvent evaporation; PW: initial
(in splitless mode). The oven temperature was programmed as weight of dry plant.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 60 (2014) 186192 189

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Optimization of SC-CO2 extraction by BoxBehnken design

In order to approach the optimum region of estragole extrac-


tion, parameters of SC-CO2 (temperature, pressure and time) were
evaluated at three levels by BoxBehnken experimental design.
Table 2 shows the design matrix, fteen trials with their observed
and predicted response. By applying multiple regression analysis
on the experimental data, a second-order polynomial equation was
obtained:

y = 74.15 + 12.5464 x1 14.1025 x12 + 21.1450 x2 25.72 x22

+ 7.7887 x3 20.0675 x32 19.0825 x1 x2

+11.1650 x1 x3 + 6.4525 x2 x3 (4)

The correlation parameters for the estimation of the regression


equation were showed in Table 3. The multiple correlation coef-
cient r was 0.9854. The closer value of r is to 1; the better is the
correlation between the observed and the predicted data. The coef-
cient of determination r2 was 0.9709, which demonstrated that a
satisfactory adjustment of the model. Approximately 95% of the
variability of estragole in the extract could be explained by the
model. F of Fishers test can show better t of the model, Fcal > Ftab
(18.5652 > 4.772), the higher value of F demonstrated a good t. The
signicance level obtained by critic value of F was 99.75%.
Fig. 1 shows Pareto chart for estragole extraction as a function
of independent variables. It is clear that pressure had a positive
signicant effect (P < 0.05) on extragole extraction. Also noteworthy
was the positive effect of the interaction between temperature and
pressure.
The relationship and interaction between independent variables
and dependent variable were displayed in Fig. 2(ac). When the
temperature was xed at central level, an optimal clear region can
be observed (Fig. 2c). By moving along the X and Y axes, it can be
observed that at higher value of pressure and at middle time can
obtain maximum yield of estragole. In all gures, it can be observed
that the selected range of independent variables was suitable nd-
ing an optimum region on this range.
Validation of the design was performed by conrmatory experi-
mental in optimized conditions (333.15 K, 24 MPa, and 3.41 h). The
value predicted by model was 95.64 mg of estragole/kg dry plant
and the value achieved in validation experimental was 102.4 mg of
estragole/kg dry plant.

Fig. 2. Dependence of estragole (mg/kg) on (a) pressure and temperature at 2.5 h,


(b) time and temperature at 175 bar, and (c) time and pressure at 50 C.

3.2. Characterization of fennel extracts

Table 4 shows the experimental Kovats index from SFE tech-


nique obtained through Eq. (3), and Kovats index from National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The experi-
mental values are substantially in agreement with those given by
library NIST, but for those cases in which deviates, it took a margin
of error of 20 between the experimental and the theoretical value.
The results in Table 4 show that four families of volatile
compounds were identied in fennel seeds, mainly: terpenes
(monoterpenes: hydrocarbon and oxygenated; sesquiterpenes),
phenyl derivatives and fatty acids.
Fig. 1. Pareto chart to the independent variable effects on the response expressed According to the results show in Table 5, for most of the exper-
as extraction yield. (L) Lineal and (Q) quadratic. iments carried out, estragole was the major volatile compound.
190 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 60 (2014) 186192

Table 3
Regression coefcients and parameters of the model.

Model term Regression coefcients Standard error t P 95% Cnf. limit 95% Cnf. limit

Constant 74.15 3.11 23.83 0.00 60.76 87.54


x1 12.55 1.91 6.58 0.02 4.35 20.74
x1 2 14.10 2.81 5.03 0.04 26.17 2.04
x2 21.15 1.91 11.10 0.01 12.95 29.34
x2 2 25.72 2.81 9.17 0.01 37.79 13.65
x3 7.79 1.91 4.09 0.05 0.41 15.99
x3 2 20.07 2.81 7.16 0.02 32.13 8.00
x12 19.08 2.69 7.08 0.02 7.49 30.67
x13 11.16 2.69 4.14 0.05 0.43 22.76
x23 6.45 2.69 2.39 0.14 5.14 18.04

Dependent variable r r2 r2 adj F Signicance level

y1 0.9854 0.9709 0.9186 18.56 99.75

Other compounds also recovered in a greater extent were palmitic Thus, the vulgare variety is associated with sweet notes (Rather
acid, p-propyl anisole, and fenchone. The rest of volatiles extracted et al., 2012) as corresponds to the compounds: trans-anethole,
were present in lower proportion (percent area values lower than estragole and fenchone (Brookes et al., 2009), whereas, piperitum
1). It should be noted that under the conditions applied, the charac- variety is related with pepper notes and bitter taste as bets the
terization of the extract varies sharply. Thus, in those cases where -phellandrene. Table 6 shows, taking into account the results
the percentage of estragole decreased, it was observed a high cor- obtained in the present research, as well as those found in other
responding value for palmitic acid and methylpalmitate. In general, studies of fennel extracts from the Iberian Peninsula, the purity of
the results showed that the CO2 extract, in greater proportion the plants studied. The major compounds associated with sweet
phenyl derivatives and fatty acids compounds. notes from the vulgare variety: estragole, fenchone and trans-
Last column of Table 5 shows the volatile prole of fennel extract anethole are present. However, Table 6 shows a variation in the
in optimal conditions (24 MPa, 333.15 K, 3.41 h, and 3% methanol). proportion of such compounds between the north-Spain and Por-
It was observed high percentages of estragole, fenchone, t-anethole, tuguese fennel respect the south-central Spain fennel. Barazani
and palmitic acid (84.24%, 2.5%, 1.67%, and 7.6%, respectively). This et al. (1999) commented that different ratios of t-anethole and
high percentage of estragole is in agreement with the results found estragole are due to the habitats where fennel grows. Consequently
in other studies (Miguel et al., 2010; Piccaglia and Marotti, 2001). it can be deduced that this proportion is not dependent on the
Piccaglia and Marotti (2001) studied the variations in the volatile methodology employed, taking into account the results of this
composition of wild fennel from various regions of Italy. They found work, and those obtained in a previous study (Rodrguez-Solana
that certain chemical compounds analyzed in the plant oils are et al., 2014) concerning the extraction of estragole from fennel
associated with odor descriptors and they characterize the fen- seeds by Soxhlet or accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), conducted
nel variety. They founded hybridations in the original varieties. under different solvents and operational conditions.

Table 4
Volatile compounds identied in fennel extracts according to experimental Kovats retention index (KI) from supercritical uid extraction (SFE) and from NIST.

Family Compound tR (min) KISFE KINIST

-Myrcene 6.2 992 992


trans--Ocimene 7.8 1037 1039
Monoterpenes
d-Limonene 7.4 1026 1025
hydrocarbons
-Terpinene 8.4 1053 1064
-Fenchene 5.6 971 953

Eucalyptol 7.5 1030 1030


trans-p-Mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol 11.1 1119 1105
Levomenthol 13.4 1170 1172
Oxygenated Fenchone 9.6 1085 1088
monoterpenes l-Pinocarveol 11.8 1135 1140
Camphor 12.0 1139 1139
Isopinocarveol 14.2 1188 1182
Fenchyl acetate 16.2 1229 1445

Estragole 14.6 1197 1196


Anethole 18.9 1283 1301
Phenyl derivatives Methyl eugenol 24.7 1404 1399
p-Propyl-anisole 14.9 1202 1184.6
cis-3-Dodecene 14.4 1191 1195

Caryophyllene 24.9 1407 1410


Sesquiterpene -Cadinene 30.0 1514 1519
hydrocarbon -Copaene 22.9 1366 1367
(Z)-7-Hexadecenal 42.3 1798 1798

Myristic acid 41.1 1769 1765


Fatty acids Methyl palmitate 47.3 1926 1927
Palmitic acid 48.9 1968 1964

Others 3-Methyl-5-heptanone 4.9 943 943

P, probability; r, multiple correlation coefcient; r2 , coefcient of determination; r2 adj , coefcient of determination adjusted; t, Students distribution; F, Fishers test.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 60 (2014) 186192 191

Table 5
Characterization of fennel seeds by supercritical uid extraction technique.

Compound Experiment number Optimal experiment

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Area (%)

-Myrcene 0.28 0.87 0.08 0.07 0.08 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.42 0.18 0.11 0.09 0.04 0.09 0.10 0.02
trans--Ocimene 0.05 0.00 0.03 0.09 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.32 0.00 0.04 0.08 0.09 0.03 0.08 0.05 0.07
d-Limonene 0.41 0.80 0.28 0.92 0.33 0.29 0.45 3.58 0.33 0.24 1.11 0.87 0.28 0.89 0.49 0.33
-Terpinene 0.38 0.00 0.27 0.06 0.04 0.12 0.29 0.16 0.25 0.07 2.03 0.30 0.13 0.29 0.09 0.03
-Fenchene 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
Eucalyptol 0.16 0.00 0.12 0.48 0.17 0.23 0.20 1.52 0.28 0.13 0.63 0.49 0.23 0.47 0.26 0.28
trans-p-Mentha- 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.13 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.04 0.06
2,8-dien-1-ol
Levomenthol 0.13 0.00 0.05 0.04 0.09 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.30 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.04
Fenchone 0.84 0.53 0.92 1.71 1.07 1.10 0.60 3.49 1.26 1.04 1.61 1.80 1.42 1.77 0.92 2.50
l-Pinocarveol 0.08 0.00 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.08 0.09 0.20 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.08 0.08
Camphor 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.05 0.00 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.02
Isopinocarveol 0.00 2.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.11 0.08 0.00 0.11 0.04 0.00 0.04
Fenchyl acetate 0.29 0.00 0.18 0.18 0.27 0.30 0.21 0.18 0.21 0.22 0.29 0.22 0.20 0.22 0.21 0.25
Estragole 58.05 6.22 74.68 71.67 80.18 67.45 52.42 71.33 51.75 65.58 47.38 67.39 80.82 67.39 67.96 84.24
Anethole 0.04 0.00 0.04 1.05 1.35 1.25 0.04 0.83 0.00 1.14 0.25 1.55 1.45 1.52 0.80 1.67
Methyl eugenol 0.18 0.00 0.11 0.04 0.11 0.13 0.10 0.06 0.32 0.11 0.20 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.08
p-Propyl-anisole 6.31 4.43 4.22 1.68 3.91 3.06 4.14 3.10 5.54 5.38 3.01 2.82 2.52 2.84 3.50 1.18
cis-3-Dodecene 1.34 2.34 0.72 0.17 0.41 0.44 0.72 0.22 1.68 0.57 1.13 0.27 0.19 0.00 0.52 0.00
Caryophyllene 0.20 0.00 0.19 0.15 0.22 0.37 0.16 0.12 0.31 0.15 0.14 0.52 0.17 0.52 0.15 0.09
-Cadinene 1.71 5.36 1.09 0.59 0.38 1.08 1.16 0.45 2.46 0.91 1.58 0.77 0.40 0.74 0.78 0.13
-Copaene 0.32 0.44 0.26 0.16 0.18 0.25 0.23 0.15 0.34 0.22 0.28 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.18 0.10
(Z)-7-Hexadecenal 0.37 2.13 0.13 0.06 0.10 0.19 0.18 0.06 0.64 0.22 0.39 0.10 0.06 0.07 0.10 0.00
Myristic acid 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.70 0.32 0.51 0.41 0.07 0.00 0.29 0.00 1.17 0.13 1.15 0.27 0.44
Methyl palmitate 13.32 74.01 4.26 2.33 2.27 7.22 5.64 2.25 29.50 7.12 9.94 2.86 2.28 2.90 4.16 0.73
Palmitic acid 15.16 0.00 12.12 17.62 8.19 15.33 32.67 11.59 4.01 15.58 29.16 18.17 9.04 18.52 19.16 7.6
3-Methyl-5- 0.36 0.30 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.08 0.05 0.01 0.40 0.17 0.43 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.00
heptanone

Table 6
Different proportions of principal compounds from Iberian Peninsula of sweet fennel (ssp vulgare) and bitter fennel (ssp piperitum).

Sweet fennel (ssp vulgare) Bitter fennel (ssp piperitum)

North of Spaina South-Central Spainb Portugalc Central Portugald Central Portugale Central Spainf , *

Area (%)

Fenchone 2.50 12.71 3.50 6.830.8 17 8.326.9


Estragole 84.24 20.33 88.00 2.636.3 21 1.025.6
trans-Anethole 1.67 63.80 0.50 44.274.0 43 0.737.3
*
Wild samples, probably bitter fennel subspecies.
a
Our research.
b
Daz-Maroto et al. (2005).
c
Miguel et al. (2010).
d
Cavaleiro et al. (1993).
e
Coelho et al. (2003).
f
Daz-Maroto et al. (2006).

Higher proportion of estragole versus trans-anethole is associ- efciency of CO2 to extract estragole is improved adding methanol;
ated with habitats with a high precipitation as may be the case of since this compound is capable of hydrogen-bonding and dipole-
our studied fennel and the Portuguese fennel, with similar climatic dipole interactions with that compound (Murga et al., 2000; Yamini
conditions. et al., 2002). Higher percentages of methanol resulted in a decrease
On the other hand, Table 6 also shows the percentages of of the estragole quantity extracted. These results agree with those
fenchone, estragole and trans-anethole obtained using piperitum obtained in previous research works. Tena et al. (1998) stud-
subspecies grown in different regions of the Iberian Peninsula. The ied different percentages of methanol (5, 10, and 20%) for the
amounts of estragole and trans-anethole in piperitum were consid- recovery of phenyl compounds and they obtained a higher
erably lower to those observed in vulgare subspecies.

Table 7
3.3. Quantication of estragole and evaluation of methanol Quantication of estragole with different percentages of cosolvent added.
addition
Cosolvent (methanol)

To optimize the percentage of methanol to be used for the opti- 0% 3% 6%


mal extraction, various percentages (0, 3 and 6%) were investigated mg of estragole/kg dry plant
step-by-step. 100 20 1320 260 1130 150
As can be seen in Table 7, increasing the amount of methanol Yields (%)
0.45 0.18 1.52 0.55 1.26 0.11
from 0 to 3% resulted in an increase in the content of estragole
in the order of ten times, this behavior may be because the low Yield (%) = (EW/PW) 100; EW, extract weight after solvent evaporation.
192 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 60 (2014) 186192

