ANSI/IEC/IEEE
&
Protective Device Evaluation
Users Guide
Copyright 2011
All Rights Reserved
Table of Contents
i
Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
ii
Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
List of Figures
List of Tables
Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times ............. 6
Table 2: 30 cycles calculation impedance....................................................................................................... 7
Table 3: Resistivity and equivalent earth penetration ................................................................................... 22
Table 4: IEC voltage factor ............................................................................................................................ 23
Table 5: CB rated interrupting time in cycles ................................................................................................ 30
Table 6: K factor ............................................................................................................................................ 33
Table 7: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSAs Library .......................................................................... 34
Table 8: n factor based on PF and short circuit level .................................................................................... 42
Table 9: Icu and k factor ................................................................................................................................ 46
Table 10: CB Name plate data ........................................................................................................................ 48
Table 11: IEC c factor...................................................................................................................................... 81
Note: You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is:
You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial in the following location:
C:\DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC
Test Files: ANSIYY1, IECYY; Busfault, EDM5, IEC160909, IEC260909, IEEE399, IEEEpde,
MutualNet, SlidingFault, T123, T123PDE, testma1, Trib, TribNVTAP, UPSexpse, West
Copyright 2011
Power Analytics Corporation
All Rights Reserved
iii
Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
The salient features of the Paladin DesignBase advanced short circuit program:
9 Exact short circuit current and contributions computation using ThreeSequence Modeling
9 High speed simulation by utilizing the stateoftheart techniques in matrix operations (sparse
matrix and vector methods)
9 Customize reports
9 Professional Reports
9 Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDC (protective device coordination)
9 Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDE (protective device evaluation)
9 New functions for UPS bypass and motors fed from VFD
1
Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
2 INTRODUCTION
The short circuit is an accidental electrical contact between two or more conductors. The protective
devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are applied to isolate faults and to minimize damage and
disruption to the plants operation.
Types of Faults depend on the power system grounding method. The most common faults are:
3P or 3PG: 8%
LL: 12 %
LLG: 10 %
LG: 70 %
Severity of fault:
Normally the threephase symmetrical short circuit (3P) can be regarded as the most severe
condition. There are cases that can lead to single phase fault currents exceeding the threephase
fault currents; however, the total energy is less than a threephase fault. Such cases include faults
that are close to the following types of equipment:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
2.2 Terminology
Arcing Time  the interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of the arc in the protective
device and the instant of final arc extinction in all phases.
Available Short Circuit Current  the maximum short circuit current that the power system could
deliver at a given circuit point assuming negligible short circuit fault impedance.
Breaking Current  the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation (pole
separation). It is also known as Interrupting Current in ANSI Standards.
Close and Latch Duty  the maximum rms value of calculated short circuit current for medium and
highvoltage circuit breakers, during the first cycle, with any applicable multipliers with regard to fault
current X/R ratio. Often, the close and latching duty calculation is simplified by applying a 1.6 factor
to the first cycle symmetrical AC rms short circuit current. Close and latch duty is also called first
cycle duty, and was formerly called momentary duty.
Close and Latch Capability  the maximum asymmetrical current capability of a medium or high
voltage circuit breaker to close, and immediately thereafter latch closed, for normal frequency making
current.
The close and latch asymmetrical rms current capability is 1.6 times the circuit breaker rated
maximum symmetrical AC rms interrupting current. Often called first cycle capability. The rms
asymmetrical rating was formerly called momentary rating.
Contact Parting Time  the interval between the beginning of a specified over current and the
instant when the primary arcing contacts have just begun to part in all poles. It is the sum of the relay
or release delay and opening time.
Crest Current / Peak Current the highest instantaneous current during a period.
Fault an abnormal connection, including the arc, of relative low impedance, whether made
accidentally or intentionally, between two points of different voltage potentials.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Fault Point X/R the calculated fault point reactance to resistance ratio (X/R). Depending on the
Standard, different calculation procedures are used to determine this ratio.
First Cycle Duty the maximum value of calculated peak or rms asymmetrical current or
symmetrical short circuit current for the first cycle with any applicable multipliers for fault current X/R
ratio.
First Cycle Rating the maximum specified rms asymmetrical or symmetrical peak current
capability of a piece of equipment during the first cycle of a fault.
Interrupting Current the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation.
Sometimes referred to as Breaking Current, I b , IEC60909.
Making Current the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant the device closes and
latches into a fault.
Momentary Current Rating the maximum available first cycle rms asymmetrical current which the
device or assembly is required to withstand. It was used on medium and highvoltage circuit breakers
manufactured before 1965; present terminology: Close and Latch Capability.
Offset Current  an AC current waveform whose baseline is offset from the AC symmetrical current
zero axis.
Peak Current the maximum possible instantaneous value of a short circuit current during a period.
Short circuit current is the current that flows at the short circuit location during the short circuit
period time.
Symmetrical short circuit current is the power frequency component of the short circuit current.
Branch short circuit currents are the parts of the short circuit current in the various branches of the
power network.
Initial short circuit current IK" is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current at the instant
of occurrence of the short circuit, IEC 60909.
Maximum asymmetrical short circuit current Is is the highest instantaneous rms value of the
short circuit current following the occurrence of the short circuit.
Symmetrical breaking current Ia , on the opening of a mechanical switching device under short
circuit conditions, is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current flowing through the
switching device at the instant of the first contact separation.
Rated voltage VR the phasetophase voltage, according to which the power system is designated;
IEC UR the rated voltage is the maximum phasetophase voltage.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Minimum time delay t min is the shortest possible time interval between the occurrence of the short
circuit and the first contact separation of one pole of the switching device.
Dynamic stress is the effect of electromechanical forces during the short circuit conditions.
Thermal stress is the effect of electrical heating during the short circuit conditions.
Direct earthing / effective earthing is the direct earthing of the neutral points of the power
transformers.
Short circuit earth current is the short circuit current, or part of it, that flows back to the system
through the earth.
DesignBase Short Circuit Analysis Program is based on ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards and fully
complies with the latest ANSI/IEEE/IEC Standards:
ANSI/IEEE Std. 141 1993, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution of
Industrial Plants (IEEE Red Book)
ANSI/IEEE Std. 399 1997, IEEE Recommended Practice for Power Systems Analysis (IEEE
Brown Book)
ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.010 1979, IEEE Application Guide for AC HighVoltage Circuit
Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis
ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.51979, IEEE Application Guide for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers
Rated on a Total Current Basis
ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.131990, IEEE Standard for LowVoltage AC Power Circuit Breakers
Used in Enclosures
IEC909 1988, International Electro technical Commission, Short Circuit Current Calculation in
ThreePhase Ac Systems
UL 489_9 1996, Standard for Safety for MoldedCase Circuit Breaker, MoldedCase Switches,
and CircuitBreaker Enclosures
A Practical Guide to ShortCircuit Calculations, by Conrad St. Pierre
IEC 609090/200107, Shortcircuit currents in threephase AC systems, Part 0: Calculation of
currents
IEC 609093/2003, Shortcircuit currents in threephase AC systems, Part 3: Currents during two
separate simultaneous linetoearth shortcircuits and partial shortcircuit currents flowing through
earth
IEC 609471:200010, Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: General rules
IEC 609472:2003, Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear Part 2: Circuit breakers
EN 609473:1999, Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear Part 3: Switches, disconnectors,
switchdisconnectors and fusecombination units
BS EN 62271100:2001, Highvoltage switchgear and controlgear Part 100: Highvoltage
alternatingcurrent circuitbreakers
IEC 62271111:200511, Highvoltage switchgear and controlgear Part 111: Overhead, pad
mounted, dry vault and submersible automatic circuit reclosers and fault interrupters for
alternating current systems up to 38 kV
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Power utilities, all rotating electric machinery and regenerative drives are sources in fault calculation.
The main impedances for the first cycle is the subtransient impedance. It is generally used for the
first cycles up to a few cycles;
The cycle network is also referred to as the sub transient network, because all rotating machines
are represented by their sub transient reactance.
cycle short circuit currents are used to evaluate the interrupting duties for lowvoltage power
breakers, low voltage moldedcase breakers, high and low voltage fuses and withstand currents for
switches and highvoltage breakers.
The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the cycle network.
Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
100
Z% = For Induction
Harmonic Filters Tuned _ harmonic Xd = /
1 LRC
Motors
The short circuit waveform for a balanced threephase fault at the terminal bus of a machine is
generally asymmetrical and is composed of a unidirectional DC component and a symmetrical AC
component.
The DC component decays to zero, and the amplitude of the symmetrical AC component decays to
constant amplitude in the steadystate.
If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the current waveform are symmetrical around
zero axis, they are called Symmetrical. If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the
current are not symmetrical around the zero axis, they are called Asymmetrical.
If the DC fault component is not considered in the fault current, the fault current has the AC
component only, and it is symmetrical; if DC fault component is considered, then the fault current is
asymmetrical and is called asymmetrical or total fault current.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
The multiplying factors MF converts the rms value of the symmetrical AC component into
asymmetrical rms current or short circuit current duty. The MF is calculated based on the X/R ratio
and the instant of time that the fault current happens. The X/R ratio for ANSI breaker duties is
calculated from separate R and X networks.
Is defined as:
2
X
MFm = 1 + 2e R
,1
Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate
MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6
Is defined as:
2
MFPeak = 2 (1 + e X /R ) ,2
where is the instant of time when fault occurs, X/R for ANSI breaker duties are calculated from
separate R and X network.
Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate
MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2.7.
The magnitude of the symmetrical current (AC component) from remote sources remain essentially
constant. No AC Decay (NACD) at its initial value or it may reduce with time toward a residual AC
current magnitude (ACD).
In other words, when a generator is local or close to the faulted point, the short circuit current decays
faster. If the generator is remote from the faulted point, the AC short circuit current decay will be slow
and a conservative simplification is to assume that there is no AC decay (NACD) in the symmetrical
AC component.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
The per unit reactance external to the generator is less than 1.5 times the generator perunit
sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA
