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Short Circuit Analysis Program

ANSI/IEC/IEEE
&
Protective Device Evaluation

Users Guide

Power Analytics CORPORATION


16870 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 330.
San Diego, CA 92127
U.S.A.

Copyright 2011
All Rights Reserved

Version 6.60.00 May 2011


Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Table of Contents

1 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short circuit Program ........................................................ 1


1.1 WHATS NEW IN THIS RELEASE ......................................................................................................... 1
2 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................. 2
2.1 Type of Faults ............................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Terminology .................................................................................................................................. 3
2.3 Sources in Fault Analysis ............................................................................................................. 6
2.4 ANSI/IEEE Standard .................................................................................................................... 7
2.4. 1Multiplying Factors (MF) ............................................................................................................. 7
2.4.2 Local and Remote Contributions .................................................................................................. 8
2.5 IEC 60909 .................................................................................................................................. 10
2.5.1 System Parameters .................................................................................................................... 10
2.5.2 Short Circuit Current Calculus .................................................................................................... 24
3 ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEEE) .............................................................. 30
3.1 Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB)............................................................ 30
3.2 Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LV-CBs) ................................................... 34
3.3 Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches................................................... 36
4 IEC Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEC) ............................................................................ 40
4.1 CIRCUIT-BREAKERS ................................................................................................................ 40
4.1.1 Rated characteristics to be given for all circuit-breakers ........................................................... 40
4.1.2 Circuit Breaker Name Plate Data ............................................................................................... 47
4.2 FUSES........................................................................................................................................ 48
4.2.1 General considerations .............................................................................................................. 48
4.2.2 Fuse IEC Characteristic Quantities [IEC 60269-1] ..................................................................... 49
Breaking range ........................................................................................................................... 49
Cut-off current ............................................................................................................................ 49
Cut-off current characteristic; let-through current characteristic ................................................ 49
Peak withstand current ............................................................................................................... 49
Pre-arcing time; melting time ..................................................................................................... 50
Arcing time of a fuse................................................................................................................... 50
Operating time; total clearing time ............................................................................................. 50
I2t (Joule integral) ....................................................................................................................... 50
4.2.3 Fuse nameplate data.................................................................................................................. 51
5 Protective Device Evaluation Based on IEC Standard ...................................................................... 52
5.1 Fuses Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 55
5.2 LVCB Evaluation ........................................................................................................................ 55
5.3 HVCB Evaluation........................................................................................................................ 56
6. DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method ........................................................................................ 57
A. Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools............................................................. 57
B. AC ANSI/IEEE Standard Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools: ................................. 58
C. AC Classical Short Circuit Method....................................................................................... 72
D. AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method .................................................................................... 73
E. AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method .................................................................................... 82
F. AC Single Phase Short Circuit Method ................................................................................ 94

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

7. Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program ............................................................... 94


A. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Cycle ........................................................................................... 94
B. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 Cycle ............................................................................................ 97
C. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Steady state .................................................................................... 99
D. 3 Phase Fault, Steady State .............................................................................................. 101
E. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool Based on ANSI/IEEE Standard ....................... 103
F. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Based on IEC Standard ........................................... 112
G. Report Manager ANSI/IEEE ........................................................................................... 127
H. Short Circuit Back Annotation ............................................................................................ 142
I. Managing Schedule in Short Circuit .................................................................................. 145
J. Managing Utility / PCC Short Circuit contribution .............................................................. 159
K. Managing MOTOR CONTRIBUTION ................................................................................ 160
L. Managing UPS bypass function during a fault downstream UPS source ......................... 161
M. Three-phase Faults IEC 61363 Method ............................................................................ 163
N. Short Circuit Analysis Input Data ....................................................................................... 167
7.1 Power Grid Input Data .............................................................................................................. 167
7.2 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data .................................................................... 168
7.3 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data .................................................................................. 169
7.4 Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data............................................................................ 170
7.5 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data .......................................... 171
7.6 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data ........................................... 172
7.7 Low Voltage IEC Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data ....................................................... 173
7.8 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data ........................................................... 174
7.9 Medium / Low Voltage IEC Fuse Short Circuit Input Data ....................................................... 175
8 Network Reduction/Equivalent .......................................................................................................... 176
8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 176
8.2 Sample System Data................................................................................................................ 176
8.3 How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations ................................................................ 177
8.4 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System................................................... 178
8.5 Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent................................................................................... 179
8.6 Reporting of the Equivalent System ......................................................................................... 180
8.7 Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result ............................................ 183
8.8 Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent .................................................. 185
8.9 Validation and Verification of the Equivalent ............................................................................ 192
9 TUTORIAL: Conducting a Three-phase Short Circuit Study .......................................................... 195
9.1 The Calculation Tools............................................................................................................... 196
9.2 Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation) ..................................................................... 197
9.2.1 AC-ANSI/IEEE Method............................................................................................................. 197
9.3 Short Circuit Annotation Tool ................................................................................................... 199
9.3.1 3-Phase Fault, 30 Cycles at Bus 18 ......................................................................................... 200
9.3.2 3-Phase Fault Current, Cycle Fault at Bus MAINBUS:...................................................... 202
9.3.3 3-Phase Fault Current, 5 Cycle Fault at Bus MAINBUS:....................................................... 204
9.3.4 Change the Fault Type displayed onto the drawing. ............................................................. 207
9.4 Professional Report .................................................................................................................. 215
9.4.1 All types of Faults at bus MAINBUS, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical:.................................................. 215
9.4.2 All types of Faults at All buses, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical: .......................................................... 219
9.4.3 All types of Faults at All buses, 5 Cycle Symmetrical: ............................................................. 222
9.4.4 All types of Faults at All buses, 30 Cycle Symmetrical: ........................................................... 224

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

List of Figures

Figure 1: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 1 .................................................................................... 38


Figure 2: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 2 .................................................................................... 39
Figure 3: Percentage D.C. current component in relation to the time interval from initiation of
short-circuit current, for different time constant. ............................................................................ 44
Figure 4: PDE Flow Chart - IEC standard: ..................................................................................................... 52
Figure 5: Unbalanced system ......................................................................................................................... 66

List of Tables

Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times ............. 6
Table 2: 30 cycles calculation impedance....................................................................................................... 7
Table 3: Resistivity and equivalent earth penetration ................................................................................... 22
Table 4: IEC voltage factor ............................................................................................................................ 23
Table 5: CB rated interrupting time in cycles ................................................................................................ 30
Table 6: K factor ............................................................................................................................................ 33
Table 7: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSAs Library .......................................................................... 34
Table 8: n factor based on PF and short circuit level .................................................................................... 42
Table 9: Icu and k factor ................................................................................................................................ 46
Table 10: CB Name plate data ........................................................................................................................ 48
Table 11: IEC c factor...................................................................................................................................... 81

Note: You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is:

Short Circuit Analysis Program 3_Phase_Short_Circuit.pdf

You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial in the following location:

C:\DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC

Test Files: ANSIYY1, IEC-YY; Busfault, EDM5, IEC1-60909, IEC2-60909, IEEE399, IEEEpde,
MutualNet, SlidingFault, T123, T123PDE, testma1, Trib, TribNVTAP, UPSexpse, West

Copyright 2011
Power Analytics Corporation
All Rights Reserved

iii
Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

1 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program

The salient features of the Paladin DesignBase advanced short circuit program:

9 Fault analysis of complex power systems having over 50,000 buses

9 Exact short circuit current and contributions computation using Three-Sequence Modeling

9 Simulate sliding and open conductor faults

9 High speed simulation by utilizing the state-of-the-art techniques in matrix operations (sparse
matrix and vector methods)

9 Automated reactor sizing for 3 Phase networks

9 Exporting and importing data from and to Excel

9 Import system data from Siemens/PTI format into Paladin DesignBase

9 Customize reports

9 Professional Reports

9 UPS source bypass

9 Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDC (protective device coordination)

9 Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDE (protective device evaluation)

9 Fully integrated with ARC flash program

9 Fully integrated with PDC

1.1 Whats new in this release

9 New PDE based on IEC Standards

9 New professional report tool based on Crystal Reports

9 New functions for UPS bypass and motors fed from VFD

9 Minimum and maximum utility fault contribution

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

2 INTRODUCTION

The short circuit is an accidental electrical contact between two or more conductors. The protective
devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are applied to isolate faults and to minimize damage and
disruption to the plants operation.

2.1 Type of Faults

Types of Faults depend on the power system grounding method. The most common faults are:

Three-Phase Fault, with or without ground (3P, or 3P-G)


Single line to ground Fault (L-G)
Line to Line Fault (L-L)
Line to line to ground Fault (L-L-G)

Estimated frequency of occurrence of different kinds of fault in power system is:

3P or 3P-G: 8%
L-L: 12 %
L-L-G: 10 %
L-G: 70 %

Severity of fault:
Normally the three-phase symmetrical short circuit (3P) can be regarded as the most severe
condition. There are cases that can lead to single phase fault currents exceeding the three-phase
fault currents; however, the total energy is less than a three-phase fault. Such cases include faults
that are close to the following types of equipment:

The Wye side of a solidly grounded delta-wy transformer / auto-transformer


The Wye-Wye solidly grounded side of a three winding transformer with a delta
tertiary winding
A synchronous generator solidly connected to ground
The Wye side of several Wye grounded transformers running in parallel

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Type of Short Circuits:


a):3P three-phase; b):L-L, line-to-line; c):L-L-G, line-to-line-to-ground; and d): L-G, line-to-ground

2.2 Terminology

Arcing Time - the interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of the arc in the protective
device and the instant of final arc extinction in all phases.

Available Short Circuit Current - the maximum short circuit current that the power system could
deliver at a given circuit point assuming negligible short circuit fault impedance.

Breaking Current - the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation (pole
separation). It is also known as Interrupting Current in ANSI Standards.

Close and Latch Duty - the maximum rms value of calculated short circuit current for medium and
high-voltage circuit breakers, during the first cycle, with any applicable multipliers with regard to fault
current X/R ratio. Often, the close and latching duty calculation is simplified by applying a 1.6 factor
to the first cycle symmetrical AC rms short circuit current. Close and latch duty is also called first
cycle duty, and was formerly called momentary duty.

Close and Latch Capability - the maximum asymmetrical current capability of a medium or high-
voltage circuit breaker to close, and immediately thereafter latch closed, for normal frequency making
current.

The close and latch asymmetrical rms current capability is 1.6 times the circuit breaker rated
maximum symmetrical AC rms interrupting current. Often called first cycle capability. The rms
asymmetrical rating was formerly called momentary rating.

Contact Parting Time - the interval between the beginning of a specified over current and the
instant when the primary arcing contacts have just begun to part in all poles. It is the sum of the relay
or release delay and opening time.

Crest Current / Peak Current the highest instantaneous current during a period.

Fault an abnormal connection, including the arc, of relative low impedance, whether made
accidentally or intentionally, between two points of different voltage potentials.

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Fault Point X/R the calculated fault point reactance to resistance ratio (X/R). Depending on the
Standard, different calculation procedures are used to determine this ratio.

First Cycle Duty the maximum value of calculated peak or rms asymmetrical current or
symmetrical short circuit current for the first cycle with any applicable multipliers for fault current X/R
ratio.

First Cycle Rating the maximum specified rms asymmetrical or symmetrical peak current
capability of a piece of equipment during the first cycle of a fault.

Interrupting Current the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation.
Sometimes referred to as Breaking Current, I b , IEC60909.

Making Current the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant the device closes and
latches into a fault.

Momentary Current Rating the maximum available first cycle rms asymmetrical current which the
device or assembly is required to withstand. It was used on medium and high-voltage circuit breakers
manufactured before 1965; present terminology: Close and Latch Capability.

Offset Current - an AC current waveform whose baseline is offset from the AC symmetrical current
zero axis.

Peak Current the maximum possible instantaneous value of a short circuit current during a period.

Short circuit current is the current that flows at the short circuit location during the short circuit
period time.

Symmetrical short circuit current is the power frequency component of the short circuit current.

Branch short circuit currents are the parts of the short circuit current in the various branches of the
power network.

Initial short circuit current IK" is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current at the instant
of occurrence of the short circuit, IEC 60909.

Maximum asymmetrical short circuit current Is is the highest instantaneous rms value of the
short circuit current following the occurrence of the short circuit.

Symmetrical breaking current Ia , on the opening of a mechanical switching device under short
circuit conditions, is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current flowing through the
switching device at the instant of the first contact separation.

Rated voltage VR the phase-to-phase voltage, according to which the power system is designated;
IEC UR the rated voltage is the maximum phase-to-phase voltage.

Nominal Voltage UN (IEC) the nominal operating voltage of the bus.

Initial symmetrical short - circuit power S K " is the product of 3 *I K "*U N

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

System breaking power S B is the product of 3 *I a * U N

Minimum time delay t min is the shortest possible time interval between the occurrence of the short
circuit and the first contact separation of one pole of the switching device.

Dynamic stress is the effect of electromechanical forces during the short circuit conditions.

Thermal stress is the effect of electrical heating during the short circuit conditions.

Direct earthing / effective earthing is the direct earthing of the neutral points of the power
transformers.

Short circuit earth current is the short circuit current, or part of it, that flows back to the system
through the earth.

Equivalent generator is a generator that can be considered as equivalent to a number of generators


feeding into a given system.

DesignBase Short Circuit Analysis Program is based on ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards and fully
complies with the latest ANSI/IEEE/IEC Standards:

ANSI/IEEE Std. 141 1993, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution of
Industrial Plants (IEEE Red Book)
ANSI/IEEE Std. 399 1997, IEEE Recommended Practice for Power Systems Analysis (IEEE
Brown Book)
ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.010 1979, IEEE Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit
Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis
ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.5-1979, IEEE Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers
Rated on a Total Current Basis
ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.13-1990, IEEE Standard for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers
Used in Enclosures
IEC-909 1988, International Electro technical Commission, Short Circuit Current Calculation in
Three-Phase Ac Systems
UL 489_9 1996, Standard for Safety for Molded-Case Circuit Breaker, Molded-Case Switches,
and Circuit-Breaker Enclosures
A Practical Guide to Short-Circuit Calculations, by Conrad St. Pierre
IEC 60909-0/2001-07, Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems, Part 0: Calculation of
currents
IEC 60909-3/2003, Short-circuit currents in three-phase AC systems, Part 3: Currents during two
separate simultaneous line-to-earth short-circuits and partial short-circuit currents flowing through
earth
IEC 60947-1:2000-10, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: General rules
IEC 60947-2:2003, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 2: Circuit breakers
EN 60947-3:1999, Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 3: Switches, disconnectors,
switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination units
BS EN 62271-100:2001, High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 100: High-voltage
alternating-current circuit-breakers
IEC 62271-111:2005-11, High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 111: Overhead, pad-
mounted, dry vault and submersible automatic circuit reclosers and fault interrupters for
alternating current systems up to 38 kV

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

2.3 Sources in Fault Analysis

Power utilities, all rotating electric machinery and regenerative drives are sources in fault calculation.

Cycle Network Duty


The decay of short circuit current is due to the decay of stored magnetic energy in the equipment.

The main impedances for the first cycle is the sub-transient impedance. It is generally used for the
first cycles up to a few cycles;

The cycle network is also referred to as the sub transient network, because all rotating machines
are represented by their sub transient reactance.

cycle short circuit currents are used to evaluate the interrupting duties for low-voltage power
breakers, low voltage molded-case breakers, high and low voltage fuses and withstand currents for
switches and high-voltage breakers.

The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the cycle network.