recovery of these compounds with a 5% of methanol. Greater per- Damjanovic, B., Lepojevic, Z., Zivkovic, V., Tolic, A., 2005. Extraction of fen-
centage losses occurred. They concluded that this behavior was nel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds with supercritical CO2 : comparison with
hydrodistillation. Food Chem. 92, 143149.
probably caused by a decrease in the trapping efciency because De Vincenzi, M., Silano, M., Maialetti, F., Scazzocchio, B., 2000. Constituents of aro-
of the trap ooding by the condensed methanol and analyte losses matic plants: II. Estragole. Fitoterapia 71, 725729.
through blowing droplets of liquid methanol. Furthermore, Yamini Daz-Maroto, M.C., Daz-Maroto Hidalgo, I.J., Snchez-Palomo, E., Prez-Coello, M.S.,
2005. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare
et al. (2002) obtained a signicant decrease in the amount of Mill.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous
estragole (2.690.79%), when it was increasing the amount of distillation-extraction and supercritical uid extraction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53,
cosolvent from 80 to 400 microliters with identical conditions of 53855389.
Daz-Maroto, M.C., Prez-Coello, M.S., Esteban, J., Sanz, J., 2006. Comparison of the
pressure, temperature and time.
volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from Cen-
Yields vary in the same way that quantity of estragole (majori- tral Spain. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 68146818.
tary compound) taking into account the percentage of methanol Erkucuk, A., Akgun, I.H., Yesil-Celiktas, O., 2009. Supercritical CO2 extraction of glyco-
sides from Stevia rebaudiana leaves: identication and optimization. J. Supercrit.
used.
Fluids 51, 2935.
Garca-Risco, M.R., Vicente, G., Reglero, G., Fornari, T., 2011. Fractionation of thyme
4. Conclusions (Thymus vulgaris L.) by supercritical uid extraction and chromatography. J.
Supercrit. Fluids 55, 949954.
Gori, L., Gallo, E., Mascherini, V., Mugelli, A., Vannacci, A., Firenzuoli, F., 2012. Can
Estragole, a potential carcinogen agent, is one of the main con- estragole in fennel seed decoctions really be considered a danger for human
stituents of fennel, a traditional aromatic and medicinal plant used, health? A fennel safety update. J. Evid. Based Complement. Altern. Med. 2012,
110.
among other applications, in the production of herb liqueurs in Miguel, M.G., Cruz, C., Faleiro, L., Simoes, M.T., Figueiredo, A.C., Barroso, J.G.,
the northwest of Spain. In this study, the extraction of this com- Pedro, L.G., 2010. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composi-
pound has been optimized applying supercritical uid extraction tion, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Nat. Prod. Commun. 5 (2),
319328.
technique according with an experimental BoxBehnken design. Moura, L.S., Carvalho Jr., R.N., Stefanini, M.B., Ming, L.C., Meireles, M.A.A., 2005.
The results showed that the optimal values of SFE variables for Supercritical uid extraction from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): global yield,
methanol extracts were high levels of pressure (240 bar), 60 C of composition and kinetic data. J. Supercrit. Fluids 35, 212219.
Murga, R., Ruiz, R., Beltrn, S., Cabezas, J.L., 2000. Extraction of natural complex
temperature, 3.41 h of extraction time, and an intermediate value
phenols and tannins from grape seeds by using supercritical mixtures of carbon
of methanol percentage (3%). dioxide and alcohol. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48, 34083412.
From an industrial point of view, the manufacturing of fennel- Nasri, F., Daraei, H., Hatami, T., Maleki, A., 2012. Phase equilibrium of binary sys-
tem carbon dioxidemethanol at high pressure using articial neural network.
containing products (not aimed to the human intake), using an
J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 34, 10701078.
experimental design coupled with supercritical uid extraction Pereira, C.G., Meireles, M.A.A., 2007. Economic analysis of rosemary, fennel and
provides interesting new data in the extraction of estragole. The anise essential oils obtained by supercritical uid extraction. Flavour Frag. J.
use of supercritical uids for removal estragole from fennel was not 22, 407413.
Piccaglia, R., Marotti, M., 2001. Characterization of some Italian types of wild fennel
performed before. The extraction of estragole from fennel requires (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 239244.
high pressure, temperature, and time conditions. Avoiding these Rather, M.A., Dar, B.A., So, S.N., Bhat, B.A., Qurishi, M.A., 2012. Foeniculum vulgare:
conditions could decrease its amount in the oleoresin. A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology,
and safety. Arabian J. Chem, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2012.04.011.
Ravid, U., Putievsky, E., Snir, N., 1983. The volatile components of oleoresins
Conict of interest and the essential oils of Foeniculum vulgare in Israel. J. Nat. Prod. 6,
848851.
Ravents, M., Duarte, S., Alarcn, R., 2002. Application and possibilities of supercrit-
The authors declare that there are no conicts of interest. ical CO2 extraction in food processing industry: an overview. Food Sci. Technol.
Int. 8, 0269284.
Reverchon, E., Daghero, J., Marrone, C., Mattea, M., Poletto, M., 1999. Supercriti-
Acknowledgements cal fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: experiments and
mathematical modeling. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 30693075.
Rodrguez-Solana, R., Salgado, J.M., Dominguez, J.M., Corts-Diguez, S., 2014. Char-
We are grateful for the nancial support of this work to the
acterization of fennel extracts and quantication of estragole: optimization and
Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (project CTQ2011- comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and Soxhlet techniques. Ind. Crop.
28967), which has partial nancial support from the FEDER funds of Prod. 52, 528536.
the European Union. Jos Manuel Salgado acknowledge the nan- Scalia, S., Giuffreda, L., Pallado, P., 1999. Analytical and preparative supercriticial
uid extraction of Chamomile owers and its comparison with conventional
cial support from Fundaco para a Cincia e Tecnologia (FCT) of methods. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 21, 549558.
Portugal through grant SFRH/BD/87953/2012. Schlemitz, S., Pfannhauser, W., 1997. Supercritical uid extraction of mononitrated
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from tea correlation with the PAH concen-
tration. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. A 205, 305310.
References Simandi, B., Dek, A., Rnyai, E., 1999. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and
fractionation of fennel oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 16351640.
Barazani, O., Fait, A., Cohen, Y., Diminshtein, S., Ravid, U., Putievsky, E., Lewinsohn, E., Sovilj Milan, N., Nikolovski Branislava, G., Spasojevic Momcilo, D., 2011. Critical
Friedman, J., 1999. Chemical variation among indigenous populations of Foenicu- review of supercritical uid extraction of selected spice plant materials. Maced.
lum vulgare var. vulgare in Israel. Planta Med. 65, 486489. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 30, 197220.
Box, G.E.P., Behnken, D.W., 1960. Three level design for the study of quantitative Tang, W.-Q., Nie, S.-T., Lv, Y.-X., Liang, K.-F., 2012. The experimental study of fennel
variables. Technometrics 2, 455475. oil separation and purication using response surface analysis. Adv. Mat. Res.
Brookes, J.C., Horseld, A.P., Stoneham, A.M., 2009. Odour character differences for 455456, 834839.
enantiomers correlate with molecular exibility. J. R. Soc. Interface 6, 7586. Tena, M.T., Ros, A., Valcrcel, M., 1998. Supercritical uid extraction of t-resveratrol
Casas, L., Mantell, C., Rodrguez, M., Torres, A., Macas, F.A., Martnez de la Ossa, and other phenolics from a spiker solid. J. Anal. Chem. 361, 143148.
E., 2007. Effect of the addition of cosolvent on the supercritical uid extrac- Yamini, Y., Sedkon, F., Pourmortazavi, S.M., 2002. Comparison of essential oil
tion of bioactive compounds from Helianthus annuus L. J. Supercrit. Fluids 41, composition of Iranian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) obtained by supercritical
4349. carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation methods. Flavour Frag. J. 17,
Cavaleiro, C.M., Roque, O.L., da Cunha, A.P., 1993. Contribution for the characteriza- 345348.
tion of Portuguese fennel chemotypes. J. Essent. Oil Res. 5 (2), 223225. Zizovic, I., Stamenic, M., Orlovic, A., Skala, D., 2007. Supercritical carbon dioxide
Coelho, J.A.P., Pereira, A.P., Mendes, R.L., Palavra, A.M.F., 2003. Supercritical carbon extraction of essential oils from plants with secretory ducts: mathematical mod-
dioxide extraction of Foeniculum vulgare volatile oil. Flavour Frag. J. 18, 316319. eling on the micro-scale. J. Supercrit. Fluids 39, 338346.
Research Article
Received: 21 May 2014, Revised: 14 July 2014, Accepted: 20 July 2014 Published online in Wiley Online Library

(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/pca.2537

Comparison of Soxhlet, Accelerated Solvent


and Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques
for Volatile (GCMS and GC/FID) and Phenolic
Compounds (HPLCESI/MS/MS) from
Lamiaceae Species
Raquel Rodrguez-Solana,a,b Jos Manuel Salgado,c
Jos Manuel Domngueza,b and Sandra Corts-Digueza,b*
ABSTRACT:
Introduction Plants from the Lamiaceae family have been known traditionally for their benecial health-promoting proper-
ties, attributed to their anti-inammatory, anaesthetic and anti-microbial effects.
Objective The purposes of this study was to characterise the essential oils from four Lamiaceae plants by applying different
extraction techniques.
Methods Accelerated solvent (ASE), Soxhlet and supercritical uid (SFE) extraction methods were compared for their
efciency in obtaining the essential oils from plants. The volatile compounds were identied by GCMS and the main
chemotype was quantied by GC with ame ionisation detection (FID). Phenolic compounds were identied and quantied
by HPLC and electrospray ionisation (ESI) with MS/MS.
Results The essential oils Mentha piperita (ct. menthol/menthone), Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. (ct. eucalyptol/camphor) and
Origanum vulgare (ct. carvacrol/thymol), whereas Thymus vulgaris L. was found to be a pure chemotype (ct. thymol). All three
extracts also contained six phenolic compounds. The highest extraction yields were achieved by the Soxhlet and ASE
techniques, with M. piperita and R. ofcinalis L. producing the highest concentrations of rosmarinic and carnosic acids.
Finally, it was observed that M. piperita and O. vulgare produced the highest total phenolic content, whereas R. ofcinalis L.
and T. vulgaris L. produced the highest anti-oxidant activity.
Conclusion The ASE and Soxhlet extraction techniques presented the highest yields of volatile and phenolic compounds,
showing their suitability to characterise the chemical prole of aromatic plants. Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: ASE; DPPH; Folin; GC-FID; GC-MS; HPLCESI/MS/MS; SFE; Soxhlet; Lamiaceae

Introduction recovered from plants. These proles though depend on the


local environmental conditions, the season when the material
Mentha piperita, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. and was collected, the technique used for drying, the storage condi-
Thymus vulgaris L. are the most prominent representative plants tions of the collected plants, the applied methodology for isola-
of the Lamiaceae family. These plants have been used tradition- tion of the essential oils, and the analytical conditions used for
ally as folk remedies for health problems (common cold, throat identication (Daferera et al., 2000). Classication of essential oils
infections, as an acaricidal compound, psoriasis, haemorrhage, according to chemotypes is necessary due to the chemical
etc.), in other activities such as cooking and perfumery (Askun heterogeneity of the avours and fragrances of these plants,
et al., 2012), and also to enhance herbal liqueurs known for their
health-promoting properties, mainly taken orally (Diario Ocial
de Galicia, 2012). * Correspondence to: S. Corts-Diguez, Department of Chemical Engineer-
In recent years there is growing interest in evaluating the avail- ing, Sciences Faculty, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n,
ability of natural plant extracts as an alternative to the use of 32004 Ourense, Spain.
synthetic anti-oxidants (butylated 3hydroxytoluene (BHT) and E-mail: smcortes@uvigo.es
butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)), which can produce carcino- a
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sciences Faculty, University of Vigo
genic effects in living organisms. Natural plant extracts (with a (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n, 32004 Ourense, Spain
pleasant taste and smell) show preservative action, and they
b
avoid lipid deterioration, oxidation reactions and microorganism Laboratory of Agro-food Biotechnology, CITI-Tecnpole, Parque Tecnolgico
de Galicia, San Cibrao das Vias, Ourense, Spain
spoilage (Sacchetti et al., 2005; Tepe et al., 2005).
Terpenes, composed of two isoprene units, are the characteris- c
IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological
tic compounds quantied in the volatile proles of essential oils Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

Phytochem. Anal. 2014 Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.

and because of their use as culinary herbs to improve avour The extraction procedure, under optimal conditions, followed
and organoleptic properties (Bozin et al., 2006). that previously described by Rodrguez-Solana et al. (2014a).
Besides the volatile compounds, the phenolic prole of the es-
Supercritical uid extraction. The SFE was performed using
sential oil is of interest because numerous studies showed that
the Thar process (Pittsburgh, PA, USA), with an extraction pressure
these compounds have a diverse range of biological and phar-
controller, a temperature controller, a co-solvent pump, a pre-
macological properties mainly as anti-oxidant and anti-microbial
heater, a CO2 pump and an extractor. The CO2 ow was 40 g/min
(Bozin et al., 2006; Celiktas et al., 2007; Hossain et al., 2011; Zhang
and the co-solvent was 3% (v/v) methanol (Rodrguez-Solana
et al., 2012).
et al., 2014b). The nal extract was evaporated in a Buchi rotavapor
Hydrodistillation, Soxhlet, steam distillation, simultaneous
R-215 (Frankfurt, Germany) at 25C and the resulting oleoresin
distillation and extraction (SDE) are the main conventional tech-
extract was dissolved in 10 mL of methanol.
niques used for extraction of volatile and phenolic compounds
from plants. Nowadays, however, alternative techniques (such Total phenols. The total phenolic content analysis of the
as supercritical uids extraction (SFE), accelerated solvent extrac- Lamiaceae plants extracts was undertaken using the Folin
tion (ASE) and headspace extraction) have been developed Ciocalteau method described by Otles and Yalcin (2012). This
(Daferera et al., 2000; Mustafa and Turner, 2011; Daz-Maroto method involves a chemical reduction, consisting in a transfer of
et al., 2005). In particular, the use of ASE and SFE have gained electrons in an alkaline medium, from phenolic compounds pres-
importance because they are categorised as green technolo- ent in the essential oils to phosphomolybdic/phosphotungstic acid
gies, reducing not only the amount of extraction time but also complexes (blue products), which are spectrophotometrically mea-
the amounts of sample and solvent required (Mustafa and sured at 760 nm (Singh et al., 2003; Ainsworth and Gillespie, 2007).
Turner, 2011). A calibration curve of gallic acid was performed and the results ob-
This work deals with the use of three extraction techniques (SFE, tained were expressed in grams gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g
Soxhlet and ASE) to obtain essential oils from plants of the family dry plant. All determinations were performed in duplicate.
Lamiaceae. The characterisation and quantication of their volatile Anti-oxidant activity. The molecule ,-diphenyl--
and phenolic fraction was carried out by GCMS and GC coupled picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical) is a stable free radical due to the
to ame ionisation detection (FID) and by HPLC combined with delocalisation of the spare electron over the molecule, this
electrospray ionisation (ESI) coupled to MS/MS. Finally, the work delocalisation produces the characteristic violet colour with an
was completed by investigating anti-oxidant capacity (measured absorption band in methanol that is measured at 515 nm. When
using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method) and the the solution of DPPH was mixed with a hydrogen donor sub-
total phenolic content (quantied by the FolinCiocalteu method) stance, the ,-diphenyl--picrylhydrazyl changes to the re-
of all essential oils. duced form ,-diphenyl--picrylhydrazine (decolourised). This
reaction is a model of the reactions taking place in an oxidising
system, such as the autoxidation of unsaturated substances, and
Materials and methods the DPPH radical is intended to represent the free radicals
Samples formed in the system in which activity is to be suppressed by
the hydrogen donor substance (Molyneux, 2004). The radical
Samples from the Lamiaceae family (M. piperita, O. vulgare, R. scavenging activity was determined using the DPPH method
ofcinalis L. and T. vulgaris L.) were purchased from a leading described by Rawson et al. (2013). The results were expressed
phytotherapy company in Spain (Soria Natural, Garray, Spain). as inhibition of free radical by DPPH in per cent (I%) and it is
According to the information provided by the company, these calculated using the following equation:
plants were cultivated in certied organic plantations, grown in
a continental climate zone and nally collected in the appropri- 
I% Ablank  Asample =Ablank  100
ate season. All plants were air dried at room temperature and
vacuum packed in plastic bags (100 g). where Ablank is the absorbance of the control (all reagents except
the sample) and Asample is the absorbance of the sample (essen-
tial oil). Measures were carried out in duplicate.
Reagents
Phenolic prole: HPLCESI/MS/MS. Phenolic compounds
Reference compounds such as quercetin-2-hydrate, luteolin, were analysed using Thermo Scientic (Olten, Switzerland)
apigenin, ()-eriodictyol, carnosic and rosmarinic acid, all equipment with an automatic injector and coupled to a HPLC
HPLC grade (95%), eucalyptol and methanol were pur- Thermo Finnigan Spectra System UV 6000 LP and a quadrupole
chased from Sigma-Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). Thymol MS: Finnigan TSQ Quantum Discovery equipped with an
was acquired from Acros Organics (Madrid, Spain) (99%), electrospray ionisation interface. The optimum conditions of
Menthol (>98%) and formic acid, from Panreac (Barcelona, the interface were as follows: ESI(); spray voltage 3000 V;
Spain). Milli-Q water was obtained from a Millipore system sheath gas pressure (N2) 10 psi; auxiliary gas pressure 0 psi; cap-
(Bedford, MA, USA). illary temperature 380C. The chromatographic separation used
a Kinetex XB-C18 100 , LC Column (2.6 m, 100 4.6 mm i.d.)
(Phenomenex, Maccleseld, UK), utilising a stationary phase with
Instrumental and analytical procedures
iso-butyl side chains and with trimethylsilyl (TMS) end-capping.
Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extraction techniques. The injection volume was 5 L and the ow rate was set to
Soxhlet extraction was carried out using a Behrotest 1 mL/min. All data were collected as negative-ion spectra while
(Dsseldorf, Germany) and ASE experiments were performed the MS was performing a full mass scan in the range of 250
with a Dionex ASE 350 from Vertex Technics (Barcelona, Spain). 400 uma. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytochem. Anal. 2014
Lamiaceae Essential Oils

in deionised water (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B): starting as in the GCMS analysis. Injector and detector temperatures
from 70 to 50% solvent A (5.7 min), from 50 to 0% solvent A were 250C and 260C.
(5 min), constant at 0% solvent A (5.3 min), from 0 to 70% solvent Quantication of the chemotypes studied (eucalyptol, menthol
A (1 min) and then constant at 70% solvent A for 4 min for and thymol) was carried out by preparing calibration curves of six
reconditioning of the column. points with the following concentrations range: 401500 ppm.
Phenolic compounds were identied by comparison of their Table 2 shows the calibration curve of the chemotypes, the corre-
retention times and mass spectra with those of standard lation coefcient (values near to unity) and the LOD and LOQ,
compounds. Quantication was carried out using a calibration which have been calculated as:
curve with the following concentration range: 0.510 ppm of
rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid; 0.1 2 ppm of eriodictyol, 3Syx 10Syx
LOD and LOQ
quercetin, luteolin and apigenin. Table 1 shows the fractionation m m
products of the parent mass and the collision energy for the
individual compounds. where Syx is the estimation of the standard deviation of the re-
Table 2 shows the calibration curve of the compounds stud- gression line and m is the slope of the calibration curve.
ied, the correlation coefcient (which showed high linearity as Statistical analysis. The results obtained were analysed using
the value approached 1) and the limits of detection (LOD) and XLstat-Pro from Addinsoft (New York, NY, USA). One-way analy-
quantication (LOQ). The LOD and LOQ were calculated as: sis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to establish whether signi-
cant differences (p < 0.05) existed between the values obtained
3Sbl 10Sbl for the mean concentration of each compound or analytical
LOD and LOQ
m m parameter determined in the different samples analysed. The
where Sbl is the blank signal and m is the slope of the calibration multiple range test (least-squares difference (LSD)) was applied
curve. to conrm the results obtained. Pearsons correlations between
phenolic compounds and total phenolic content and anti-
GCMS and GC/FID: volatile prole and quantication of oxidant activity were also calculated. Principal component anal-
chemotypes. The volatile prole of the extracts obtained with ysis (PCA) was applied to investigate the possible differences
the three different techniques applied was determined using an amongst the four Lamiacea plants, according to the extraction
Agilent 7820A gas chromatograph (Santa Clara, CA, USA) technique used.
equipped with an Agilent 5975 series MSD (mass selective de-
tector) and a non-polar column HP-5MS (5% diphenyl, 95%
dimethylpolysiloxane, 30 m 0.25 mm i.d. 0.25 mm lm thick- Results and discussion
ness) with a ramp temperature and operating in the electron
Identication of the volatile prole and quantication of
impact mode (70 eV), with transfer line and ion source tempera-
chemotypes by GCMS and GC/FID
tures maintained at 230C. The injector temperature was main-
tained at 250C, whereas the quadrupole temperature was The identication of the volatile compounds present in the es-
150C. The carrier gas used was H2 (from the hydrogen genera- sential oils obtained from O. vulgare, T. vulgaris L., R. ofcinalis
tor AD-180 Series, Cinel (Padova, Italy)) with a ow of 1.5 mL/ L. and M. piperita under three different extraction techniques,
min. The amount of sample injected was 0.5 L (in splitless ASE, Soxhlet and SFE, was carried out. Table 3 shows the 68 com-
mode). The oven temperature was programmed as follows: pounds identied in the four Lamiaceae plants analysed, classi-
50220C (2.5C/min), 220300C (10C/min). The identication ed in seven different families. All volatile compounds were
was carried out as described by Rodrguez-Solana et al. (2014a,b). identied according to the corresponding retention indices of
The quantication of the chemotypes of the essential oils the techniques applied and those from the literature (National
from Lamiaceae plants was carried out in an Agilent 7890A Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST).
gas chromatograph equipped with a FID. The column used The semi-quantitative results of the volatile compounds
was a HP-5 (5% phenyl methyl siloxane, 30 m 0.32 mm i.d. are shown in Table 4. Mentha piperita, R. ofcinalis L. and
0.25 m lm thickness). The volume injected (previously O. vulgare presented a mixed chemotype, while T. vulgaris
diluted) was 0.5 L. The oven temperature was programmed L. presented a pure or simple chemotype. Mentha piperita

Table 1. Compounds identied and quantied by HPLCESI/MS/MS. The parent mass, its products and the optimal collision
energy (V) and tube lens values

Characteristic Compound
Rosmarinic acid Eriodictyol Quercetin Luteolin Apigenin Carnosic acid
tR (min) 5.27 6.07 7.69 8.20 9.56 17.31
Parent mass [M - H] (m/z) 359.1 287.0 301.0 285.0 269.0 331.1
Product mass (m/z)/E (V) 160.99/22 135.03/33 150.97/28 133.01/42 117.03/43 287.20/32
197.02/22 150.98/18 178.98/26 132.01/56 148.99/32 271.17/52
133.00/47 271.15/47 107.01/37 150.97/32 151.00/32 244.14/34
135.02/43 244.13/27 121.01/33 175.02/32 225.05/28 243.10/53
Tube lens 89 95 89 95 95 89

Phytochem. Anal. 2014 Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.