EG
Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes will be greater than 0.4 * ,
X d"
EG
where the is the generator short circuit current for a threephase fault at its terminal bus
X d"
The per unit reactance external to the generator is equal to or exceeds 1.5 times the
generator per unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA
EG
IG = , 3
( XExternal + X d" )
The ANSI Standards provide multiplying factors (MF) based X/R ratio for threephase faults and
linetoground faults fed predominantly from generators and MF for faults fed predominantly from
remote sources.
and:
I Re mote
NACD = 5
I Total
When all contributions are remote, or when there is no generator, then NACD = 1
When all contributions are local, then NACD = 0
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
While using the IEC standard the following system components formulae are used:
The network components like power transformers, reactors, feeders, overhead lines, cables and
other similar equipment, positivesequence and negativesequence shortcircuit impedances are
equal:
Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) , 6
is determined by assuming an AC voltage between the three paralleled conductors and the joint
return (for example earth, earthing arrangement, neutral conductor, earth wire, cable sheath and
cable armoring). In this case, the threefold zerosequence current flows through the joint return.
The impedances of generators (G), network transformers (T) and power station units (S) will be
multiplied with the impedance correction factors KG, KT and KS or KSO when calculating short
circuit currents with the equivalent voltage source at the shortcircuit location according to the
standard [1].
The impedance module ZT can be calculated from the rated transformer data as follows:
u kr U rT2
ZT = , , 8
100 S rT
Where:
UrT is the rated voltage of the transformer, on the highvoltage or lowvoltage side.
SrT is the rated apparent power of the transformer.
ukr is the shortcircuit voltage at rated current in percent.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Where:
PkrT is the total loss of the transformer in the windings at rated current.
IrT  the rated current of the transformer on the highvoltage or lowvoltage side.
Note:
For large transformers, the resistance is so small that the impedance is represented by the
reactance only, when calculating shortcircuit currents.
X T = Z T2 RT2 , . , 10
S rT
xT = XT , 11
U rT2
Note:
The ratio RT/XT generally decreases with transformer size.
The impedance
Z T of a twowinding power transformer is considered like positivesequence
Z (1)
shortcircuit impedance , which is equal to the negativesequence shortcircuit impedance
Z(2)
:
Z T = Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) , .
, 12
The actual data for twowinding transformers (used as network transformers or in power stations)
are given in IEC 609092.
Z ( 0 )T
The zerosequence shortcircuit impedance may be obtained from the rating plate or from
the manufacturer:
Z ( 0 )T = R( 0 )T + jX ( 0 )T , 13
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
For twowinding power transformers with and without onload tapchanger, an impedance
correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to
equations (1.2) (1.4):
0.95 cmax
KT = , 14
1 + 0.6 xT
where cmax (from table 2.2) is related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the LV
side of the network transformer and the transformer relative reactance is calculated with the
relationship (11).
The correction factor will not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units.
The correction factor KT is multiplying all the components of the transformer positivesequence
impedance, according to the following relationship:
Z TK = K T Z T = (K T RT ) + j (K T X T ) , 15
The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negativesequence and the zero
sequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced short circuit currents.
If the longterm operating conditions of network transformers before the short circuit are known
for sure, then the following equation may be used instead of equation (1.10) in order to calculate
the correction factor KT:
Un cmax
KT =
( )
U 1 + xT I T / I rT sin Tb
b b
, 16
Where:
cmax is the voltage factor from table 1.2, related to the nominal voltage of the network
connected to the LV side of the network transformer.
Ub  the highest operating voltage before short circuit.
ITb  the highest operating current before short circuit (this depends on network configuration
and relevant reliability philosophy).
tb  the angle of power factor before short circuit.
The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negativesequence and the zero
sequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced shortcircuit currents.
The impedances between the star point of transformers and earth are to be introduced as (3 ZN)
into the zerosequence system without a correction factor.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
U rTHV
tr = , 17
U rTLV
where UrTHV and UrTLV are transformer rated voltages of the HV and LV windings,
respectively.
Reactors
Assuming geometric symmetry, the positivesequence, the negativesequence and the zero
sequence shortcircuit impedances of reactors are equal:
Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) = Z ( 0 ) , 18
u kR U n
ZR X R = ,
100 3 I rR 19
Where:
U rG
2
Z rG = ,, 20
S rG
X d"
x"d = , 21
Z rG
The following values for the fictitious resistances RGf may be used for the calculation of the peak
shortcircuit current with sufficient accuracy:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
RGf = 0.05
X d" for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG 100 MVA;
X"
RGf = 0.07 d for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG < 100 MVA;
X"
RGf = 0.15 d for generators with UrG 1 kV.
In addition to the decay of the DC component, the factors 0.05, 0.07, and 0.15 also take into
account the decay of the AC component of the shortcircuit current during the first halfcycle after
the short circuit took place.
The values RGf cannot be used when calculating the aperiodic component iDC of the short
circuit current.
When the effective resistance of the stator of synchronous machines lies much below the given
values for RGf, the manufacturers values for RG should be used.
Z G = RG + jX d" , 22
When calculating initial symmetrical shortcircuit currents in systems fed directly from generators
without transformers unit, the corrected impedance
Z GK of the SG has to be used in the
positivesequence system:
( )
Z GK = K G Z G = (K G RG ) + j K G X d" , 23
with the correction factor KG for SG, given by the relationship:
cmax U n
KG =
( )
1 + x sin rG U rG
"
d
, 24
where:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
The correction factor KG (equation 24) for the calculation of the corrected subtransient
If the terminal voltage of the generator is different from UrG, it may be necessary to introduce:
U G = U rG (1 + pG ) , 25
"
If the values of
X d" and X q reactances are different, for the negativesequence reactance
X ( 2 )G
of the SM, their arithmetical mean can be used:
X d" + X q"
X ( 2)G = , 26
2
Z ( 2 )GK
The corrected shortcircuit impedance of SG, , is given, in the negativesequence system,
by the following equation:
Z ( 2) GK = (K G RG ) + j (K G X ( 2) G ) , 27
Z ( 0 )G
For the shortcircuit impedance of SG in the zerosequence system, the following applies
with KG from equation (1.20):
Z ( 0 )GK = (K G R( 0 )G ) + jX ( 0 )G , 28
When an impedance is present between the starpoint of the generator and earth, the correction
factor KG will not be applied to this impedance.
I"
When calculating the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current k , the peak shortcircuit current ip,
the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib, and the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik,
synchronous compensators are treated in the same way as SG.
If synchronous motors have a voltage regulation, they are treated like synchronous generators. If
not, they are subject to additional considerations.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
PrM
S rM = , 29
rM cos rM
where PrM, cosrM and rM are respectively the active rated power, rated power factor and
rated efficiency of the motor, in accordance with its nameplate data.
PrM
I rM = , 30
3 U rM rM cos rM
I"
MV and LV motors contribute to the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current k , to the peak short
circuit current ip, to the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib and, for unbalanced short
circuits, also to the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik.
LV motors are to be taken into account in auxiliaries of power stations and in industrial and
similar installations, for example in networks of chemical and steel industries and pump stations.
I rM 0.05 I k 0 M ,
"
31
Where:
I rM is the sum of the rated currents of motors connected directly (without transformers) to
the network where the shortcircuit occurs;
I k" 0 M  the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current without influence of motors.
In the calculation of shortcircuit currents, those MV and LV motors may be neglected, providing
that, according to the circuit diagram (interlocking) or to the process (reversible drives), they are
not switched in at the same time.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
U rM2
Z rM = , 32
S rM (I LR / I rM )
Where:
The following relations may be used with sufficient accuracy in order to calculate AM parameters:
RM/XM=0.10, with XM=0.995ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles
(PrM/p)1 MW;
RM/XM=0.15, with XM=0.989ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles
(PrM/p)<1 MW;
If the ratio (RM/XM) is known, then the motor reactance XM will be calculated as follows:
ZM
XM = , 33
1 + ( RM / X M )
2
R M = X M ( RM / X M ) , 34
For the determination of the initial shortcircuit current according to the shortcircuit currents
calculation method, AM are substituted by their impedances
Z M , in the positivesequence and
negativesequence systems:
Z M = RM + jX M" , 35
The zerosequence system impedance Z(0)M of the motor will be given by the manufacturer, if
needed.
MV and LV motors, which are connected by twowinding transformers to the network in which the
short circuit occurs, may be neglected in the calculation of shortcircuit currents for a shortcircuit
at the feeder connection point Q, if there is the following condition:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
PrM 0.8
, 36
S rT 100 c S rT
0.3
3 U nQ I kQ
"
Where:
PrM is the sum of the rated active powers of the mediumvoltage and the lowvoltage motors
which will be considered.
S rT  the sum of the rated apparent powers of all transformers, through which the motors are
directly fed.
"
I kQ  the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current at the feeder connection point Q without
supplement of the motors.
UnQ  the nominal voltage of the system at the feeder connection point Q.
Lines Constants
Z L = RL + jX L , 37
may be calculated from the conductor data, such as the crosssection qn and the centre
distances d of the conductors.
1
Cu = mm 2 / m for Copper;
54
1 1
Al = mm 2 / m for Aluminum and Ala = mm 2 / m for Aluminum alloy.
34 31
'
The effective resistance per unit length RLr of overhead lines at the conductor temperature 20C
may be calculated from the nominal crosssection qn and the resistivity :
'
RLr = , / m, 38
qn
The line resistance RLr at the reference temperature r=20C can be determined if its length lL is
known:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
RLr = RLr
'
lL , , 39
Line Resistances RL (overhead lines and cables, line conductors and neutral conductors) will be
RL = [1 + ( e r )] RLr , 40
Where:
=0,004 K1 is the temperature factor of resistivity, valid with sufficient accuracy for most
practical purposes for copper, aluminum and aluminum alloy.
e  the conductor temperature in degrees Celsius at the end of the shortcircuit duration (for
e, see also IEC 608651, IEC 60949 and IEC 60986).
r=20C  the reference conductor temperature in degrees Celsius.
RLr  the resistance value at a reference temperature of 20C.
The geometric mean distance between conductors, or the center of bundles, in the case of overhead
lines, is determined by the relationship:
d = 3 d L1L 2 d L 2 L3 d L 3 L1 , 41
Where:
In the case of bundle conductor, the equivalent radius rB can be determined by the following formula:
rB = n n r R n1 , 42
Where:
n is the number of bundled conductors;
r  the radius of a single conductor;
R is the bundle radius (see IEC 609092).
1 d
X 'L = 0 f + ln , 43
4n r
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ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Where:
0 = 4107 H/m;
f the nominal frequency of the power system;
n  the number of bundled conductors, or n=1 for a single conductor;
d  the geometric mean distance between conductors, according to (2.37) relationship;
r  the radius of a single conductor or, in the case of conductor bundles, r is to be substituted
by rB, from the (43) relationship.
The overhead line reactance XL follows to be determined, like in the resistance case, if its length lL is
done:
X L = X L' l L , , 44
Z ( 1 ) = R( 1 ) + jX ( 1 ) , 45
Z ( 0 ) = R( 0 ) + jX ( 0 ) , 46
Sometimes it is possible to estimate the zerosequence impedances with the ratios R(0)L/RL and
X(0)L/XL (see IEC 609092).
Z
( 1 )L ( 0 )LZ
The impedances and of LV and HV cables depend on national techniques and
standards and may be taken from IEC 609092, from textbooks or manufacturers data.
However, the impedance of a network feeder at the connection point Q is given by:
c U nQ
2
c U nQ
ZQ = "
= , 47
S kQ
"
3 I kQ
"
where I kQ is the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
E
= 1.85 , m, 48
0
Where:
E is the earth type resistivity, having values in accordance with table 2.1 content.
= 2f  angular frequency.
0 = 4107 H/m vide absolute magnetic permeability.
Resistivity E and equivalent earth penetration depth for different soil types