Type of Device Duty

High voltage circuit breaker Closing and latching capability


Low voltage circuit breaker Interrupting capability
Fuse Bus bracing
Switchgear and MCC Instantaneous settings
Relay

Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times

Source Type 1/2-Cycle Interrupting Reference


Calculations Time
calculations
(1.5 to 4 cycles cpt)
Remote Utility (equivalent) Z "
Zs ANSI C37.010
s

Local Generator Z "


dv Z "
dv ANSI C37.010
Synchronous Motor Z dv" 1.5* Z dv
"
ANSI C37.010

Large Induction Motors:


>1000 HP or 250 HP and Z" 1.5* Z
"
ANSI C37.010
2 poles

Medium Induction Motors


50 to 249 HP or 1.2* Z
"
3* Z
" ANSI C37.010
250 to 1000 HP <2poles

Small Induction Motors 1.67* Z


"
ANSI C37.13
<50 HP

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

100
Z% = For Induction
Harmonic Filters Tuned _ harmonic Xd = /
1 LRC
Motors

1.5-4 Cycle Network


This network is used to calculate the interrupting short circuit current and protective device duties
(1.5 4) cycles after the fault.

Type of Device Duty


High voltage circuit breaker (>1.0 kV) Interrupting capability
Unfused Low Voltage PCB without instantaneous Interrupting capability
All Other Low voltage circuit breaker N/A
Fuse N/A
Switchgear and MCC bus N/A

Steady State or 30-Cycle Network


This network is used to calculate the steady state short circuit current and duties for some of the
protective devices 30 cycles after the fault occurs (delayed protective devices). The type of power
system component and its representation in the 30-cycle network are shown in the following table.
Note that the induction machines, synchronous motors, and condensers are not considered in the
30-cycle fault calculation.

Table 2: 30 cycles calculation impedance


Source Type 30 Cycle Calculation Impedance
Power Utility /Grid
Z s"
Generators
Z dv'
Induction Motors Infinite impedance
Synchronous Motors Xd

2.4 ANSI/IEEE Standard


2.4.1 Multiplying Factors (MF)

The short circuit waveform for a balanced three-phase fault at the terminal bus of a machine is
generally asymmetrical and is composed of a unidirectional DC component and a symmetrical AC
component.

The DC component decays to zero, and the amplitude of the symmetrical AC component decays to
constant amplitude in the steady-state.

If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the current waveform are symmetrical around
zero axis, they are called Symmetrical. If the envelopes of the positive and negative peaks of the
current are not symmetrical around the zero axis, they are called Asymmetrical.

If the DC fault component is not considered in the fault current, the fault current has the AC
component only, and it is symmetrical; if DC fault component is considered, then the fault current is
asymmetrical and is called asymmetrical or total fault current.

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

The multiplying factors MF converts the rms value of the symmetrical AC component into
asymmetrical rms current or short circuit current duty. The MF is calculated based on the X/R ratio
and the instant of time that the fault current happens. The X/R ratio for ANSI breaker duties is
calculated from separate R and X networks.

First Cycle (Asymmetrical) Total Short Circuit Current MF (Circuit Duty):

Is defined as:

2

X
MFm = 1 + 2e R
,1

For: X/R = 25, the MF is equal to 1.6.

Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate
MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6

Peak Multiplying Factor

Is defined as:
2

MFPeak = 2 (1 + e X /R ) ,2

where is the instant of time when fault occurs, X/R for ANSI breaker duties are calculated from
separate R and X network.

For: = Cycle, and X/R = 25 to one decimal place is MFPeak = 2.7 .

Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate
MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2.7.

2.4.2 Local and Remote Contributions

The magnitude of the symmetrical current (AC component) from remote sources remain essentially
constant. No AC Decay (NACD) at its initial value or it may reduce with time toward a residual AC
current magnitude (ACD).

If the fault is close to a generator, then the AC component decays (ACD).

In other words, when a generator is local or close to the faulted point, the short circuit current decays
faster. If the generator is remote from the faulted point, the AC short circuit current decay will be slow
and a conservative simplification is to assume that there is no AC decay (NACD) in the symmetrical
AC component.

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Per ANSI Standards:

A generator is a LOCAL SOURCE of the short circuit current if:

The per unit reactance external to the generator is less than 1.5 times the generator per-unit
sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA
EG
Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes will be greater than 0.4 * ,
X d"
EG
where the is the generator short circuit current for a three-phase fault at its terminal bus
X d"

A generator is a REMOTE SOURCE of a short circuit current if:

The per unit reactance external to the generator is equal to or exceeds 1.5 times the
generator per unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA

The generator short circuit contribution may be written as:

EG
IG = , 3
( XExternal + X d" )

Its location from the fault is two or more transformations or


EG
Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes is less than or equal to 0.4 * ,
X d"
EG
where the is the generator short circuit current for a three-phase fault at its terminal bus
X d"

The ANSI Standards provide multiplying factors (MF) based X/R ratio for three-phase faults and
line-to-ground faults fed predominantly from generators and MF for faults fed predominantly from
remote sources.

No AC decay (NACD) Ratio

The Total Short circuit Current is equal to:

I Total = I Local + I Re mote 4

and:
I Re mote
NACD = 5
I Total

When all contributions are remote, or when there is no generator, then NACD = 1
When all contributions are local, then NACD = 0

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

2.5 IEC 60909

While using the IEC standard the following system components formulae are used:

The network components like power transformers, reactors, feeders, overhead lines, cables and
other similar equipment, positive-sequence and negative-sequence short-circuit impedances are
equal:

Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) , 6

The zero-sequence short-circuit impedance,

Z(0) =U (0) / I(0) , 7

is determined by assuming an AC voltage between the three paralleled conductors and the joint
return (for example earth, earthing arrangement, neutral conductor, earth wire, cable sheath and
cable armoring). In this case, the three-fold zero-sequence current flows through the joint return.

The impedances of generators (G), network transformers (T) and power station units (S) will be
multiplied with the impedance correction factors KG, KT and KS or KSO when calculating short-
circuit currents with the equivalent voltage source at the short-circuit location according to the
standard [1].

2.5.1 System Parameters

Power transformer parameters

The impedance module ZT can be calculated from the rated transformer data as follows:

u kr U rT2
ZT = , , 8
100 S rT

Where:

UrT is the rated voltage of the transformer, on the high-voltage or low-voltage side.
SrT is the rated apparent power of the transformer.
ukr is the short-circuit voltage at rated current in percent.

The positive-sequence short-circuit resistance RT of a two-winding transformer is given by the


relationship:
PkrT
RT = ,, 9
3 I rT2

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Where:

PkrT is the total loss of the transformer in the windings at rated current.
IrT - the rated current of the transformer on the high-voltage or low-voltage side.

Note:

The resistance RT is to be considered if the peak short-circuit current ip or the DC component


iDC is to be calculated.

For large transformers, the resistance is so small that the impedance is represented by the
reactance only, when calculating short-circuit currents.

The positive-sequence short-circuit reactance XT of a two-winding transformer results as follows:

X T = Z T2 RT2 , . , 10

The relative reactance of the transformer xT is given by the formula

S rT
xT = XT , 11
U rT2

Note:
The ratio RT/XT generally decreases with transformer size.

The impedance
Z T of a two-winding power transformer is considered like positive-sequence
Z (1)
short-circuit impedance , which is equal to the negative-sequence short-circuit impedance
Z(2)
:

Z T = Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) , .
, 12

The actual data for two-winding transformers (used as network transformers or in power stations)
are given in IEC 60909-2.

Z ( 0 )T
The zero-sequence short-circuit impedance may be obtained from the rating plate or from
the manufacturer:

Z ( 0 )T = R( 0 )T + jX ( 0 )T , 13

Zero-sequence impedance arrangements for the calculation of unbalanced short-circuit currents


are given in IEC 60909-4.

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

For two-winding power transformers with and without on-load tap-changer, an impedance
correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to
equations (1.2) (1.4):
0.95 cmax
KT = , 14
1 + 0.6 xT

where cmax (from table 2.2) is related to the nominal voltage of the network connected to the LV
side of the network transformer and the transformer relative reactance is calculated with the
relationship (11).

The correction factor will not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units.

The correction factor KT is multiplying all the components of the transformer positive-sequence
impedance, according to the following relationship:

Z TK = K T Z T = (K T RT ) + j (K T X T ) , 15

The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negative-sequence and the zero-
sequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced short circuit currents.

If the long-term operating conditions of network transformers before the short circuit are known
for sure, then the following equation may be used instead of equation (1.10) in order to calculate
the correction factor KT:

Un cmax
KT =
( )
U 1 + xT I T / I rT sin Tb
b b
, 16

Where:

cmax is the voltage factor from table 1.2, related to the nominal voltage of the network
connected to the LV side of the network transformer.
Ub - the highest operating voltage before short circuit.
ITb - the highest operating current before short circuit (this depends on network configuration
and relevant reliability philosophy).
tb - the angle of power factor before short circuit.

The impedance correction factor will be applied also to the negative-sequence and the zero-
sequence impedance of the transformer when calculating unbalanced short-circuit currents.

The impedances between the star point of transformers and earth are to be introduced as (3 ZN)
into the zero-sequence system without a correction factor.

The rated transformation ratio tr of the power transformer:

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U rTHV
tr = , 17
U rTLV

where UrTHV and UrTLV are transformer rated voltages of the HV and LV windings,
respectively.

Reactors

Assuming geometric symmetry, the positive-sequence, the negative-sequence and the zero-
sequence short-circuit impedances of reactors are equal:

Z (1) = Z ( 2 ) = Z ( 0 ) , 18

Short-circuit current-limiting reactors will be treated as a part of the short-circuit impedance.

u kR U n
ZR X R = ,
100 3 I rR 19

Where:

ukR and IrR are given on the reactor rating plate.


UN the system nominal voltage.

Synchronous Generators and Motors

The synchronous generator rated impedance is given by:

U rG
2
Z rG = ,, 20
S rG

The relative subtransient reactance


x"d , related to the rated impedance is:

X d"
x"d = , 21
Z rG

The following values for the fictitious resistances RGf may be used for the calculation of the peak
short-circuit current with sufficient accuracy:

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RGf = 0.05
X d" for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG 100 MVA;
X"
RGf = 0.07 d for generators with UrG > 1 kV and SrG < 100 MVA;
X"
RGf = 0.15 d for generators with UrG 1 kV.

In addition to the decay of the DC component, the factors 0.05, 0.07, and 0.15 also take into
account the decay of the AC component of the short-circuit current during the first half-cycle after
the short circuit took place.

The influence of various winding-temperatures on RGf is not considered.

The values RGf cannot be used when calculating the aperiodic component iDC of the short-
circuit current.

When the effective resistance of the stator of synchronous machines lies much below the given
values for RGf, the manufacturers values for RG should be used.

The subtransient impedance Z G of the generator, in the positive-sequence system can be


calculated with the formula:

Z G = RG + jX d" , 22

When calculating initial symmetrical short-circuit currents in systems fed directly from generators
without transformers unit, the corrected impedance
Z GK of the SG has to be used in the
positive-sequence system:

( )
Z GK = K G Z G = (K G RG ) + j K G X d" , 23
with the correction factor KG for SG, given by the relationship:

cmax U n
KG =
( )
1 + x sin rG U rG
"
d
, 24

where:

cmax is the voltage factor according to table 2.2.


UN - the nominal voltage of the system.
x"d - the relative subtransient reactance of the generator related to the rated impedance,
according to the (21) relationship.
rG is the phase angle between U rG and I rG .
UrG - the rated voltage of the generator.

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The correction factor KG (equation 24) for the calculation of the corrected subtransient

impedance Z GK has been introduced because the equivalent voltage source n is


(cU / 3 )
used instead of the subtransient voltage E behind the subtransient reactance of the
synchronous generator.

If the terminal voltage of the generator is different from UrG, it may be necessary to introduce:

U G = U rG (1 + pG ) , 25

"
If the values of
X d" and X q reactances are different, for the negative-sequence reactance
X ( 2 )G
of the SM, their arithmetical mean can be used:

X d" + X q"
X ( 2)G = , 26
2

Z ( 2 )GK
The corrected short-circuit impedance of SG, , is given, in the negative-sequence system,
by the following equation:

Z ( 2) GK = (K G RG ) + j (K G X ( 2) G ) , 27

Z ( 0 )G
For the short-circuit impedance of SG in the zero-sequence system, the following applies
with KG from equation (1.20):

Z ( 0 )GK = (K G R( 0 )G ) + jX ( 0 )G , 28

When an impedance is present between the star-point of the generator and earth, the correction
factor KG will not be applied to this impedance.

I"
When calculating the initial symmetrical short-circuit current k , the peak short-circuit current ip,
the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib, and the steady-state short-circuit current Ik,
synchronous compensators are treated in the same way as SG.

If synchronous motors have a voltage regulation, they are treated like synchronous generators. If
not, they are subject to additional considerations.

Asynchronous Motors (AM)

The rated apparent power of an AM can be calculated from the equation:

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PrM
S rM = , 29
rM cos rM

where PrM, cosrM and rM are respectively the active rated power, rated power factor and
rated efficiency of the motor, in accordance with its nameplate data.

The rated current of the AM is given by the relationship:

PrM
I rM = , 30
3 U rM rM cos rM

where UrM is the rated line voltage of the AM.

I"
MV and LV motors contribute to the initial symmetrical short-circuit current k , to the peak short-
circuit current ip, to the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib and, for unbalanced short
circuits, also to the steady-state short-circuit current Ik.

MV motors have to be considered in the calculation of maximum short-circuit current.

LV motors are to be taken into account in auxiliaries of power stations and in industrial and
similar installations, for example in networks of chemical and steel industries and pump stations.

The contribution of AM in LV power supply systems to the short-circuit current


I k" may be
I"
neglected if their contribution is not higher than 5 % of the initial short-circuit current k 0 M ,
calculated without motors:

I rM 0.05 I k 0 M ,
"
31

Where:
I rM is the sum of the rated currents of motors connected directly (without transformers) to
the network where the short-circuit occurs;
I k" 0 M - the initial symmetrical short-circuit current without influence of motors.

In the calculation of short-circuit currents, those MV and LV motors may be neglected, providing
that, according to the circuit diagram (interlocking) or to the process (reversible drives), they are
not switched in at the same time.

The impedance module ZM of AM in the positive- and negative-sequence systems can be


determined by:

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U rM2
Z rM = , 32
S rM (I LR / I rM )

Where:

UrM is the rated voltage of the motor;


SrM - the rated apparent power of the motor (see relationship (1.25));
(ILR/IrM) - the ratio of the locked-rotor current to the rated current of the motor.

The following relations may be used with sufficient accuracy in order to calculate AM parameters:

RM/XM=0.10, with XM=0.995ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles
(PrM/p)1 MW;

RM/XM=0.15, with XM=0.989ZM for MV motors with rated powers per pair of poles
(PrM/p)<1 MW;

RM/XM=0.42, with XM = 0.922ZM for LV motor groups, with connection cables,


where p is the pair of poles number.

If the ratio (RM/XM) is known, then the motor reactance XM will be calculated as follows:

ZM
XM = , 33
1 + ( RM / X M )
2

However the motor resistance RM will be

R M = X M ( RM / X M ) , 34

For the determination of the initial short-circuit current according to the short-circuit currents
calculation method, AM are substituted by their impedances
Z M , in the positive-sequence and
negative-sequence systems:

Z M = RM + jX M" , 35

The zero-sequence system impedance Z(0)M of the motor will be given by the manufacturer, if
needed.

MV and LV motors, which are connected by two-winding transformers to the network in which the
short circuit occurs, may be neglected in the calculation of short-circuit currents for a short-circuit
at the feeder connection point Q, if there is the following condition:

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PrM 0.8
, 36
S rT 100 c S rT
0.3
3 U nQ I kQ
"

Where:

PrM is the sum of the rated active powers of the medium-voltage and the low-voltage motors
which will be considered.
S rT - the sum of the rated apparent powers of all transformers, through which the motors are
directly fed.

"
I kQ - the initial symmetrical short-circuit current at the feeder connection point Q without
supplement of the motors.
UnQ - the nominal voltage of the system at the feeder connection point Q.

Lines Constants

The positive-sequence short-circuit impedance,

Z L = RL + jX L , 37

may be calculated from the conductor data, such as the cross-section qn and the centre-
distances d of the conductors.