Table 2. Compounds quantied by GC/FID (chemotypes: menthol, eucalyptol and thymol) and HPLCESI/MS/MS (the other
compounds) with the calibration curve, correlation coefcient and limits of detection (LOD) and quantication (LOQ)

Compounds Calibration curve R2 LOD (ppm) LOQ (ppm)


Menthol y = 3.36x + 27.17 0.9997 33 109
Eucalyptol y = 3.81x + 269.62 0.9909 181 602
Thymol y = 3.52x 2.79 0.9998 30 99
Rosmarinic acid y = 2000000x + 95738 0.9991 0.01 0.02
Eriodyctiol y = 2000000x + 217229 0.9982 0.00 0.01
Quercetin y = 792303x + 47483 0.9988 0.00 0.01
Luteolin y = 1000000x + 309695 0.9956 0.01 0.02
Apigenin y = 2000000x + 313708 0.9968 5E-6 1E-2
Carnosic acid y = 648322x 110423 0.9994 0.01 0.04

contains the oxygenated monoterpenes menthol (4648%) and (in relation to Figiel et al. (2010), who used hydrodistillation), the
l-menthone (1416%) as chemotypes: these results are in agree- results were similar to those achieved by Llusi et al. (2006)
ment with those reported by Raina et al. (2009), although with during the extraction of eucalyptol in R. ofcinalis L. (extracts of
lower percentages of both compounds. Terpenes are com- pulverised leaves with pentane using centrifuge).
pounds that can be used as sorption promoters of drugs
through skin (Aqil et al., 2007). In particular, menthol can be used
Total phenols
as a fungicide, although, due to its analgaesic properties, it is
widely used as avouring for toothpaste and other oral hygiene The FolinCiocalteu method was used to evaluate the total phe-
products, and also for chewing-gum because it causes a feeling nolic content of the essential oils from the four Lamiaceae plants
of coolness (Galeotti et al., 2002). studied. Table 6 shows the values of total phenolic content in
The mixed chemotypes of R. ofcinalis L. were eucalyptol (35 the extracts from the four Lamiaceae plants analysed, obtained
45%) and camphor (2123%). Using the same extraction tech- with the three different extraction techniques applied. Signi-
niques, Miraldi et al. (2012) found similar results. These authors cant differences for the total phenolic content among extracts
pointed out that a good essential oil obtained from this plant were observed.
should contain between 20 and 50% of eucalyptol. Eucalyptol The ASE technique showed the highest values of total pheno-
has been reported to be an important ingredient in cosmetics lic compounds in the four plants analysed, however, the values
and is a common agent in pharmaceutical products because it were lower than those obtained by Hossain et al. (2011). Total
increases percutaneous penetration of drugs and acts as a nasal phenolic content of the extracts obtained with the Soxhlet tech-
decongestant and anti-cough agent (Soares et al., 2005). nique in R. ofcinalis L. by Erkan et al. (2008) was 16.2 g GAE/
Origanum vulgare L. contained a carvacrol/thymol mixed 100 g (12 times lower than our value), whereas, Dorman et al.
chemotype. Any mixture of these compounds depends on the (2003) who applied hydrodistillation, obtained values several
environmental conditions that inuence which biosynthetic times higher than the results reported in our study (see Table 6).
pathway of the two compounds will be the dominant (Jerkovi Wojdyo et al. (2007) showed a similar value for total phenolic
et al., 2001). In this study, the percentage of both compounds content in R. ofcinalis L. extract obtained by ASE and in O.
was similar, meaning that the environmental conditions did vulgare obtained by SFE, but lower than the corresponding value
not dene the dominant pathway. Thymol and carvacrol possess in the extracts from ASE and Soxhlet. In the case of T. vulgaris L.,
useful anti-oxidant properties and can substitute the use of the same authors obtained similar total phenolic contents to
synthetic anti-oxidants (Aeschbach et al., 1994). In addition, those shown in our study applying ASE.
these compounds can be used as fungicide, herbicide and insec- Chan et al. (2012) showed lower values of total phenolic con-
ticide (Kordali et al., 2008). tent in M. piperita and O. vulgare, but similar results for R.
Finally, the results obtained in this study showed that T. ofcinalis L. to ASE and Soxhlet and higher values for T. vulgaris
vulgaris L. contains a thymol pure chemotype (7781%), which L. for all techniques applied; Celiktas et al. (2007) obtained
is in agreement with the results published by Daz-Maroto similar total phenolic contents in R. ofcinalis L. extract obtained
et al. (2005), also applying SFE technique. under SFE.
The capacity of extraction of the volatile compounds from the In summary, comparing all techniques, SFE showed the worse
four Lamiaceae plants was similar for the three techniques results for the quantication of total phenolic contents, as values
applied (Table 4). For each plant, the corresponding chemotype 200 to 500 times lower were obtained compared with both ASE
(compound or compounds with a higher percentage in the and Soxhlet.
semi-quantication) was evaluated, with the results shown in
Table 5. No signicant differences were observed for the con-
The DPPH method
centration of these compounds according to the extraction tech-
nique, except for eucalyptol, for which ASE achieved values 1.6 The DPPH method was used to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity.
times higher compared with Soxhlet extraction. The anti-oxidant activity is due to the disappearance of DPPH
Regarding thymol, in spite of achieving lower concentrations radical absorption at 515 nm by the action of anti-oxidants
in T. vulgaris L. (in comparison with Lee et al. (2005), who used (hydrogen donor substances; Erkan et al., 2008). Many species
steam distillation under reduced pressure) and also in O. vulgare of the Lamiaceae family exhibit anti-oxidant properties. Between

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytochem. Anal. 2014
Lamiaceae Essential Oils

Table 3. Compounds identied by GCMS with their associated family, retention time and retention index (RI) of the techniques
used and the literature comparisons

Family tR (min) Compound RItechniques RIliterature


Monoterpene hydrocarbons Acyclic 6.20 -Myrcene 993 993
Monocyclic 6.55 -Phellandrene 1004 1005
6.96 -Terpinene 1014 1014
7.21 m-Cymene 1021 1023
7.23 o-Cymene 1022 1018
7.36 Limonene 1026 1028
8.45 -Terpinene 1055 1056
9.60 -Terpinene (Terpinolene) 1085 1087
9.68 p-Cymenene 1087 1088
11.55 cis-p-Mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol 1130 1122
Bicyclic 5.60 ()--Pinene 970 978
6.53 3-Carene 1003 1005
Oxygenated monoterpenes Acyclic 10.29 Linalol 1102 1104
Monocyclic 7.47 Eucalyptol 1028 1030
11.80 cis-2-p-Menthen-1-ol 1135 1139
12.15 Isopulegol 1143 1156
12.56 l-Menthone 1152 1166
12.97 Isomenthone 1161 1159
13.09 Isomenthol 1163 1182
13.51 Terpinen-4-ol 1174 1174
13.94 Menthol 1177 1185
14.07 p-Cymen-8-ol 1185 1185
14.19 -Terpineol 1189 1189
15.76 exo-2-Hydroxycineole 1220 1228
16.40 Thymol methyl ether 1233 1233
16.55 Pulegone 1236 1244
17.27 p-Menth-1-en-3-one (Piperitone) 1251 1268
19.35 Menthyl acetate 1294 1294
19.48 Thymol 1298 1296
20.63 Carvacrol 1308 1307
Bicyclic 8.89 cis-Sabinene hydrate 1066 1071
10.74 Fenchol 1112 1121
11.93 Camphor 1140 1145
12.93 Borneol 1160 1166
13.03 endo-Borneol/isoborneol 1162 1165/1160
18.75 Bornyl acetate 1281 1286
Phenylpropenoids 22.25 m-Eugenol 1353 1362
24.77 Methyleugenol 1404 1399
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons Acyclic 27.21 cis--Farnesene 1456 1457
Monocyclic 23.81 ()--Elemene 1384 1380
26.52 Humulene 1441 1447
27.17 -Elemene 1455 1465
27.90 Germacrene D 1470 1472
28.21 Curcumene 1477 1479
28.61 -Elemene 1455 1465
29.44 -Bisabolene 1503 1506
Bicyclic 24.95 Caryophyllene 1408 1410
27.76 -Muurolene 1467 1470
28.03 -Selinene 1473 1475
28.89 -Muurolene 1491 1497
30.00 -Cadinene 1515 1519
30.29 Cadina-1(2),4-diene 1521 1539
30.74 -Calacorene 1531 1542
Tricyclic 22.69 -Ylangene 1362 1372
22.91 -Copaene 1366 1376
(Continues)

Phytochem. Anal. 2014 Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.

Table 3. (Continued)

Family tR (min) Compound RItechniques RIliterature


23.31 ()--Bourbonene 1374 1378
25.34 -Ylangene 1416 1423
25.42 -Copaene 1418 1428
26.84 Aromandendrene 1448 1447
28.48 -Gurjunene 1482 1479
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes Bicyclic 32.48 Caryophyllene oxide 1569 1576
Tricyclic 32.32 Spathulenol 1566 1571
32.93 Viridiorol 1579 1584
35.63 Ledene oxide-(II) 1641 1646
Fatty alcohol 6.45 3-Octanol 1001 994
Fatty acid 49.18 n-Hexadecanoic acid 1973 1960

the phenolic content, polyphenolic compounds have been re- ofcinalis L. (between ve and three times lower compared with
ported to have anti-oxidant activity (Wojdyo et al., 2007). the other plants).
Results in Table 7 show that the highest percentages of inhibi- Finally, eriodictyol is among the most potent compounds to
tion were found for T. vulgaris L. (5662%) and R. ofcinalis L. protect human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells from oxida-
(5763%), with few differences between the techniques of extrac- tive stress-induced cell death (Johnson et al., 2009) and it acts as
tion applied. The values obtained were lower than those recorded an antagonist of the TRPV1 (transient potential vanilloid 1 recep-
by Yoo et al. (2008) for T. vulgaris L. (85%) and R. ofcinalis L. tor is a potential target for the treatment of a number of pain dis-
(74%), and by Gachkar et al. (2007) for T. vulgaris L. (70%). orders) receptor and as an anti-oxidant, inducing antinociception
without some of the side effects and limitations such as hyper-
thermia (Rossato et al., 2011). The highest concentration was
Identication and quantication of phenols by HPLCESI/
found in M. piperita and O. vulgare, while in T. vulgaris L. was
MS/MS
the half concentration value.
Phenolic compounds were identied comparing retention times On the other hand, phenolic compounds have anti-oxidant
and mass spectra data of the [M H] and fragment ions with activity and this activity was attributed mainly to carnosic and
those of standards. Table 1 shows the values of the parent mass rosmarinic acids (Lu and Yeap Foo, 2001; Erkan et al., 2008).
and fragment ions in samples and standards. These compounds presented the highest concentrations of all
The essential oil of Lamiaceae plants is used for medicinal Lamiaceae essential oils. Carnosic acid inhibits triglyceride eleva-
purposes, amongst others, and phenolic compounds help the tion in olive-oil-loaded mice at doses of 520 mg/kg (per os) and
contribution of these properties. In this research, different poly- reduces the gain of body weight and the accumulation of
phenols common to all plants were identied and quantied in epididymal fat weight in mice fed a high-fat diet after 14 days
Lamiaceae essential oils obtained by applying different extrac- (20 mg/kg/day, per os; Ninomiya et al., 2004). This compound
tion techniques (see Table 8). In general, for the four plants appeared clearly in R. ofcinalis L. at a high concentration. Ex-
analysed, the concentration of phenols extracted with ASE and tracts obtained with the ASE and Sohxlet techniques presented
Soxhlet techniques were similar and very high respect to those concentrations four times higher than SFE. The concentration
obtained applying SFE. in ASE found by Hossain et al. (2011) was about 27 times lower
Flavonoids (secondary metabolites) are the phenolic com- that our results, whereas the concentrations in SFE found by
pounds more commonly distributed in plant tissues. Flavonoids Celiktas et al. (2007) and Kuo et al. (2011) were approximately
show anti-oxidant activity, being effective scavengers of free twice more than our results. Rosmarinic acid is astringent, anti-
radicals, which are intermediate products of lipid peroxidation. oxidative, anti-inammatory (inhibition of lipoxygenases and
They also slow down oxidation reactions. Consequently, avo- cyclooxygenases), anti-mutagen, anti-bacterial and anti-viral,
noids retard the ageing of cells, the lipid oxidative rancidity in and also protects against cancer (Petersen and Simmonds,
foods, and also protect against certain illnesses in humans, such 2003). Mentha piperita and R. ofcinalis L. presented the highest
as cardiovascular or coronary diseases and cancer (Tsimogiannis concentrations for ASE and Soxhlet techniques, showing similar
et al., 2007; Hossain et al., 2010; Khoddami et al., 2013). results to those reported by Shan et al. (2005), who used shaking
Among avonoids, apigenin concentration, known for its methanol extraction, and Hossain et al. (2011), who used ASE.
calming effect, was highest in O. vulgare, followed by R. ofcinalis
L., T. vulgaris L. and M. piperita after applying ASE and Sohxlet
Pearson correlations
techniques. A higher concentration of quercetin, which has a
sedative effect (Askun et al., 2012), was detected in O. vulgare, Pearson correlation coefcients between all phenolic com-
followed by T. vulgaris L. and M. piperita for the ASE and Soxhlet pounds identied and total phenolic content and anti-oxidant
techniques. Similar concentrations were found in the literature activity are shown in Table 9. All phenolic compounds deter-
(Vallverd-Queralt et al., 2014) after extraction by SFE. Concen- mined were positively correlated with total phenolic content,
tration of luteolin, which possess anti-oxidant and anti-inam- with signicant values of r above 0.7 in the case of rosmarinic
matory/anti-allergic activities (Shimoi et al., 2000), was higher acid and eriodictyol. However, the majority of phenolic com-
in T. vulgaris L. and O. vulgare and similar for M. piperita and R. pounds were negatively correlated with anti-oxidant activity,

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytochem. Anal. 2014
Lamiaceae Essential Oils

Table 4. Semi-quantication (percentage area) of the volatile compounds from the Lamiaceae plants essential oils

Compound Percentage area


Mentha piperita L. Thymus vulgaris L. Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. Origanum vulgare
Soxhlet ASE SFE Soxhlet ASE SFE Soxhlet ASE SFE Soxhlet ASE SFE
-Myrcene 0.07 0.52 0.12
-Phellandrene 0.11 0.13 2.72 3.02 0.20
-Terpinene 0.46 0.57 0.19 6.45 6.88 0.66
m-Cymene 1.11 1.32
o-Cymene 0.46 0.85 0.29 0.76 1.35 0.69
Limonene 0.74 1.33 0.41
-Terpinene 0.59 0.79 0.05 0.21 0.26 0.16 0.31 0.38 0.24 7.04 8.32 1.49
-Terpinene (terpinolene) 0.13 0.16 0.14 0.25 2.67 2.98
p-Cymenene 0.15 0.36 0.18
cis-p-Mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol 0.01 0.06 0.41 0.47
()--Pinene 0.71 0.95 1.26
3-Carene 0.18 0.33
Linalol 0.34 0.28 1.01 0.68 0.70 0.70 1.74 1.59 1.88
Eucalyptol 2.69 4.14 2.27 35.37 45.08 32.16 0.76 5.39 0.50
cis-2-p-Menthen-1-ol 0.17
Isopulegol 0.15 0.11
l-Menthone 14.29 15.60 14.51
Isomenthone 2.65 3.01 3.11
Isomenthol 6.94 6.94 3.69
Terpinen-4-ol 0.46 0.53 0.64 0.08 1.65 1.96 3.54 3.36 9.68
Menthol 48.14 46.37 51.00
p-Cymen-8-ol 0.22 0.17
-Terpineol 0.28 0.36 0.33 9.37 8.67 12.68 3.26 2.61 4.76
exo-2-Hydroxycineole 0.08 0.19 0.14
Thymol methyl ether 2.24 1.62 1.74
Pulegone 1.13 1.42 4.19
Piperitone 0.87 0.89 0.94
Menthyl acetate 5.15 4.96 5.41
Thymol 81.31 77.35 82.99 0.11 0.04 21.56 16.69 40.777000
Carvacrol 7.51 9.77 0.08 0.12 0.30 31.24 31.34 6.47
cis-Sabinene hydrate 2.39 1.83 3.66 0.04 0.15 2.97 2.02 6.69
Fenchol 0.14 0.12
Camphor 0.22 0.26 0.76 23.48 21.80 22.36
Borneol 0.58 0.70 1.11 9.14 6.61 1.88
endo-Borneol/isoborneol 0.98 1.35 0.41
Bornyl acetate 0.95 1.07 1.71
m-Eugenol 0.09 0.06
Methyleugenol 0.48 0.62
cis--Farnesene 0.73 0.69 0.69
()--Elemene 0.27 0.31 0.21
Humulene 1.64 1.66 2.36 0.60 0.43 0.75
-Elemene 0.12 0.00 2.44 1.73 3.13
D-Germacrene 3.42 0.00 0.65
Curcumene 0.17 0.13
-Bisabolene 0.92 0.67 1.06 0.46 0.34
Caryophyllene 3.97 4.47 3.52 1.48 1.30 2.00 9.51 0.12 11.50 3.96 3.49 6.15
-Muurolene 0.85 0.87 1.60
-Selinene 0.16 0.13
-Muurolene 0.31 0.27 0.63
-Cadinene 0.37 0.46 0.20 1.51 1.48 2.88
Cadina-1(2),4-diene 0.15 0.13
-Calacorene 0.25 0.24 0.43
-Ylangene 0.13 0.17 0.08 0.18 0.21 0.35

(Continues)

Phytochem. Anal. 2014 Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.

