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# TITLE PAGE

LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Global Dynamics of a
Predator-prey System with Holling
Type II Functional Response

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Predator-prey System
The predator-prey problem refers to an ecological system in
which we have two species, one of which feeds on the other.

## This type of system has been studied for decades and is

known to exhibit interesting dynamics.

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Equilibrium points
The equilibrium points of the autonomous first-order
system in n variables (often described simply as an nth
order system)

x = X(x)
. (1)

X(x) = 0.

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

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LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Jacobian Matrix
Let J be the nxn Jacobian matrix of

## evaluated at the equilibrium point xc , where the matrix

with elements Jij is given by

J = [Jij ] = [ Xi (x)
]
Xj x=xc

= J

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Lotka-Volterra Model
This model, which takes into account only intrinsic
phenomena (voracity and fertility), has the form

x = x[a y]
y = y[c + x]

## Here, x is the number of preys,

y is the number of predators, and the
a is the rate of birth of preys,
c is the rate of death of predators,
is a measure of susceptibility of preys to predation, and
is the predatory ability.

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Continuation...

## The system (1) has a unique non-zero equilibrium position,

which is a stable centre. At the same time, the solutions
of (1) are not structurally stable with respect to
disturbance of initial conditions.

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Continuation...

## The system (1) has a unique non-zero equilibrium position,

which is a stable centre. At the same time, the solutions
of (1) are not structurally stable with respect to
disturbance of initial conditions.

## Note that in the absence of the predators (when y = 0), the

prey population would grow exponentially. If the preys are
absent (when x = 0), the predator population would decay
exponentially to zero due to starvation.

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

Continuation...
This system has two critical points. One is the origin, and
the other is in the first quadrant.

0 = x = x[a y] x = 0 or a y = 0
0 = y = y[c + x] y = 0 or c + x = 0
Therefore, the critical points are (0, 0) and ( c , a ).
The Jacobian matrix is
 
a y x
M=
y c + x

## At (0,0), the linearized system has coefficient matrix

 
a 0
A=
0 c
R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...
TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

## The eigenvalues are a and c. Hence, it is an unstable saddle

point.
At ( c , a ) , the linearized system has coefficient matrix

c
 
0
A=

0

The eigenvalues are aci . It is a stable center.

## R.M. Maranga Global Dynamics of a Predator-prey System...

TITLE PAGE
LOTKA-VOLTERA MODEL

## Bazykin proposed the following predator-prey system:

bv(t)
u(t) = u(t)[a u(t) 1+u(t)
]
du(t)
v(t) = v(t)[c + 1+u(t)
v(t)]

## where u(t); v(t) represent the densities of prey and predator

population, respectively.
System (2) is called Holling type II predator-prey model in
the literature. This system is an extension of the familiar
LotkaVolterra system, in which the divisor 1 + u(t) is
missing, i.e., = 0. is interpreted as a constant handling
time for each prey captured.