The following values for resistivity may be used:

1
Cu = mm 2 / m for Copper;
54
1 1
Al = mm 2 / m for Aluminum and Ala = mm 2 / m for Aluminum alloy.
34 31

'
The effective resistance per unit length RLr of overhead lines at the conductor temperature 20C
may be calculated from the nominal cross-section qn and the resistivity :


'
RLr = , / m, 38
qn

The line resistance RLr at the reference temperature r=20C can be determined if its length lL is
known:

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RLr = RLr
'
lL , , 39

Line Resistances RL (overhead lines and cables, line conductors and neutral conductors) will be

introduced at a higher temperature


e r , when calculating minimum short-circuit currents:

RL = [1 + ( e r )] RLr , 40

Where:

=0,004 K-1 is the temperature factor of resistivity, valid with sufficient accuracy for most
practical purposes for copper, aluminum and aluminum alloy.
e - the conductor temperature in degrees Celsius at the end of the short-circuit duration (for
e, see also IEC 60865-1, IEC 60949 and IEC 60986).
r=20C - the reference conductor temperature in degrees Celsius.
RLr - the resistance value at a reference temperature of 20C.

The geometric mean distance between conductors, or the center of bundles, in the case of overhead
lines, is determined by the relationship:

d = 3 d L1L 2 d L 2 L3 d L 3 L1 , 41

Where:

dL1L2, dL2L3 and dL3L1 are geometric distances between conductors.

In the case of bundle conductor, the equivalent radius rB can be determined by the following formula:

rB = n n r R n1 , 42

Where:
n is the number of bundled conductors;
r - the radius of a single conductor;
R is the bundle radius (see IEC 60909-2).

The reactance per unit length


X L' for overhead lines may be calculated, assuming transposition,
from:

1 d
X 'L = 0 f + ln , 43
4n r

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Where:

0 = 410-7 H/m;
f the nominal frequency of the power system;
n - the number of bundled conductors, or n=1 for a single conductor;
d - the geometric mean distance between conductors, according to (2.37) relationship;
r - the radius of a single conductor or, in the case of conductor bundles, r is to be substituted
by rB, from the (43) relationship.

The overhead line reactance XL follows to be determined, like in the resistance case, if its length lL is
done:

X L = X L' l L , , 44

For measurement of the positive-sequence impedance

Z ( 1 ) = R( 1 ) + jX ( 1 ) , 45

and the zero-sequence short-circuit impedance,

Z ( 0 ) = R( 0 ) + jX ( 0 ) , 46

(see IEC 60909-4).

Sometimes it is possible to estimate the zero-sequence impedances with the ratios R(0)L/RL and
X(0)L/XL (see IEC 60909-2).

Z
( 1 )L ( 0 )LZ
The impedances and of LV and HV cables depend on national techniques and
standards and may be taken from IEC 60909-2, from textbooks or manufacturers data.

However, the impedance of a network feeder at the connection point Q is given by:

c U nQ
2
c U nQ
ZQ = "
= , 47
S kQ
"
3 I kQ
"
where I kQ is the initial symmetrical short-circuit current.

Earth Wire Impedance

The equivalent earth penetration depth is given by the following relationship:

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E
= 1.85 , m, 48
0
Where:

E is the earth type resistivity, having values in accordance with table 2.1 content.
= 2f - angular frequency.
0 = 4107 H/m vide absolute magnetic permeability.

Resistivity E and equivalent earth penetration depth for different soil types

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Table 3: Resistivity and equivalent earth penetration

Earth types Resistivity E, Equivalent earth penetration depth ,


m m
f=50 Hz f=60 Hz
Granite >104 >9,300 >8,500
Rocks (310)103 (5.19.3)103 (4.658.2)103
Stony soil (13)103 (2.945.1)103 (2.694.65)103
Pebbles, dry sand (0.21.2)103 (1.323.22)103 (1.22.94)103
3
Calcareous soil, wet sand 70200 (0.781.32)10 (0.711.2)103
Farmland 50100 660930 600850
Clay, loam 1050 295660 270600
Marshy soil <20 <415 <380

'
The earth wire impedance per unit length Z W is:

0
+ j 0 f r + ln , 49
'
Z W RW' +
8 4 rWW
Where:

RW' is the earth wires resistance per unit length;


0 0.05 / km , for f = 50 Hz ;
=
8 0.06 / km , for f = 60 Hz ;
r - relative permeability of earth wire. For Aluminum core steel reinforced (ACSR) wires with
one layer of aluminum, r 5 ... 10; for other ACSR wires, r 1; for Steel wires, r 75;
- the earth wires number;
rWW - equivalent earth wire radius, equal to the earth wire radius rW if there is just one earth
wire

rWW = rW , 50

and calculated with following formula, if there are two earth wires:

rWW = rW dW , 51

where dW is the distance between two earth wires.

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The mutual impedance per unit length between the earth wire and the parallel line conductors with
common earth returns

0
+ j 0 f ln
'
Z WL , 52
8 dWL

Where:
dWL is the geometric mean distance between the earth wire and the line conductors L1, L2 and L3,
given by the formula

dWL = 3 dWL1 dWL 2 dWL 3 , 53

when there is only one earth wire and by the next formula

dWL = 6 dW 1L1 dW 1L 2 dW 1L 3 dW 2 L1 dW 2 L 2 dW 2 L 3 , 54

when there are two earth wires.

Sources

As per IEC 60909 the equivalent voltage source (rms) is given by the relationship

c U n
U es = , V, 55
3

where c is the voltage factor, having values according to the table 4:

Table 4: IEC voltage factor

Voltage factor c for the calculation of


Nominal voltage Tolerance,
Minimum short-circuit Maximum short-circuit
U n, V %
currents, cmin currents, cmax1)
Low voltage, 1.05 6
U n [100,1000]kV 0.95
1.10 10
Medium voltage,
U n (1,35]kV
1.00 1.10 -
High voltage2),
U n > 35 kV

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1)
cmaxUn should not exceed the highest voltage Um for equipment of power systems:
cmax U n U m ;
2)
if no nominal voltage is defined U m = cmaxU n or cminU n = 0,9U m should be applied.

2.5.2 Short Circuit Current Calculus

Assumptions

All line capacitances and shunt admittances are neglected


Non-rotating loads, except those of the zero-sequence system, are neglected
Arc resistances are not taken into account
For the duration of the short-circuit, there is no change:
o in the involved network
o in the type of short-circuit involved
Additional calculations about all different possible load flows at the moment of the short-circuit are
superfluous

General rules

All network feeders, synchronous and asynchronous machines are replaced by their internal
impedances
The equivalent voltage source is the only active voltage of the system
When calculating short-circuit currents in systems with different voltage levels, it is necessary to
transfer impedances values from one voltage level to another, usually to that voltage level at which
the short-circuit current is to be calculated
For p.u. system no transformation is necessary if these systems are coherent, i.e.

U rTHV / U rTLV = U nHV / U nLV , 56

for each transformer in the system with partial short-circuit currents.

The impedances of the equipment in superimposed or subordinated networks are to be divided or


multiplied by (tr)2, the square of the rated transformation ratio tr.; voltages and currents are to be
converted by the rated transformation ratio tr.

In general, two short-circuit currents, which differ in their magnitude, are to be calculated.
In the case of a far-from-generator short circuit, the short-circuit current can be considered as the
sum of the following two components:

- the AC component with constant amplitude during the whole short-circuit


- the aperiodic DC component beginning with an initial value A and decaying to zero

Single-fed short circuits supplied by a transformer may be regarded as far-from- generator short
circuits if

X TLVK 2 X Qt , 57

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with XQt calculated in accordance with 11 and

X TLVK = K T X TLV , 58

In the case of a near-to-generator short circuit, the short-circuit current can be considered as the
sum of the following two components:

- the AC component with decaying amplitude during the short circuit


- the aperiodic DC component beginning with an initial value A and decaying to zero

In the calculation of the short-circuit currents in systems supplied by generators, power-station units
and motors (near-to-generator and/or near-to-motor short circuits), it is of interest not only to know
the initial symmetrical short-circuit current I k" and the peak short-circuit current ip, but also the
symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib and the steady-state short-circuit current Ik. In this case,
the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib is smaller than the initial symmetrical short-circuit
current I k" . Normally, the steady-state short-circuit current Ik is smaller than the symmetrical short-
circuit breaking current Ib.

The type of short circuit which leads to the highest short-circuit current depends on the values of
the positive-sequence, negative-sequence, and zero-sequence short-circuit impedances of the
system.

For the calculation of the initial symmetrical short-circuit current I k" the symmetrical short-circuit
breaking current Ib, and the steady-state short-circuit current Ik at the short-circuit location, the system
may be converted by network reduction into an equivalent short-circuit impedance Zk at the short-
circuit location.

This procedure is not allowed when calculating the peak short-circuit current ip. In this case, it is
necessary to distinguish between networks with and without parallel branches.

While using fuses or current-limiting circuit-breakers to protect substations, the initial symmetrical
short-circuit current is first calculated as if these devices were not available. From the calculated
initial symmetrical short-circuit current and characteristic curves of the fuses or current-limiting circuit-
breakers, the cut-off current is determined, which is the peak short-circuit current of the
downstream substation.

Short-circuits may have one or more sources. Calculations are simplest for balanced short circuits on
radial systems, as the individual contributions to a balanced short circuit can be evaluated separately
for each source.

When sources are distributed in meshed network and for all cases of unbalanced short-circuits,
network reduction is necessary to calculate short-circuit impedances Z ( 1 ) = Z ( 2 ) and Z ( 0 ) at the
short-circuit location.

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Maximum and minimum short-circuit currents

When calculating maximum short-circuit currents, it is necessary to introduce the following


conditions:

- voltage factor cmax , will be applied for the calculations of maximum short-circuit currents in
the absence of a national standard
- choose the system configuration and the maximum contribution from power plants and
network feeders which lead to the maximum value of short-circuit current at the short-circuit
location, or for accepted sectioning of the network to control the short-circuit current
- when equivalent impedances ZQ are used to represent external networks, the minimum
equivalent short-circuit impedance will be used which corresponds to the maximum
short-circuit current contribution from the network feeders
- motors will be included if appropriate in accordance with 2.4, 2.5 and [1]
- lines resistance RL are to be introduced at a temperature of 20C

When calculating minimum short-circuit currents, it is necessary to introduce the following


conditions:
- voltage factor cmin for the calculation of minimum short-circuit currents will be applied
according to table 3
- choose the system configuration and the minimum contribution from power stations and
network feeders which lead to a minimum value of short-circuit current at the short-circuit
location
- motors will be neglected
- resistances RL of lines (overhead lines and cables, line conductors, and neutral conductors)
will be introduced at a higher temperature

Initial symmetrical short-circuit current

The highest initial short-circuit current will occur for the three-phase short circuit, because for the
common case

Z( 0 ) > Z( 1 ) = Z( 2 ) , 59

For short-circuits near transformers with low zero-sequence impedance, Z(0) may be smaller than Z(1).
"
In that case, the highest initial short-circuit current I kE 2 E will occur for a line-to-line short circuit with
earth connection. This situation is described by the following relationships:

Z ( 2 ) / Z ( 0 ) > 1; Z ( 2 ) = Z (1) , 60

The initial symmetrical short-circuit current I k" will be calculated using the following general
equation:

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c U n
I k" =
( )
, 61
3 Rk2 + X k2

where Rk and Xk are the sum of the series-connected resistances and reactances of the positive-
sequence system respectively:

Rk = RQt + RTK + RL , 62

X k = X Qt + X TK + X L , 63

The impedance of the network feeder Z Qt = RQt + jX Qt is referred to the voltage of the transformer
side connected to the short-circuit location. Resistances Rk

Rk < 0.3 X k , 64

may be neglected.

When there is more than one source contributing to the short-circuit current, and the sources are
unmeshed, the initial symmetrical short-circuit current I k" at the short-circuit location F is the sum of
the individual branch short-circuit currents. Each branch short-circuit current can be calculated as an
independent single-source three-phase short-circuit current in accordance with equation:

c U n
I k" =
( )
, 65
3 Rk2 + X k2

In meshed networks, it is generally necessary to determine the short-circuit impedance

Z k = Z (1) , 66

by network reduction (series connection, parallel connection, delta-star transformation) using the
positive-sequence short-circuit impedances of electrical equipment.

The impedances in systems connected through transformers to the system, in which the short-circuit
occurs, have to be transferred by the square of the rated transformation ratio. If there are several
transformers with slightly differing rated transformation ratios (trT1, trT2,..., trTn), in between two
systems, the arithmetic mean value can be used.

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The peak short-circuit current

For three-phase short-circuits fed from non-meshed networks, the contribution to the peak short-
circuit current from each branch can be expressed by:

i p = 2 I k" , 67

where the factor will be calculated by the following expression:

= 1.02 + 0.98 e 3( R / X ) , 68

The peak short-circuit current ip at a short-circuit location F, fed from sources which are not meshed
with one another, is the sum of the partial short-circuit currents:

i p = i pi , 69
i

DC component of the short-circuit current

The maximum DC component iDC of the short-circuit current may be calculated with sufficient
accuracy by equation:

id .c . = 2 I k" e 2f t ( R / X ) , 70

Where:
I k" is the initial symmetrical short-circuit current
f - the nominal frequency
t - the time
R/X - the resistance/reactance ratio

Note: The correct resistance RG of the generator armature should be used and not RGf.

Symmetrical short-circuit breaking current

The breaking current at the short-circuit location consists in general of a symmetrical current Ib and a
DC current iDC at the time tmin

For some near-to-generator short circuits the value of iDC at tmin may exceed the peak value of Ib and
this can lead to missing current zeros.

For far-from-generator short circuits, the short-circuit breaking currents are equal to the initial short-
circuit currents:

I b = I k" ; I b 2 = I k" 2 ; I b 2 E = I k" 2 E ; I b1 = I k"1 , 71

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For a near-to-generator short circuit, in the case of a single fed short-circuit or from non-meshed
networks, the decay to the symmetrical short-circuit breaking current is taken into account by the
factor according to equation:

I b = I k" , 72

"
where the factor depends on the minimum time delay tmin and the ratio I kG / I rG and IrG is the
rated generator current, according to IEC 60909-0/2001-07 [1].

For three-phase short circuits in non-meshed networks, the symmetrical breaking current at the
short-circuit location can be calculated by the summation of the individual breaking current
contributions:

I b = I bi , 73
i

The short-circuit breaking current Ib in meshed networks will be calculated by:

I b = I k" , 74

which is usually greater than the real symmetrical short-circuit breaking currents.

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3 ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEEE)

3.1 Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB)

The ANSI/IEEE Standards define the CB total interrupting time in cycles. However, the Contact
Parting Time (CPT) needs to be known for application of breakers. The typical total rated interrupting
time for Medium-Voltage Circuit Breakers is 5 cycles (ANSI C37.06 1987). However, the MV CBs
interrupting time correspond to 3 cycle contact parting time for the short circuit current, in the 2 -8
cycle network.

Table 5: CB rated interrupting time in cycles

Circuit Breaker Rated Interrupting CPT, in Cycles S


Time, in Cycles
2 1.5 1.4
3 2 1.2
5 3 1.1
8 4 1.0

S is the breakers asymmetrical capability factor and is determined based on the rating structure to
which the breaker was manufactured. Most breakers manufactured after 1964 are breakers rated on
a symmetrical current basis. Those manufactured before 1965 were rated on a total current basis.
Both the symmetrical and total current rated breakers have some DC interrupting capability included
in their ratings and it is a matter of how it is accounted for in the total interrupting current.

Note: For circuit breakers rated on Total Current S=1.0

Medium voltage breakers duty is based on:


1. Momentary rating (C&L)
2. Peak (Crest)
3. Interrupting

The Momentary and Peak formulae apply to both breakers symmetrical and total current rated
breakers. The interrupting rating is calculated differently based on the formulae shown in the next
sections.

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Momentary Duty Calculation (C & L):

The CB Closing and Latching Capability defines the CB ability to withstand (close and immediately
latch) the maximum value of the first-cycle short circuit current. The closing and latching capability of
a symmetrical current-rated CB is expressed in terms of Asymmetrical, Total rms current, or peak
current.