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
'
The earth wire impedance per unit length Z W is:
0
+ j 0 f r + ln , 49
'
Z W RW' +
8 4 rWW
Where:
rWW = rW , 50
and calculated with following formula, if there are two earth wires:
rWW = rW dW , 51
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
The mutual impedance per unit length between the earth wire and the parallel line conductors with
common earth returns
0
+ j 0 f ln
'
Z WL , 52
8 dWL
Where:
dWL is the geometric mean distance between the earth wire and the line conductors L1, L2 and L3,
given by the formula
when there is only one earth wire and by the next formula
dWL = 6 dW 1L1 dW 1L 2 dW 1L 3 dW 2 L1 dW 2 L 2 dW 2 L 3 , 54
Sources
As per IEC 60909 the equivalent voltage source (rms) is given by the relationship
c U n
U es = , V, 55
3
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
1)
cmaxUn should not exceed the highest voltage Um for equipment of power systems:
cmax U n U m ;
2)
if no nominal voltage is defined U m = cmaxU n or cminU n = 0,9U m should be applied.
Assumptions
General rules
All network feeders, synchronous and asynchronous machines are replaced by their internal
impedances
The equivalent voltage source is the only active voltage of the system
When calculating shortcircuit currents in systems with different voltage levels, it is necessary to
transfer impedances values from one voltage level to another, usually to that voltage level at which
the shortcircuit current is to be calculated
For p.u. system no transformation is necessary if these systems are coherent, i.e.
In general, two shortcircuit currents, which differ in their magnitude, are to be calculated.
In the case of a farfromgenerator short circuit, the shortcircuit current can be considered as the
sum of the following two components:
Singlefed short circuits supplied by a transformer may be regarded as farfrom generator short
circuits if
X TLVK 2 X Qt , 57
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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X TLVK = K T X TLV , 58
In the case of a neartogenerator short circuit, the shortcircuit current can be considered as the
sum of the following two components:
In the calculation of the shortcircuit currents in systems supplied by generators, powerstation units
and motors (neartogenerator and/or neartomotor short circuits), it is of interest not only to know
the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current I k" and the peak shortcircuit current ip, but also the
symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib and the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik. In this case,
the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current Ib is smaller than the initial symmetrical shortcircuit
current I k" . Normally, the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik is smaller than the symmetrical short
circuit breaking current Ib.
The type of short circuit which leads to the highest shortcircuit current depends on the values of
the positivesequence, negativesequence, and zerosequence shortcircuit impedances of the
system.
For the calculation of the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current I k" the symmetrical shortcircuit
breaking current Ib, and the steadystate shortcircuit current Ik at the shortcircuit location, the system
may be converted by network reduction into an equivalent shortcircuit impedance Zk at the short
circuit location.
This procedure is not allowed when calculating the peak shortcircuit current ip. In this case, it is
necessary to distinguish between networks with and without parallel branches.
While using fuses or currentlimiting circuitbreakers to protect substations, the initial symmetrical
shortcircuit current is first calculated as if these devices were not available. From the calculated
initial symmetrical shortcircuit current and characteristic curves of the fuses or currentlimiting circuit
breakers, the cutoff current is determined, which is the peak shortcircuit current of the
downstream substation.
Shortcircuits may have one or more sources. Calculations are simplest for balanced short circuits on
radial systems, as the individual contributions to a balanced short circuit can be evaluated separately
for each source.
When sources are distributed in meshed network and for all cases of unbalanced shortcircuits,
network reduction is necessary to calculate shortcircuit impedances Z ( 1 ) = Z ( 2 ) and Z ( 0 ) at the
shortcircuit location.
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 voltage factor cmax , will be applied for the calculations of maximum shortcircuit currents in
the absence of a national standard
 choose the system configuration and the maximum contribution from power plants and
network feeders which lead to the maximum value of shortcircuit current at the shortcircuit
location, or for accepted sectioning of the network to control the shortcircuit current
 when equivalent impedances ZQ are used to represent external networks, the minimum
equivalent shortcircuit impedance will be used which corresponds to the maximum
shortcircuit current contribution from the network feeders
 motors will be included if appropriate in accordance with 2.4, 2.5 and [1]
 lines resistance RL are to be introduced at a temperature of 20C
The highest initial shortcircuit current will occur for the threephase short circuit, because for the
common case
Z( 0 ) > Z( 1 ) = Z( 2 ) , 59
For shortcircuits near transformers with low zerosequence impedance, Z(0) may be smaller than Z(1).
"
In that case, the highest initial shortcircuit current I kE 2 E will occur for a linetoline short circuit with
earth connection. This situation is described by the following relationships:
Z ( 2 ) / Z ( 0 ) > 1; Z ( 2 ) = Z (1) , 60
The initial symmetrical shortcircuit current I k" will be calculated using the following general
equation:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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c U n
I k" =
( )
, 61
3 Rk2 + X k2
where Rk and Xk are the sum of the seriesconnected resistances and reactances of the positive
sequence system respectively:
Rk = RQt + RTK + RL , 62
X k = X Qt + X TK + X L , 63
The impedance of the network feeder Z Qt = RQt + jX Qt is referred to the voltage of the transformer
side connected to the shortcircuit location. Resistances Rk
Rk < 0.3 X k , 64
may be neglected.
When there is more than one source contributing to the shortcircuit current, and the sources are
unmeshed, the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current I k" at the shortcircuit location F is the sum of
the individual branch shortcircuit currents. Each branch shortcircuit current can be calculated as an
independent singlesource threephase shortcircuit current in accordance with equation:
c U n
I k" =
( )
, 65
3 Rk2 + X k2
Z k = Z (1) , 66
by network reduction (series connection, parallel connection, deltastar transformation) using the
positivesequence shortcircuit impedances of electrical equipment.
The impedances in systems connected through transformers to the system, in which the shortcircuit
occurs, have to be transferred by the square of the rated transformation ratio. If there are several
transformers with slightly differing rated transformation ratios (trT1, trT2,..., trTn), in between two
systems, the arithmetic mean value can be used.
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For threephase shortcircuits fed from nonmeshed networks, the contribution to the peak short
circuit current from each branch can be expressed by:
i p = 2 I k" , 67
= 1.02 + 0.98 e 3( R / X ) , 68
The peak shortcircuit current ip at a shortcircuit location F, fed from sources which are not meshed
with one another, is the sum of the partial shortcircuit currents:
i p = i pi , 69
i
The maximum DC component iDC of the shortcircuit current may be calculated with sufficient
accuracy by equation:
id .c . = 2 I k" e 2f t ( R / X ) , 70
Where:
I k" is the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current
f  the nominal frequency
t  the time
R/X  the resistance/reactance ratio
Note: The correct resistance RG of the generator armature should be used and not RGf.
The breaking current at the shortcircuit location consists in general of a symmetrical current Ib and a
DC current iDC at the time tmin
For some neartogenerator short circuits the value of iDC at tmin may exceed the peak value of Ib and
this can lead to missing current zeros.
For farfromgenerator short circuits, the shortcircuit breaking currents are equal to the initial short
circuit currents:
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For a neartogenerator short circuit, in the case of a single fed shortcircuit or from nonmeshed
networks, the decay to the symmetrical shortcircuit breaking current is taken into account by the
factor according to equation:
I b = I k" , 72
"
where the factor depends on the minimum time delay tmin and the ratio I kG / I rG and IrG is the
rated generator current, according to IEC 609090/200107 [1].
For threephase short circuits in nonmeshed networks, the symmetrical breaking current at the
shortcircuit location can be calculated by the summation of the individual breaking current
contributions:
I b = I bi , 73
i
I b = I k" , 74
which is usually greater than the real symmetrical shortcircuit breaking currents.
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The ANSI/IEEE Standards define the CB total interrupting time in cycles. However, the Contact
Parting Time (CPT) needs to be known for application of breakers. The typical total rated interrupting
time for MediumVoltage Circuit Breakers is 5 cycles (ANSI C37.06 1987). However, the MV CBs
interrupting time correspond to 3 cycle contact parting time for the short circuit current, in the 2 8
cycle network.
S is the breakers asymmetrical capability factor and is determined based on the rating structure to
which the breaker was manufactured. Most breakers manufactured after 1964 are breakers rated on
a symmetrical current basis. Those manufactured before 1965 were rated on a total current basis.
Both the symmetrical and total current rated breakers have some DC interrupting capability included
in their ratings and it is a matter of how it is accounted for in the total interrupting current.
The Momentary and Peak formulae apply to both breakers symmetrical and total current rated
breakers. The interrupting rating is calculated differently based on the formulae shown in the next
sections.
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The CB Closing and Latching Capability defines the CB ability to withstand (close and immediately
latch) the maximum value of the firstcycle short circuit current. The closing and latching capability of
a symmetrical currentrated CB is expressed in terms of Asymmetrical, Total rms current, or peak
current.
DesignBase uses the following steps to calculate the circuit breaker momentary duty:
Imom,rms,asym = MFm*Isym,rms,
where:
2
MFm = 1 + 2e X / R , 75
Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to
calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6
3. Compare Imom,rms,asym against the medium voltage circuit breaker (C&L,rms ) value:
If Device C&L,rms rating Imom,rms,asym, then the device Pass or otherwise it fails
Imom,peak = MFp*Isym,rms
where:
2
MFp = (1 + e X /R
) 2
,76
and
X/R
= 0.49  0.1 * e 3
77
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Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to
calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2.7.
3. Compare Imom,peak against the medium voltage circuit breaker (Creat,peak ) value. If Device
Creast,peak rating Imom,peak, then the device pass, or otherwise it fails
4. Calculate The % rating = (Imom,peak*100)/Device Crest,peak rating
The interrupting fault currents for the MV & HV circuit breakers is equal to 1.54 cycles short circuit
current. For a system other than of 60 Hz adjust the calculated X/R as follows:
(X/R) * 60
( X / R) mod = 78
System Frequency (Hz)
The following steps are used to calculate the circuit breaker interrupting. There are three options:
All Remote i.e. NACD = 1.0. This is the most conservative solution
All Local; i.e. NACD = 0
Adjusted, this is based on actual calculations
2. Calculate total remote contribution, total local contribution, then the NACD (the current is
obtained by using the (1.54) cycle network impedance
4. Calculate the Multiplying factor based on the fault location (MFr, or MFl)
Remote If Generator current contribution to fault is less than 40% of a generator terminal
fault then this generator is Remote, or equivalent impedance to generation terminals is > 1.5
times the Generator Zdv. For remote fault the multiplying factor is MFr:
4
C
1 + 2e X /R
MFr = 80
S
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Local For any local fault the multiplying factor MFl is calculated using the following
formula within EDSA or look up tables. The equations are not given in ANSI C37.101, but
are empirical equations to match the curves within the ANSI breaker standard.
4
C
K 2 + 2e X / R
MFl = , 81
S
where:
Table 6: K factor
CPT K=
1.5 1.0278  0.004288(X/R) + 0.00002945(X/R)2  0.000000068368(X/R)3
2 1.0604  0.007473(X/R) + 0.00006253(X/R)2  0.0000002427(X/R)3
3 1.0494  0.00833(X/R) + 0.00006919(X/R)2  0.000000075638(X/R)3
4 1.0370  0.008148(X/R) + 0.0000611(X/R)2  0.0000002248(X/R)3
5. Calculate Iint,
6. Calculate 3 phase Device Duty by adjusting the device interrupting duty based on rated
voltage using the following formula:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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For LowVoltage CBs (LVCBs) the time of short circuit current interruption occurs within the sub
transient time interval. However, the interrupting capabilities of unfused LVCBs are sensitive to the
maximum peak magnitude of the total /asymmetrical fault current.
If the device library does not have a value for X/R then the following default values are used as
default by the EDSA program:
The following steps are used to calculate the low voltage circuit breaker interrupting:
2