Table 4. (Continued)

Compound Percentage area


Mentha piperita L. Thymus vulgaris L. Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. Origanum vulgare
Soxhlet ASE SFE Soxhlet ASE SFE Soxhlet ASE SFE Soxhlet ASE SFE
-Copaene 0.62 0.64 1.05
()--Bourbonene 1.02 1.24 0.68
-Ylangene 0.17 0.00
-Copaene 0.25 0.30 0.28
Aromandendrene 0.08 0.11 0.06
-Gurjunene 0.17 0.21
Caryophyllene oxide 0.66 0.96 0.33 1.72 1.73 0.01 0.07 1.05 1.70 1.39 2.07 0.73
Spathulenol 0.59 1.18 2.49 0.96 4.80
Viridiorol 1.87 1.87 1.89
Ledene oxide-(II) 0.19 0.16 0.10 0.27
3-Octanol 0.15
n-Hexadecanoic acid 0.66 1.24 1.50 4.17 5.53 9.95 0.66 2.48 4.82

Table 5. Quantication of the chemotypes in essential oils of Lamiaceae plants extracted by ASE, SFE and Soxhlet

Technique Chemotype concentration (g/kg dry plant)


used
Menthol in M. piperita Thymol in T. vulgaris L. Thymol in O. vulgare Eucalyptol in R. ofcinalis L.
ASE 6.42 0.33 1.45 5.29
SFE 6.81 0.32 1.05 4.75
Soxhlet 6.97 0.34 1.57 3.29*
* A statistically signicant difference at 95% condence (Fisher test (least-squares difference)): remainder are not signicant.

Table 6. Total phenolic content (FolinCiocalteu method) of the essential oils in different Lamiaceae plants. ANOVA results are also shown

Technique used Phenolic content (g GAE/100 g dry plant) Reference


Mentha piperita Origanum vulgare Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. Thymusvulgaris L.
ASE* 4.09a 3.04 a 1.67a 0.42a This study
11.75 10.17 Hossain et al., 2011
Soxhlet* 2.28b 2.36b 1.31b 0.25b This study
16.2 Erkan et al., 2008
SFE* 0.02c 0.13c 0.11c 0.07c This study
0.030.12 Celiktas et al., 2007
Hydrodistillation 14.9 18.5 9.56 Dorman et al., 2003
Sonication 0.15 1.72 0.58 Wojdyo et al., 2007
0.64 0.77 0.68 Yoo et al., 2008
Shaking sample/methanol 0.34 0.86 1.44 1.16 Chan et al., 2012
* Statistical signicance p 0.05. Values in the same column with the same letter are not signicantly different.

Table 7. Anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) of Lamiaceae plants essential oil expressed as percentage inhibition

Technique used Percentage inhibition Reference


Mentha piperita Origanum vulgare Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. Thymus vulgaris L.
ASE 5 17.02 63.16 55.93 This study
Soxhlet 27.09 7.98 57.09 61.83 This study
SFE 46.43 33.23 62.38 45.79 This study
Sonication 63.7 85.4 74.5 Yoo et al., 2008
Hydrodistillation 25 70 Gachkar et al., 2007

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytochem. Anal. 2014
Table 8. Quantication of polyphenols of Lamiaceae essential oils of the different extraction techniques of study: ASE, Soxhlet and SFE

Methods and species Family/compound (g/kg dry plant) Family/compound (mg/kg dry plant) Reference
of Lamiaceae
Phenol carboxylic acid Phenolic diterpene Flavanone Flavonol Flavone

Rosmarinic acid Carnosic acid Eriodictyol Quercetin Luteolin Apigenin

Phytochem. Anal. 2014


Lamiaceae Essential Oils

Mentha piperita
Soxhlet 12.74a 0.23a 72.28a 8.16a 27.65a 4.91a This study
ASE 12.47b 0.08b 59.43b 9.70b 23.69b 3.57b This study
SFE 0,00c 0.02c 0.19c 0.13c 0.09c 0.14c This study
Shaking methanol 19.08 Shan et al., 2005
Origanum vulgare
Soxhlet 2.64a 0.29a 68.60a 31.41a 70.17a 67.19a This study
ASE 3.20b 0.12b 62.78b 26.13b 65.37b 6.20b This study
10.21 8.62 Hossain et al., 2011
SFE 0,00c 0.56c 1.06c 0.15c 0.18c 0.48c This study
Sonication/SPE 0.05 0.32 Vallverd-Queralt
et al., 2014
Shaking methanol 25.63 Shan et al., 2005
Thymus vulgaris L.
Soxhlet 1.48a 0.96a 30.14a 14.68a 105.21a 20.90a This study

Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


ASE 1.55b 0.77b 33.78b 16.73b 108.32b 21.36b This study
SFE 0.00c 4.84c 0.30c 0.13c 0.11c 0.13c This study
Sonication/SPE 0.08 0.79 Vallverd-Queralt
et al., 2014
Shaking methanol 6.81 Shan et al., 2005
Rosmarinus ofcinalis L.
Soxhlet 8.25a 254.40a 1.38a 1.68a 31.82a 38.11a This study
ASE 10.58b 271.07b 1.38a 1.77b 42.36b 44.41b This study
15.23 10.99 Hossain et al., 2011
SFE 0,00c 63.78c 0.18b 0.00c 0.08c 0.09c This study
5-115.5 Celiktas et al., 2007
104.9-110.5 Kuo et al., 2011
Sonication/SPE 0.16 1.36 Vallverd-Queralt
et al., 2014
Shaking methanol 12.86 6.55 Shan et al., 2005
Values in the same column with the same letter are not signicantly different (p 0.05).

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.

Table 9. Pearson correlation matrix (r) among individual characterised by the compounds or parameters studied. Similar
phenolic compounds, total phenolic content and anti- conclusions can be mentioned for T. vulgaris, located in the
oxidant activity same quadrant. The results also indicate that the essential oils
obtained with the ASE and Soxhlet techniques are characterised
Variables Total phenolic Antioxidant by the same compounds or parameters. Mentha piperita samples
content activity are located in the upper right quadrant of the plot and were
more inuenced by the variables related to the positive side of
Rosmarinic acid 0.726 0.272 PC2 and PC1: rosmarinic acid is highly oriented towards the pos-
Carnosic acid 0.008 0.497 itive PC2 (0.848) and total phenolic content oriented towards the
Eriodictyol 0.759 0.755 positive PC1 (0.873). Samples from O. vulgare are characterised
Quercetin 0.499 0.548 by compounds in positive side of PC1 eriodicityol (0.958) and
Luteolin 0.141 0.053 quercetin (0.758), whereas samples from R. ofcinalis are
Apigenin 0.208 0.011 strongly associated with carnosic acid in the positive side of
Total phenolic 1.000 0.754 PC2 (0.814) and anti-oxidant activity in the negative side of
content PC1 (0.883).
Signicant correlations are shown in bold.

Acknowledgements
mainly: total phenolic content (0.754), eriodictyol (0.755) and We are grateful to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innova-
quercetin (0.548). tion (project CTQ2011-28967) for their nancial support of this
work, which also has partial nancial support from the FEDER
funds of the European Union. Jos Manuel Salgado is grateful
Principal component analysis for a Postdoctoral fellowship (EX-2010-0402) from the Education
Ministry of the Spanish Government.
Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied using the correla-
tion matrix, to remove the effect of scale, because concentrations
differed signicantly among the parameters and compounds References
evaluated. The results obtained from the PCA analysis for the 11
Aeschbach R, Lliger J, Scott BC, Murcia A, Butler J, Halliwell B, Aruoma
variables (six phenolic compounds, three chemotypes and two OI. 1994. Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol,
analytical parameters) and 12 samples (four Lamiacea plants with zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol 32: 3136.
three extraction techniques) showed that the rst two principal Ainsworth EA, Gillespie KM. 2007. Estimation of total phenolic content
components extracted explain 53.81% of the total variance. Com- and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin
Ciocalteu reagent. Nat Protoc 2: 875877.
ponent 1 explains 36.51% and component 2 explains 17.30%. Aqil M, Ahad A, Sultana Y, Ali A. 2007. Status of terpenes as skin penetra-
The observation of the loading scores suggested that ve var- tion enhancers. Drug Discov Today 12: 10611067.
iables, luteolin, apigenin, menthol, thymol and eucalyptol, were Askun T, Tumen G, Satil F, Modanlioglu S, Yalcin O. 2012.
redundant (having a coefcients magnitude < 0.7), and they Antimycobacterial activity some different Lamiaceae plant extracts
were removed from the matrix. A new set with six variables containing avonoids and other phenolic compounds. In Understand-
ing Tuberculosis New Approaches to Fighting Against Drug Resistance,
and 12 samples accounted for 85.09% of the total variance. Cardona PJ (ed.). In Tech: Croatia; 309336.
Figure 1 shows the scores plot from these rst two PCs. Results Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Simin N, Anackov G. 2006. Characterization of
indicate that the samples were differentiated according to the the volatile composition of essential oils of some Lamiaceae spices
extraction technique applied. In all cases, samples extracted with and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. J
Agric Food Chem 54: 18221828.
SFE were located in the lower left quadrant, where none are Celiktas OY, Bedir E, Sukan FV. 2007. In vitro antioxidant activities of
Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. extracts treated with supercritical carbon di-
Biplot (axis PC1 and PC2: 85,09 %) oxide. Food Chem 101: 14571464.
4 Chan EW, Kong LQ, Yee KY, Chua WY, Loo TY. 2012. Rosemary and sage
R-ASE
outperformed six other culinary herbs in antioxidant and antibacte-
R-Soxhlet carnosic acid
rial properties. Int J Biotechnol 1: 143.
rosmarinic acid
Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG. 2000. GCMS analysis of essential
oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on
PC2 (28,41 %)

2 Total phenolic
content M-ASE Penicillium digitatum. J Agric Food Chem 48: 25762581.
M-Soxhlet Daz-Maroto MC, Daz-Maroto Hidalgo IJ, Snchez-Palomo E, Prez-Coello
Antioxidant MS. 2005. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel
activity
(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts
0 obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical
R-SFE eriodictyol uid extraction. J Agric Food Chem 53: 53855389.
T-SFE
T-Soxhlet O-ASE Diario Ocial de Galicia. 2012. Reglamento de la Denominacin Geogrca
quercetin
M-SFE O-SFE O-Soxhlet
de los Aguardientes y Licores Tradicionales de Galicia, No 10.
T-ASE
-2 Dorman HJD, Peltoketo A, Hiltunen R, Tikkanen MJ. 2003. Characterisa-
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 tion of the antioxidant properties of de-odourised aqueous extracts
PC1 (56,68 %) from selected Lamiaceae herbs. Food Chem 83: 255262.
Erkan N, Ayranci G, Ayranci E. 2008. Antioxidant activities of rosemary
(Rosmarinus ofcinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential
Figure 1. Principal component analysis (PCA) score plot for Lamiaceae oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol. Food Chem 110: 7682.
plants based on chemical composition of the extract obtained under Figiel A, Szumny A, Gutirrez-Ortz A, Carbonell-Barrachina A. 2010.
different extraction techniques: M, Mentha piperita; O, Origanum vulgare; Composition of oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare) as affected
R, Rosmarinus ofcinalis L.; T, Thymus vulgaris L. by drying method. J Food Eng 98: 240247.

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytochem. Anal. 2014
Lamiaceae Essential Oils

Gachkar L, Yadegari D, Rezaei MB, Taghizadeh M, Astaneh SA, Rasooli I. Petersen M, Simmonds MS. 2003. Rosmarinic acid. Phytochem 62(2): 121125.
2007. Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum Raina AP, Kumar A, Pareek SK, Mishra SK, Sharma SK, Negi KS. 2009.
and Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. essential oils. Food Chem 102: 898904. Phyto-chemical characterization of important medicinal herbs of In-
Galeotti N, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Mazzanti G, Bartolini A, Ghelardini C. 2002. dia. In II International Symposium on Medicinal and Nutraceutical
Menthol: a natural analgesic compound. Neurosci Lett 322: 145148. Plants 972; 97104.
Hossain M, Dilip K, Brunton N, Martin-Diana A, Barry-Ryan C. 2010. Rawson A, Hossain MB, Patras A, Tuohy M, Brunton N. 2013. Effect of boil-
Characterization of phenolic composition in Lamiaceae spices by ing and roasting on the polyacetylene and polyphenol content of
LC-ESI-MS/MS. J Agric Food Chem 58: 1057610581. fennel () bulb. Food Res Int 50: 513518.
Hossain MB, Barry-Ryan C, Martin-Diana AB, Brunton NP. 2011. Optimisa- Rodrguez-Solana R, Salgado JM, Domnguez JM, Corts-Diguez S.
tion of accelerated solvent extraction of antioxidant compounds 2014a. Characterization of fennel extracts and quantication of
from rosemary (Rosmarinus ofcinalis L.), marjoram (Origanum estragole: optimization and comparison of accelerated solvent ex-
majorana L.) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) using response sur- traction and Soxhlet techniques. Ind Crop Prod 52: 528536.
face methodology. Food Chem 126: 339346. Rodrguez-Solana R, Salgado JM, Domnguez JM, Corts-Diguez S.
Jerkovi I, Masteli J, Milo M. 2001. The impact of both the season of col- 2014b. Estragole quantity optimization from fennel seeds by Super-
lection and drying on the volatile constituents of Origanum vulgare L. critical Fluid (carbon dioxide-methanol) Extraction using a Box
ssp. hirtum grown wild in Croatia. Int J Food Sci Tech 36: 649654. Behnken design. Characterization of fennel extracts. Ind Crop Prod
Johnson J, Maher P, Hanneken A. 2009. The avonoid, eriodictyol, in- 60: 186192.
duces long-term protection in ARPE-19 cells through its effects on Rossato MF, Trevisan G, Walker CIB, Klafke JZ, de Oliveira AP, Villarinho
Nrf2 activation and phase 2 gene expression. Investig Ophthalmol JG, Ferreira J. 2011. Eriodictyol: a avonoid antagonist of the TRPV1
Vis Sci 50: 23982406. receptor with antioxidant activity. Biochem Pharmacol 81: 544551.
Khoddami A, Wilkes MA, Roberts TH. 2013. Techniques for analysis of Sacchetti G, Maietti S, Muzzoli M, Scaglianti M, Manfredini S, Radice M,
plant phenolic compounds. Molecules 18: 23282375. Bruni R. 2005. Comparative evaluation of 11 essential oils of different
Kordali S, Cakir A, Ozer H, Cakmakci R, Kesdek M, Mete E. 2008. Antifun- origin as functional antioxidants, antiradicals and antimicrobials in
gal, phytotoxic and insecticidal properties of essential oil isolated foods. Food Chem 91: 621632.
from Turkish Origanum acutidens and its three components, carva- Shan B, Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H. 2005. Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice ex-
crol, thymol and p-cymene. Bioresour Technol 99: 87888795. tracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. J Agric Food
Kuo CF, Su JD, Chiu CH, Peng CC, Chang CH, Sung TY, Chyau CC. 2011. Chem 53: 77497759.
Anti-inammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract Shimoi K, Saka N, Kaji K, Nozawa R, Kinaea N. 2000. Metabolic fate of
and its isolated carnosic acid from Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. leaves. J luteolin and its functional activity at local site. Biofactors 12: 181186.
Agric Food Chem 59: 36743685. Singh DK, Srivastava B, Sahu A. 2003. Spectrophotometric determination
Lee SJ, Umano K, Shibamoto T, Lee KG. 2005. Identication of volatile of ajmaline and brucine by Folin Ciocalteus reagent. J Serb Chem Soc
components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus 68: 685690.
vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chem 91: 131137. Soares MCMS, Damiani CEN, Moreira CM, Stefanon I, Vassallo DV. 2005.
Llusi J, Peuelas J, Alessio GA, Estiarte M. 2006. Seasonal contrasting Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac
changes of foliar concentrations of terpenes and other volatile or- muscle. Braz J Med Biol Res 38: 453461.
ganic compound in four dominant species of a Mediterranean shrub- Tepe B, Daferera D, Sokmen A, Sokmen M, Polissiou M. 2005. Antimicro-
land submitted to a eld experimental drought and warming. Physiol bial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts
Plant 127: 632649. of Salvia tomentosa Miller (Lamiaceae). Food Chem 90: 333340.
Lu Y, Yeap Foo L. 2001. Antioxidant activities of polyphenols from sage Tsimogiannis D, Samiotaki M, Panayotou G, Oreopoulou V, 2007. Charac-
(Salvia ofcinalis). Food Chem 75: 197202. terization of avonoid subgroups and hydroxy substitution by HPLC
Miraldi E, Giachetti D, Mazzoni G, Biagi M. 2012. Quali-quantitative anal- MS/MS. Molecules 12: 593606.
ysis of eight Rosmarinus ofcinalis L. essential oils of different origin. Vallverd-Queralt A, Regueiro J, Martnez-Hulamo M, Rinaldi Alvarenga
First report. J Siena Acad Sci 2: 4243. JF, Leal LN, Lamuela-Raventos RM. 2014. A comprehensive study on
Molyneux P. 2004. The use of the stable free radical diphenyl- the phenolic prole of widely used culinary herbs and spices:
picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. rosemary, thyme, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay. Food Chem
Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 26: 211219. 154: 299307.
Mustafa A, Turner C. 2011. Pressurized liquid extraction as a green ap- Wojdyo A, Oszmiaski J, Czemerys R. 2007. Antioxidant activity and phe-
proach in food and herbal plants extraction: a review. Anal Chim Acta nolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chem 105: 940949.
703: 818. Yoo KM, Lee CH, Lee H, Moon B, Lee CY. 2008. Relative antioxidant and
Ninomiya K, Matsuda H, Shimoda H, Nishida N, Kasajima N, Yoshino T, cytoprotective activities of common herbs. Food Chem 106: 929936.
Yoshikawa M. 2004. Carnosic acid, a new class of lipid absorption in- Zhang Y, Smuts JP, Dodbiba E, Rangarajan R, Lang JC, Armstrong DW.
hibitor from sage. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 14: 19431946. 2012. Degradation study of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid,
Otles S, Yalcin B. 2012. Phenolic compounds analysis of root, stalk, and and rosemary extract (Rosmarinus ofcinalis L.) assessed using HPLC.
leaves of nettle. Sci World J 2012: 112. J Agric Food Chem 60: 93059314.