DesignBase uses the following steps to calculate the circuit breaker momentary duty:

1. Calculate the cycle symmetrical short circuit (Isym,rms).


2. Calculate asymmetrical current value using the following formula:

Imom,rms,asym = MFm*Isym,rms,

where:
-2

MFm = 1 + 2e X / R , 75

Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to
calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6

3. Compare Imom,rms,asym against the medium voltage circuit breaker (C&L,rms ) value:
If Device C&L,rms rating Imom,rms,asym, then the device Pass or otherwise it fails

4. Calculate the % Rating = (Imom,rms,asym*100)/Device C&L,rms rating

Peak Duty calculation (Crest):

1. Calculate the cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms).


2. Calculate the peak value of momentary SC using the following formula:

Imom,peak = MFp*Isym,rms

where:
-2
MFp = (1 + e X /R
) 2

,76

and
-X/R
= 0.49 - 0.1 * e 3

77

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Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to
calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak = 2.7.

3. Compare Imom,peak against the medium voltage circuit breaker (Creat,peak ) value. If Device
Creast,peak rating Imom,peak, then the device pass, or otherwise it fails
4. Calculate The % rating = (Imom,peak*100)/Device Crest,peak rating

Interrupting Duty Calculation

The Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability for a Symmetrical Current-Rated CB is the


maximum rms current of the symmetrical AC and DC component, which the CB can interrupt
regardless of how low the operating voltage is.

The interrupting fault currents for the MV & HV circuit breakers is equal to 1.5-4 cycles short circuit
current. For a system other than of 60 Hz adjust the calculated X/R as follows:

(X/R) * 60
( X / R) mod = 78
System Frequency (Hz)

The following steps are used to calculate the circuit breaker interrupting. There are three options:

All Remote i.e. NACD = 1.0. This is the most conservative solution
All Local; i.e. NACD = 0
Adjusted, this is based on actual calculations

1. Determine if the generator is Local or Remote

2. Calculate total remote contribution, total local contribution, then the NACD (the current is
obtained by using the (1.5-4) cycle network impedance

3. Calculate NACD (No AC Decrement) ratio

Iremote (Itotal - Ilocal)


NACD = 79
Itotal (Iremote + Ilocal)

4. Calculate the Multiplying factor based on the fault location (MFr, or MFl)

Remote If Generator current contribution to fault is less than 40% of a generator terminal
fault then this generator is Remote, or equivalent impedance to generation terminals is > 1.5
times the Generator Zdv. For remote fault the multiplying factor is MFr:

-4
C
1 + 2e X /R
MFr = 80
S

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Where C = CB Contact Parting Time in Cyc.

Local For any local fault the multiplying factor MFl is calculated using the following
formula within EDSA or look up tables. The equations are not given in ANSI C37.101, but
are empirical equations to match the curves within the ANSI breaker standard.

-4
C
K 2 + 2e X / R
MFl = , 81
S
where:

Table 6: K factor

CPT K=
1.5 1.0278 - 0.004288(X/R) + 0.00002945(X/R)2 - 0.000000068368(X/R)3
2 1.0604 - 0.007473(X/R) + 0.00006253(X/R)2 - 0.0000002427(X/R)3
3 1.0494 - 0.00833(X/R) + 0.00006919(X/R)2 - 0.000000075638(X/R)3
4 1.0370 - 0.008148(X/R) + 0.0000611(X/R)2 - 0.0000002248(X/R)3

The Adjusted Multiplying Factor (AMFi) is equal to:

AMFi = MFl +NACD (MFr-MFl), 82

If AMFi is less than 1.0 then the program uses 1.0

5. Calculate Iint,

All Remote: Iint = MFr*Iint,rms,sym

All Local: Iint = MFl*Iint,rms,sym

Mixed local and remote: Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym

6. Calculate 3 phase Device Duty by adjusting the device interrupting duty based on rated
voltage using the following formula:

Device Int Rating * Rated Max kV


3P Device Duty = Min ( * Device Max Int Rating)
Operating Voltage kV
7. Compare Iint against the CB 3P Device Duty.
If 3P Device Duty Iint, then the device Passes, otherwise it Fails.

8. Calculate % rating = (Iint *100)/ (3P Device Duty)

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3.2 Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LV-CBs)

For Low-Voltage CBs (LV-CBs) the time of short circuit current interruption occurs within the sub
transient time interval. However, the interrupting capabilities of unfused LV-CBs are sensitive to the
maximum peak magnitude of the total /asymmetrical fault current.

If the device library does not have a value for X/R then the following default values are used as
default by the EDSA program:

Table 7: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSAs Library

Breaker Type Test %PF Test X/R


Unfused Power Circuit (PCB) Breaker 15 6.59
Fused Power Circuit Breaker, MCCB, ICCB 20 4.9
(Insulated Case CB)
Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated 10,000A 50 1.73
Molded Case MCCB), ICCB rated 10,001-20,000 A 30 3.18
Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated > 20,000 A 20 4.90

The following steps are used to calculate the low voltage circuit breaker interrupting:

1. Calculate the cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms).


2. Calculate Low Voltage Multiplying Factor (LVF)
PCB: Power Circuit Breaker
ICCB: Insulated Case Circuit Breaker

Fused PCB / MCCB / ICCB


2
-
(1 + 2e Calc X/R )
LVFasym = ( EQ 7)
2
-
(1 + 2e Test X/R )
, 83

Unfused PCB / MCCB / ICCB with Instantaneous setting

2
-
(1 + e X/Rcalc
)
LVFp = 2T
-
(1 + e X/Rtest
)
, 84

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Short Circuit Analysis Program
ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Where
-X/Rcalc
= 0.49 - 0.1e 3

and
- X/Rtest
T= 0.49 - 0.1e 3
In Options of the short circuit Tab Control for ANSI/IEEE , the user can select to use
=T = 0.5 instead of using the empirical formula by selecting Applies 0.5 Cycles.

Unfused PCB without Instantaneous setting


If the breaker does not have an instantaneous setting then the breaker has two interrupting rating
(peak and asymmetrical). Therefore the LVFp and LVFasym are calculated.
4t
-
(1 + 2e X/Rcalc
)
LVFasym =
4t
-
(1 + 2e X/Rtest
)
85

Where t is the breaker minimum short time trip in cycles at interrupting duty. The default value
used by EDSA is 3 cycles.

The peak interrupting rating is calculated as follows:


2
-
(1 + e X/Rcalc
)
LVFp = 2T
-
(1 + e X/Rtest
)
86
Where
-X/Rcalc
= 0.49 - 0.1e 3

and
- X/Rtest
T = 0.49 - 0.1e 3

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3. If any of the LVF is less than 1.0 then uses 1.0

4. Calculate adjusted Interrupting factor


Fused Breakers
Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 3-8 cycle interrupting short circuit)
Unfused Breakers With Inst
Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the cycle interrupting short circuit)
Unfused Breakers Without Inst
Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 3-8 cycle interrupting short circuit)
Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the cycle interrupting short circuit)

5. Compare Iint,adj against the CB symmetrical interrupting rating.


If Device Symmetrical rating Iint,adj, then the device passes, or otherwise it fails
6. Calculate The % rating = (Iint,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating

3.3 Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches

The LVFs interrupting capability is the maximum symmetrical rms current which the fuse can
interrupt and still remain intact. While the fuse has a symmetrical current rating it can also interrupt
the DC component up to a value based on its test X/R ratio.

The interrupting capabilities of LV-Fs are classified by the UL according to symmetrical current
ratings in rms Amperes. In some rare cases the fuse asymmetrical rating is provided.

Evaluation procedure:
3. Calculate the cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms).
4. Calculate Iasym:
Iasym,adj = MFasym*Isym(1/2 Cyc)
If the fuse is symmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:

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2
-
MFasym = (1 + 2e X/R
)

87
If the fuse is asymmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
2
-
(1 + 2e Calc X/R
)
MFasym =
2
-
(1 + 2e Test X/R
)
, 88
5. Compare Iasym,adj against the fuse symmetrical interrupting rating.
If Device Symmetrical rating Iasym,adj, then the device Pass otherwise it Fails
6. Calculate The % rating = (Iasym,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating.

Note: For standard switches the same formulae are used

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ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION


Perform Short-Circuit Study & Update Answer File.
For frequency other than 60 Hz, then adjust the X/R where,
(X/R)mod=(X/R)*60/(System Hz)

y For LVCB, MVCB & Fuses Calculate the cycle short-circuit current
(Isym,rms).
y For MVCB calculate the Iint,rms,sym.
y Run the PDE analysis

Fuses/ Switches LVCB

Fuse / Switch Symmetrical Rating, selected: MVCB


y Calculate MF based on EQ-1 NO Fused?
YES
Fuse / Switch Asymmetrical Rating selected:
y Calculate MF based on EQ-10

CB X/R is known? CB X/R is known?

NO NO

Yes The X/R is equal to:


The X/R is equal to:
PCB, ICCB = 6.59 YES
MCCB, ICCB rated <=10,000 A = 1.73 PCB, MCCB, ICCB = 4.9
MCCB, ICCB rated 10,001-20,000A = 3.18
MCCB, ICCB rated > 20,000 A = 4.9

Calculate LVF
Calculate LVF based on EQ-8 for PCB breaker with based on EQ-7
Instantaneous Setting, MCCB and ICCB.

For PCB without instantaneous use EQ-8 & EQ-9 Go to


Page 2

IF LVF < 1,
then LVF =1

Is Device rating greater


or Equal to Iasym,adj? MCCB/ICCB/PCBWith Instantaneous :
Iint,adj =LVF*Isym,rms
PCB Without Instantaneous:
Iint,adj =LVFp*Isym,rms( Cyc)
NO Yes int,adj =LVFasym*Isym,rms(3-8 Cyc)

Is Device Symmetrical
NO rating greater or Equal Yes
to Iint,adj?

Fail Pass Fail Pass

Calculate Calculate
%rating=Isym,adj*100/ %rating=Iint,adj*100/
Device rating Device rating

Figure 1: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 1

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ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION


Calculation Based on Generation:
MVCB From y All Remote Page 2
Page 1 y All Local
y NACD
In the short circuit option tab
Control for ANSI/IEEE the user NO
has selected the fixed MF factor

Interrupting Duty
YES YES
NO

Calculate:
y Total Remote Contribution Peak Duty Peak Duty Momentary Momentary
y Total Local contribution (Crest) (Crest) Duty (C&L) Duty (C&L)
y Total Contribution (Iint,rms,sym)
y NACD using (EQ-3)
y If NACD=0 then all contribution are Local
y If NACD=1 then all contribution are Remote
MFp = 2.7 MFm = 1.6

Calculate MFp using EQ-2 Calculate MFm using EQ-1


ALL Remote

Calculate Calculate Calculate


y MFr using EQ-4 Imom,peak=MFp*Isym,rms Imom,asym=MFm*Isym,rms
y Iint=MFr*Iint,rms,sym
All Local

Calculate
y MFl using EQ-5
y Iint=MFl*Iint,rms,sym Is Device peak (crest)
NACD rating greater or Equal to
Imom,peak?

Calculate: Yes
NO
y NACD using EQ-3
y MFr using EQ-4
y MFl using EQ-5
y AMFi = using EQ-6. Fail Pass
y If AMFl less than 1 use 1.0
y Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym/S

Calculate
Calculate 3 phase device %rating=Imom,peak*100/
duty using EQ-6a device peak (crest) rating

Is Device C&L,rms rating


greater or Equal to
NO Imom,rms,asym?
Is Device Int rating greater Yes
NO Yes
or Equal to calculated Iint?

Fail Pass Fail Pass

Calculate %rating=Iint*100/ Calculate


3P device Int rating %rating=Imom,rms,asym*100/
device C&L,rms rating

Figure 2: Device Evaluation, ANSI Standard, Page 2

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4 IEC Standard Based Device Evaluation (PDE IEC)


4.1 CIRCUIT-BREAKERS

Circuit-breaker design techniques have improved over time leading to benefits of technical
performances, reduced size, weight, energy requirements and cost. This progression is also
perceived to have led to an inevitable reduction in inherent design margins such that much of the
older equipment, for which extensive operating experience is available, may have considerable
margins in hand-over and above modern equipment. This trend is not problematic in itself but further
emphasizes the need for future testing regimes to be fully representative of the system conditions in
which the equipment needs to function correctly.

In technologies where the interruption capability is fundamentally constant regardless of the


switching duty, interpolation of test evidence is relatively simple and accepted. However, in
technologies where the basic interruption characteristics of the device are duty dependent, such
interpolations are far more difficult to achieve simply and it is quite conceivable that critical fault
duties may be identified at fractional short-circuit levels. In principle, the high energies and relatively
low di/dt values associated with an asymmetrical duty make it less onerous for such a device than an
equivalent symmetrical duty. However, the effect of low energy minor loops and the possibility of
extended arcing periods, in what are generally very short overall travel times, are factors which might
prove particularly critical.

Ultimately, equipment testing should consider the equipment under test to be a "black box" model
regardless of the technology being employed, but this presents obvious difficulties if varying design
technologies have specific sensitivities.

It must be stressed at this point that there is no intention to cast doubt on the capabilities of particular
equipment design philosophies merely to emphasize that as refined design techniques lead to
minimized designs so the importance of well constructed and realistic testing regimes increases.
An obvious, but non-preferred, solution to problems of asymmetric switching is to increase circuit-
breaker operating times, although this does not alleviate the duty on other associated equipment and
may be inconvenient from an overall system viewpoint. This contrary to the tendency for reducing
protection times in modern equipment.

High Voltage Breakers. Normally the interrupting current is a constant current at any voltage.
However, some manufacturers do give a different current at various voltages. On the HV breakers it
may to check if the breaker voltage rating is greater than the system voltage. The voltage rating of
IEC breakers is the maximum voltage that the breaker can be applied at.

Low Voltage Breakers. The same standards are used for LVPCB and MCCB.

4.1.1 Rated characteristics to be given for all circuit-breakers

a1) Rated voltage Ur.:

If the manufacturer indicates a few values for the rated voltage, then the greatest represents the
maximum rated voltage;

a2) Rated insulation level;

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a3) Rated frequency fr.


The standard values for the rated frequency of high voltage circuit-breakers are 50 Hz and 60 Hz;

a4) Rated normal current Ir:

Current which the main circuit of a circuit-breaker is capable of carrying continuously under specified
conditions of use and behavior;

a5) Rated short-time withstand current Icw.

The rated short-time withstand current Icw of a CB, disconector or swich-disconector means the rms
value of a rated, admited, short-time current, indicated by a manufacturer, which the equipment can
support without any damages. The testing determination of this current for a concret equipment is
made in standard conditions [CEI 60947-1].

The rated short-time withstand current must be greater than twelve times the rated maximum
operation current and, without other manufacturers indication, the current duration must be 1 s:

I cw 12 I e , pt . Tcw = 1s , 89

A complete determination of the rated short-time withstand current is made, on the base of the
mentioned standard, as follows:

I cw = Max{ (12 I e ); 5 kA}, pt . I e 2,5 kA , 90

I cw = 30 kA , pt . I e > 2,5 kA , 91

InAC the rated short-time withstand current is compearing with the rms value of the periodical short-
circuit current component. It is necessary that the last mentioned value to be lower than the product
between the short duration acceptable rated current and the factor n, indicated in table 3, in
accordance with CEI 60947-1:

I k n I cw , 92

Values of the power factor, the time constants and the ratio n between the peak value and the rated
short-time withstand current.

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Table 8: n factor based on PF and short circuit level

Short-circuit current, Time constant,


Power Factor n factor
kA ms
1,5 0,95 1,41
(1,5, 3] 0,9 1,42
(3, 4,5] 0,8 5 1,47
(4,5, 6] 0,7 1,53
(6, 10] 0,5 1,70
(10, 20] 0,3 10 2,00
(20, 50] 0,25 2,10
15
50 0,2 2,20

At the same time, the short duration acceptable rated current represents the upper limit value of the
rms value of the short-circuit current periodical component which is presumed constant during the
short timing , for which the following normalized values are recommended:

{0 ,05; 0 ,1; 0,25; 0 ,5;1} s

1. The rated short-time withstand current is equal to the rated short-circuit breaking current [5,
p.33] - EN 60947-3:1999 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 3: Switches, disconnectors,
switch-disconnectors and fuse-combination units.

a6) Rated peak withstand current (Ip):

It is equal to the rated short-circuit making current;

a7) Rated duration of a short-circuit tk.