(1 + e X/Rcalc
)
LVFp = 2T

(1 + e X/Rtest
)
, 84
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE
Where
X/Rcalc
= 0.49  0.1e 3
and
 X/Rtest
T= 0.49  0.1e 3
In Options of the short circuit Tab Control for ANSI/IEEE , the user can select to use
=T = 0.5 instead of using the empirical formula by selecting Applies 0.5 Cycles.
Where t is the breaker minimum short time trip in cycles at interrupting duty. The default value
used by EDSA is 3 cycles.
and
 X/Rtest
T = 0.49  0.1e 3
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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The LVFs interrupting capability is the maximum symmetrical rms current which the fuse can
interrupt and still remain intact. While the fuse has a symmetrical current rating it can also interrupt
the DC component up to a value based on its test X/R ratio.
The interrupting capabilities of LVFs are classified by the UL according to symmetrical current
ratings in rms Amperes. In some rare cases the fuse asymmetrical rating is provided.
Evaluation procedure:
3. Calculate the cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms).
4. Calculate Iasym:
Iasym,adj = MFasym*Isym(1/2 Cyc)
If the fuse is symmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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2

MFasym = (1 + 2e X/R
)
87
If the fuse is asymmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
2

(1 + 2e Calc X/R
)
MFasym =
2

(1 + 2e Test X/R
)
, 88
5. Compare Iasym,adj against the fuse symmetrical interrupting rating.
If Device Symmetrical rating Iasym,adj, then the device Pass otherwise it Fails
6. Calculate The % rating = (Iasym,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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y For LVCB, MVCB & Fuses Calculate the cycle shortcircuit current
(Isym,rms).
y For MVCB calculate the Iint,rms,sym.
y Run the PDE analysis
NO NO
Calculate LVF
Calculate LVF based on EQ8 for PCB breaker with based on EQ7
Instantaneous Setting, MCCB and ICCB.
IF LVF < 1,
then LVF =1
Is Device Symmetrical
NO rating greater or Equal Yes
to Iint,adj?
Calculate Calculate
%rating=Isym,adj*100/ %rating=Iint,adj*100/
Device rating Device rating
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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Interrupting Duty
YES YES
NO
Calculate:
y Total Remote Contribution Peak Duty Peak Duty Momentary Momentary
y Total Local contribution (Crest) (Crest) Duty (C&L) Duty (C&L)
y Total Contribution (Iint,rms,sym)
y NACD using (EQ3)
y If NACD=0 then all contribution are Local
y If NACD=1 then all contribution are Remote
MFp = 2.7 MFm = 1.6
Calculate
y MFl using EQ5
y Iint=MFl*Iint,rms,sym Is Device peak (crest)
NACD rating greater or Equal to
Imom,peak?
Calculate: Yes
NO
y NACD using EQ3
y MFr using EQ4
y MFl using EQ5
y AMFi = using EQ6. Fail Pass
y If AMFl less than 1 use 1.0
y Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym/S
Calculate
Calculate 3 phase device %rating=Imom,peak*100/
duty using EQ6a device peak (crest) rating
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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Circuitbreaker design techniques have improved over time leading to benefits of technical
performances, reduced size, weight, energy requirements and cost. This progression is also
perceived to have led to an inevitable reduction in inherent design margins such that much of the
older equipment, for which extensive operating experience is available, may have considerable
margins in handover and above modern equipment. This trend is not problematic in itself but further
emphasizes the need for future testing regimes to be fully representative of the system conditions in
which the equipment needs to function correctly.
Ultimately, equipment testing should consider the equipment under test to be a "black box" model
regardless of the technology being employed, but this presents obvious difficulties if varying design
technologies have specific sensitivities.
It must be stressed at this point that there is no intention to cast doubt on the capabilities of particular
equipment design philosophies merely to emphasize that as refined design techniques lead to
minimized designs so the importance of well constructed and realistic testing regimes increases.
An obvious, but nonpreferred, solution to problems of asymmetric switching is to increase circuit
breaker operating times, although this does not alleviate the duty on other associated equipment and
may be inconvenient from an overall system viewpoint. This contrary to the tendency for reducing
protection times in modern equipment.
High Voltage Breakers. Normally the interrupting current is a constant current at any voltage.
However, some manufacturers do give a different current at various voltages. On the HV breakers it
may to check if the breaker voltage rating is greater than the system voltage. The voltage rating of
IEC breakers is the maximum voltage that the breaker can be applied at.
Low Voltage Breakers. The same standards are used for LVPCB and MCCB.
If the manufacturer indicates a few values for the rated voltage, then the greatest represents the
maximum rated voltage;
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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Current which the main circuit of a circuitbreaker is capable of carrying continuously under specified
conditions of use and behavior;
The rated shorttime withstand current Icw of a CB, disconector or swichdisconector means the rms
value of a rated, admited, shorttime current, indicated by a manufacturer, which the equipment can
support without any damages. The testing determination of this current for a concret equipment is
made in standard conditions [CEI 609471].
The rated shorttime withstand current must be greater than twelve times the rated maximum
operation current and, without other manufacturers indication, the current duration must be 1 s:
I cw 12 I e , pt . Tcw = 1s , 89
A complete determination of the rated shorttime withstand current is made, on the base of the
mentioned standard, as follows:
I cw = 30 kA , pt . I e > 2,5 kA , 91
InAC the rated shorttime withstand current is compearing with the rms value of the periodical short
circuit current component. It is necessary that the last mentioned value to be lower than the product
between the short duration acceptable rated current and the factor n, indicated in table 3, in
accordance with CEI 609471:
I k n I cw , 92
Values of the power factor, the time constants and the ratio n between the peak value and the rated
shorttime withstand current.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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At the same time, the short duration acceptable rated current represents the upper limit value of the
rms value of the shortcircuit current periodical component which is presumed constant during the
short timing , for which the following normalized values are recommended:
1. The rated shorttime withstand current is equal to the rated shortcircuit breaking current [5,
p.33]  EN 609473:1999 Lowvoltage switchgear and controlgear Part 3: Switches, disconnectors,
switchdisconnectors and fusecombination units.
A rated duration of a shortcircuit need not be assigned to a selftripping circuitbreaker provided that
the following applies. When connected in a circuit the prospective breaking current of which is equal
to its rated shortcircuit breaking current, the circuitbreaker shall be capable of carrying the resulting
current for the breaktime required. This break time is that required by the circuitbreaker with the
over current release set for the maximum time lag when operating in accordance with its rated
operating sequence. Direct over current releases include integrated tripping systems.
of compressed gas supply and/or of hydraulic supply for operation, interruption and insulation, as
applicable;
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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The rated shortcircuit breaking current is the highest shortcircuit current which the circuit breaker
shall be capable of breaking under the conditions of use and behavior prescribed in standards. Such
a current is found in a circuit having a powerfrequency recovery voltage corresponding to the rated
voltage of the circuitbreaker and having a transient recovery voltage equal to a specified value. For
threepole circuitbreakers, the AC component relates to a threephases shortcircuit.
The circuitbreaker shall be capable of breaking any shortcircuit current up to its rated shortcircuit
breaking current containing any AC component up to the rated value and, associated with it, any
percentage DC component up to that specified, under the conditions mentioned above.
 at voltages below and equal to the rated voltage, it shall be capable of breaking its rated short
circuit breaking current
 at voltages above the rated voltage, no shortcircuit breaking current is guaranteed. The standard
value of the AC component of the rated shortcircuit breaking current shall be selected from the
R10 series specified in IEC 60059. The R10 series comprises the numbers
The minimum opening time mentioned above is that specified by the manufacturer. The minimum
opening time is the shortest opening time, which is expected by the manufacturer to cover the entire
population of the circuitbreaker concerned under any operational conditions when breaking
asymmetrical currents.
The percentage value of the dc component (iDC%) is based on the time interval (Top + Tr) and the time
constant using the formula:
Top + Tr
id .c. % = 100 exp , %
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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The graphs of the DC component against time given in figure 1 below are based on:
Figure 3: Percentage D.C. current component in relation to the time interval from
initiation of shortcircuit current, for different time constant.
These special case time constant values recognize that the standard value may be inadequate in
some systems. They are provided as unified values for such special system needs, taking into
account the characteristics of the different ranges of rated voltage, for example their particular
system structures, design of lines, etc.
In addition, some applications may require even higher values, for example if a circuitbreaker is
close to a generator. In these circumstances, the required DC component and any additional test
requirements should be specified in the inquiry.
The rated ultimate shortcircuit breaking capacity Icu represents the highest rms value of the current
that the device is able to interrupt without suffering significant damages.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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The magnitude of this current, determined under the conditions specified in the product standard, is
the upper (superior/higher) limit of the shortcircuit ac component (the dc component is considered
null):
I cu I k 93
related to the rated shortcircuit breaking current is the reference voltage which constitutes the limit of
the prospective transient recovery voltage of circuits which the circuitbreaker shall be capable of
withstanding under fault conditions.
In some cases, particularly in systems with a voltage 100 kV and above, and where the shortcircuit
currents are relatively large in relation to the maximum shortcircuit current at the point under
consideration, the transient recovery voltage contains first a period of high rate of rise, followed by a
later period of lower rate of rise. This waveform is generally adequately represented by an envelope
consisting of three line segments defined by means of four parameters.
In other cases, particularly in systems with a voltage less than 100 kV, or in systems with a voltage
greater than 100 kV in conditions where the shortcircuit currents are relatively small in relation to the
maximum shortcircuit currents and fed through transformers, the transient recovery voltage
approximates to a damped single frequency oscillation. This waveform is adequately represented by
an envelope consisting of two line segments defined by means of two parameters.
The influence of local capacitance on the source side of the circuitbreaker produces a slower rate of
rise of the voltage during the first few microseconds of the TRV. This is taken into account by
introducing a time delay.
The transient recovery voltage corresponding to the rated shortcircuit breaking current when a
terminal fault occurs, is used for testing at shortcircuit breaking currents equal to the rated value.
of a circuitbreaker having simultaneity of poles is that which corresponds to the rated voltage and
the rated frequency.
The rated shortcircuit making capacity Icm of a circuitbreaker or switch represents the value of the
shortcircuit closing capacity, expressed by the highest instantaneous value of the current that the
device can connect at the rated voltage and frequency and at a specified power factor. This
parameter is indicated by the equipment manufacturer in the device catalogue data.
According to IEC 609471 the rated shortcircuit making capacity is established in comparison with
the limit value of the shortcircuit rated breaking capacity Icu, by multiplying it to the factor k, given in
the table 2, for LVCB, in accordance with the relationship:
I cm = k I cu 94
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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Values of the multiplying factor k when fixing the rated shortcircuit making capacity Icm of the LVCB
Icu,
cos k
kA
(6, 10] 0.50 1.7
(10, 20] 0.30 2.0
(20, 50] 0.25 2.1
50 0.20 2.2
The rated shortcircuit making capacity implies that the breaker is able to connect the current suitable
to this rated capacity at an applied voltage corresponding to the use rated voltage.
Being an instantaneous value, the rated shortcircuit making capacity Icm of an CB is compared with
the peak current ip and the next inequality have to be fulfilled in order that the device withstands the
shortcircuit action:
I cm i p 95
The following values apply for the high voltage CB (Ur >1 kV):
for a rated frequency of 50 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is
equal to 2,5 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated shortcircuit breaking
current (Icn), so a following relationship can be written:
I cm = k H I cn , 96
for a rated frequency of 60 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is
equal to 2,6 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated shortcircuit breaking
current
for all special case time constants it is equal to 2,7 times the rms value of the AC component
of its rated shortcircuit breaking current, independent of the rated frequency of the circuit
breaker
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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 opening time of a circuitbreaker defined according to the tripping method as stated below and with
any time delay device forming an integral part of the circuitbreaker adjusted to its minimum setting
 for a circuitbreaker tripped by any form of auxiliary power, the opening time is the interval of time
between the instant of energizing the opening release, the circuitbreaker being in the closed
position, and the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles
 for a selftripping circuitbreaker, the opening time is the interval of time between the instant at
which, the circuitbreaker being in the closed position, the current in the main circuit reaches the
operating value of the over current release and the instant when the arcing contacts have
separated in all poles
The opening time may vary with the breaking current. For circuitbreakers with more than one
interrupting unit per pole, the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles is
determined as the instant of contact separation in the first unit of the last pole. The opening time
includes the operating time of any auxiliary equipment necessary to open the circuit breaker and
forming an integral part of the circuitbreaker.
 arcing time (of a multipole switching device): interval of time between the instant of the first
initiation of an arc and the instant of final arc extinction in all poles
