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DASAR-DASAR REKOMENDASI PUPUK

Kesuburan tanah harus dapat dikelola secara lebih efisien dan


ramah lingkungan kalau Indonesia masih ingin mengatasi
permasalahan produksi pangan. Strategi Pupuk anorganik
(buatan pabrik) dan perbaikan pengelolaan hara tanah menjadi
sangat penting untuk produksi pangan tersebut, terutama dalam
kaitannya dengan pupuk sebagai sumber hara tanaman dan
responsivitas kultivar tanaman, misalnya padi dan jagung.

Ekonomi Pupuk dan Pemupukan

Pemupukan adalah tindakan memberikan tambahan unsur-unsur


hara pada komplek tanah, baik langsung maupun tak langsung dapat
menyumbangkan bahan makanan pada tanaman. Tujuannya untuk
memperbaiki tingkat kesuburan tanah agar tanaman mendapatkan
nutrisi yang cukup untuk meningkatkan kualitas dan kuantitas
pertumbuhan tanaman. Tanaman memerlukan pemupukan, jika : (1)
Tanah miskin hara; (2) Pertumbuhan tanaman terhambat walaupun
sudah dilakukan penyiangan dan ditemukan gejala kekurangan unsur
hara; (3) Pertumbuhan tanaman perlu dipercepat untuk mengurangi
resiko akibat persaingan dengan gulma; dan (4) Ingin meningkatkan
tambahan hasil per satuan luas pada akhir daur.
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EKONOMI Petani melakukan usahataninya bertujuan


PUPUK mendapatkan keuntungan yang sebesar-
besarnya per satuan luas lahan yang
digarapnya .. Profit maximizing

The farmer realize that :


he must spend money to make money
This is certainly true of expenditures for:
lime, fertilizer, and manure

Use of fertilizers is an index of the use of modern


agricultural methods
Faktor lain yg berpengaruh:
1. Water control
2. Seedbed
3. Cultivar
4. Date and rate of seeding
5. Stand of population
6. Fertilizer placement
7. Cultivation
8. Weed, insect and disease
9. Harvesting practices
3
4

EKONOMI PEMUPUKAN.

Hasil tanaman yang lebih tinggi akan menyediakan


peluang yang lebih besar untuk mencapai maximum net-
profit per luasan lahan dan memperkecil biaya produksi
per satuan hasil.
Kesuburan tanah yang baik menjadi faktor utama untuk
mendapatkan hasil yang tinggi.

Biaya tetap dalam usahatani adalah biaya yang


dikeluarkan oleh petani, tidak tergantung pada besarnya
hasil tanaman. Dengan demikian praktek usahatani yang
meningkatkan hasil tanaman biasanya akan memperendah
biaya produksi per satuan hasil
.

Kurva respon hasil tanaman terhadap pemupukan


biasanya mengikuti The Law of Diminishing Return
(Kurva Asimtotis).
Pendapatan per biaya produksi akan semakin menurun,
hal ini menjadi pertimbangan utama bagi petani yang
modal kerjanya terbatas.

Petani yang progresif biasanya menyadari bahwa profit per


hektar lahan lebih penting daripada penghasilan per satuan biaya
produksi
Maximum profit dari pemupukan akan tercapai kalau tambahan
hasil tanaman sama dengan tambahan biaya pemupukan (dY/dX
= dC/dX)
5
6
7

EKONOMI PEMUPUKAN.

Dosis pupuk yang apling menguntungkan dipengatruhi


oleh:
1. Peningkatan hasil akibat tambahan pupuk
2. Level of farm management
3. Harga pupuk
4. Harga hasil tanaman
5. Tambahan biaya panen
6. Biaya pemasaran
7. Residual effects
8. Soil fertility level.

Level of farm management: derajat sampai dimana semua


faktor produksi tanaman dapat berhasil dikendalikan.
Pada dosis pupuk yang tinggi, diperlukan kemampuan
manajerial yg lebih tinggi

Harga per satuan hara tanaman, beragam dengan bahan


pupuk.
Pupuk yang kandungan haramya lebih tinggi dianggap
lebih murah biaya aplikasinya

Prioritas penggunaan modal kerja sangat penting bagi petani.