A rated duration of a short-circuit need not be assigned to a self-tripping circuit-breaker provided that
the following applies. When connected in a circuit the prospective breaking current of which is equal
to its rated short-circuit breaking current, the circuit-breaker shall be capable of carrying the resulting
current for the break-time required. This break time is that required by the circuit-breaker with the
over current release set for the maximum time lag when operating in accordance with its rated
operating sequence. Direct over current releases include integrated tripping systems.

a8) Rated supply voltage

of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits Ua;

a9) Rated supply frequency


of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits;

a10) Rated pressures

of compressed gas supply and/or of hydraulic supply for operation, interruption and insulation, as
applicable;

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a11) Rated short-circuit breaking current Icn.

The rated short-circuit breaking current is the highest short-circuit current which the circuit breaker
shall be capable of breaking under the conditions of use and behavior prescribed in standards. Such
a current is found in a circuit having a power-frequency recovery voltage corresponding to the rated
voltage of the circuit-breaker and having a transient recovery voltage equal to a specified value. For
three-pole circuit-breakers, the AC component relates to a three-phases short-circuit.

The rated short-circuit breaking current is characterized by two values:

the rms value of its AC component;


the percentage DC component. If the DC component does not exceed 20%, the rated short-
circuit breaking current is characterized only by the rms value of its AC component.

The circuit-breaker shall be capable of breaking any short-circuit current up to its rated short-circuit
breaking current containing any AC component up to the rated value and, associated with it, any
percentage DC component up to that specified, under the conditions mentioned above.

The following applies to a standard circuit-breaker:

- at voltages below and equal to the rated voltage, it shall be capable of breaking its rated short-
circuit breaking current
- at voltages above the rated voltage, no short-circuit breaking current is guaranteed. The standard
value of the AC component of the rated short-circuit breaking current shall be selected from the
R10 series specified in IEC 60059. The R10 series comprises the numbers

{1 1,25 1,6 2 2,5 3,15 4 5 6,3 8}

and their products by 10n.

The value of the percentage DC component shall be determined as follows:


- for a self-tripping circuit-breaker, the percentage DC component shall correspond to a time interval
equal to the minimum opening time of the first opening pole Top of the circuit breaker. Time Tr in the
formula (6) is to be set to 0 ms
- for a circuit-breaker which is tripped solely by any form of auxiliary power, the percentage DC
component shall correspond to a time interval equal to the minimum opening time of the first
opening pole Top of the circuit-breaker plus one half-cycle of rated frequency Tr.

The minimum opening time mentioned above is that specified by the manufacturer. The minimum
opening time is the shortest opening time, which is expected by the manufacturer to cover the entire
population of the circuit-breaker concerned under any operational conditions when breaking
asymmetrical currents.

The percentage value of the dc component (iDC%) is based on the time interval (Top + Tr) and the time
constant using the formula:

Top + Tr
id .c. % = 100 exp , %

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The graphs of the DC component against time given in figure 1 below are based on:

a) standard time constant of 45 ms


b) special case time constants, related to the rated voltage of the circuit-breaker:
- 120 ms for rated voltages up to and including 52 kV
- 60 ms for rated voltages from 72,5 kV up to and including 420 kV
- 75 ms for rated voltages 550 kV and above

Figure 3: Percentage D.C. current component in relation to the time interval from
initiation of short-circuit current, for different time constant.

These special case time constant values recognize that the standard value may be inadequate in
some systems. They are provided as unified values for such special system needs, taking into
account the characteristics of the different ranges of rated voltage, for example their particular
system structures, design of lines, etc.

In addition, some applications may require even higher values, for example if a circuit-breaker is
close to a generator. In these circumstances, the required DC component and any additional test
requirements should be specified in the inquiry.

a12) Rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity Icu

The rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity Icu represents the highest rms value of the current
that the device is able to interrupt without suffering significant damages.

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The magnitude of this current, determined under the conditions specified in the product standard, is
the upper (superior/higher) limit of the short-circuit ac component (the dc component is considered
null):

I cu I k 93

a13) Transient recovery voltage - TRV

related to the rated short-circuit breaking current is the reference voltage which constitutes the limit of
the prospective transient recovery voltage of circuits which the circuit-breaker shall be capable of
withstanding under fault conditions.

In some cases, particularly in systems with a voltage 100 kV and above, and where the short-circuit
currents are relatively large in relation to the maximum short-circuit current at the point under
consideration, the transient recovery voltage contains first a period of high rate of rise, followed by a
later period of lower rate of rise. This waveform is generally adequately represented by an envelope
consisting of three line segments defined by means of four parameters.

In other cases, particularly in systems with a voltage less than 100 kV, or in systems with a voltage
greater than 100 kV in conditions where the short-circuit currents are relatively small in relation to the
maximum short-circuit currents and fed through transformers, the transient recovery voltage
approximates to a damped single frequency oscillation. This waveform is adequately represented by
an envelope consisting of two line segments defined by means of two parameters.

The influence of local capacitance on the source side of the circuit-breaker produces a slower rate of
rise of the voltage during the first few microseconds of the TRV. This is taken into account by
introducing a time delay.

The transient recovery voltage corresponding to the rated short-circuit breaking current when a
terminal fault occurs, is used for testing at short-circuit breaking currents equal to the rated value.

a14) The rated short-circuit making current Icm

of a circuit-breaker having simultaneity of poles is that which corresponds to the rated voltage and
the rated frequency.

The rated short-circuit making capacity Icm of a circuit-breaker or switch represents the value of the
short-circuit closing capacity, expressed by the highest instantaneous value of the current that the
device can connect at the rated voltage and frequency and at a specified power factor. This
parameter is indicated by the equipment manufacturer in the device catalogue data.

According to IEC 60947-1 the rated short-circuit making capacity is established in comparison with
the limit value of the short-circuit rated breaking capacity Icu, by multiplying it to the factor k, given in
the table 2, for LVCB, in accordance with the relationship:

I cm = k I cu 94

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Values of the multiplying factor k when fixing the rated short-circuit making capacity Icm of the LVCB

Table 9: Icu and k factor

Icu,
cos k
kA
(6, 10] 0.50 1.7
(10, 20] 0.30 2.0
(20, 50] 0.25 2.1
50 0.20 2.2

The rated short-circuit making capacity implies that the breaker is able to connect the current suitable
to this rated capacity at an applied voltage corresponding to the use rated voltage.

Being an instantaneous value, the rated short-circuit making capacity Icm of an CB is compared with
the peak current ip and the next inequality have to be fulfilled in order that the device withstands the
short-circuit action:

I cm i p 95

The following values apply for the high voltage CB (Ur >1 kV):

for a rated frequency of 50 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is
equal to 2,5 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated short-circuit breaking
current (Icn), so a following relationship can be written:

I cm = k H I cn , 96

where the multiplying factor kH was introduced. In this case, kH=2,5;

for a rated frequency of 60 Hz and the standard value of the time constant of 45 ms it is
equal to 2,6 times the rms value of the AC component of its rated short-circuit breaking
current

for all special case time constants it is equal to 2,7 times the rms value of the AC component
of its rated short-circuit breaking current, independent of the rated frequency of the circuit-
breaker

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a15) Rated operating sequence;

a16) Rated time quantities:

- opening time of a circuit-breaker defined according to the tripping method as stated below and with
any time delay device forming an integral part of the circuit-breaker adjusted to its minimum setting
- for a circuit-breaker tripped by any form of auxiliary power, the opening time is the interval of time
between the instant of energizing the opening release, the circuit-breaker being in the closed
position, and the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles
- for a self-tripping circuit-breaker, the opening time is the interval of time between the instant at
which, the circuit-breaker being in the closed position, the current in the main circuit reaches the
operating value of the over current release and the instant when the arcing contacts have
separated in all poles

The opening time may vary with the breaking current. For circuit-breakers with more than one
interrupting unit per pole, the instant when the arcing contacts have separated in all poles is
determined as the instant of contact separation in the first unit of the last pole. The opening time
includes the operating time of any auxiliary equipment necessary to open the circuit breaker and
forming an integral part of the circuit-breaker.

- arcing time (of a multipole switching device): interval of time between the instant of the first
initiation of an arc and the instant of final arc extinction in all poles
- break time: interval of time between the beginning of the opening time of a mechanical switching
device and the end of the arcing time

4.1.2 Circuit Breaker Name Plate Data

The nameplates of a CB and its operating devices shall be marked and must contain data in
accordance with the standards IEC Standards. The main nameplate information is indicated in the
Table 10 below.

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CB Name Plate Information

Table 10: CB Name plate data

Abbrevi- Required marking


Information Unit
ation condition
Manufacturer Mandatory for CB and
operation device
Type designation and serial number
Rated voltage Ur kV Mandatory
Rated lightning impulse withstand
Up kV
voltage
Rated switching impulse withstand Rated voltage 300 kV
voltage Us kV and
above
Rated frequency Rating is not applicable
fr Hz at
both 50 Hz and 60 Hz
Rated normal current Ir A Mandatory
Rated short-circuit breaking current Isc kA
DC component of the rated short-circuit More than 20 %
(idc%) %
breaking current
Rated duration of short-circuit tk s Different from 1 s

Coils of operating devices shall have a reference mark permitting the complete data to be obtained
from the manufacturer. Releases shall bear the appropriate data.

The nameplate shall be visible in the position of normal service and installation.

4.2 FUSES
4.2.1 General considerations

The fuses can operate as single devices or can be combined with switch disconnectors. The choice
depends on each application requirements and specific network conditions. One of the most critical
factors for optimum protection is proper fuse selection. This can be done based on theoretical
calculations but in many cases practical knowledge obtained from actual test results could make it
easier and even more reliable.

The speed at which a fuse blows depends on how much current flows through it and the material of
which the fuse is made. The operating time is not a fixed interval, but decreases as the current
increases. Fuses have different characteristics of operating time compared to current, characterized
as "fast-blow", "slow-blow" or "time-delay", according to time required to respond to an over current
condition. A standard fuse may require twice its rated current to open in one second, a fast-blow fuse
may require twice its rated current to blow in 0.1 seconds, and a slow-blow fuse may require twice its
rated current for tens of seconds to blow.

A characteristic of modern cartridge fuses is that, owing to the rapidity of fusion in the case of high
short-circuit current levels, a current cut-off begins before the occurrence of the first major peak, so
that the fault current never reaches its prospective peak value [Schneider]. This limitation of current
reduces significantly the thermal and dynamic stresses which would otherwise occur, thereby

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minimizing danger and damage at the fault position. The rated short-circuit breaking current of the
fuse is therefore based on the rms value of the AC component of the prospective fault current. No
short-circuit current-making rating is assigned to fuses.

Short-circuit currents initially contain DC components, the magnitude and duration of which depend
on the XL/R ratio of the fault current loop. Close to the source (MV/LV transformer) the relationship
Ipeak / I rms (of AC component) immediately following the instant of fault, can be as high as 2.5
(standardized by IEC).

At lower levels of distribution in an installation, as previously noted, XL is small compared with R and
so for final circuits Ipeak / Irms ~ 1.41. The peak-current-limitation effect occurs only when the
prospective rms AC component of fault current attains a certain level. As already mentioned, at lower
distribution levels in an installation, R greatly predominates XL, and fault levels are generally low.
This means that the level of fault current may not attain values high enough to cause peak current
limitation. On the other hand, the DC transients (in this case) have an insignificant effect on the
magnitude of the current peak, as previously mentioned.

4.2.2 Fuse IEC Characteristic Quantities [IEC 60269-1]

Prospective current (of a circuit with respect to a fuse) current that would flow in the circuit if each
pole of the fuse were replaced by a conductor of negligible impedance. For AC, the prospective
current is expressed by the rms value of the AC component.

Note: the prospective current is the quantity to which the breaking capacity and characteristics of the
fuse are normally referred, e.g. I2t and cut-off current characteristics.

Fuse Breaking capacity value of prospective current that a fuse is capable of breaking at a stated
voltage under prescribed conditions of use and behavior (the rms value of the periodic component,
for AC).

Breaking range range of prospective currents within which the breaking capacity of a fuse-link is
assured.

Cut-off current maximum instantaneous value reached by the current during the breaking
operation of a fuse-link when it operates in such a manner as to prevent the current from reaching
the otherwise attainable maximum.

Cut-off current characteristic; let-through current characteristic curve giving the cut-off current
as a function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation.

Note: in the case of AC, the values of the cut-off currents are the maximum values which can be
reached whatever the degree of asymmetry. In the case of DC, the values of the cut-off currents are
the maximum values reached related to the time constants as specified.

Peak withstand current value of the cut-off current that the fuse-holder can withstand.

Note: the peak withstands current is not less than the highest cut-off current of any fuse-link with
which the fuse-holder is intended to be associated.

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Pre-arcing time; melting time interval of time between the beginning of a current large enough to
cause a break in the fuse element(s) and the instant when an arc is initiated.

Arcing time of a fuse - interval of time between the instant of the initiation of the arc in a fuse and
the instant of final arc extinction in that fuse.

Operating time; total clearing time sum of the pre-arcing time and the arcing time.

I2t (Joule integral) integral of the square of the current over a given time interval:

t
I 2 t = t 1 i 2 dt 97
0

Notes:

The pre-arcing I2t is the I2t integral extended over the pre-arcing time of the fuse
The operating I2t is the I2t integral extended over the operating time of the fuse
The energy in Joules released in a 1 resistor in a circuit protected by a fuse is equal to the value of
the operating I2t expressed in A2s

I2t characteristic curve giving I2t values (pre-arcing I2t and/or operating I2t) as a function of
prospective current under stated conditions of operation.

I2t zone range contained by the minimum pre-arcing I2t characteristic and the maximum operating
I2t characteristic, under specified conditions.

Rated current of a fuse-link (In) value of current that the fuse-link can carry continuously without
deterioration under specified conditions.

Time-current characteristic curve giving the time, e.g. pre-arcing time or operating time as a
function of the prospective current under stated conditions of operation.

Note: for times longer than 0,1 s, for practical, purposes the difference between pre-arcing and
operating time is negligible.

Time-current zone range contained by the minimum pre-arcing time-current characteristics and
the maximum operating time-current characteristic, under specified conditions.

Conventional non-fusing current (Inf) value of current specified as that which the fuse-link is
capable of carrying for a specified time (conventional time) without melting.

Conventional fusing current (If) - value of current specified as that which causes operation of the
fuse-link within a specified time (conventional time).

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4.2.3 Fuse nameplate data

The follwoing data will generally be provided for a fuse:

1. Rated current (Ampere rating) of the fuse


2. Voltage rating of the fuse
3. Time-current characteristic, i.e. fuse speed
4. Approvals by national and international standards agencies
5. Manufacturer / part number / series
6. Breaking capacity

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5 Protective Device Evaluation Based on IEC Standard

Figure 4: PDE Flow Chart - IEC standard:


a - main branch and fuses evaluation;

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b
LVCB evaluation; c - HVCB evaluation.

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c
HVCB evaluation

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5.1 Fuses Evaluation

Compare the voltage rating of the fuse (Ur) against the system voltage (Un) where the fuse is placed:
if the fuse rated voltage

Ur Un then

the device Pass, otherwise Fail (the user have to verify the fuse ratings).

For the Ur Un case, there are two situations:

a. if Ur = Un then the fuse breaking capacity rating (Irb) = the fuse real breaking capacity (Ib);

b. if Ur > Un then the real breaking capacity of the fuse will be used in the next steps; for this
situation calculate the fuse real breaking capacity:

Ur
Ib = I rb .
Un

Compare the fuse real breaking capacity against the initial symmetrical short-circuit current I k" :
"
if Ib I k then the device Pass, otherwise Fail.