Phytochem. Anal. 2014 Copyright 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/pca
Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Industrial Crops and Products


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/indcrop

Comparative chemotype determination of Lamiaceae plants by means


of GCMS, FT-IR, and dispersive-Raman spectroscopic techniques and
GC-FID quantication
Raquel Rodrguez-Solana a,b,c , Dimitra J. Daferera c , Christina Mitsi c , Panayiotis Trigas d ,
Moschos Polissiou c , Petros A. Tarantilis c,
a
Department of Chemical Engineering, Sciences Faculty, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n, 32004 Ourense, Spain
b
Laboratory of Agro-food Biotechnology, CITI-Tecnpole, Parque Tecnolgico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Vinas, Ourense, Spain
c
Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 118 55 Athens, Greece
d
Laboratory of Systematic Botany, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 118 55 Athens, Greece

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Three different techniques: the classical gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) and two
Received 24 April 2014 green alternative techniques to the classical chromatography, the spectroscopic techniques Fourier
Received in revised form 29 July 2014 transform infrared (FT-IR), and dispersive-Raman were employed to characterize the main chemotypes
Accepted 6 August 2014
of different essential oils from plants of the Lamiaceae family and to compare between techniques. Gas
chromatography-ame ionization detector (GC-FID) was also employed to quantify the main compounds
Keywords:
present in essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and semi-quantify essential oil composition
Hydrodistillation
isolated by HD and simultaneous steam distillation solvent extraction (SDE). While GC cannot dif-
Simultaneous steam distillation solvent
extraction (SDE)
ferentiate between pure and mixed chemotypes of a compound, FT-IR, and Raman methods allow the
Gas chromatographymass spectrometry creation of libraries, through which chemotype determination is feasible even for mixed chemotypes,
Gas chromatography-ame ionization thus combining robustness with being rapid and non-destructive techniques.
detector 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
FT-IR
Dispersive-Raman
Chemotype
Lamiaceae

1. Introduction The knowledge of the chemotype of an essential oil is impor-


tant as numerous species of the Lamiaceae family present chemical
Individual plants species of the same genus present distinct polymorphism, i.e. individual plants have various genotypes which
chemical proles called chemotypes. Chemotypes are dened as code the production of different dominant terpenes in their essen-
organisms categorized under the same species, subspecies or tial oil (Keefover-Ring et al., 2009). The determination of chemotype
varieties having differences in quantity and quality of their compo- is essential in order to understand the regulatory pathways of sec-
nent(s) in their whole chemical ngerprint that is related to genome ondary metabolism (Yamazaki and Saito, 2011). Furthermore, each
or gene expression differences. These chemotypes can be classied chemotype, as determined by genotype, environment, agronomic
into two types: pure chemotypes (only one oil component, the treatments and their interactions, presents distinct biological activ-
major one, denes the pure chemical race and accounts for over ity of its essential oil (Rota et al., 2008).
50% of the total essential oil) and mixed chemotypes (where there Essential oils can be isolated from plant tissues using various
are 23 main components, each accounting for less than 50% of the techniques. Hydrodistillation (HD) and simultaneous steam distil-
essential oil, which, as an entity, dene the chemical composition) lation solvent extraction (SDE) using Likens-Nickerson apparatus
(Holopainen et al., 1987; Polatoglu, 2013). are two classical techniques, well known to yield a rich prole of
the essential oil (Daferera et al., 2002a, 2002b; Viljoen et al., 2006).
However, these techniques present some disadvantages, the main
Corresponding author. Tel.: +302105294262; fax: +302105294265. being thermal transformation of molecules and loss of hydrophilic
E-mail address: ptara@aua.gr (P.A. Tarantilis). compounds (Prosen et al., 2010).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.08.003
0926-6690/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233 23

Chemotype determination of plant essential oils has

Commercially distilled essential oil


Commercially distilled essential oil
Commercially distilled essential oil
Commercially distilled essential oil
been achieved using various techniques, such as gas
chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) (Stashenko et al.,
2010), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (Kanakis
et al., 2011), Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy
(Daferera et al., 2002a), dispersive Raman, attenuated total
reectance-infrared (ATR-IR) (Schulz et al., 2003a), etc. Spec-
troscopic techniques are considered an attractive alternative to

Cultivated
Cultivated
Cultivated
chromatography, as the latter is time-consuming, destructive
and laborious and often requires the use of pollutant solvents.

Wild
Wild
Wild
Wild
Type
On the contrary, spectroscopic techniques do not require the use
of pollutant solvents, allow working with intact samples, thus

Leaves and owers


Leaves and owers
Leaves and owers
Leaves and owers

Leaves and owers


reducing time and cost of sample treatment, and deliver nal

Plant part used for


results rapidly (Baeten et al., 1996). Recently, several works were
focused on the differentiation among samples by means of FT-IR

distillation
based techniques coupled with spectral libraries (Pappas et al.,

Leaves
Leaves

Leaves
Leaves
Leaves
Leaves
2003; Tarantilis et al., 2008).
The present work aimed at the determination of main chemo-
types in Lamiaceae plants using FT-IR, and dispersive-Raman

Date of collection
spectroscopic techniques. The characterization was enabled by

October 2013
October 2013

October 2013
October 2013
October 2013
October 2013
October 2010
October 2010
August 2012
the creation of spectral libraries, one for each technique, while

May 2013

July 2011
the results were compared to the essential oil volatile prole as
delivered by means of GCMS. Furthermore, in order to investi-
gate the effect of essential oil isolation techniques on chemotype,
hydrodistillation (HD) and simultaneous steam distillation sol-

Not applicable
vent extraction (SDE) using Likens-Nickerson apparatus were

Altitude (m)
employed and their comparison was based on quantitative anal-
ysis of the resulting essential oil using gas chromatography-ame

110

550
790

270
270
100
ionization detector (GC-FID).

65
2. Materials and methods

Geographical coordinates

E
E
E

E
E

E
N 26 19 57

N 21 14 11
N 21 14 11
N 26 14 16

N 25 59 50
N 24 56 02

N 21 08 29
2.1. Plant material

Not applicable
Plant samples were obtained from various areas around Greece.
Table 1 shows the areas and dates of collection, the part of the plant 41 23 52
41 18 41

38 34 51
38 34 51
41 42 01

38 04 45

38 38 01
used to extract the essential oil and indicates whether the plant
was wild or cultivated. The last four samples concern essential oils
characterized as commercially distilled and were kindly provided

Bioparnon (Astros, Arcadia, Peloponnesus, Greece)


Bioparnon (Astros, Arcadia, Peloponnesus, Greece)
Bioparnon (Astros, Arcadia, Peloponnesus, Greece)
Bioparnon (Astros, Arcadia, Peloponnesus, Greece)
by the company Bioparnon (Astros, Arcadia, Peloponnesus, Greece).
Aitoloakarnania prefecture, Xiromero (Greece)
Aitoloakarnania prefecture, Xiromero (Greece)
Aitoloakarnania prefecture, Rigani (Greece)

2.2. Reagents
Evia Island, foothills of Mt. Ochi, (Greece)

Reagents used were: diethyl ether (DEE) stabilized with buty-


Evros prefecture, Brysika, (Greece)
Evros prefecture, Roussa (Greece)

lated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (purity 99.8, Carlo Erba Reagenti


Evros prefecture, Ptelea, (Greece)

SpA; Radano, MI, Italy), acetone (purity 99.8, Carlo Erba Reagenti
SpA; Radano, MI, Italy), anhydrous magnesium sulfate in powder
form (purity 99%, Acros Organics, Morris Plains, NJ, USA), 5-
isopropyl-2-methylphenol (carvacrol) (purity 98%; SigmaAldrich
Co., St. Louis, MO, USA), 2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol (thymol)
(purity 95%; SigmaAldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and (R)-(+)-
pulegone (purity 98%; SigmaAldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA).
Description of essential oil samples under study.

Origin

2.3. Hydrodistillation (HD) method


Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii

Different quantities of each sample (depending on the initial


Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum

amount of sample provided) were used for the distillation using


Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oil. Distillation lasted
3 h and the essential oil obtained was treated as described by
Petrakis et al. (2009).
Satureja hortensis

Satureja hortensis
Mentha pulegium

Satureja thrymba
Origanum onites
Thymus vulgaris
Thymus vulgaris
Satureja pilosa

2.4. Simultaneous steam distillation solvent extraction (SDE)


Plant name

Thymus sp.

method
Table 1

SDE of the essential oil was performed using Likens-Nickerson.


5.5 mL of diethyl ether (1.5 mL in the main body of the apparatus
24 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233

and 4 mL in the extracting solvent ask) were used as extracting Three libraries (carvacrol chemotype, thymol chemotype and
solvent. The sample ask was heated above the boiling point of pulegone chemotype) were created using the OMNIC software.
water, while the cold nger was cooled with a solution of glacial Each library included the spectrum of an essential oil known a pri-
water and sodium chloride (<0 C). A nitrogen-containing balloon ori to belong to the specic chemotype through its comparison to
was adjusted to the purge gas inlet in order to avoid oxidation the spectrum of the pure standard. The spectroscopic region used
reactions. Total duration of procedure was 1 h. was 1500800 cm1 , considered to be the ngerprint region due
to it is signicance regarding deformation, bending and ring vibra-
2.5. Characterization by gas chromatographymass spectrometry tions. Spectra of the essential oils under study were compared to
(GCMS) all three libraries. The match value resulting from each comparison
expresses the probability of a spectrum to belong to each chemo-
The chemical composition of essential oils was determined type.
using a Hewlett-Packard 5890 II GC, equipped with a HP 5972
MS detector and a non-polar column Rtx-5MS (30 m 0.25 mm 2.8. Characterization by dispersive-Raman spectroscopy
i.d. 0.25 m lm thickness). Injector and MS transfer line temper-
atures were set at 220 and 290 C, respectively, while the detector Due to lack of sufcient amount of essential oil obtained by SDE,
was operating in the electron impact mode (70 eV). Helium was Raman spectra were recorded only for the essential oils obtained
used as the carrier gas with a ow of 1 mL/min. The amount by HD and the commercially distillated ones. An Advantage 785
of sample manually injected was 1 L (in splitless mode). The series near-infrared Raman spectrometer from DeltaNu (Woking-
hydrodistilled samples were pre-diluted in acetone at a 1:50 ratio, ham, UK) coupled with a 785 nm diode excitation laser and a
while SDE samples were injected without prior dilution. The oven charged-coupled devices (CCD) detector was used to collect Raman
temperature was programmed to increase from initial 60 C to nal spectra of the essential oil under study. Essential oil sample was
250 C with a rate of 3 C/min. introduced in a 1 mL clear glass tube (VWR International, USA).
Chromatographic peaks were identied based on retention Resolution used was 5 cm1 and the spectral area recorded was
times, mass spectra of authentic compounds when available, 2000200 cm1 . A manual side-to-side adjuster allowed sample
Adams (2007), NIST 98 and WILEY 275 libraries of mass spectra adjustment for maximum optical efciency. The spectra were col-
and published data (Adams, 2007). lected with the NuSpec software provided by the manufacturer.
Final spectrum of each sample was the average of ten spectra, while
2.6. Quantication and semi-quantication by gas integration time was set at 10 s. Spectra were further processed
chromatography-ame ionization detector (GC-FID) using OMNIC (ver. 7.3) software. Spectral library was created as
described for the FT-IR method, however, in this case, the spectral
Essential oil composition was quantied using a Hewlett- region of 1800400 cm1 was selected, as the main bands of the
Packard 5890 II GC, equipped with ame ionization detector (FID) chemotypes under study appeared within this.
and a non-polar column RtX-5MS (30 m 0.25 mm i.d. 0.25 m
lm thickness). The volume of the samples manually injected was 2.9. Statistical analysis of GC-FID data
1 L (in splitless mode). Helium was used as the carrier gas with
a ow rate of 1 mL/min. The oven temperature was programmed Multivariate analysis was employed including the ve major
in the same way as for GCMS analysis. The injector and detector compounds, i.e. compounds with concentration equal or higher
temperatures were 220 C and 300 C respectively. Quantication than 20% in any sample and extraction technique (pulegone, car-
was carried out based on a six-point calibration curve for each vacrol, thymol, p-cymene and -terpinene). Area percentages (%
compound under study. of total area) of each peak were used, as the relative concentra-
The semi-quantication procedure was performed by compar- tion of each compound has been reported to be less dependent
ing the areas of peaks, in order to determine the proportion of on plant material treatments prior to analysis than its absolute
each compound present in the aromatic prole with respect to the concentration (Hillig, 2004). Cluster analysis was performed for
technique used for isolating the essential oil from the plant tissues. each essential oil isolation technique in order to validate samples
chemotype, using hierarchical centroid method. Linear discrimi-
2.7. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) nant analysis was used to classify samples into the a priori dened
spectroscopy chemotypes regardless of acquisition technique. Statistical analysis
of GC-FID data was performed using JMP version 8.0 (SAS Institute,
FT-IR spectra were recorded only for the essential oils obtained 2008).
by HD and the commercially distillated ones, due to lack of suf-
cient essential oil amount in the case of SDE. FT-IR spectra of 3. Results and discussion
essential oils were recorded using Thermo Nicolet 6700 FT-IR
spectrophotometer (Thermo Electron Corporation, Madison, WI, 3.1. Characterization by GCMS. Quantication and
USA) operating in the region 4000400 cm1 , equipped with a semi-quantication by GC-FID and statistical results
Nichrome source, a KBr beamsplitter and a deuterated triglycine
sulfate (DTGS) detector. Final spectrum was acquired after a total GCMS analysis of the essential oil resulting from HD, SDE and
of 100 scans with 4 cm1 resolution. Each spectrum was recorded commercial distillation provided the relative percentage (% of
placing one drop of essential oil between two ZnSe round crystal total essential oil) for each compound present in the volatile prole.
windows (each 13 mm 2 mm, Thermo Spectra-Tech.), using the Table 2 shows the families of volatile compounds identied in the
built-in OMNIC (version 7.3, Thermo Fisher Scientic Inc.) software. essential oils of the studied Lamiaceae plants and the commercial
All spectra were processed with the same software by application of essential oil samples, along with their retention time.
the automatic smooth procedure (which uses the SavitzkyGolay A GC-FID method was developed for determining and quan-
algorithm, 95-point moving second-degree polynomial) and the tifying carvacrol, thymol and pulegone present in essential oils
baseline was corrected using the automatic baseline correct func- extracted only by HD technique, as it gave higher yields, suit-
tion (polynomial). able for quantitative analysis. Calibration curves were obtained by
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233 25