Umumnya lebih menguntungkan untuk melakukan pemupukan
sesuai dengan ahsil uji tanah.
8
9

Filosofi Rekomendasi Pupuk

Nilai ujitanah hanya merupakan ukuran bagi tingkat ketersediaan


unsur hara dalam tanah. mereka tidak secara langsung menyatakan
berapa banyak pupuk yang harus digunakan. Ini tergantung pada
jenis tanaman, tigkat hasil yang diinginkan dan manfaat ekonomisnya.
Dalam kondisi harga pupuk murah dibandingkan dengan harga
tanaman, dan kalau biaya pemupukan hanya merupakan sebagian
kecil dari biaya produksi, maaka ada beberapa rekomendasi pupuk
yang dapat dibuat, semuanya berdasarkan atas hasil uji tanah yang
sama. Kemungkinan-kemungkinan ini adalah:

(1). Menggunakan sedikit pupuk untuk mendapatkan hasil moneter


setinggi mungkin dari uang yang dibelanjakan untuk pupuk. Hal ini
sangat sesuai bagi petani miskin (area B dan D dalam gambar ).
(2). Menggunakan dosis pupuk yang lebih tinggi yang diharapkan akan
menghasilkan manfaat setinggi-mungkin dari setiap hektar lahan.
Ini merupakan dosis optimum (area A dan C gambar ).
(3). Menggunakan dosis pupuk yang lebih tinggi lagi untuk
meningkatkan kandungan hara tanah yang dapat dimanfaatkan
bagi tanaman berikutnya.
(4). Menggunakan pupuk untuk tanaman tertentu saja dalam sistem
rotasi.

Efisiensi Pupuk

Ada 12 hal yang harus diperhatikan untuk dapat melakukan


pemupukan secara efisien (News and Views, PPI PPIC, Januari
2006):

1. Mengukur jumlah hara yang tersedia dalam tanah (Uji


Tanah).
Soils can contain rich reserves of nutrients. Test once every 2
to 3 years for stable nutrients like phosphorus (P) and
potassium (K). For mobile nutrients like nitrogen (N),test for
each crop, but at just the right time. For corn in the
Northeast, the soil nitrate test is effective only if the sample is
taken pre-sidedress, when the corn is 6 to 12 in. tall. Be
10

sure you understand whether your soil test lab is including


any N credits from previous legume crops.
2. Serapan hara dan Panen tanaman.
Do you know how much P and K the last crop took out of the
soil? You can estimate it if you know yield levels. Unless soils
contain so much that you dont worry about depleting
fertility, what was removed should likely be replaced.
3. Menetapkan sasaran hasil yang realistic
Being sure that nutrients are applied to meet the target crop
yield is critical to optimizing fertilizer efficiency. However,
over- or under-application is going to result in reduced
nutrient use efficiency or lost yield or crop quality. Be sure
yield goals reflect past production history, appropriate for
each field.
4. Menggunakan semua sumber hara yang tersedia.
Making sure that manures are applied in a manner to
minimize nutrient losses can be challenging. Storage should
protect against those losses. Manure application shouldnt
get in the way of timely planting. Manures and other organic
materials should be directed to the soils that need the
organic matter most. Analysing the material helps predict its
nutrient credits to ensure that fertilizers appropriately
supplement what is applied.
5. Menjaga keseimbangan hara yang sesuai.
When fertilizer prices rise, it is common to see growers
reduce the application of all nutrients except N. For a soil
with adequate supplies of P, K, and sulfur (S), this can work in
your favour. However, if soil is low in any of these nutrients, it
may be better to lower the rates of all those required to
optimize crop yield and quality. Remember, low levels of
other nutrients will prevent the full yield expression of
applied fertilizer N.
6. Mengelola pH tanah. Pengapuran tanah masam
mendatangkan banyak manfaat.
Among these are more effective N fixation in legumes, and
better availability and more efficient use of P and K. Soils with
11