 break time: interval of time between the beginning of the opening time of a mechanical switching
device and the end of the arcing time
The nameplates of a CB and its operating devices shall be marked and must contain data in
accordance with the standards IEC Standards. The main nameplate information is indicated in the
Table 10 below.
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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Coils of operating devices shall have a reference mark permitting the complete data to be obtained
from the manufacturer. Releases shall bear the appropriate data.
The nameplate shall be visible in the position of normal service and installation.
4.2 FUSES
4.2.1 General considerations
The fuses can operate as single devices or can be combined with switch disconnectors. The choice
depends on each application requirements and specific network conditions. One of the most critical
factors for optimum protection is proper fuse selection. This can be done based on theoretical
calculations but in many cases practical knowledge obtained from actual test results could make it
easier and even more reliable.
The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material of
which the fuse is made. The operating time is not a fixed interval, but decreases as the current
increases. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current, characterized
as "fastblow", "slowblow" or "timedelay", according to time required to respond to an over current
condition. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second, a fastblow fuse
may require twice its rated current to blow in 0.1 seconds, and a slowblow fuse may require twice its
rated current for tens of seconds to blow.
A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that, owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high
shortcircuit current levels, a current cutoff begins before the occurrence of the first major peak, so
that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value [Schneider]. This limitation of current
reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which would otherwise occur, thereby
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Short Circuit Analysis Program
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minimizing danger and damage at the fault position. The rated shortcircuit breaking current of the
fuse is therefore based on the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current. No
shortcircuit currentmaking rating is assigned to fuses.
Shortcircuit currents initially contain DC components, the magnitude and duration of which depend
on the XL/R ratio of the fault current loop. Close to the source (MV/LV transformer) the relationship
Ipeak / I rms (of AC component) immediately following the instant of fault, can be as high as 2.5
(standardized by IEC).
At lower levels of distribution in an installation, as previously noted, XL is small compared with R and
so for final circuits Ipeak / Irms ~ 1.41. The peakcurrentlimitation effect occurs only when the
prospective rms AC component of fault current attains a certain level. As already mentioned, at lower
distribution levels in an installation, R greatly predominates XL, and fault levels are generally low.
This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peak current
limitation. On the other hand, the DC transients (in this case) have an insignificant effect on the
magnitude of the current peak, as previously mentioned.
Prospective current (of a circuit with respect to a fuse) current that would flow in the circuit if each
pole of the fuse were replaced by a conductor of negligible impedance. For AC, the prospective
current is expressed by the rms value of the AC component.
Note: the prospective current is the quantity to which the breaking capacity and characteristics of the
fuse are normally referred, e.g. I2t and cutoff current characteristics.
Fuse Breaking capacity value of prospective current that a fuse is capable of breaking at a stated
voltage under prescribed conditions of use and behavior (the rms value of the periodic component,
for AC).
Breaking range range of prospective currents within which the breaking capacity of a fuselink is
assured.
Cutoff current maximum instantaneous value reached by the current during the breaking
operation of a fuselink when it operates in such a manner as to prevent the current from reaching
the otherwise attainable maximum.
Cutoff current characteristic; letthrough current characteristic curve giving the cutoff current
as a function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation.
Note: in the case of AC, the values of the cutoff currents are the maximum values which can be
reached whatever the degree of asymmetry. In the case of DC, the values of the cutoff currents are
the maximum values reached related to the time constants as specified.
Peak withstand current value of the cutoff current that the fuseholder can withstand.
Note: the peak withstands current is not less than the highest cutoff current of any fuselink with
which the fuseholder is intended to be associated.
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Prearcing time; melting time interval of time between the beginning of a current large enough to
cause a break in the fuse element(s) and the instant when an arc is initiated.
Arcing time of a fuse  interval of time between the instant of the initiation of the arc in a fuse and
the instant of final arc extinction in that fuse.
Operating time; total clearing time sum of the prearcing time and the arcing time.
I2t (Joule integral) integral of the square of the current over a given time interval:
t
I 2 t = t 1 i 2 dt 97
0
Notes:
The prearcing I2t is the I2t integral extended over the prearcing time of the fuse
The operating I2t is the I2t integral extended over the operating time of the fuse
The energy in Joules released in a 1 resistor in a circuit protected by a fuse is equal to the value of
the operating I2t expressed in A2s
I2t characteristic curve giving I2t values (prearcing I2t and/or operating I2t) as a function of
prospective current under stated conditions of operation.
I2t zone range contained by the minimum prearcing I2t characteristic and the maximum operating
I2t characteristic, under specified conditions.
Rated current of a fuselink (In) value of current that the fuselink can carry continuously without
deterioration under specified conditions.
Timecurrent characteristic curve giving the time, e.g. prearcing time or operating time as a
function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation.
Note: for times longer than 0,1 s, for practical, purposes the difference between prearcing and
operating time is negligible.
Timecurrent zone range contained by the minimum prearcing timecurrent characteristics and
the maximum operating timecurrent characteristic, under specified conditions.
Conventional nonfusing current (Inf) value of current specified as that which the fuselink is
capable of carrying for a specified time (conventional time) without melting.
Conventional fusing current (If)  value of current specified as that which causes operation of the
fuselink within a specified time (conventional time).
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b
LVCB evaluation; c  HVCB evaluation.
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c
HVCB evaluation
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Compare the voltage rating of the fuse (Ur) against the system voltage (Un) where the fuse is placed:
if the fuse rated voltage
Ur Un then
the device Pass, otherwise Fail (the user have to verify the fuse ratings).
a. if Ur = Un then the fuse breaking capacity rating (Irb) = the fuse real breaking capacity (Ib);
b. if Ur > Un then the real breaking capacity of the fuse will be used in the next steps; for this
situation calculate the fuse real breaking capacity:
Ur
Ib = I rb .
Un
Compare the fuse real breaking capacity against the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current I k" :
"
if Ib I k then the device Pass, otherwise Fail.
I"k
Calculate %rating =
Ib
The LVCB evaluation begins after the comparison of the CB rated voltage presented in the right side
of the figure 2,a.
ip
Calculate % rating = 100 .
I cm
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Top + Tr
Calculate i dc % = exp ,
Where:
Top represents the minimum opening time and it is specified by the manufacturer;
Tr according to the specifications from figure 2,b;
circuit time constant, given in paragraph.
2
i %
Calculate the asymmetrical shortcircuit presumed current I asymsc = I k 1 + dc .
100
Compare the asymmetrical shortcircuit presumed current with the CB shortcircuit breaking current
Icn.
I asymsc
calculate % rating = 100 .
I cn
The HVCB evaluation, presented in Figure 2,c is similar to the LVCB one. The differences occur just
in the loop of the Icm determination, according to the IEC standards calculus.
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To launch DesignBase Short Circuit program, click the short circuit icon as presented below:
While in Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program, both the short circuit analysis method and the
corresponding short circuit tools are displayed as indicated below:
Paladin DesignBase provides several short circuit calculation methods based on the ANSI/IEEE
Standards and the IEC Standards, for both AC threephase and singlephase networks. The
following short circuit calculation methods are implemented:
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The Short Circuit tools are presented in the Figure above, and are listed below:
Report Manager
Analyze
Reactor Sizing
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Calculation Tab, with the same fields for: AC ANSI/IEEE, AC Classical, AC IEC 60909,
AC IEC 61363 and AC Single Phase calculation.
AC Single Phase, faults can be performed only at all buses in this release,
Control Tab: this tab depends on the short circuit method that user selects.
Click on this icon to launch the Short Circuit Analysis Options. The Short Circuit Option
Dialog Window is opened and presented in the Figure below. It has two tabs: Calculation and Control
for ANSI/IEEE:
Note:
For LG fault, phase A; for LL and LLG fault phase B and C
For LG fault, phase B; for LL and LLG fault phase A and C
For LG fault, phase C; for LL and LLG fault phase A and B
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Base voltage:
o Adjusted by tap/turn ratio if power transformer is run on off nominal taps
o System voltage
Prefault voltage represents the bus voltage at the instant the fault is applied at that bus.
It can be: system voltage, load flow calculated bus voltage or actual/name plate voltage
Default output: Annotation or report
Contribution level: levels away from the fault location for the output results. The
calculated results are displayed either on the oneline diagram (if Default Output:
Annotation is selected by the user) or printed in the output report (if Default Output:
Report is selected by the user)
Fault impedance. This option is applied if the fault is calculated at one bus only
Fault location: selected buses, all buses, sliding fault or series fault; (Sliding and series
fault does not apply to IEC61363 or AC Single phase calculation)
Miscellaneous options: use only X to calculate the faults, and apply phase shift
Duty type for PDE based on: maximum branch fault flow or total bus fault current
Fault Location
Graphically on the one line diagram, by a simple click on the desired bus, or
Highlight the bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the Add button; the
selected bus will be transferred to the Selected Buses list. To remove a bus from the
Selected Buses list highlight the bus ID and click on Remove button. The highlighted
bus will be transferred to the All Buseslist.
If One Bus is selected, then any fault type at that bus is calculated, branch contribution to that fault,
bus postfault voltage and fault summary are generated.
Graphically on the drawing space: click onto the desired first bus, then hold down the
shift key; while the shift key is being held down, select each bus individually
Menu Driven: highlight the desired bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on
the Add; the selected buses will be transferred to the Selected Buses list. To remove a
bus or several buses from the Selected Buses List highlight the bus ID and click on
Remove button. The highlighted bus/buses will be transferred to the All Buses List.
Notes:
Faults at more than one bus, are faulted individually in turn, not simultaneously.
Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a threephase, lineto
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ground, linetoline, and linetolinetoground fault at each selected bus which is faulted
for short circuit studies
On the drawing are displayed only the bus fault current value: Symmetrical rms, DC rms,
Asymmetrical rms, IPeak instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit
Back Annotation
Fault at all buses can be selected from the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option only, by selecting
All Buses option.
Faults at All Buses, are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the
specified fault type, the program will place a threephase, linetoground, linetoline, and
linetolinetoground fault at all buses which are faulted for short circuit studies
On the drawing are displayed: Symmetrical rms, DC rms, Asymmetrical rms, IPeak
instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation
All buses are colored in Red
Bus Fault Current (3P, LL, LLG, LG, depending on the user selection);
Branch currents (3P, LL, LLG, LG, depending on the user selection);
Short Circuit multiplying Factors;
Fault Summary;
Sliding Fault:
The Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program can simulate a fault along a
feeder/cable/transmission line. Using this option eliminates the need to create a dummy bus at a
location along the feeder. The figure below shows examples of evenly spaced sliding faults (F1,
F2, F3, and F4) and single point sliding fault and a specific location (F).
F1 F F2 F3 F4
Click on this button to open the Short Circuit Option dialog window.
In the Calculation Tab, select Sliding Fault.
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Sliding Fault
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Highlight the desired Feeder/Cable in the All Feeders and Cables Box and then click on the
Add button; the selected Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the Selected Feeders and Cables
Box.
To remove a Feeder/Cable from the Selected Feeders and Cables box, highlight the
Feeder/Cable and click on Remove button. The highlighted Feeder/Cable will be transferred to
the All Feeders / and Cables Box / List.
In this release, only one Feeder/Cable can be selected for Sliding fault calculation at a time.
Select a feeder 3C 12, and then press on the OK button; the Sliding Fault Report Manager
is displayed as presented below:
Note: Sliding fault does not apply to IEC61363 and AC Single Phase calculation.
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The program allows the user to introduce the Fault position on the selected Feeder: Any
Position away From Bus or select the Number of Fault Spots evenly spaced alongside the
selected feeder. The program automatically divides the feeder/line into as many equidistant
segments and fault currents are calculated for each intermediate points. Contributions from both
ends of the feeder/line for each fault location as well as the voltages at the faulted location and at
both ends are also reported. In case only one fault location is selected, then the exact fault
location (i.e. 300 Feet down from sending end) should be specified.
Fault type:
3Phase Fault
Linetoline fault
Linetoground fault
DoubleLinetoGround fault
Units:
For fault Current: Amps or KiloAmps, with the user defined decimal places
For Capacity: KVA or MVA, with the user defined decimal places
For Bus Voltages: Volts or Kilo Volts, with the userdefined decimal places
Per Unit MF, %X/R: with the userdefined decimal places
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Fault Spot Report for Sliding Fault