Table 2 limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantication (LOQ) were cal-
Essential oil compounds identied by GCMS, the family to which they belong and
culated according to Eqs. (1) and (2):
their retention times.
SD
Family Kovats Compound LOD = 3 (1)
retention index m
990 Myrcene SD
Acyclic LOQ = 10 (2)
1037 cis--Ocimene m
1002 -Phellandrene
where SD is the estimation of the standard deviation of the regres-
1017 -Terpinene
1024 p-Cymene sion line and m is the slope of the calibration curve.
Monocyclic 1029 Limonene The quantication results are shown in Table 4. Concentration
1017 -Terpinene values were above the limit of detection and quantication.
Monoterpene
1059 -Terpinene
hydrocarbon The semi-quantication (area % of total essential oil) of the com-
1088 -Terpinene
930 -Thujene pounds present in the essential oil obtained from hydrodistillation
939 -Pinene is presented in Table 5, while the semi-quantication of essential
Bicyclic
954 Camphene oils obtained by SDE and commercial distillation are presented in
969 Sabinene Tables 6 and 7 respectively.
979 -Pinene
Pure chemotype essential oils, i.e. essential oils characterized
1002 (-2)-Carene
by the presence of only one compound in high concentration
1096 Linalool
(Polatoglu, 2013), were categorized in three types, namely pule-
Acyclic 1477 Geranyl propanoate
1468 Linalool isovalerate
gone, carvacrol and thymol chemotypes. Mentha pulegium essential
1152 Menthone oil expressed the pulegone chemotype [79.35% (HD) and 73.06%
1162 Isomenthone (SDE)]. Carvacrol characterized the chemotype of the essential
1177 Terpinen-4-ol oils from Origanum onites (62.60% in commercially distilled essen-
1182 Isomenthol
tial oil), Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (70.36% in commercially
1244 Carvacrol methyl ether
1237 Pulegone distilled essential oil), wild Satureja hortensis in hydrodistilla-
Oxygenated
Monocyclic 1252 Piperitone tion (53.40%) and Thymus sp. commercially distilled essential oil
monoterpene
1290 Thymol (71.65%). The essential oil presenting thymol chemotype was the
1305 Isomenthyl acetate one from Thymus vulgaris 52 (57.58% in HD and 51.75% in SDE).
1299 Carvacrol
1343 Piperitenone
The essential oil prole for T. vulgaris 52 is comparable to the one
1352 Thymol acetate reported by Rota et al. (2008), where 57.7% of thymol and 18.7%
1372 Carvacrol acetate of p-cymene were presented in thyme essential oil. The results
1070 cis-Sabinenehydrate presented in Tables 5 and 6 for M. pulegium (pulegone 70%, iso-
Bicyclic 1146 Camphor
menthone 10%) are in agreement with the results of Lorenzo et al.
1169 Borneol
(2002). In the case of O. onites, similar percentages of carvacrol were
1454 -Humulene found in the essential oil of plants during full owering (Toncer
1485 Germacrene D
Monocyclic
1505 -Bisabolene
et al., 2009), while carvacrol level detected in O. vulgare subsp.
1507 cis--Bisabolene hirtum is comparable to the ones reported by Esen et al. (2007).
Sesquiterpene 1419 Caryophyllene The rest of the examined essential oils were mixed chemo-
hydrocarbon 1479 -Muurolene types, presenting 23 compounds in high concentration. In the
Bicyclic 1481 Amorpha-4,7(II)-diene
cases where carvacrol or thymol was the most abundant com-
1513 -Cadinene
1523 -Cadinene pound, p-cymene and/or -terpinene were also present, due to
Tricyclic 1496 Viridiorene the fact that these compounds are the precursors of carvacrol and
thymol biosynthesis (Keefover-Ring et al., 2009). Wild S. hortensis
Oxygenated 1583 Caryophyllene oxide
Bicyclic essential oil presented a different prole when obtained by SDE, i.e.
sesquiterpene 1640 <epi->-Cadinol
it presented a carvacrol/-terpinene chemotype (42.52%/35.33%).
Fatty alcohol 991 3-Octanol
Other 1171 Cyclohexanone,5-
These results are similar to the ones previously reported by
methyl-2-(1- Niemeyer (2010). The essential oil of the cultivated S. hortensis
methylethenyl) was found to present the same carvacrol/-terpinene chemotype
as the wild plant (43.07%/27.08% for HD and 34.41%/31.00% for
analyzing six standard solutions containing increasing concentra- SDE). The commercially distilled essential oil from Satureja thrymba
tions of the respective standard and covering the range of linearity also expressed the aforementioned chemotype (carvacrol 24.16%,
(carvacrol: 0.0515 g/L, thymol: 0.0525 g/L and (R)-(+)-pulegone: -terpinene 31.07%). On the other hand; the essential oil from Sat-
0.0520 g/L). The solutions were prepared in diethyl ether. ureja pilosa was characterized by a carvacrol/thymol chemotype
As shown in Table 3, the calibration curves presented satisfac- (42.44%/20.3% in HD). The percentages of carvacrol and p-cymene
tory linearity, with high values for correlation coefcient (R2 ). Both in the essential oil of S. pilosa (Table 5) are similar to the ones
previously reported (Niemeyer, 2010). The carvacrol/-terpinene
Table 3 chemotype was also expressed in the case of Thymus longicaulis
Linearity parameters and analytical limits of the GC-FID method for the quantica- subsp. chaubardii essential oil obtained by SDE (44.35%/18.80%).
tion of main compounds in essential oils of Lamiaceae plants. A distinct thymol/p-cymene chemotype characterized the essen-
Compound y = ax + b LOD (g/L) LOQ (g/L) tial oil of T. vulgaris 37 obtained both by HD (47.23%/19.34%) and
2
SDE (40.54%/25.58%). A summary of the chemotype classication is
a b R
given in Table 8.
(R)-(+)-Pulegone 8,000,000 2,000,000 0.9967 1.74 5.81 The semi-quantication was similar for both essential oil iso-
Thymol 8,000,000 954,681 0.9946 2.53 8.44
lation techniques employed (HD and SDE), with the exception of
Carvacrol 7,000,000 2,000,000 0.9902 2.53 8.43
wild S. hortensis essential oil. Differences in the volatile prole were
LOD, limit of detection; LOQ, limit of quantication.
observed among the species of the same genus (e.g. Satureja) and
26 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233

Table 4
Quantication of main compounds in essential oils of Lamiaceae plants isolated by hydrodistillation.

Compound Plant

Thymus vulgaris 37 Thymus vulgaris 52 Satureja hortensis L. cultivated Satureja hortensis L. wild Mentha pulegium Satureja pilosa

mg/g dry plant

Thymol 26.05 28.76 7.75


Carvacrol 34.13 27.61 17.78
Pulegone 67.45

even within the same species (e.g. T. vulgaris). These differences Cluster analysis of GC-FID data are in agreement with the
underline the fact that, when referring to their chemical prole, chemotypes attributed to the essential oil of each sample. For the
plants of the Lamiaceae family cannot be successfully discriminated essential oils obtained by commercial distillation (Fig. 1a), the ones
based solely on their botanical classication, thus stressing the from O. onites and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum were closely linked in
importance of developing robust methods to determine essential the same cluster, while Thymus sp. joined them with a fairly small
oil chemotypes. distance that permitted to characterize the aforementioned as a

Table 5
Semi-quantication by GC-FID of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD).

Compound Plant

Wild samples Cultivated samples

Satureja Satureja Mentha Satureja Thymus Thymus


pilosa hortensis pulegium hortensis vulgaris 37 vulgaris 52

Area (%)

Myrcene 0.39 1.58 2.25 0.89


cis--Ocimene 1.00
-Phellandrene 0.12 0.10 0.15
-Terpinene 2.36 2.42 0.96
p-Cymene 14.91 7.26 17.39 19.34 15.69
Limonene
-Terpinene 0.95
-Terpinene 3.78 29.10 27.08 10.71 8.90
-Terpinene 0.18 0.21 0.21
-Thujene 0.12 0.57 0.17
-Pinene 0.21 0.36 1.85 0.79 0.26
Camphene 0.48 0.22
Sabinene 0.67
-Pinene 1.00
(-2)-Carene 0.65
Linalool 4.23 3.26 1.17
Geranyl propanoate 0.27
Linalool isovalerate
Menthone 0.46
Isomenthone 10.47
Terpinen-4-ol 0.32 0.58
Isomenthol
Carvacrol methyl ether 0.54 0.72
Pulegone 79.35
Piperitone
Thymol 20.37 0.11 47.23 57.58
Isomenthyl acetate
Carvacrol 42.44 53.40 0.57 43.07 4.24 2.55
Piperitenone 3.09
Thymol acetate 0.13
Carvacrol acetate 0.21
cis-Sabinenehydrate 0.33
Camphor 0.12 0.22
Borneol 1.21 0.94 0.49
-Humulene 0.13
Germacrene D 0.17 0.45
-Bisabolene 0.97 1.05 0.46
cis--Bisabolene
Caryophyllene 1.38 1.48 0.93 1.62 3.89
-Muurolene 0.23 0.14
Amorpha-4,7(II)-diene 0.14
-Cadinene 0.17 0.31 0.26
-Cadinene 0.33 0.37 0.30
Caryophyllene oxide 0.09 0.14 0.14
<epi->-Cadinol 0.53 0.28
3-Octanol 0.71
1-Octen-3-ol

Total 93.14 96.89 95.09 97.56 93.23 95.67


R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233 27

Table 6
Semi-quantication by GC-FID of the essential oils obtained by simultaneous steam distillation solvent Extraction (SDE).

Compound Plant

Wild samples Cultivated samples

Satureja Mentha Thymus longicaulis Satureja Thymus Thymus


hortensis pulegium subsp. chaubardii hortensis vulgaris 37 vulgaris 52

Area (%)

Myrcene 0.61 2.35 2.82 2.29 1.54


cis--Ocimene
-Phellandrene 0.14 0.21 0.11 0.15
-Terpinene 1.77 2.30 0.70 1.43
p-Cymene 10.22 16.10 22.10 25.58 20.69
Limonene 0.71
-Terpinene 3.81
-Terpinene 35.33 18.80 31.00 13.52 11.58
-Terpinene 0.23 0.19 0.24 0.25
-Thujene 0.64 1.32 0.77 0.27
-Pinene 1.80 2.22 2.72 1.40 0.87
Camphene 1.97 0.96 0.55
Sabinene
-Pinene 0.80
(-2)-Carene
Linalool 3.23 1.08
Geranyl propanoate 0.20
Linalool isovalerate 0.14
Menthone 0.87
Isomenthone 14.25
Terpinen-4-ol 0.26 0.49
Isomenthol 3.35
Carvacrol methyl ether 0.61 0.67
Pulegone 73.06
Piperitone 0.43
Thymol 0.14 40.54 51.75
Isomenthyl acetate 0.42
Carvacrol 42.52 0.38 44.35 34.41 2.98 2.34
Piperitenone 1.57
Thymol acetate 0.09 0.14
Carvacrol acetate 0.40
cis-Sabinenehydrate 0.81
Camphor 0.21
Borneol 3.21 0.61 0.70
-Humulene
Germacrene D 0.11 0.30
-Bisabolene 0.28 0.81 0.18
cis--Bisabolene 0.20
Caryophyllene 0.87 0.40 0.48 1.08 2.45
-Muurolene 0.16
Amorpha-4,7(II)-diene
-Cadinene 0.18 0.14
-Cadinene 0.24 0.21 0.16
Caryophyllene oxide 0.29 0.18
<epi->-Cadinol 0.25 0.26
3-Octanol 1.72
1-Octen-3-ol 1.34 0.81 0.46
Cyclohexanone,5-methyl-2-(1-methylether) 1.64

Total 96.07 98.52 96.83 98.76 96.14 98.08

common group of carvacrol chemotype essential oils. The remote chemotype (T. vulgaris 37 and 52) and the mixed carvacrol/-
linkage of Satureja thrymbra enhanced its characterization as mixed terpinene chemotype (T. longicaulis subsp. chaubardii and the two
carvacrol/-terpinene chemotype. Regarding HD (Fig. 1b), the two S. hortensis samples).
T. vulgaris samples and the two S. hortensis samples formed two dis- The canonical plot presented in Fig. 2 was obtained by analyz-
tinct clusters with small linkage distance. In both cases, a sample ing area percentage (% of total area) of the ve major compounds,
of pure chemotype (carvacrol: wild S. hortensis, thymol: T. vul- as determined by GC-FID. The existence of both pure and mixed
garis 52), was linked with a sample of a mixed chemotype with chemotypes was supported, with pulegone and carvacrol/thymol
which they share the major compound (carvacrol/-terpinene: chemotypes being absolutely distinct. Yet, the differentiation
cultivated S. hortensis, thymol/p-cymene: T. vulgaris 37 respec- between carvacrol and carvacrol/-terpinene and between thy-
tively). S. pilosa was subsequently linked to the thymol group, mol and thymol/p-cymene chemotypes (presented in Fig. 2 by
in accordance with its carvacrol/thymol chemotype, while pule- intercepting circles) is not feasible based on GC-FID data. There-
gone chemotype M. pulegium was remotely linked to all other fore, the need to use alternative techniques, such as the ones
samples. Cluster analysis on data from SDE technique (Fig. 1c), presented here (FT-IR, and/or Raman-based) is further stressed
revealed three clusters with high linking distance among them, i.e. in order to successfully discriminate essential oils of resembling
pulegone chemotype (M. pulegium), pure and mixed thymol-based chemotypes.
28 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233

Table 7
Semi-quantication by GC-FID of the commercially distilled essential oils.

Compound Plant

Origanum onites Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum Thymus sp. Satureja thrymba

Area (%)

Myrcene 2.92 2.37 1.72 2.53


-Phellandrene 0.19 0.12 0.19
-Terpinene 1.85 1.13 1.39 2.22
p-Cymene 8.87 8.17 7.09 16.81
-Terpinene 8.45 7.78 5.00 31.07
-Terpinene 0.32 0.17
-Thujene 1.23 0.83 1.18 1.20
-Pinene 1.62 1.16 0.76 2.57
Camphene 0.67 0.34 0.76
-Pinene 0.95
Linalool 0.93
4-Terpinenol 1.47 0.66 0.97 0.48
Carvacrol-methyl ether 0.96 1.61
Thymol 0.18 2.65 6.73
Carvacrol 62.60 70.38 71.65 24.16
Carvacrol acetate 0.12
cis-Sabinene hydrate 0.44 0.27 0.24
l-Borneol 1.60 0.63 0.79 0.85
-Humulene 0.17 0.18
Germacrene D 0.11
-Bisabolene 2.70 0.94
(E)-Caryophyllene 1.40 1.33 3.16 4.07
-Muurolene 0.11
-Cadinene 0.10
-Cadinene 0.22
Viridiorene 0.18
Caryophyllene oxide 0.41

Total 97.32 97.24 96.77 97.70

Figure 1. Dendrograms obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (centroid method) on area percentage (% of total area) of the ve major components present in the essential
oil of samples isolated by (a) commercial distillation, (b) hydrodistillation (HD) and (c) simultaneous steam distillation solvent extraction (SDE). Joining distance of clusters
is presented on top of each.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233 29

Table 8 the resulting match values were used to classify each sample to each
Summary of the different chemotypes of Lamiaceae plants identied by GCMS
chemotype (Table 10).
analysis of essential oil.

Pulegone Mentha pulegium


Pure chemotypes Carvacrol Origanum onites, Origanum 3.3. Dispersive-Raman spectral analysis
vulgare subsp. hirtum, wild
Satureja hortensis (HD), Thymus Table 9 presents a summary of the Raman bands of the com-
sp.
pound standards found in the literature, whereas Fig. 4 shows the
Thymol Thymus vulgaris 52
region of the samples essential oils dispersive Raman spectra that
Carvacrol/-terpinene Cultivated Satureja hortensis, included all bands characteristic of each chemotype.
Mixed chemotypes wild Satureja hortensis (SDE),
Satureja thrymba, Thymus
No qualitative differences were observed between the essential
longicaulis subsp. chaubardii oil Raman spectra of the two T. vulgaris samples (Fig. 4a). According
Carvacrol/thymol Satureja pilosa to Daferera et al. (2002a) and Siatis et al. (2005) the spectrum of thy-
Thymol/p-cymene Thymus vulgaris 37 mol standard presented intense bands at 1622 cm1 , 1460 cm1 ,
1380 cm1 , 1261 cm1 , 1065 cm1 , 875 cm1 and especially the
characteristic band at 740 cm1 (ring vibration). Apart from the rst
band (1622 cm1 ), all the other bands reported appeared in both
sample spectra, supporting the classication of these two essential
oils in thymol-based chemotypes. Bands belonging to p-cymene
spectrum (1611 cm1 , 1209 cm1 and 804 cm1 ) also appeared in
both samples spectra. The height ratio of 740 cm1 (carvacrol) to
804 cm1 (p-cymene) in the case of T. vulgaris 52, was 5.0 0.8,
while, for T. vulgaris 32, it was 2.7 0.3. This supports the charac-
terization of the former as pure thymol chemotype and the latter
as mixed thymol/p-cymene chemotype, while underlining the abil-
ity of the proposed method to discriminate between these two
chemotypes.
Fig. 4bd correspond to the spectra of the essential oils of
carvacrol-based chemotypes. In all cases, a strong band at 760 cm1
Figure 2. Scatterplot of all samples under study. Circles show 95% condence region appeared, corresponding to the intense band of the carvacrol
to contain true mean of group. Species: (A) Mentha pulegium, (B) Origanum onites,
standard spectrum (Daferera et al., 2002a; Siatis et al., 2005). In
(C) Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, (D) Satureja hortensis, (E) Satureja hortensis wild,
(F) Satureja pilosa, (G) Satureja thrymba, (H) Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii, (I)
addition to this band, other carvacrol-related intense bands also
Thymus sp., (J) Thymus vulgaris 37 and (K) Thymus vulgaris 52. appeared: 1460 cm1 , 1261 cm1 , 1065 cm1 and 870 cm1 . In all
pure carvacrol chemotypes (Fig. 4c), bands related to -terpinene
(1701 cm1 attributed to non-conjugated C C of cyclohexadi-
ene and 1428 cm1 ) were absent, while these bands appeared
3.2. FT-IR spectral analysis
at the spectra of essential oils belonging to carvacrol/-terpinene
chemotype, i.e. cultivated S. hortensis and Satureja thymbra (Fig. 4b).
Fig. 3 shows the region of the spectrum assigned as ngerprint
This supports the suitability of the proposed method in order to
to the three chemotype standards and samples used as reference
differentiate among essential oils of pure carvacrol and mixed
in each chemotype library. The close similarity between standards
carvacrol/-terpinene chemotypes. The presence of -terpinene
and samples veried the a priori chemotype assignment to the latter
related bands at the spectrum of wild S. hortensis essential oil
and permitted their use as a reference for each library.
(Fig. 4b), despite its characterization as pure carvacrol chemotype,
Table 9 presents the characteristic bands of the examined
can be attributed to the higher concentration of -terpinene in
chemotypes and their assignment. According to Schulz et al. (2005)
comparison with the respective in the other pure carvacrol essen-
and Altiok et al. (2010), the most intense band for thymol is seen
tial oil. This fact points out a certain limitation of the proposed
at 804 cm1 , while for carvacrol is at 811 cm1 . These bands are
method when the concentration of -terpinene is relatively high
attributed to out-of-plane CH wagging vibrations, the most sig-
and the discrimination between these two chemotypes is solely
nicant signals used in distinguishing different types of aromatic
based on qualitative differences of spectra.
ring substitution. In our thymol chemotype spectra the band at
A region of the spectra of the two different species of Satureja is
804 cm1 appeared displaced at 810 cm1 for both the sample and
presented in Fig. 4d. This region shows clearly that, while the char-
the standard. The same is observed in the case of carvacrol, where
acteristic band of carvacrol (760 cm1 ) is present in both spectra, a
the band appeared at 813 cm1 instead of 811 cm1 . Other charac-
strong band at 740 cm1 (characteristic of thymol) is only present
teristic key bands in the thymol spectra: 1289, 1088 and 946 cm1
in S. pilosa spectrum. This fact supports the classication of S. pilosa
and in carvacrol spectra: 995, 1117 and 1176 cm1 were observed
in the mixed carvacrol/thymol chemotype.
and are in agreement with Schulz et al. (2003b). The most intense
M. pulegium essential oil spectrum (Fig. 4e) presented an intense
band for pulegone is due to C O stretching vibrations at 1681 cm1 .
band at 647 cm1 (ring vibration) and also bands at 1618 cm1
While in the region we chose to study, this band did not appear,
(C C bond stretching), 1457 cm1 , 1379 cm1 and 1339 cm1 , all of
other intense bands appeared, namely at 1373 cm1 (assigned to
which can be attributed to pulegone (Daferera et al., 2002a; Schulz
C H sym deformation of >CH CH3 ), at 1286 cm1 (assigned to C H
et al., 2005).
sym deformation of C (CH3 )2 ), at 1209 cm1 (attributed to C H
deformation vibration), at 1131 and 936 cm1 (CH3 rocking vibra-
tions) and at 876 cm1 (C H wagging vibration and ring vibration). 3.4. FT-IR, and dispersive-Raman libraries: match value
These bands were considered enough to provide a reliable identi-
cation of the chemotype (Petrakis et al., 2009; Schulz et al., 2005). The match values (%) of each essential oil sample to each
Each samples essential oil spectrum was compared with the chemptype of FT-IR (region 1500800 cm1 ) and dispersive-Raman
spectra of the three chemotype libraries using OMNIC software and (region 1800400 cm1 ) libraries are given in Table 10.
30 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233

Figure 3. FT-IR spectra of pure compounds and essential oil samples used as reference spectrum at ngerprint region (1500800 cm1 ).