For both situations of the last comparison

I"k
Calculate %rating =
Ib

5.2 LVCB Evaluation

The LVCB evaluation begins after the comparison of the CB rated voltage presented in the right side
of the figure 2,a.

Determination of the LVCB short-circuit making current Icm.

Compare Icm with the peak short-circuit current.

if Icm ip then the device Pass, otherwise Fail.

For the FAIL situation

ip
Calculate % rating = 100 .
I cm

For the PASS situation

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Top + Tr
Calculate i dc % = exp ,

Where:

Top represents the minimum opening time and it is specified by the manufacturer;
Tr according to the specifications from figure 2,b;
circuit time constant, given in paragraph.
2
i %
Calculate the asymmetrical short-circuit presumed current I asymsc = I k 1 + dc .
100

Compare the asymmetrical short-circuit presumed current with the CB short-circuit breaking current
Icn.

if Iasymsc < Icn then the LVCB Pass, otherwise Fail.

For both situations of the last comparison

I asymsc
calculate % rating = 100 .
I cn

5.3 HVCB Evaluation

The HVCB evaluation, presented in Figure 2,c is similar to the LVCB one. The differences occur just
in the loop of the Icm determination, according to the IEC standards calculus.

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6. DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method

a. Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools

To launch DesignBase Short Circuit program, click the short circuit icon as presented below:

While in Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program, both the short circuit analysis method and the
corresponding short circuit tools are displayed as indicated below:

Paladin DesignBase provides several short circuit calculation methods based on the ANSI/IEEE
Standards and the IEC Standards, for both AC three-phase and single-phase networks. The
following short circuit calculation methods are implemented:

AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X, as per ANSI/IEEE Standard)


AC Classical, (Z complex method, X/R from the complex Z)
AC IEC 60909
AC IEC 61363
AC 1 Phase
DC Classical
DC IEC 61660

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b. AC ANSI/IEEE Standard Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools:

Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program: Short Circuit Tools

The Short Circuit tools are presented in the Figure above, and are listed below:

AC Short Circuit Options

Report Manager

Short Circuit Back Annotation

Analyze

Reactor Sizing

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The Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Icon:

Short Circuit Analysis Option has two tabs:

Calculation Tab, with the same fields for: AC ANSI/IEEE, AC Classical, AC IEC 60909,
AC IEC 61363 and AC Single Phase calculation.
AC Single Phase, faults can be performed only at all buses in this release,
Control Tab: this tab depends on the short circuit method that user selects.

Click on this icon to launch the Short Circuit Analysis Options. The Short Circuit Option
Dialog Window is opened and presented in the Figure below. It has two tabs: Calculation and Control
for ANSI/IEEE:

Note:
For L-G fault, phase A; for L-L and L-L-G fault phase B and C
For L-G fault, phase B; for L-L and L-L-G fault phase A and C
For L-G fault, phase C; for L-L and L-L-G fault phase A and B

Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option

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Calculation Tab allows the user to select the followings:

Base voltage:
o Adjusted by tap/turn ratio if power transformer is run on off nominal taps
o System voltage
Prefault voltage represents the bus voltage at the instant the fault is applied at that bus.
It can be: system voltage, load flow calculated bus voltage or actual/name plate voltage
Default output: Annotation or report
Contribution level: levels away from the fault location for the output results. The
calculated results are displayed either on the one-line diagram (if Default Output:
Annotation is selected by the user) or printed in the output report (if Default Output:
Report is selected by the user)
Fault impedance. This option is applied if the fault is calculated at one bus only
Fault location: selected buses, all buses, sliding fault or series fault; (Sliding and series
fault does not apply to IEC61363 or AC Single phase calculation)
Miscellaneous options: use only X to calculate the faults, and apply phase shift
Duty type for PDE based on: maximum branch fault flow or total bus fault current

Fault Location

Fault at one or more buses in the same run


Fault at all system buses, when the buses are faulted individually, not simultaneously.
Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a three-phase, line-to-
ground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each bus which is faulted for short
circuit studies. The bus faults are displayed at all buses simultaneously.

Selection of One Bus:

The Bus can be selected:

Graphically on the one line diagram, by a simple click on the desired bus, or
Highlight the bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the Add button; the
selected bus will be transferred to the Selected Buses list. To remove a bus from the
Selected Buses list highlight the bus ID and click on Remove button. The highlighted
bus will be transferred to the All Buseslist.

If One Bus is selected, then any fault type at that bus is calculated, branch contribution to that fault,
bus post-fault voltage and fault summary are generated.

Selecting More Than One Bus:

Graphically on the drawing space: click onto the desired first bus, then hold down the
shift key; while the shift key is being held down, select each bus individually
Menu Driven: highlight the desired bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on
the Add; the selected buses will be transferred to the Selected Buses list. To remove a
bus or several buses from the Selected Buses List highlight the bus ID and click on
Remove button. The highlighted bus/buses will be transferred to the All Buses List.

Notes:
Faults at more than one bus, are faulted individually in turn, not simultaneously.
Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a three-phase, line-to-

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ground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each selected bus which is faulted
for short circuit studies

On the drawing are displayed only the bus fault current value: Symmetrical rms, DC rms,
Asymmetrical rms, IPeak instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit
Back Annotation

Selecting All Buses:

Fault at all buses can be selected from the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option only, by selecting
All Buses option.

Faults at All Buses, are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the
specified fault type, the program will place a three-phase, line-to-ground, line-to-line, and
line-to-line-to-ground fault at all buses which are faulted for short circuit studies
On the drawing are displayed: Symmetrical rms, DC rms, Asymmetrical rms, IPeak
instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation
All buses are colored in Red

The Short Circuit Report will provide:

Bus Fault Current (3P, L-L, L-L-G, L-G, depending on the user selection);
Branch currents (3P, L-L, L-L-G, L-G, depending on the user selection);
Short Circuit multiplying Factors;
Fault Summary;

Sliding Fault:

The Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program can simulate a fault along a
feeder/cable/transmission line. Using this option eliminates the need to create a dummy bus at a
location along the feeder. The figure below shows examples of evenly spaced sliding faults (F1,
F2, F3, and F4) and single point sliding fault and a specific location (F).

From Bus To Bus

F1 F F2 F3 F4

Click on this button to open the Short Circuit Option dialog window.
In the Calculation Tab, select Sliding Fault.

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Sliding Fault

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Selecting a Feeder / Branch:

Highlight the desired Feeder/Cable in the All Feeders and Cables Box and then click on the
Add button; the selected Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the Selected Feeders and Cables
Box.

To remove a Feeder/Cable from the Selected Feeders and Cables box, highlight the
Feeder/Cable and click on Remove button. The highlighted Feeder/Cable will be transferred to
the All Feeders / and Cables Box / List.

In this release, only one Feeder/Cable can be selected for Sliding fault calculation at a time.
Select a feeder 3C 12, and then press on the OK button; the Sliding Fault Report Manager
is displayed as presented below:

Note: Sliding fault does not apply to IEC61363 and AC Single Phase calculation.

Sliding Fault: Report Manager

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The program allows the user to introduce the Fault position on the selected Feeder: Any
Position away From Bus or select the Number of Fault Spots evenly spaced alongside the
selected feeder. The program automatically divides the feeder/line into as many equidistant
segments and fault currents are calculated for each intermediate points. Contributions from both
ends of the feeder/line for each fault location as well as the voltages at the faulted location and at
both ends are also reported. In case only one fault location is selected, then the exact fault
location (i.e. 300 Feet down from sending end) should be specified.

Fault type:

3-Phase Fault
Line-to-line fault
Line-to-ground fault
Double-Line-to-Ground fault

Units:
For fault Current: Amps or KiloAmps, with the user defined decimal places
For Capacity: KVA or MVA, with the user defined decimal places
For Bus Voltages: Volts or Kilo Volts, with the user-defined decimal places
Per Unit MF, %X/R: with the user-defined decimal places

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Sliding Fault Report: 300 Feet away from From Bus.

A partial Report is presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit

Project No. : Page : 2


Project Name: Date :
Title : Time : 01:14:44 am
Drawing No. : Company :
Revision No.: Engineer:
Jobfile Name: T123 Check by:
Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

-------------------------------------------------------------
Fault Spot Report for Sliding Fault

Bus Results: 0.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults


-------------------------------------------------------------

Fault Feeder : 3C ->12 Fault R(Ohms) : 0


From Bus : 12 Fault X(Ohms) : 0
To Bus : 3C Length(Feet) : 300
Fault Spot : 150 Feet away from 'From Bus'

Thevenin Imped. Complex


Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- ------
Bus Name V A A A A Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R
------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------
--Fault Spot--- 480 31748 27494 29176 31828 3.7886 4.8206 3.0819
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------
Branch Report for Sliding Fault

Branch Results: 0.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LG Faults


----------------------------------------------------------------

Fault Feeder : 3C ->12 Fault R(Ohms) : 0


From Bus : 3C Fault X(Ohms) : 0
To Bus : 12 Length(Feet) : 300
Fault Spot : 150 Feet away from 'From Bus'

System Volt: 480 V Base Volt: 480 V Prefault Volt: 480 V

Fault Type : 3-phase L-L L-G L-L-G


Spot RMS( A ): 31748 27494 29176 31828
Spot X/R : 3.08

* Stands for the Low or Mid. voltage side of a transformer


or To Bus --> Fault Spot for Sliding Fault Feeder.

3-Phase Fault Line-Ground Fault Thevenin


--------------- ------------------------------- ---------------
From Bus (A) From Bus (A) Impedance
Branch Name V Ia Va Vb Ia 3Io Z+(pu) Zo(pu)
------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------
3B ->11 0 0 0
3C ->12 28.8 29373 38.6 98.2 27050 27163 2.9297 2.5561
3C ->12 * 2.4 2426 3.1 100.4 2194 2135 3.7253 4.6677

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Series Fault:

Series fault types (one phase open, two phases open, and unequal series impedances) with or without
neutral unbalance are supported in the Paladin DesignBases short circuit program. The series fault
types are shown in the below figure. It should be noted that series faults are meaningful only if pre-fault
load has been taken into account (i.e. load flow solution is considered). For series faults, the equivalent
voltage at the opening point is computed from the pre-fault system current at the unbalance point. The
default fault impedances Za, Zb, and Zn are:

Figure 5: Unbalanced system

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For one phase open (phase A), Default values: Zb=Zn=0.0 +j0.0
For two phases open (phases B and C) Default values: Za=Zn=0.0+j0.0
For Series Unbalance (phases A, B, and C) Default values: Za=Zb=Zn=0.0+j0.0

In Paladin DesignBase short circuit Analysis Option, select Series Fault field to perform open phase
study.

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Select the feeder / branch:

Highlight the desired feeder / cable in the All feeders and Cables box and then
Click on the Add button. The selected feeder / cable will be transferred to the Selected feeders box
as is presented below:

To remove a feeder / cable from the Selected feeders highlight the feeder/cable and click Remove
button. The highlighted feeder/cable will be transferred to the All feeders and Cables box.

For series fault, only one feeder can be selected at a time.

Click OK.

1
2 3

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Series Fault Report Manager:

The program allows the user to select:

one phase (one phase open)


two phases open
unbalanced series fault

At the fault (opening location) the user can select the fault impedance in ohms.

Units:
For current: Amps or KiloAmps
For capacity: KVA or MVA
For voltages: volts or Kilo Volts

Output File: to CSV or text file.

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Report is listed below:


EDSA

3-Phase Short Circuit

Project No. : Page : 1


Project Name: Date :
Title : Time :
Drawing No. : Company :
Revision No.: Engineer:
Jobfile Name: T123 Check by: ..
Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :..
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

Base MVA : 100.000


System Frequence(Hz) : 60

# of Total Buses : 48
# of Active Buses : 48
# of Total Branches : 47

# of Active Sources : 3
# of Active Motors : 4
# of Active Shunts : 0
# of Transformers : 5
Reference Temperature(C) : 20.0
Impedance Displaying Temperature(C) : 20.0

Calculating Series Fault

Classical Calculation
Complex Z for X/R and Fault Current
Transformer Phase Shift is not considered.
Base Voltages : Use System Voltages
Prefault Voltages : Use Load Flow Results

------------------------------------
Feeder/Cable Series Fault Report
------------------------------------

Fault Feeder : 3C ->12


Prefault Voltage
System Base --------------------------
Bus Bus Name kV kV kV % Degree
----- ------------------------ -------- -------- -------- -------- --------
From 04 0.48 0.48 0.48 100.03 0.00
To 12 0.48 0.48 0.48 99.94 -0.0

Fault Impedance(Ohms) :
Za = 0 +j 0
Zb = Zc = 0 +j 0
Zn = 0 +j 0

Fault Current Direction : From Bus --> To Bus

Phase Sym Fault Current at 1/2 Cycle (Magnitude in A , Angle in Degree)

---- One Phase Open ------


Item Phase A Phase B Phase C
----- -------- -------- --------
Magn. 0 95 94
Angle 0 -122 109.4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Control Tab:

AC ANSI/IEEE Standard:

The AC ANSI/IEEE method is based on a separate R and X matrix method:

Fault current multiplying factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault
calculations are performed.

The tab provides also information on ANSI Standard impedances first cycle and interrupting
cycles: 2-8 cycles as per ANSI/IEEE Std.

For calculating the MF the user can select:


Based on X/R using the equations in section 2.0
Or regardless of the X/R value, the MF is fixed

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In calculating the MF the user can also select to use:


Empirical value for
Or = T = 0.5

The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The
first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). In
the second option, the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:

X"
R=
X /R
The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero,
positive).

C. AC Classical Short Circuit Method

The AC Classical is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted
from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE
Standard and provides the same options.

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Fault Current Multiplying Factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault
calculations are performed. The user can also select the Machine Current Decay, in cycles.

The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The
first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs).

In the second option, i.e, variable X/R (see the lower left part of the above figure), the
generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:
X"
R=
X /R
The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero,
positive). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences.

D. AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method

The AC IEC 909 Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program tools are shown below.

Options

Report Manager

Back Annotation

Analyze

Reactor sizing

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The method is based on IEC60909 Standard. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC
ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. The user can select the calculation based
on:
1988 Version
2001 Version

The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The
first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). In
the second option (variable X/R, see the lower left part of the above figure), the generator/motor
resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:

X"
R=
X /R
The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero,
positive). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences.

While in the IEC 60909 standard, the control tab allows the user to select:
Fault Current Multiplying Factors

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The method which is employed in calculating the Peak Current (method A, B, C or EDSA
Thevenin)

Also, as per IEC 60909 standard, the user can select:

System Voltage
IEC maximum Voltage
IEC minimum Voltage

Peak current method:

Method A: uniform ratio R/X. The smallest X/R ratio determines the k factor
Method B: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks X=1.15 multiplied
by the Xb. Xb from Fig.8 page 47 IEC 60909 Std.
Method C: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks; The value of X is
calculated from Fig. 8, IEC 60909 and depends on X/R ratio of the network
EDSA Thevenin: X is calculated from the Thevenin equivalent

Impedance correction factors:

1. Apply K g factor to Generator Z g impedance:


This field should be selected by the user when calculating the initial short circuit current in systems fed
directly from generators without unit transformers. This is the situation when the user calculates the short
circuit current at generator terminal.

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The K g factor is given by formula (18) IEC Std.:

Un cmax
KG = (18, IEC 60909 Std.)
U rG 1 + X d" sin G
Where:

U n - is the system rated voltage


U rG - the generator rated voltage
X d" - generator sub transient reactance referred to generator rated impedance
sin G - generator phase angle between current and terminal voltage

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2. Apply K t factor to network transformer Z t :

The DesignBase user should check the above field if the short circuit occurs from a network transformer.