Branch Report for Sliding Fault
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Series Fault:
Series fault types (one phase open, two phases open, and unequal series impedances) with or without
neutral unbalance are supported in the Paladin DesignBases short circuit program. The series fault
types are shown in the below figure. It should be noted that series faults are meaningful only if prefault
load has been taken into account (i.e. load flow solution is considered). For series faults, the equivalent
voltage at the opening point is computed from the prefault system current at the unbalance point. The
default fault impedances Za, Zb, and Zn are:
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For one phase open (phase A), Default values: Zb=Zn=0.0 +j0.0
For two phases open (phases B and C) Default values: Za=Zn=0.0+j0.0
For Series Unbalance (phases A, B, and C) Default values: Za=Zb=Zn=0.0+j0.0
In Paladin DesignBase short circuit Analysis Option, select Series Fault field to perform open phase
study.
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Highlight the desired feeder / cable in the All feeders and Cables box and then
Click on the Add button. The selected feeder / cable will be transferred to the Selected feeders box
as is presented below:
To remove a feeder / cable from the Selected feeders highlight the feeder/cable and click Remove
button. The highlighted feeder/cable will be transferred to the All feeders and Cables box.
Click OK.
1
2 3
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At the fault (opening location) the user can select the fault impedance in ohms.
Units:
For current: Amps or KiloAmps
For capacity: KVA or MVA
For voltages: volts or Kilo Volts
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# of Total Buses : 48
# of Active Buses : 48
# of Total Branches : 47
# of Active Sources : 3
# of Active Motors : 4
# of Active Shunts : 0
# of Transformers : 5
Reference Temperature(C) : 20.0
Impedance Displaying Temperature(C) : 20.0
Classical Calculation
Complex Z for X/R and Fault Current
Transformer Phase Shift is not considered.
Base Voltages : Use System Voltages
Prefault Voltages : Use Load Flow Results