Table 9
Characteristic dispersive-Raman and FT-IR bands of the essential oil compounds, the assignment of these bands and the samples in which they were present.

Plant Compound Dispersive-Raman Assignment FT-IR Assignment


(cm1 ) (cm1 )

Pulegone 1618  (C C) 1373 C H sym deformation of >CH CH3


1457 1286 C H sym deformation of
Mentha pulegium C (CH3 )2
1379 1209 C H deformation vibration
1339 1131936 CH3 rocking vibrations
647 (ring) 876 C H wagging vibration and ring
vibration

Thymol 1460 1289 Vibrations


1380 1088
Thymus vulgaris 37
1261 946
Thymus vulgaris 52
1065 810 (C H)
Satureja pilosa
875
740 (ring)

wild Satureja hortensis -Terpinene 1701  (nonconjugated C C) 947 (CH2 )


Satureja hortensis 1428 Methyl and isopropyl C H bending 781 (C H)
Satureja thrymba appears as a double broad band
756 (ring)
Thymus vulgaris 37 p-Cymene 1611  (ring) 1515
Thymus vulgaris 52 1209 (ring) 813 (C H)
wild Satureja hortensis 804 (ring)
Satureja hortensis
Satureja thrymba
Satureja pilosa

wild Satureja hortensis Carvacrol 1460 1176


Satureja hortensis 1261 1117
Satureja thrymba 1065 995
Origanum onites 870 813 (C H)
Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum 760 (ring)
Thymus sp.
Satureja pilosa
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233 31

Figure 4. Dispersive Raman spectra of essential oil samples. (a) Spectra of two Thymus vulgaris essential oils (thymol-based chemotype). (b) Spectra of different Satureja sp.
essential oils (carvacrol-based chemotype). (c) Spectra of two Origanum sp. and the commercial Thymus sp. essential oils (pure carvacrol chemotype). (d) Detail of the spectra
of Satureja hortensis (carvacrol-based chemotype) and Satureja pilosa (carvacrol/thymol chemotype) essential oils. (e) Spectrum of Mentha pulegium essential oil (pulegone
chemotype).

For both the FT-IR, and dispersive-Raman libraries, all essential essential oils, thus its classication as pure carvacrol chemotype
oils were correctly classied under the main component charac- is supported, despite the high amount of -terpinene it pre-
terizing their chemotype, while the match value to components sented. Moreover, the differences between wild S. hortensis and
non-present to their chemotype was rather small. the essential oils belonging to mixed carvacrol-based chemotypes
Regarding FT-IR library, the seven essential oils classied under suggests that the aforementioned weakness of the FT-IR proposed
a carvacrol-based chemotype presented match values from 87.90 method can be overcome with its combination with an appropriate
to 99.8% to the essential oil spectrum used as carvacrol chemotype spectral library. Match values obtained for carvacrol-based chemo-
reference. No statistically signicant differences were observed types from Raman library are in agreement to those obtained by
among pure carvacrol chemotypes (commercial Thymus sp., O. FT-IR.
onites and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum). The essential oil of wild Regarding thymol based chemotypes, no differences were
S. hortensis had no signicant differences with the two oregano found between pure thymol T. vulgaris 52 and thymol/p-cymene
32 R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233

Table 10
Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the match values (%) of each essential oil sample to the three main chemotypes for FT-IR and Raman libraries.

Essential oil FT-IR library Raman library

Chemotype Chemotype

Carvacrol Thymol Pulegone Carvacrol Thymol Pulegone

Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD

Mentha pulegium 4.82 1.25 18.92 4.07 99.78 0.23 5.49 1.01 2.72 1.34 97.82 3.09
Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum 99.45ab 0.42 47.83 1.00 1.92 0.24 95.81ab 3.15 3.93 1.34 2.19 2.27
Origanum onites 99.58ab 0.13 45.52 0.85 1.80 0.23 95.70ab 2.22 7.98 0.35 2.52 0.98
Satureja pilosa 95.42c 0.40 67.15 1.90 3.18 0.49 76.35d 0.23 49.37 1.13 5.63 1.17
Satureja thrymba 87.90d 0.01 66.20 1.46 7.60 0.88 79.49e 5.28 11.37 1.48 1.99 0.68
wild Satureja hortensis 98.32b 0.56 48.42 1.00 0.72 0.15 91.13b 0.78 7.09 0.23 1.33 0.49
Satureja hortensis 96.53c 0.57 52.03 0.95 0.54 0.69 90.54cd 0.75 4.42 0.62 0.62 0.74
Thymus sp. 99.88a 0.18 45.16 0.06 5.04 0.93 97.67a 3.30 4.92 1.17 5.84 0.52
Thymus vulgaris 37 51.76 0.06 96.84ns 2.14 14.90 0.01 0.74 0.39 96.01ns 2.14 2.53 1.90
Thymus vulgaris 52 46.62 2.12 99.03ns 1.36 15.13 1.22 5.77 0.02 99.60ns 0.57 1.50 0.39

Comparisons of mean match value within each chemotype and library were made using Tukeys test (a = 0.05). No statistically signicant differences were observed among
means connected with the same letter within each column.

T. vulgaris 37 chemotypes, being in agreement with the aforemen- Baeten, V., Meurens, M., Morales, M.T., Aparicio, R., 1996. Detection of virgin olive
tioned results obtained by dispersive-Raman analysis. oil adulteration by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem.
44 (8), 22252230.
In general, the FT-IR library presented highest match values of Daferera, D.J., Tarantilis, P.A., Polissiou, M.G., 2002a. Characterization of essential
the essential oil spectra to their corresponding chemotype than the oils from Lamiaceae species by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. J. Agric.
Raman library. On the other hand, Raman library appears to be more Food Chem. 50 (20), 55035507.
Daferera, D., Pappas, C., Tarantilis, P.A., Polissiou, M., 2002b. Quantitative analysis of
restrictive, as match values of the samples to other chemotypes -pinene and -myrcene in mastic gum oil using FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food
than the one they belonged to were rather low (11.37%), with the Chem. 77, 511515.
only exception of S. pilosa which had a match value of 76.35% for Esen, G., Azaz, A.D., Kurkcuoglu, M., Baser, K.H.C., Tinmaz, A., 2007. Essential oil
and antimicrobial activity of wild and cultivated Origanum vulgare L. subsp.
carvacrol and of 49.37% for thymol. Yet, this cannot be considered
Hirtum (Link) letswaart from the Marmara region, Turkey. Flavour Frag. J. 22,
as an inadequacy of the dispersive-Raman library, as this essential 371376.
oil is of mixed carvacrol/thymol chemotype. Hillig, K.W., 2004. A chemotaxonomic analysis of terpenoid variation in Cannabis.
Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 32 (10), 875891.
Holopainen, M., Hiltunen, R., von Schantz, M., 1987. A study on tansy chemotypes.
4. Conclusions Planta Med. 53 (3), 284287.
Kanakis, C.D., Petrakis, E.A., Kimbaris, A.C., Pappas, C., Tarantilis, P.A., Polissiou,
M.G., 2011. Classication of Greek Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) samples,
The results obtained from GCMS, FT-IR, and dispersive-Raman
according to geographical location by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.
methods revealed that there are signicant differences at the Phytochem. Anal. 23, 3443.
essential oil chemotype among plants of the Lamiaceae family. Dif- Keefover-Ring, K., Thompson, J.D., Linhart, Y.B., 2009. Beyong six scents: dening a
seventh Thymus vulgaris chemotype new to southern France by ethanol extrac-
ferences were observed among plants of different genus, within
tion. Flavour Frag. J. 24, 117122.
the same genus and, even within the same species. Therefore, it is Lorenzo, D., Paz, D., Dellacassa, E., Davies, P., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., 2002. Essential
essential to develop robust methods for the determination of the oils of Mentha pulegium and Mentha rotundifolia from Uruguay. Braz. Arch. Biol.
essential oils chemotypes. Technol. 45, 519524.
Niemeyer, H.M., 2010. Composition of essential oils from Satureja darwinii (Benth.)
While GC-FID enabled the discrimination between main chemo- Briq. and S. multiora (R. et P.) Briq. (Lamiaceae). Relationship between chemo-
types, it did not permit the differentiation between pure and mixed type and oil yield in Satureja spp. J. Essent. Oil Res. 22, 477482.
chemotypes of a certain compound. However, the combination of Pappas, C.S., Tarantilis, P.A., Harizanis, P.C., Polissiou, M.G., 2003. New method for
pollen identication by FT-IR spectroscopy. Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 2327.
the proposed FT-IR, and Raman based methods with the creation Petrakis, E.A., Kimbaris, A.C., Pappas, C.S., Tarantilis, P.A., Polissiou, M.G., 2009. Quan-
of spectral libraries enabled the chemotype determination of Lami- titative determination of pulegone in Pennyroyal oil by FT-IR spectroscopy. J.
aceae plant essential oils, even in the cases of mixed chemotypes, Agric. Food Chem. 57, 1004410048.
Polatoglu, K., 2013. Chemotypes a fact that should not be ignored in natural product
where the characterization by means of GC or solely based on qual- studies. Nat. Prod. J. 3 (1), 1014.
itative spectral differences was not successful. Furthermore, the Prosen, H., Kokalj, M., Janes, D., Kreft, S., 2010. Comparison of isolation meth-
proposed spectroscopic techniques are rapid, non-destructive and ods for the determination of buckwheat volatile compounds. Food Chem. 121,
298306.
do not require any sample pretreatment.
Rota, M.C., Herrera, A., Martnez, R.M., Sotomayor, J.A., Jordn, M.J., 2008. Antimi-
crobial activity and chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and
Acknowledgements Thymus hyemalis essential oils. Food Control 19, 681687.
Schulz, H., Schrader, B., Quilitzsch, R., Pfeffer, S., Krger, H., 2003a. Rapid classica-
tion of basil chemotypes by various vibrational spectroscopy methods. J. Agric.
Raquel Rodrguez Solana is grateful for stay fellowship of Vigo Food Chem. 51, 24752481.
University (Spain). Schulz, H., Quilitzsch, R., Krger, H., 2003b. Rapid evaluation and quantitative
analysis of thyme, origano and chamomile essential oils by ATR-IR and NIR
We thank the company Bioparnon (Astros, Arcadia, Pelopon-
spectroscopy. J. Mol. Struct. 661, 299306.
nesus, Greece) for providing commercially distilled essential oils Schulz, H., zkan, G., Baranska, M., Krger, H., zcan, M., 2005. Characterisation of
samples. essential oil plants from Turkey by IR and Raman spectroscopy. Vib. Spectrosc.
39, 249256.
Siatis, N.G., Kimbaris, A.C., Pappas, C.S., Tarantilis, P.A., Daferera, D.J., Polissiou,
References M.G., 2005. Rapid method for simultaneous quantitative determination of
four major essential oil components from oregano (Oreganum sp.) and thyme
Adams, R.P., 2007. Identication of Essential Oils Components by Gas Chromatogra- (Thymus sp.) using FT-Raman spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (2),
phy/Mass Spectrometry, fourth ed. Allured Pub. Corp., IL. 202206.
Altiok, D., Altiok, E., Tihminlioglu, F., 2010. Physical, antibacterial and antioxidant Stashenko, E.E., Martnez, J.R., Ruz, C.A., Arias, G., Durn, C., Salgar, W., Cala, M., 2010.
properties of chitosan lms incorporated with thyme oil for potential wound Lippia origanoides chemotype differentiation based on essential oil GCMS and
healing applications. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 21, 22272236. principal component analysis. J. Sep. Sci. 33, 93103.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 62 (2014) 2233 33

Tarantilis, P.A., Troianou, V.E., Pappas, C.S., Kotseridis, Y.S., Polissiou, M.G., 2008. Viljoen, A.M., Sahir, P., Van Vuuren, S.F., Figueiredo, A.C., Pedro, L.G., Barroso, J.G.,
Differentiation of Greek red wines on the basis of grape variety using attenu- 2006. The chemo-geographical variation in essential oil composition and the
ated total reectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Food Chem. 111, antimicrobial properties of wild mint Mentha longifolia subsp. polyadena (Lami-
192196. aceae) in Southern Africa. J. Essent. Oil Res. 18, 6065.
Toncer, O., Karaman, S., Kizil, S., Diraz, E., 2009. Changes in essential oil composition Yamazaki, M., Saito, K., 2011. Molecular genetic study on the anthocyanin
of oregano (Origanum onites L.) due to diurnal variations at different develop- chemotypes of Perilla frutescens var. crispa. Nat. Prod. Commun. 6 (3), 423
ment stages. Not. Bot. Hort. Agrabot Cluj 37 (2), 177181. 427.
Research article Institute of Brewing & Distilling

Received: 22 April 2012 Revised: 5 July 2012 Accepted: 7 July 2012 Published online in Wiley Online Library: 14 August 2012

(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI 10.1002/jib.25

Characterization by chemical and sensory


analysis of commercial grape marc distillate
(Orujo) aged in oak wood
Raquel Rodrguez-Solana,1,2 Noelia Rodrguez,1,2 Jos Manuel Dominguez1,2
and Sandra Corts1,2*
The main physicochemical parameters and sensory prole of commercial aged distillates from grape marc, Orujo, have been
determined in this study. Signicant differences were obtained for the mean concentration of the chemical parameters
determined among the samples analysed. All samples fullled the values xed for each parameter by the corresponding
Regulation Council and the values obtained showed differences with respect those obtained for other similar beverages
(whisky, rum, cognac) owing to the characteristics of the raw material employed. The results from sensory analysis showed
that Orujo aged over 60 months in wooden barrels from Quercus robur reached the highest overall quality, next to the
distillate aged over 144 months in Quercus petraea oak wood. The tasters evaluated more positively the species of oak used
in the aging process than the time that the distillate remained in contact with the barrel. Samples aged in oak wood from
Quercus robur during 60 months and from Quercus petraea during 144 months had a similar sensory prole and obtained a
greater intensity in all qualifying parameters. The principal components analysis clearly showed a good separation of the
aged Orujo samples in terms of sensory descriptors according to the species and origin of the oak wood employed in the
aging process. Copyright 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling

Keywords: aging; chemical parameters; Orujo; PCA; sensorial attributes; wooden barrel

Introduction orange-amber) and new attributes in avour and aroma. However,


and despite these positive changes, in the case of Orujo, this aging
Several distillates from different origins (whisky, rum, cognac, step is not required and for this reason only a few distilleries
armagnac, cachaa and brandy) are submitted to a long aging submit a small part of their Orujo production to an aging process.
process in wooden barrels with the aim of improving their According to data provided by the Regulatory Council, in 2011
sensory quality (16). During this stage, several chemical reactions only 3.55% of total production volume of Orujo was subjected to
such as hydrolysis and oxidation can occur in the distillate and aging. Maturation in wood is an expensive process, with the cost
simultaneously a great variety of compounds are also extracted increasing in proportion to the length of the aging period, mainly
from the wooden barrels, modifying the chemical prole (5). owing to alcohol evaporation and the high price of the barrel,
A large number of studies have been published about these which in a few years must be replaced. Orujo is aged according
beverages and conrm this positive impact on their quality (1,718). to the traditional static system known as Aadas (23), similar to
The chemical and sensory modications are inuenced by several those in other European countries such as France and Italy (24).
factors such as the species of wood and the heat treatment, Orujo must be aged in oak barrels with a volume capacity less than
the use of new or already used barrels and their capacity, the 1000 L for at least one year. The volume loss by evaporation
temperature and humidity of the cellar, the aging time and the (maximum of 1.5% every three months) is supplemented by
initial composition of the distillate (8,10,11,1921). Grape marc distillate of the same aging time. The normative allows the
distillates are alcoholic beverages produced in most European addition of caramel to increase the natural colour obtained
wine-producing countries (Spain, Italy, France and Portugal). The from the barrel. After the aging period, the nal distillate may
European Community, in Annex II of Council Regulation (EEC be mixed with other distillates that have been aged under the
1576/89) (22) for geographical designations, dened Orujo as the same conditions.
grape pomace distillate produced in Galicia, long a traditional
wine-growing region in the northwest of Spain. Orujo is obtained
from the distillation of the fermented solid parts of the grape
* Correspondence to: Sandra Corts, Department of Chemical Engineering,
(stems, stalks and seeds) that are generated in the rst stages of Sciences Faculty, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n,
winemaking. Young grape marc distillates are colourless and in 32004 Ourense, Spain. E-mail: smcortes@uvigo.es
the aroma phase they are characterized by sensory attributes such
1
as oral, fruity, herbaceous, ensilage and heads, with astringent Department of Chemical Engineering, Sciences Faculty, University of Vigo
(Campus Ourense), As Lagoas s/n, 32004 Ourense, Spain
and alcoholic notes in taste (12). After the aging process, these
sharp sensory characteristics are removed and the mature 2
Laboratory of Agro-food Biotechnology, CITI-Tecnlopole, Parque Tecnolgico
distillate shows different sensory qualities in colour (yellow-golden,
205

de Galicia, San Cibrao das Vias, Ourense, Spain

J. Inst. Brew. 2012; 118: 205212 Copyright 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.
Institute of Brewing & Distilling