A network transformer (see the figure capture below) is when a transformer is connecting two or more
networks at different voltages (IEC Std.). For two-winding transformers with and without on-load tap-changer,
an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to
IEC (equation (7) to (9)).
cmax
K T = 0.95
1 + 0. 6 X T

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Where:

X T is the relative reactance of the transformer and cmax is from table 1 is related to the nominal
voltage of the network connected to the low-voltage side of the network transformer. This correction
factor shall not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units (IEC, see 3.7). This factor is
active only if the user selects the filed Network Transformer (used in IEC 60909 method) in the
transformer editor, as presented below:

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3. Apply Adjust Z t factor by using actual tap:


If the user selects this field, then EDSA adjusts Z T by using actual transformer tap. In this situation the
program consider the transformer impedance as a function of the transformer tap position.

If the user select the 1988 IEC 60909 version then the c factor values are provided by the program, as
follows:

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Table 11: IEC c factor

cmax cmin
Standard:
Above 1000 V: 1.1 1
Low Voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W 1.05 1
Other voltage levels, 3P3W 1.05 1

Low voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P4W 1 0.95


Other voltage levels, 3P4W 1.05 1

User Defined:
Above 1000 V: Per user selection per user selection
Low voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W/4W per user selection per user selection
Other voltage levels 3P3W/4W per user selection per user selection

If the user select the 2001 IEC 60909 version then the c factor values are provided by the
program, as follows:

cmax cmin
Standard:
Above 1000 V: 1.1 1
A
Other 1.05 0.95

User Defined:
Above 1000 V: Per user selection per user selection
Other per user selection per user selection

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E. AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method

IEC 61363 Standard calculates the short circuit instantaneous current as a function of time and
displays its instantaneous values. The method provides an accurate evaluation of the short
circuit current for sizing protective devices and coordinating relays for isolated systems (off-shore
platforms and ships electrical design). The machines sub transient reactance and time constants
are used by this method. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and
provides the same options.

DesignBase AC IEC 363 Short Circuit program tools are shown below:

Options

Report Manager

Back Annotation

Analyze

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Options:

The Options features are similar to ANSI Method.

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Report Manager:

As can be seen from the window dialog above, the Short Circuit Report can be:

Fast
User Defined
Curve with Time

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Fast Report:

If Fast Report is launched, the following dialog window is displayed:

Select the items to be displayed in the Report.

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User Defined Fault Report displays:

Time Bands:

0 cycle
- cycle
1 cycle
3 cycle
5 - cycle
8 cycle
30 cycle

User defined output options:

Td DC Time constant, in seconds


Iac Short circuit AC symmetrical component, rms value
Idc Short circuit DC component
Ienv- Short circuit envelope

Input Report & Abbreviations:

Input Data and Abbreviation.

Report Style, Units & Log:

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Print Layout, Unit, View Log File.

The AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit program Abbreviations are displayed below:

The work is identical with that presented for AC ANSI standards.

In order to display the Report of Short Circuit Results varying with time, the following steps
need to follow:

Step1: select the bus: bus 18.


Step2: launch the short Circuit program, by clicking the program icon.

Step3: click the Report Manager icon : Select Curve with Time and then click OK button.
The following window is displayed:

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Step4: click icon. The following graphs are displayed:

The displayed graph components are user defined. However, the user can select the Short
Circuit Current components to be displayed such as:

Idc dc component of SC Current


iac instantaneous ac component
Ienv Upper Envelope of Sc current
I Instantaneous total short circuit current
Im magnitude of ac component

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Idc dc component of the Short Circuit Current:

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iac instantaneous ac component of the Short Circuit Current:

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Ienv Upper Envelope of the Short Circuit Current:

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i Instantaneous - Total Short Circuit Current:

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Im magnitude of the ac component of the Short Circuit Current:

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F. AC Single Phase Short Circuit Method

The AC Single Phase Method is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio
is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC
ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.

7. Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program

A. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Cycle

In the Short Circuit Option feature select the output results: Annotation or Report;

From the Report Manager, the user can select:

Fast or
User Defined Report:

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In the SC Report Manager select Fast option, then the user can select the Fault Types as
shown below: 3-P, L-G, L-L, LL-G. Time Bands cycle.

Click OK and then launch the program by clicking the Analyze icon.

The rms short circuit currents values at 1/2 Cycle are calculated at a selected bus/buses or at all
buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing).

The positive, negative, and zero sequence sub-transient reactance X are used in modeling both
the generators and motors. Motors are normally not grounded and therefore the grounding option
should be none.

Notes:
In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence
impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance
Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are
taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero
sequence networks

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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit

Project No. : Page : 2


Project Name: Date :
Title : Time :.
Drawing No. : Company :
Revision No.: Engineer:
Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by:
Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

-------------------------------------------------------------
Bus Results: 0.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults
-------------------------------------------------------------

Thevenin Imped. ANSI


Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- ------
Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R
------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------
MAINBUS 0.48 31.82 27.55 34.47 33.53 3.7805 2.9070 5.6944
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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B. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 Cycle

In the SC Report Manager select 5 cycle and the type of faults: 3-P, L-G, L-L, LL-G. Select 5

cycle, then Click OK. Launch the short circuit program by clicking Analyze icon .

The rms short circuit currents values at 5 Cycle are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All
Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing).

Follow the steps presented above at 3P, LL, LG, LLG fault at Cycle.

Notes:
The positive, negative, and zero sequence sub-transient reactance is used for
modeling both the Generators and motors
In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence
impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance
Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are
taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero
sequence networks

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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit

Project No. : Page : 2


Project Name: Date :
Title : Time :
Drawing No. : Company :
Revision No.: Engineer:
Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by:
Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

-------------------------------------------------------------
Bus Results: 5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults
-------------------------------------------------------------

Thevenin Imped. ANSI


Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- ------
Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R
------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------
MAINBUS 0.48 30.03 26.01 33.05 31.99 4.0055 2.9070 5.6944
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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C. 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Steady state

In the Report Manager select Steady and the type of faults: 3-P, L-g, L-L, LL-G. Click OK

button. Launch the program by clicking Analyze icon .

The rms short circuit currents values at Steady State/ 30 Cycle are calculated at a selected
Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly
onto the drawing).

Notes:
It is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its
positive sequence impedance in all the unbalanced fault calculation
Generators are modeled by their positive, negative, and zero sequence reactance
Short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored
Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are
taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero
sequence networks

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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit

Project No. : Page : 2


Project Name: Date :
Title : Time :
Drawing No. : Company :.
Revision No.: Engineer:
Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by:
Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

-------------------------------------------------------------
Bus Results: 30 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults
-------------------------------------------------------------

Thevenin Imped. ANSI


Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- ------
Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R
------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------
MAINBUS 0.48 28.78 24.93 32.03 30.93 4.1790 2.9070 5.6944
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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D. 3 Phase Fault, Steady State

In the Report Manager select fault type 3-P and Time Bands Steady.Click OK and then

launch the program by clicking Analyze icon .

The rms short circuit currents values after 30 cycles are calculated (as per ANSI/IEEE Standards
or IEC 60909 Standard as per user selected fault calculation) at a selected bus/buses or at all
buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly on the drawing).
The short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored, and the generators are modeled
by their positive sequence transient reactance X.

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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit

Project No. : Page : 2


Project Name: Date :
Title : Time :04:23:01 am
Drawing No. : Company :
Revision No.: Engineer:
Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by:
Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

-------------------------------------------
Bus Results: 30 Cycle -- 3 Phase Faults
-------------------------------------------

Pre-Flt Isym X/R Thevenin


Bus Name kV KA Ratio Z+(pu)
------------------------ ------- --------- --------- ---------
MAINBUS 0.48 28.78 5.6944 4.1790
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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E. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool Based on ANSI/IEEE Standard

Paladin DesignBase PDE is a fast and accurate tool, which evaluates the protective switching
devices such as: LV, MV and HV CBs, fuses, and switches based on ANSI/IEEE Standard or IEC
Standard as per user selection.

In the Report manager, select PDE:

The salient features added to the PDE program are:


The equipment operating voltage is selected by the user, and it can be:
o Load Flow calculated Voltage
o Actual Voltage
o System voltage

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The PDE program includes the CB impedance and CBs X/R ratio
The output results are organized as per:
o Equipment Input Rated Data
o PDE Calculated Data
o Circuit Duty calculated data

The PDE output results are either graphically displayed onto the one line diagram (in green if the
switching equipment passes or in red if they fail), or as a Text Report, based on the user selection.

The fault study is per the Standard selected by the user: IEEE/ANSI C37 Standard or IEC 60909.
The program calculates momentary symmetrical and asymmetrical rms, momentary asymmetrical
crest, interrupting symmetrical rms, and interrupting adjusted symmetrical rms short circuit currents
at faulted buses.

The circuit duties are checked against equipment interrupting capabilities, and if:

I Circuit _ Duty I Equip. _ Intrr

the equipment passes; otherwise it fails.

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Consider the file ANSI-YY located in the sample folder:

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PDE Graphical Display Results:

In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option, select All buses and then click OK button as shown
below:

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The Protective Device Evaluation List is displayed, as presented below:

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Notes:

Data error is displayed if:

The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage
The equipment voltage in the editor is zero

Double click on A10 equipment:

The equipment rated voltage is 1500 V


The system bus voltage is 13800 V

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To fix this issue, in the Protective Device evaluation Table double click onto A1:

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Partial Summary Report ANSI:

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Detailed Report ANSI:

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F. Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Based on IEC Standard

HV CB IEC Input Data:

HV Fuse IEC Input Data:

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LV Fuse IEC Input Data:

LV CB IEC Input Data:

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Consider the file IEC -YY file located in the sample folder:

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In the Report Manager, select PDE:

Note:
The Total Bus Fault Current is the most conservative. This option has been considered in
the IEC PDE program.

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PDE Graphical Display Results:

In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option, select All buses and then click OK button as shown
below:

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The Protective Device Evaluation List is displayed, as presented below:

Notes:

Data error is displayed if:

The equipment voltage is not equal or higher than the system voltage
The equipment voltage in the editor is zero

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Double click on A10F equipment:

The equipment rated voltage is 15000 V


The system bus voltage is 13800 V
No fuse breaking Irb

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The error has been fixed:

Click on Summary Report to display the IEC Report:

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Partial Summary Report IEC 60909:

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Detailed Report IEC 60909:

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G. Report Manager ANSI/IEEE

Click on this button to launch the Report Manager.


The Report Manager provides:
Output Reports: Fast, User Defined, PDE, Misc.
Output Destination: output to CSV or output to Text File

Fast Report:

The user can select the Fault Type, Time Bands, Input Data, Abbreviation, Report Style, Unit
& Log. If the fault is at one bus, the user can also select the Branch Contribution option.

Fast Report and Unit Settings

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Print Layout

Fast Report, Text Output Report, ANSI/IEEE:

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Fast Report, Text Output Report:

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Fast Report, Fast Summary, Text Output Report, ANSI/IEEE:

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Fast Report, Fast Summary, Text Output Report:

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User Defined Reports:

It is similar to Fast Report, but the user can also select the Phase Bus/Branch Components: X/R,
AC, DC, Asym, Angle.

If User Defined Reports is selected then the above report screen is displayed. The user can select
the Fault Type, Time Bands, User Defined Options, Phase Bus/Branch Components, Print Layout,
Units, Output to CSV or Text File.

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In order to get the Tabulated Output Reports on short circuit current calculation, proceed as follows:

Select Output to CSV or Text File


Click on Browse icon and assign the path and the file title
Click OK icon
Click Analyze icon

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Short Circuit Detailed Report:

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Professional Report Writer Wizard:

Option 1:

Select AC ANSI/IEEE Method:


In the Report Manager select ANSI Bus Summary.
Click Professional Report Writer Wizard.

The program displays the Report shown below:

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Option 2:

Select AC Classical Method:


In the Report Manager select Professional Report Writer Wizard.
Click OK.

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The program displays the Report shown below:

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H. Short Circuit Back Annotation

Click on this button to launch the Short Circuit Back Annotation tool. The Short Circuit Back
Annotation tool opens. The Short Circuit Back Annotation Dialog Window as presented below:

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Select this option to display the


bus Pre-Fault Voltage
Select the color and font size

Select this option to display the


Fault Branch Current

Select this option to display


the Bus Symm.-Fault Voltage/
Residual Voltage
Select the unit
Fault Current to be displayed

Select the displaying form

Select this option to display the


current flow arrows

Select the Fault Type, Displayed Results: Bus Current, Bus Prefault Voltage, Bus Post-fault Voltage,
Branch Current, Phase or Sequence Components, Fault Components, Units, display or not the Fault
Current Flow Arrows.

The back annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the
study network drawing. Back Annotation is an Executive Short Circuit Report inserted onto the
drawing, with the inserted components as per user selection.

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Select the back annotation ON or OFF, Auto-refresh, Font, Font Style, size and font color.

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I. Managing Schedule in Short Circuit

Schedule is a Paladin DesignBase feature that allows the user to combine several motors and loads
in the same symbols. It is a very good practice to save nodes in modeling and in the meantime to
represent all the nodes of a plant in the plant model.

One considers the following network:

a) Model with each motor individually represented


b) Same motors are represented inside the MCC schedule

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The motors representation inside the schedule:

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Motors inside the schedule

Motor Feeder representation inside the schedule

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Motor Status inside the schedule

Motor Loading / Usage inside the schedule

Inside the Schedule each motor is in detail represented together with the motor feeder as can be
seen in the capture Figures above.

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Short Circuit Calculation:

The short circuit procedure was described so far. However, the short circuit results can be displayed
either onto the drawing or as a Text Output Results:

Step 1:

Select MCC bus:

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Step 2:

Select the Short Circuit Basic Option:

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Step 3:

In the Report Manager select the Fast, Fault Type and Time Bands as shown below:

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Step 4:

Click Analyze icon. The Short Circuit Results are displayed onto the drawing:

Short Circuit at MCC bus and branch contribution

MCC fault current 10767.8 A and branch contribution via the Main_CB2 7975.5 A

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In order to provide the each motor contribution while the motors are represented inside the
Schedule, proceed as follows:

Step 1:

Select Report Manager. Select Misc, MCC/Schedule.

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Step 2:

Click Analyze icon:

The results are displayed either on the drawing or in the Text Output Report as per user selection.

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The fault results displayed as a Text output Report follows:

--------------------
Calculation Options
--------------------

Calculating Single Bus Fault with Fault Z = 0.00000 + j 0.00000 Ohms

Fault Phases:
Phase A for Line-Ground Fault
Phase B,C for Line-Line or Line-Line-Ground Fault

ANSI/IEEE Calculation:
Using ANSI Std. C37.010-1979 or above.
Separate R and X for X/R, Complex Z for Fault Current
The Multiplying Factors to calculate Asym and Peak are Based on Actual X/R
Peak Time Applies ATPC Equation

Transformer Phase Shift is not considered.


Generator and Motor X/R is constant.
Base Voltages : Use System Voltages
Prefault Voltages : Use System Voltages

Jobfile Name: SC_MCC_SCHEDULE


Page : 2

---------------------------------------------------
Bus Schedule Results: 0.5 Cycle -- 3 Phase Faults
---------------------------------------------------

MCC/Schedule Bus Name : MCC Prefault Voltage: 480.0 V

Motor Bus fault Motor Data Cable Data


Rating --------------------- ----------- ------------------
------------ X/R Sym Asym X/R X Length R X
Item Cd Device Name Status KVA HP Ratio kA kA Ratio (%) (Feet) Ohms/K Ohms/K
---- -- ---------------- ----- ------ ------ ----- ------- ------- ----- ----- ------ ------ ------
1 MI 1 200.00 218.60 5.28 9682 12278 9.00 17.00 100 0.0433 0.0338
2 MI 2 200.00 218.60 5.28 9682 12278 9.00 17.00 100 0.0433 0.0338
3 MI 3 100.00 104.59 6.60 10095 13438 9.00 20.00 50 0.0433 0.0338

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Results Validation:

Two networks are considered:


a) A model with each motor individually represented;
b) A model with the same motors which are represented inside the MCC schedule

Motor Representation:
a) Individual Representation; b) Schedule Representation

Perform short circuit calculation at bus Motor Bus:


Select this bus and launch Short Circuit program. Follow the steps listed below:

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Step 1:

Select the faulted bus: Motor Bus and perform the fault at this bus:

Fault Results:

Individual Motor Representation:

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Comparative Fault Results:

The fault results match in the both motor representation.