Feeder/Cable Series Fault Report

Fault Impedance(Ohms) :
Za = 0 +j 0
Zb = Zc = 0 +j 0
Zn = 0 +j 0
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Control Tab:
AC ANSI/IEEE Standard:
Fault current multiplying factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault
calculations are performed.
The tab provides also information on ANSI Standard impedances first cycle and interrupting
cycles: 28 cycles as per ANSI/IEEE Std.
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The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The
first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). In
the second option, the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:
X"
R=
X /R
The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero,
positive).
The AC Classical is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted
from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE
Standard and provides the same options.
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Fault Current Multiplying Factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault
calculations are performed. The user can also select the Machine Current Decay, in cycles.
The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The
first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs).
In the second option, i.e, variable X/R (see the lower left part of the above figure), the
generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:
X"
R=
X /R
The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero,
positive). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences.
The AC IEC 909 Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program tools are shown below.
Options
Report Manager
Back Annotation
Analyze
Reactor sizing
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The method is based on IEC60909 Standard. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC
ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. The user can select the calculation based
on:
1988 Version
2001 Version
The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The
first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). In
the second option (variable X/R, see the lower left part of the above figure), the generator/motor
resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:
X"
R=
X /R
The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero,
positive). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences.
While in the IEC 60909 standard, the control tab allows the user to select:
Fault Current Multiplying Factors
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The method which is employed in calculating the Peak Current (method A, B, C or EDSA
Thevenin)
System Voltage
IEC maximum Voltage
IEC minimum Voltage
Method A: uniform ratio R/X. The smallest X/R ratio determines the k factor
Method B: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks X=1.15 multiplied
by the Xb. Xb from Fig.8 page 47 IEC 60909 Std.
Method C: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks; The value of X is
calculated from Fig. 8, IEC 60909 and depends on X/R ratio of the network
EDSA Thevenin: X is calculated from the Thevenin equivalent
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Un cmax
KG = (18, IEC 60909 Std.)
U rG 1 + X d" sin G
Where:
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The DesignBase user should check the above field if the short circuit occurs from a network transformer.
A network transformer (see the figure capture below) is when a transformer is connecting two or more
networks at different voltages (IEC Std.). For twowinding transformers with and without onload tapchanger,
an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to
IEC (equation (7) to (9)).
cmax
K T = 0.95
1 + 0. 6 X T
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Where:
X T is the relative reactance of the transformer and cmax is from table 1 is related to the nominal
voltage of the network connected to the lowvoltage side of the network transformer. This correction
factor shall not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units (IEC, see 3.7). This factor is
active only if the user selects the filed Network Transformer (used in IEC 60909 method) in the
transformer editor, as presented below:
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If the user select the 1988 IEC 60909 version then the c factor values are provided by the program, as
follows:
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cmax cmin
Standard:
Above 1000 V: 1.1 1
Low Voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W 1.05 1
Other voltage levels, 3P3W 1.05 1
User Defined:
Above 1000 V: Per user selection per user selection
Low voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W/4W per user selection per user selection
Other voltage levels 3P3W/4W per user selection per user selection
If the user select the 2001 IEC 60909 version then the c factor values are provided by the
program, as follows:
cmax cmin
Standard:
Above 1000 V: 1.1 1
A
Other 1.05 0.95
User Defined:
Above 1000 V: Per user selection per user selection
Other per user selection per user selection
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IEC 61363 Standard calculates the short circuit instantaneous current as a function of time and
displays its instantaneous values. The method provides an accurate evaluation of the short
circuit current for sizing protective devices and coordinating relays for isolated systems (offshore
platforms and ships electrical design). The machines sub transient reactance and time constants
are used by this method. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and
provides the same options.
DesignBase AC IEC 363 Short Circuit program tools are shown below:
Options
Report Manager
Back Annotation
Analyze
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Options:
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Report Manager:
As can be seen from the window dialog above, the Short Circuit Report can be:
Fast
User Defined
Curve with Time
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Fast Report:
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Time Bands:
0 cycle
 cycle
1 cycle
3 cycle
5  cycle
8 cycle
30 cycle
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The AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit program Abbreviations are displayed below:
In order to display the Report of Short Circuit Results varying with time, the following steps
need to follow:
Step3: click the Report Manager icon : Select Curve with Time and then click OK button.
The following window is displayed:
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The displayed graph components are user defined. However, the user can select the Short
Circuit Current components to be displayed such as:
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The AC Single Phase Method is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio
is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC
ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.
In the Short Circuit Option feature select the output results: Annotation or Report;
Fast or
User Defined Report:
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In the SC Report Manager select Fast option, then the user can select the Fault Types as
shown below: 3P, LG, LL, LLG. Time Bands cycle.
Click OK and then launch the program by clicking the Analyze icon.
The rms short circuit currents values at 1/2 Cycle are calculated at a selected bus/buses or at all
buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing).
The positive, negative, and zero sequence subtransient reactance X are used in modeling both
the generators and motors. Motors are normally not grounded and therefore the grounding option
should be none.
Notes:
In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence
impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance
Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are
taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero
sequence networks
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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

Bus Results: 0.5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults

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In the SC Report Manager select 5 cycle and the type of faults: 3P, LG, LL, LLG. Select 5
cycle, then Click OK. Launch the short circuit program by clicking Analyze icon .
The rms short circuit currents values at 5 Cycle are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All
Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing).
Follow the steps presented above at 3P, LL, LG, LLG fault at Cycle.
Notes:
The positive, negative, and zero sequence subtransient reactance is used for
modeling both the Generators and motors
In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence
impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance
Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are
taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero
sequence networks
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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

Bus Results: 5 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults

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In the Report Manager select Steady and the type of faults: 3P, Lg, LL, LLG. Click OK
The rms short circuit currents values at Steady State/ 30 Cycle are calculated at a selected
Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly
onto the drawing).
Notes:
It is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its
positive sequence impedance in all the unbalanced fault calculation
Generators are modeled by their positive, negative, and zero sequence reactance
Short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored
Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are
taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero
sequence networks
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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

Bus Results: 30 CycleSymmetrical3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults

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In the Report Manager select fault type 3P and Time Bands Steady.Click OK and then
The rms short circuit currents values after 30 cycles are calculated (as per ANSI/IEEE Standards
or IEC 60909 Standard as per user selected fault calculation) at a selected bus/buses or at all
buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly on the drawing).
The short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored, and the generators are modeled
by their positive sequence transient reactance X.
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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