At this time, no published study is available on the effect of Chemicals and standards
wood barrel aging on the chemical parameters and sensory
Acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and 2-methyl-1-butanol were supplied
properties of distillates from grape marc (Orujo). The main goal
by Fluka (Switzerland); 2-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-propanol,
of this work was to compare, by sensory analysis and chemical
1-butanol, 3-methyl-butanol and 4-methyl-2-pentanol were pur-
determinations, the characteristics of Orujo aged in barrels from
chased from Sigma-Aldrich (Switzerland). Ethanol (analytical grade)
different species and after different periods of aging time, to
and methanol were supplied from Merck (Germany).
approach to the aroma prole and analytical composition of
Stock standard solutions of each volatile compound were
the Orujo present in the market. This work is the rst part of a
prepared by dissolving the pure standard in ethanol. Working
broader study of aging process optimization of the traditional
standard solutions of each compound were prepared daily by
Orujos produced in Galicia (northwestern Spain).
mixing an aliquot of each individual solution and diluting with
ultrapure water to obtain a nal ethanol content of 40% (v/v).
Materials and methods The internal standard for GC analysis, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, was
prepared in absolute ethanol 100% (v/v).
Aged grape marc samples
A set of seven aged grape marc distillates (Orujo) were selected
Analytical procedure
for this study on the basis of representativity and disponibility.
The Regulating Council of the Geographic Denomination of Volatile compounds were analysed using an Agilent 7890A gas
the Spirits and Traditional Liqueurs from Galicia supplied the chromatograph equipped with a ame ionization detection
samples after certication; thus they met all the quality control (FID) system (Agilent Technologies, Deutschland, Germany). For
requirements (physicochemical and sensorial) for aged Orujo determination of the volatile compounds (methanol, ethyl
spirits of this Geographic Denomination (Table 1). Information acetate, acetaldehyde, 2-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-propanol,
about the time of aging and the species of oak wood employed 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-butanol), 1 mL of an
in the process was supplied by the producers and is summarized internal standard solution (5 g of 4-methyl-2-pentanol per 1 L of
in Table 2. ethanol) was added to a 10 mL sample of aged Orujo. The organic
extract (1 mL) of each sample was directly injected into the
chromatograph.
Table 1. Chemical parameters controlled by the regulating The compounds were separated in a Zebron ZB-WAX (60 m
council in aged grape marc distillates 0.25 mm i.d., lm thickness 0.25 mm) from Phenomenex
(Torrance, CA, USA). Injections were made in split mode (1:10).
Maximum Minimum The injector temperature was 250  C and the oven was
programmed for 15 min at 60  C, increasing at 3  C/min to
Alcohol degree (% v/v) 50 37.5 200  C. The carrier gas was hydrogen, at a ow rate of 1.1 mL/min.
Methanol (g HL 1 a.a.)a 950 200 The chromatographic conditions of the FID were: Temperature,
Total acidity (in acetic acid, 250 260  C; H2, 40 mL/min; air, 400 mL/min; auxiliary gas (N2), 25 mL/min.
g HL 1 a.a.) The extract was also analysed by GC-MS. The GC was a Finningan
Acetaldehyde (g HL 1 a.a.) 150 Trace DSQ (Thermo, Austin, TXUSA). The column was an HP
Ethyl acetate (g HL 1 a.a.) 250 Innowax (60 m  0.25 mm id, lm thickness 0.25 mm) from Agilent
Higher alcoholsb (g HL 1 a.a.) 600 225 (Agilent Technologies, Deutschland, Germany). The carrier gas was
Copper (mg L 1) 9 He at 1.1 mL min 1. The oven parameters were the same as
a
Grams per 100 L of absolute ethanol. previously described in GC-FID analyses. Mass spectra were
b
Includes: 2-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol, acquired in the electron impact mode (ionization energy, 70 eV;
2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. source temperature, 200  C) at 5 scans s 1, using full scan with a
mass acquisition from m/z 10 to 1000.

Table 2. Main characteristics of the samples analysed

Code sample Zone Grape variety Species of oak Geographical location Aging time (months)
QRG60 Ras Baixas Albario Quercus robur Galicia (Spain) 60
QRG72 Ras Baixas Albario Quercus robur Galicia (Spain) 72
QPA72 Ras Baixas Albario Quercus petraea Allier (France) 72
QPA144 Valdeorras Godello Quercus petraea Allier (France) 144
QA72 Ras Baixas Albario Quercus alba USA 72
QM14 Ribeira Sacra Menca 60% Quercus petraea + 20% Allier (France), USA, 14
Quercus alba + 20% Quercus robur Limousin (France)
QM42 Ribeira Sacra Menca 55% Quercus petraea + 30% Allier (France), USA, 42
Quercus alba + 15% Quercus robur Limousin (France)
206

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jib Copyright 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling J. Inst. Brew. 2012; 118: 205212
Characterization of commercial grape marc distillate
Institute of Brewing & Distilling

The identication of volatile compounds was based on the The samples were presented to the panel in Orujo tasting
matching of mass spectra of the compounds with the reference glasses, at room temperature and in a tasting room. Mineral
mass spectra of the NIST library. The identication of chromato- water was provided for mouth rinsing between distillate
graphic peaks was also conrmed by comparing retention times samples.
with those of pure compounds. Quantitative analyses were
made by employing the corresponding response factor in the
reference solution, according to the internal standard method. Statistical analysis
Determinations were made in triplicate. Copper and total acidity The results obtained were analysed using XLstat-Pro (Addinsoft).
were determined in the Laboratorio agrario e topatolxico, The multiple range Fisher test (least signicant difference) was
Galicia, according to ofcial methods (25). applied to establish whether signicant differences (p < 0.05)
existed between the values obtained for the mean concentration
of each chemical parameter in the different aged grape marc
distillates analysed. Principal components analysis (PCA) on sensory
Sensory analysis
descriptors was also used to group the samples with similar
The tasting panel was composed of a group of six professionals, compositions.
ranging in age from 31 to 55 years, all of them members of the
ofcial panel of Geographic Denomination of the Spirits and
Traditional Liqueurs from Galicia and with great experience in Results and discussion
the sensory analysis of assessing Orujo spirits, both aged and
Chemical parameters
young, at least on a monthly basis. The judges evaluated the
intensity of the descriptive parameters and the qualifying The results obtained for the chemical composition of the aged
parameters (in visual, aroma, taste, aftertaste and general grape marc distillates analysed are shown in Table 3. All complied
impression) using the evaluation form shown (Fig. 1), and with the necessary content requirements for each compound,
previously used and dened by the same panellists to sensorially or group of them (Table 1). The results showed signicant
evaluate young and aged distillate from grape marc (Orujo) (12). differences amongst the samples in the study. The presence and
The tasters were asked to score each attribute using a structured concentration of these parameters was related to the raw
scale (0, no perception; 1, very low; 2, low; 3, middle; 4, high; materials used, the conditions of fermentation, the distillation
and 5, very high intensity). The panel also scored the overall technique employed and the aging process. For these reasons, it
quality of the Orujos between 0 (without quality) and 50 was not possible to establish conclusions about the behaviour of
(maximum quality). the wood in the composition of the grape marc distillate; however,

207

Figure 1. Evaluation form used in the sensory analysis of the aged grape marc distillates.

J. Inst. Brew. 2012; 118: 205212 Copyright 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jib
208

Institute of Brewing & Distilling

Table 3. Chemical composition of the aged grape marc distillates analysed

wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jib
Quercus robur (A) Quercus petraea (B) Quercus alba (C) Mixture
QR QPA QA QM
20% A + 60%B + 20%C 15%A + 55%B + 30%C
60 months 72 months 72 months 144 months 72 months 14 months 42 months
aging time aging time aging time aging time aging time aging time aging time
QR60 QR72 QPA72 QPA144 QA72 QM14 QM42
a a b b b a,b a,b
Alcohol degree 49.0 44.8 50.0 43.4 44.8 39.0 38.8
(% v/v)
a b d e
Methanol 200 a 234 881 650 c 807 247 276 f
(g HL 1 a.a.)
a,b a,b b a,b d
Total acidity (in acetic acid, 208 230 124 249 c 161 195 a 211
g HL 1 a.a.)
a a b a a a
Acetaldehyde 35.0 40.0 140 a,b 42.0 52.0 46.0 54.0
(g HL 1 a.a.)
a,b,c a a,b b,c c
Ethyl acetate 104 a,b,c 88 156 68.0 103 a,b,c 111 111
(g HL 1 a.a.)
a,b c b c c
Higher alcohols* 283 298 a 343 280 262 391 c 406
(g HL-1 a.a.)

Copyright 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling


a a b a,c c d a
Copper 2.1 4.8 1.8 0.6 6.5 0.8 1.0
( mg L 1 )
Grams per 100 L of absolute ethanol.
* Includes: 2-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Values within the same row with the same letter are not
signicantly different at 95% condence.
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.

J. Inst. Brew. 2012; 118: 205212


Characterization of commercial grape marc distillate
Institute of Brewing & Distilling

the results help one to understand the current situation, in terms other alcoholic beverages. Parazzi et al. (30) showed that methanol
of the basic analytical composition of aged Orujo, and to compare did not increase in concentration during the aging process.
this product with other similar distillates. Ethyl acetate is the most abundant acetate in the distillates
The alcoholic degree of the samples under study was within the derived from the secondary metabolism of the yeast during the
margins established by the corresponding Regulation Council alcoholic fermentation of grape pomace. However, it is the
(37.550% v/v). The mean alcohol content in aged Orujos was product of acetic acid esterication and thus its concentration
higher than in the fresh samples (26). The fresh distillate is increases during the aging process (35). A high content of ethyl
introduced into the oak wood at a high alcohol degree. Van acetate in the distillate, above its perception threshold of 180 g
Jaarsveld et al. (27) established a concentration of 55% (v/v) of HL 1 a.a., has a negative impact on sensorial characteristics and
ethanol in the distillate, according to the criteria, to obtain a is perceived as having a solvent character (36). In the samples
greater extraction of compounds from the wood and better analysed, the content ranged from 68 to 156 g HL 1 a.a.,
quality in the nal product. During the aging process, there are contributing fruity and oral notes to the aroma of the distillate.
many changes in the analytical and sensory composition of the Ethyl acetate shows a mean content of 175 mg L 1 in whisky
spirit, favoured by the high alcohol content (28). According to (31), lower than the mean values obtained for the Orujos, owing
Cato et al. (29), during the aging process oscillations occur in to the storage conditions of the raw material and the distillation
the ethanol content of the distillate, a function of the temperature process. Parazzi et al. (30) showed that, for Brazilian sugar cane
and humidity outside of the barrel, that is, the higher the outdoor spirits, the value of ethyl acetate was 62.65 g HL 1 a.a. after
humidity, the greater the loss of alcohol. In conditions of low 36 months of aging, and this value was lower than the
humidity, relative concentrations occur owing to loss of water corresponding values obtained for the Orujo samples analysed
through the pores of the barrel. Gimnez Martnez et al. (24) in the present study. In Brazilian sugar cane spirits, during the
showed values between 38 and 40% (v/v) for the ethanol content aging process, the mean concentration of ethyl acetate increased
in brandies (wine distillates), a lower mean value than the Orujos signicantly after the rst 18 months (30).
analysed in this study. The amount of total higher alcohols in the samples analysed
Total acidity values in the samples varied from 124 to 270 g varied from 262 to 406 g HL 1 a.a. The concentration of
HL-1 a.a. This parameter increases signicantly during the wood amino acids, the yeast strain, the fermentation conditions (pH,
aging process, resulting from oxidation reactions of ethanol and temperature, time) and the distillation process are all important
from wood extraction (9). In Brazilian sugar cane spirits or factors in terms of the concentration of higher alcohols in the nal
cachaa, a similar alcoholic beverage to Galician Orujo, the distillate. Higher alcohols comprise the group that is quantitatively
values of total acidity were lower, at 46.40 mg 100 mL 1 after more important in the distillates. These volatile compounds are
36 months of aging (30). positively involved in the sensory quality of the distillate, if they
Acetaldehyde is a volatile compound formed during sponta- are not present in high concentrations. Snakkers et al. (6) indicated
neous or microbial mediated oxidation during the alcoholic an increase in the content of higher alcohols in the cognac after
fermentation of raw material. Its concentration in the nal aging as a result of the phenomenon of concentration by ethanol
distillate is also inuenced by the distillation system, the wood evaporation. These authors reported concentrations of higher
and the aging time (28). The acetaldehyde concentration alcohols of 3736 and 3863 mg L 1 before and after the aging
increased during aging to a lesser extent when the distillation process, respectively. These values were higher than the
of the raw material was carried out using a rectication column corresponding concentrations in aged Orujo, established in the
and when the wood species used was Quercus alba (American range of 1176.761575.28 mg L 1. This is because cognac is a
oak), as it has a lower porosity than Quercus petraea or distilled from wine and, according to Corts et al. (37), wine and
Quercus robur (French oaks). Acetaldehyde in age-distilled spirits lees distillates contain higher concentrations of higher alcohols
increased its concentration notably owing to the oxidation than grape pomace distillates. Parazzi et al. (30) showed that the
process in the barrel. The level of acetaldehyde in the aged Orujo increase in the higher alcohols during aging was primarily due to
samples ranged between 35 and 140 g HL 1 a.a., within the isoamyl alcohol. Guichard et al. (38), in a study on the chemical
Orujo Regulation limits. Nascimento et al. (31) reported values composition of Calvados (apple brandy), reported a total higher
of acetaldehyde in whisky of 11.5 g HL 1 a.a. and in other alcohol content in the range of 435.71441.07 g HL 1 a.a., a value
distilled alcoholic beverages (tequila, rum, cognac, grappa and signicantly higher than the mean concentration for this group of
vodka) values of 12.4 g HL 1 a.a. Parazzi et al. (30) showed lower compounds in the Orujo samples analysed.
values for this compound in Brazilian sugar cane spirits (ranging Copper is an inorganic element that is always present in the
from 7.63 to 9.36 g HL 1 a.a. after 36 months of aging). composition of grape pomace distillates. The principal sources of
The methanol content in alcoholic beverages is very important copper in the distillates are from the distillation equipment and
because of its toxicity (maximum legal limit 1000 g HL 1 a.a. or the treatment of the grapes with CuSO4 (39). The traditional
100% vol. ethanol) (22); however, this compound has no specic equipment employed for distillation, the alembic, is entirely made
odour, and thus does not contribute to the aroma of the distillate. of copper, as it acts as a catalyst for some reactions during the
The Regulation Commission of Orujo permits a maximum distillation and thus improves the aromatic quality of the distillate.
concentration of methanol of 950 g HL 1 a.a. of 100 % vol. ethanol. The copper mean content in aged Orujo is similar to the values
This compound is naturally present in distilled grape marc spirits reported for the fresh distillates, indicating that the aging process
as a consequence of the enzymatic degradation of pectins does not increase the concentration of this inorganic element.
(32,33). Methanol content in the analysed samples ranged
from 200 to 881 g HL 1 a.a., a higher concentration than other
Sensory analysis
distillates such as whisky, wine brandy and rum (34). According
to Apostolopoulou et al. (7), this can be attributed to the low pectin Figure 2 shows the aroma prole of the seven aged Orujo samples
content of the raw material employed in the elaboration of the evaluated according to the qualifying parameters. The results
209

J. Inst. Brew. 2012; 118: 205212 Copyright 2012 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jib
R. Rodrguez-Solana et al.
Institute of Brewing & Distilling

QPA72 QPA144
V-Quality V-Quality
5 5
Genuineness 4 A-Intensity Genuineness 4 A-Intensity
3 3
2 2
Harmony A-Fineness Harmony A-Fineness
1 1
0 0

T-Fragrance A-Frankness T-Fragrance A-Frankness

T-Fineness T-Quality T-Fineness T-Quality

T-Persistence T-Persistence

QM14 QM42
V-Quality V-Quality
5 5
Genuineness 4 A-Intensity Genuineness 4 A-Intensity
3 3
2 2
Harmony A-Fineness Harmony A-Fineness
1 1
0 0

T-Fragrance A-Frankness T-Fragrance A-Frankness

T-Fineness T-Quality T-Fineness T-Quality

T-Persistence T-Persistence

QR60 QR72
V-Quality V-Quality
5 5
Genuineness 4 A-Intensity Genuineness 4 A-Intensity
3 3
2 2
Harmony A-Fineness Harmony A-Fineness
1 1
0 0

T-Fragrance A-Frankness T-Fragrance A-Frankness

T-Fineness T-Quality T-Fineness T-Quality

T-Persistence T-Persistence