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J. Managing Utility / PCC Short Circuit contribution

This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program. It allows computing the Short Circuit
Current under maximum and minimum fault contribution from the Utility / PCC. Both the Utility fault
contribution and/R ration are considered as an input data of the Utility.

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K. Managing MOTOR CONTRIBUTION

This is a new feature included to the Short Circuit Program. The motors fed from VFD are not
considered towards motor contribution. The user will need to activate this field for all the motors
which are fed from VFD.

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L. Managing UPS bypass FUNCTION DURING A FAULT DOWNSTREAM UPS


SOURCE

While using the UPS units, normally the engineer considers 2 (two) scenarios:

Scenario during Power Flow, when the FTS is OPEN


Scenario during a Short Circuit downstream UPS source when the FTS is CLOSED

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To avoid Scenarios, the user needs just to put the UPS source in Bypass and associate the Bypass
Protective Device as seen in the figure capture below:

As such during a Short Circuit downstream the UPS source the UPS unit is considered OFF
and the fault contribution comes from the Utility and bypasses the UPS units.

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M. Three-phase Faults IEC 61363 Method

From the Short Circuit Analysis program pick-up list, select AC IEC 61363 to perform a three-phase
fault study per IEC61363 Standard.

This option calculates the instantaneous values of the AC, DC and total short circuit current and TDC
time constant as well for short circuit at all system buses. The results are tabulated as a function of
T/2.

Generators are modeled by their positive sequence sub transient reactance, and motors are modeled
by their locked-rotor impedance. Theirs subtransient and transient time constants and dc time
constants are also considered in the calculations.

The user can display the results using the standard report format, annotate results on the one line
diagram, and plot the short circuit results varying with time.

In order to display the short circuit results varying with time, only one bus can be faulted at a time.

Graphical Display

Select AC IEC 61363 Analysis Method:

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From the SC report Manager select Curve with Time option and then click OK button:

Click on Analyze icon:

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When the graph is displayed the user can select to view all items, or the values the user selects.

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Report Format Display

Partial results are tabulated below:

IEC 363 Short Circuit

Project No.: Page : 2


Project Name: Date ..:
Title : Time:.
Drawing No.: Company :
Revision No.: Engineer :
JobFile Name: T123PDE Check by :
Scenario : 1:mode1 CheckDate:
Base kVA : 100000 Cyc/Sec : 60
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

---------------------------------
Bus Detailed Short Circuit Report
---------------------------------

SC Current( kA ), Time Constant(ms) at the following Times


Pre-Flt Tdc 0T 0T Tdc T/2 T/2 Tdc 2T 2T
Bus Name kV Idc Iac @T/2 Idc Iac @ 2 T Idc Iac
------------------------ ------- ----- ------- ------- ----- ------- ------- ----- ------- -------
04 0.48 0.91 8.69 6.14 0.92 0.00 6.14 0.94 0.00 6.14
07 0.21 1.67 2.32 1.64 1.67 0.02 1.64 1.69 0.00 1.64
10 0.21 1.28 12.09 8.55 1.29 0.02 8.55 1.31 0.00 8.55
12 0.48 21.0 29.66 20.97 6.10 7.57 20.18 6.56 0.18 19.06
12BB 0.48 25.7 26.05 18.42 5.82 6.23 17.78 6.16 0.12 16.80
15 0.21 2.13 2.89 2.04 2.13 0.06 2.04 2.15 0.00 2.04
16 0.48 25.4 25.32 17.91 5.68 5.84 17.32 5.99 0.10 16.41
17 0.48 11.5 23.42 16.56 4.48 3.64 15.88 6.23 0.11 14.90
18 0.48 16.0 26.34 18.62 5.17 5.25 17.90 5.49 0.06 16.86
19 0.48 2.62 14.39 10.17 3.05 0.94 9.54 6.77 0.10 8.74
2 0.48 1.33 7.00 4.95 1.33 0.01 4.95 1.35 0.00 4.95
20 0.48 20.7 24.62 17.41 5.29 5.10 16.77 5.58 0.06 15.80
21 0.48 9.02 34.08 24.10 4.75 5.90 23.41 4.85 0.04 22.42
GEN 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
MAINBUS 0.48 12.7 45.14 31.92 14.1 24.76 30.65 14.5 4.51 29.30
UTILITY1 4.80 32.3 8.23 5.82 13.6 4.46 5.78 13.8 0.74 5.72
UTILITY2 4.80 33.1 8.21 5.81 13.7 4.46 5.78 13.9 0.74 5.72

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N. Short Circuit Analysis Input Data

7.1 Power Grid Input Data

Power Grid /PCC


Required data for short circuit calculations

The user has the options to input the Power Utility Maximum and Minimum Contribution and the
associated X/R ratio.

However, during Fault analysis the user can select either Apply SCKVA max or Apply SCKVA
min.

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7.2 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data

Synchronous Generator required data for short circuit calculations

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7.3 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data

Whenever there is a schedule, you will see the composition rating on this screen. The HP is the
average value of the motor in schedules.

It the motor is fed from VFD, then click the Motor is fed from VFD field. During the short circuit
analysis this motor will not contribute towards short circuit.

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7.4 Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data

Synchronous Motor required data for short circuit calculations

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7.5 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data

High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations

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7.6 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data

Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations

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7.7 Low Voltage IEC Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data

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7.8 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data

Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse required data for short circuit calculations

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7.9 Medium / Low Voltage IEC Fuse Short Circuit Input Data

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8 Network Reduction/Equivalent

8.1 Introduction

In an interconnected power system, often power system engineers are required to exchange their system
models to their neighboring utilities or vice versa in order to study the entire system. However, when, for
example, utility A wishes to study their system, it is not necessary to model the entire system if exact
equivalent representation of the neighboring systems can obtained and utilized rather than resorting to a
detailed model of the outside world. For the convenience of the users, a network equivalent module is
developed within the DesignBase short circuit program whereby exact system equivalent is computed. The
equivalent computed is primarily used in the fault analysis. A power flow reduction is also under development
that should become available in the near future.

This document illustrates step-by-step instructions on how to compute power system equivalents at given
buses. Also, V&V is performed for the equivalents system by showing the details of the system with
equivalent model and system intact (complete representation).

8.2 Sample System Data

The single line diagram of the system to be used for equivalent computation is shown below:

Single Line Diagram of Sample System for Equivalent Computation

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8.3 How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations

To perform the equivalent calculation for a power system, first we should decide which part of the system
should be equivalenced. In the example system shown above, lets assume that we would like to replace the
right part of the system by equivalent at buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69 as shown below (the area
inside of the red-dotted-line will be equivalenced at these buses):

Part of the System to be Equivalence (the area inside of red dotted line)

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8.4 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System

Since the right part of the above network is required to be replaced by equivalent system, feeders ZZZ69-
>JJJ69, ZZZ69->AAA69, HHH138->GGG138, and BBB138->AAA138 in the original system SHOULD be
placed out of service in order for the program to compute equivalent system seen from buses BBB138,
ZZZ69, and GGG138 without the right side of the network. After outaging the above feeders we proceed as
follows.
Select the Options icon of the short circuit program as shown below.

Selecting Options of the Short Circuit Program

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8.5 Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent

To specify where the equivalent should be computed, the Options of the short circuit program should be
used as shown above. Now the buses for the equivalent can be specified in the dialog shown below. It can
be seen that we have selected buses GGG139, BBB138, and ZZZ69.

Selecting Buses where the Equivalent System to be Computed

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8.6 Reporting of the Equivalent System

To obtain a report of the equivalent system at the selected buses, the Report Manager of the short circuit
program should be selected as shown below.

Selecting Report Manager of the Short Circuit Program

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To select the equivalent system report, choose the Misc option as shown below:

Selecting Output Report (including report of network equivalent)

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Then, select the Equivalent Sys. as shown below. Now all the information regarding the equivalent
computations is complete.

Selecting Network Equivalent Report Option

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8.7 Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result

At this point, buses where the equivalent to be placed and report options are specified, we can proceed to the
equivalent computations by selecting the Analyze option.

Performing Short Circuit Analysis (fault current, equivalent, etc.)

Once the computations are completed, the report of the equivalent system is displayed. The following report
contains a set of Equivalent Generators that should be placed at the equivalent buses (see column marked
as Type in the below report toward bottom of the figure). Also, there are equivalent branches
(feeder/transformer) that should be connecting the equivalent buses. Again, the column marked as Type
shows some the links between the equivalent buses are feeder/line and some transformers (TRSF). In this
example connection between BBB138 and ZZZ69 is a transformer.

Important Note: Since the equivalent links (feeders/transformers, generators) are just equivalent element
representing a complex part of the system the following situation is common to occur:

1) The impedances may have negative resistances and/or reactances


2) Since positive and negative sequence values of the links (feeders/transformers) may not be equal. In
this case, just assume that the negative sequence is the same as positive
3) If the value of impedance of a link between two buses are extremely high (i.e. no coupling between
buses), then, it is safe to ignore the link

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Sample Network Equivalent Report

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8.8 Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent

As described above, the equivalent system contains equivalent elements (generators, feeders and
transformers). In order to reconstruct the original system using the equivalent, we need to join the part of the
system which was not equivalenced (in our example, the right side of the network) to the equivalent part.
Shown below is the reconstructed system. Based on the report shown above, the data for each of the
equivalent elements, in this example, are entered in the reconstructed network.

Reconstructing System Using the Equivalent Part

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Entering Equivalent Generator At bus BBB138

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Entering Equivalent Generator At bus GGG138

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Entering Equivalent Generator At bus ZZZ69

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Entering Equivalent Feeder between Buses BBB138 and GGG138

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Entering Equivalent Transformer between Buses GGG138 and ZZZ69

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Entering Equivalent Transformer Between Buses BBB138 and ZZZ69

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8.9 Validation and Verification of the Equivalent

To verify and validate the function of the network equivalent option, the following is performed:

1) In the original system (without reduction) compute the three-phase and single line to ground fault at
buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69
2) In the reconstructed system (remaining system joined with the equivalent system shown in Figure
7.10 compute the three-phase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138-EQUI, GGG138-
EQUI, and ZZZ69-EQUI
3) The result obtained in step 1 should agree well with the result obtained in step 2 above

The result for the reconstructed network using the equivalent system is shown on page 185.
Comparison of these results show that the equivalent system is computed accurately and can be used
reliably in the short circuit studies.

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Fault Current for Buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69


in the Original Network (Intact System)

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Fault Currents for Buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69


in the Reconstructed System (equivalent)

Comparative Short Circuit Results and errors in %:

Pre_Flt 3 P Flt, in A L- G Flt, in A


Bus
Voltage,
Name Original Equivalent Error, Original Equivalent Error,
in V
Net. Net in % Net Net in %
BBB138 138000 1272 1273 0.08 1726 1728 0.12
GGG138 138000 1464 1465 0.07 1957 1959 0.10
ZZZ69 69000 2644 2645 0.04 3240 3242 0.06

The above results demonstrate the accuracy of the system equivalent.


The errors are less than 0.3%.

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9 TUTORIAL: Conducting a Three-phase Short Circuit Study

Go to DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC and open the file T123.axd:

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9.1 The Calculation Tools

To activate the Short Circuit program, click on the Short Circuit Icon .

The Menu displays the following short circuit calculation methods:

AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X, as per ANSI/IEEE Standard)


AC Classical, (Z complex method)
AC IEC 60909
AC IEC 61363
AC 1 Phase
DC Classical
DC IEC 61660

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DesignBase Short Circuit Program:


Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Program Tools

DesignBase Short Circuit Program has the following calculation capabilities:

Fault at one or more buses in the same run;


Fault at all system buses. In this case, the buses are faulted individually, not
simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a three-
phase, line-to-ground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each bus which is
faulted for short circuit studies.

A bus can be selected in two ways:

Directly from the drawing - click on the desired bus


By selecting the bus in the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option

9.2 Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation)

9.2.1 AC-ANSI/IEEE Method

Select the Short Circuit Method: AC ANSI/IEEE.

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In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option dialog window select Default Output: Annotation.

Other selection is listed below:

Select Base Voltage: System Voltage


Select Prefault Voltage: System Voltage
Contribution Level from fault location: 3
Default Output: Annotation; Report
Bus Type to select: All Buses
Fault location: Selected Buses

Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option


Calculation Tab

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9.3 Short Circuit Annotation Tool

The Annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the
drawing.

Select the Short Circuit result components to be inserted into the drawing.

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9.3.1 3-Phase Fault, 30 Cycles at Bus 18

1. Select the bus MAINBUS by clicking onto the busMAINBUS;

In the Report Manager select Fault Type: 3-P, and in the Time Bands select Steady.
Click OK button and then Click Analyze icon:

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The bus Fault Current is displayed onto the drawing (Sym and Asym. Components):

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9.3.2 3-Phase Fault Current, Cycle Fault at Bus MAINBUS:

1. Select the bus MAINBUS by clicking onto the bus;


2. In the Report Manager select Fault Type: 3-P, and in the Time Bands select 1/2
Cycle.
Click OK button and then Click Analyze icon:

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The Fault Currents are displayed onto the drawing.

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9.3.3 3-Phase Fault Current, 5 Cycle Fault at Bus MAINBUS:

1. Select the bus MAINBBUS by clicking onto the bus;


2. In the Report Manager select Fault Type: 3-P, and in the Time Bands select 5 Cycle.
Click OK button and then Click Analyze icon:

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Back Annotation

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The Fault Current map is displayed onto the drawing.

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9.3.4 Change the Fault Type displayed onto the drawing.

1-Phase fault, Cycle, Phase A, Fault at Bus ,AINBUS:

1. Select the bus MAINBUS by clicking onto the bus:

2. In the Report Manager select Fast, Fault Type L-G, Time Bands Cycle and
enable /click Branch Annotation field.

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2. In EDSA Annotation select Line-Ground, Phase A, Symmetrical (RMS) and


Asymmetrical (RMS):

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Change the Fault Type displayed onto the drawing.


Line-Line, B Phase, Fault at Bus MAINBUS:

1. In the SC Report Manager/ Fast select L-L fault type, Time Bands cycle:

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2. In EDSA Annotation, select phase B:

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The fault current displayed on the drawing:

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Change the Fault Current Component displayed onto the drawing:


3-Phase Fault, A Phase, Asymmetrical Current, Fault at Bus MAINBUS:

In the back annotation, select the fault type and phase to be displayed onto the drawing: 3-
Phase, A Phase. Select Fault Component: Asymmetrical:

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9.4 Professional Report


9.4.1 All types of Faults at bus MAINBUS, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical:

Click on bus MAINBUS in the Paladin DesignBase drawing

Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage, as
presented in the figure capture below:

In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation, select Fast, Cycle Time Bands,
enable Refresh Professional Report filed and then click Professional Report Writer Wizard.

Note: Professional Report Writer provides All Type of Faults: 3P, L-G, L-L, LL-G always.

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Professional Report is displayed:

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Professional Report ANSI Bus Summary:

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9.4.2 All types of Faults at All buses, 0.5 Cycle Symmetrical:

Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage;
select All Buses as presented in the figure capture below

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In the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation, select Fast, Cycle Time Bands,
enable Refresh Professional Report filed and then click Professional Report Writer Wizard.
Click Professional Report Writer Wizard button:

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Professional Report is displayed:

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9.4.3 All types of Faults at All buses, 5 Cycle Symmetrical:

Follow the steps presented above, but in the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE
Calculation select 5 cycles. Click Professional Report Writer Wizard button:

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Professional Report is displayed:

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9.4.4 All types of Faults at All buses, 30 Cycle Symmetrical:

Launch the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option and select Base Voltage and Prefault Voltage;
select All Buses as presented in the figure capture below:

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In the in the Short Report Manager for ANSI/IEEE Calculation select Steady. Click
Professional Report Writer Wizard button:

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Professional Report is displayed:

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