Bus Results: 30 Cycle  3 Phase Faults

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Paladin DesignBase PDE is a fast and accurate tool, which evaluates the protective switching
devices such as: LV, MV and HV CBs, fuses, and switches based on ANSI/IEEE Standard or IEC
Standard as per user selection.
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The PDE program includes the CB impedance and CBs X/R ratio
The output results are organized as per:
o Equipment Input Rated Data
o PDE Calculated Data
o Circuit Duty calculated data
The PDE output results are either graphically displayed onto the one line diagram (in green if the
switching equipment passes or in red if they fail), or as a Text Report, based on the user selection.
The fault study is per the Standard selected by the user: IEEE/ANSI C37 Standard or IEC 60909.
The program calculates momentary symmetrical and asymmetrical rms, momentary asymmetrical
crest, interrupting symmetrical rms, and interrupting adjusted symmetrical rms short circuit currents
at faulted buses.
The circuit duties are checked against equipment interrupting capabilities, and if:
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In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option, select All buses and then click OK button as shown
below:
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Notes:
The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage
The equipment voltage in the editor is zero
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To fix this issue, in the Protective Device evaluation Table double click onto A1:
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Consider the file IEC YY file located in the sample folder:
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Note:
The Total Bus Fault Current is the most conservative. This option has been considered in
the IEC PDE program.
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In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option, select All buses and then click OK button as shown
below:
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Notes:
The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage
The equipment voltage in the editor is zero
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Fast Report:
The user can select the Fault Type, Time Bands, Input Data, Abbreviation, Report Style, Unit
& Log. If the fault is at one bus, the user can also select the Branch Contribution option.
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Print Layout
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It is similar to Fast Report, but the user can also select the Phase Bus/Branch Components: X/R,
AC, DC, Asym, Angle.
If User Defined Reports is selected then the above report screen is displayed. The user can select
the Fault Type, Time Bands, User Defined Options, Phase Bus/Branch Components, Print Layout,
Units, Output to CSV or Text File.
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In order to get the Tabulated Output Reports on short circuit current calculation, proceed as follows:
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Option 1:
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Option 2:
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Click on this button to launch the Short Circuit Back Annotation tool. The Short Circuit Back
Annotation tool opens. The Short Circuit Back Annotation Dialog Window as presented below:
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Select the Fault Type, Displayed Results: Bus Current, Bus Prefault Voltage, Bus Postfault Voltage,
Branch Current, Phase or Sequence Components, Fault Components, Units, display or not the Fault
Current Flow Arrows.
The back annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the
study network drawing. Back Annotation is an Executive Short Circuit Report inserted onto the
drawing, with the inserted components as per user selection.
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Select the back annotation ON or OFF, Autorefresh, Font, Font Style, size and font color.
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Schedule is a Paladin DesignBase feature that allows the user to combine several motors and loads
in the same symbols. It is a very good practice to save nodes in modeling and in the meantime to
represent all the nodes of a plant in the plant model.
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Inside the Schedule each motor is in detail represented together with the motor feeder as can be
seen in the capture Figures above.
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The short circuit procedure was described so far. However, the short circuit results can be displayed
either onto the drawing or as a Text Output Results:
Step 1:
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Step 2:
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Step 3:
In the Report Manager select the Fast, Fault Type and Time Bands as shown below:
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Step 4:
Click Analyze icon. The Short Circuit Results are displayed onto the drawing:
MCC fault current 10767.8 A and branch contribution via the Main_CB2 7975.5 A
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In order to provide the each motor contribution while the motors are represented inside the
Schedule, proceed as follows:
Step 1:
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Step 2:
The results are displayed either on the drawing or in the Text Output Report as per user selection.
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Calculation Options

Fault Phases:
Phase A for LineGround Fault
Phase B,C for LineLine or LineLineGround Fault
ANSI/IEEE Calculation:
Using ANSI Std. C37.0101979 or above.
Separate R and X for X/R, Complex Z for Fault Current
The Multiplying Factors to calculate Asym and Peak are Based on Actual X/R
Peak Time Applies ATPC Equation

Bus Schedule Results: 0.5 Cycle  3 Phase Faults

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Results Validation:
Motor Representation:
a) Individual Representation; b) Schedule Representation
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Step 1:
Select the faulted bus: Motor Bus and perform the fault at this bus:
Fault Results:
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This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program. It allows computing the Short Circuit
Current under maximum and minimum fault contribution from the Utility / PCC. Both the Utility fault
contribution and/R ration are considered as an input data of the Utility.
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This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program. The motors fed from VFD are not
considered towards motor contribution. The user will need to activate this field for all the motors
which are fed from VFD.
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While using the UPS units, normally the engineer considers 2 (two) scenarios:
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To avoid Scenarios, the user needs just to put the UPS source in Bypass and associate the Bypass
Protective Device as seen in the figure capture below:
As such during a Short Circuit downstream the UPS source the UPS unit is considered OFF
and the fault contribution comes from the Utility and bypasses the UPS units.
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From the Short Circuit Analysis program pickup list, select AC IEC 61363 to perform a threephase
fault study per IEC61363 Standard.
This option calculates the instantaneous values of the AC, DC and total short circuit current and TDC
time constant as well for short circuit at all system buses. The results are tabulated as a function of
T/2.
Generators are modeled by their positive sequence sub transient reactance, and motors are modeled
by their lockedrotor impedance. Theirs subtransient and transient time constants and dc time
constants are also considered in the calculations.
The user can display the results using the standard report format, annotate results on the one line
diagram, and plot the short circuit results varying with time.
In order to display the short circuit results varying with time, only one bus can be faulted at a time.
Graphical Display
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From the SC report Manager select Curve with Time option and then click OK button:
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When the graph is displayed the user can select to view all items, or the values the user selects.
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Bus Detailed Short Circuit Report

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The user has the options to input the Power Utility Maximum and Minimum Contribution and the
associated X/R ratio.
However, during Fault analysis the user can select either Apply SCKVA max or Apply SCKVA
min.
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Whenever there is a schedule, you will see the composition rating on this screen. The HP is the
average value of the motor in schedules.
It the motor is fed from VFD, then click the Motor is fed from VFD field. During the short circuit
analysis this motor will not contribute towards short circuit.
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7.5 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data
High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations
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7.6 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data
Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations
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7.7 Low Voltage IEC Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data
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Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse required data for short circuit calculations
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7.9 Medium / Low Voltage IEC Fuse Short Circuit Input Data
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8 Network Reduction/Equivalent
8.1 Introduction
In an interconnected power system, often power system engineers are required to exchange their system
models to their neighboring utilities or vice versa in order to study the entire system. However, when, for
example, utility A wishes to study their system, it is not necessary to model the entire system if exact
equivalent representation of the neighboring systems can obtained and utilized rather than resorting to a
detailed model of the outside world. For the convenience of the users, a network equivalent module is
developed within the DesignBase short circuit program whereby exact system equivalent is computed. The
equivalent computed is primarily used in the fault analysis. A power flow reduction is also under development
that should become available in the near future.
This document illustrates stepbystep instructions on how to compute power system equivalents at given
buses. Also, V&V is performed for the equivalents system by showing the details of the system with
equivalent model and system intact (complete representation).
The single line diagram of the system to be used for equivalent computation is shown below:
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To perform the equivalent calculation for a power system, first we should decide which part of the system
should be equivalenced. In the example system shown above, lets assume that we would like to replace the
right part of the system by equivalent at buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69 as shown below (the area
inside of the reddottedline will be equivalenced at these buses):
Part of the System to be Equivalence (the area inside of red dotted line)
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8.4 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System
Since the right part of the above network is required to be replaced by equivalent system, feeders ZZZ69
>JJJ69, ZZZ69>AAA69, HHH138>GGG138, and BBB138>AAA138 in the original system SHOULD be
placed out of service in order for the program to compute equivalent system seen from buses BBB138,
ZZZ69, and GGG138 without the right side of the network. After outaging the above feeders we proceed as
follows.
Select the Options icon of the short circuit program as shown below.
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To specify where the equivalent should be computed, the Options of the short circuit program should be
used as shown above. Now the buses for the equivalent can be specified in the dialog shown below. It can
be seen that we have selected buses GGG139, BBB138, and ZZZ69.
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To obtain a report of the equivalent system at the selected buses, the Report Manager of the short circuit
program should be selected as shown below.
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To select the equivalent system report, choose the Misc option as shown below:
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Then, select the Equivalent Sys. as shown below. Now all the information regarding the equivalent
computations is complete.
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At this point, buses where the equivalent to be placed and report options are specified, we can proceed to the
equivalent computations by selecting the Analyze option.
Once the computations are completed, the report of the equivalent system is displayed. The following report
contains a set of Equivalent Generators that should be placed at the equivalent buses (see column marked
as Type in the below report toward bottom of the figure). Also, there are equivalent branches
(feeder/transformer) that should be connecting the equivalent buses. Again, the column marked as Type
shows some the links between the equivalent buses are feeder/line and some transformers (TRSF). In this
example connection between BBB138 and ZZZ69 is a transformer.
Important Note: Since the equivalent links (feeders/transformers, generators) are just equivalent element
representing a complex part of the system the following situation is common to occur:
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As described above, the equivalent system contains equivalent elements (generators, feeders and
transformers). In order to reconstruct the original system using the equivalent, we need to join the part of the
system which was not equivalenced (in our example, the right side of the network) to the equivalent part.
Shown below is the reconstructed system. Based on the report shown above, the data for each of the
equivalent elements, in this example, are entered in the reconstructed network.
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To verify and validate the function of the network equivalent option, the following is performed:
1) In the original system (without reduction) compute the threephase and single line to ground fault at
buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69
2) In the reconstructed system (remaining system joined with the equivalent system shown in Figure
7.10 compute the threephase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138EQUI, GGG138
EQUI, and ZZZ69EQUI
3) The result obtained in step 1 should agree well with the result obtained in step 2 above
The result for the reconstructed network using the equivalent system is shown on page 185.
Comparison of these results show that the equivalent system is computed accurately and can be used
reliably in the short circuit studies.
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To activate the Short Circuit program, click on the Short Circuit Icon .
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In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option dialog window select Default Output: Annotation.
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The Annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the
drawing.
Select the Short Circuit result components to be inserted into the drawing.
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In the Report Manager select Fault Type: 3P, and in the Time Bands select Steady.
Click OK button and then Click Analyze icon:
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The bus Fault Current is displayed onto the drawing (Sym and Asym. Components):
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Back Annotation
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2. In the Report Manager select Fast, Fault Type LG, Time Bands Cycle and
enable /click Branch Annotation field.
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1. In the SC Report Manager/ Fast select LL fault type, Time Bands cycle:
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In the back annotation, select the fault type and phase to be displayed onto the drawing: 3
Phase, A Phase. Select Fault Component: Asymmetrical:
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Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage, as
presented in the figure capture below:
In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation, select Fast, Cycle Time Bands,
enable Refresh Professional Report filed and then click Professional Report Writer Wizard.
Note: Professional Report Writer provides All Type of Faults: 3P, LG, LL, LLG always.
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Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage;
select All Buses as presented in the figure capture below
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In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation, select Fast, Cycle Time Bands,
enable Refresh Professional Report filed and then click Professional Report Writer Wizard.
Click Professional Report Writer Wizard button:
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Follow the steps presented above, but in the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE
Calculation select 5 cycles. Click Professional Report Writer Wizard button:
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Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage;
select All Buses as presented in the figure capture below:
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In the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation select Steady. Click
Professional Report Writer Wizard button:
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