a pH of less than 5 to 6 are candidates for liming, depending


on the crop grown.
7. Mengelola tanaman untuk hasil ekonomis yang maksimum
Anything that limits yield usually limits nutrient use efficiency.
Choosing the right genetics and plant spacing, planting at the
right time, and managing soils for optimum structure are all
important. Ensuring that all field operations get done on time
requires a lot of attention to logistics, but pays off with a
better ratio of nutrients harvested versus applied.
8. Waktu aplikasi pupuk.
Especially for N, the closer before plant uptake, the better. In
the Northeast, fallapplied N is unreliable, and its often better
to split the application with some at planting and the largest
part when the corn is about 6 to 12 in. tall. In the Northern
Great Plains, N applied in the fall should be in the ammonium
form (urea or anhydrous ammonia) and banded below the
surface only after the soil has cooled to below 10 degrees C
(50 degrees F). Applying all the crop N requirement prior to
or at planting is effective in the Northern Great Plains.
9. Pelepasan hara pupuk secara terkendali.
You may not always be able to apply just before plant uptake.
Just after is too late. Many useful products that delay
conversion of N sources to nitrate have entered the market.
These include inhibitors of urease or nitrification, or coatings
that slow the release of urea into solution. The key is to find a
product that releases N in the root zone just before the plant
needs it.
10. Penempatan pupuk pada posisi yang tepat terhadap
tanaman.
Phosphorus is particularly effective at invigorating young
seedlings when its placed in a band close to the seed. The
starter band should include N and K as well if they are
required. Higher rates need to be moved further from the
seed to avoid damage from salt or ammonia ion effects.
11. Uji lapangan.
12

Recommendations are only as good as the research relating


to crop response. For important nutrient questions that your
local recommendations cant answer, replicated strip trials on
your own farm may be the only solution.
12. Konsultasi dengan ahlinya.
Managing nutrients is complex and site-specific. Certified
Crop Advisers (CCAs) should be able to balance not only the
nutrients needed for a crop, but all the many pieces of advice
that farmers encounter as well.
(sumber:
http://www.ipni.net/ppiweb/ppinews.nsf/0/1F8467360DFAD
3EB852570D90072E7A9/$FILE/Fertilizer%20Efficiency.pdf)
13

Bagan filosofi penentuan dosis pupuk yang optimum ekonomis:


14

Price of fertilizer vs. Value of crop


Hasil tanaman per ha
kurva hasil tanaman

Y
C
garis biaya pupuk
Y

NC
N N
Dosis pupuk per ha
15
16
17

Ada tiga hal yang harus dipertimbangakn dalam mewujudkan efisiensi


pemupukan, yaitu:
Berapa banyak unsure hara dari pupuk yang diserap oleh
tanaman?
Berapa banyak tambahan hasil tanaman yang diperoleh dari
setiap unit tambahan serapan hara tanaman?
Seberapa besar manfaat tanaman dari hara yang tidak dapat
dimanfaatkan oleh tanaman selama musim tumbuhnya?

Ada lima macam indeks yang dapat digunakan untuk menilai efisiensi
penggunaan hara tanaman, yaitu:
(Sumber:
http://www.aarsb.com.my/AgroMgmt/OilPalm/FertMgmt/FertEffi/FertE
ffi.html).

FAKTOR PRODUKTIVITAS (Partial factor productivity (PFP)

Konsep PFP menjawab pertanyaan: Berapa banyak hasil diproduksi


untuk setiap kg hara pupuk (FN) yang diaplikasikan?

PFPFN = kg bunch kg-1 fertilizer nutrient (FN) applied:


PFPFN = BY+FN / FN

where BY+FN is the bunch yield (kg ha-1) and FN is the amount of fertilizer
nutrient applied (kg ha-1).
Because BY at a given level of FN represents the sum of yield without
fertilizer inputs (BY0FN ) plus the increase in yield from applied fertilizer
(BY+FN),

PFPFN = (BY0 FN + BY+FN) / FN

or
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PFPFN = (BY0 FN / FN) + (BY+FN / FN)

and by substitution with equation :

PFPFNFN = (BY0 FN / FN) + AEFN

where AE+FN is the agronomic efficiency of applied fertilizer nutrients.

Equation shows that PFPFN can be increased by increasing the uptake


and use of indigenous soil-N resources (measured as BY0FN) and
increasing the efficiency of applied fertilizer nutrient use (AEFN).

EFISIENSI AGRONOMIS (Agronomic efficiency (AE)

Konsep AE menjawab pertanyaan: Berapa banyak tambahan hasil akibat


pemupukan satu kg hara pupuk?

AEFN = kg bunch yield increase kg-1 FN applied (often-used synonym:


nutrient use efficiency):

AEFN = (BY+FN - BY0 FN) / FN

where BY+FN is the bunch yield in a treatment with fertilizer nutrient


application; BY0 FN is the bunch yield in a treatment without fertilizer
nutrient (FN) application; and FN is the amount of fertilizer nutrient
applied, all in kg ha-1.
AEFN represents the product of the efficiency of nutrient recovery from
applied nutrient sources (= recovery efficiency, REFN) and the efficiency
with which the plant uses each unit of nutrient acquired (= physiological
efficiency, PEFN):

AEFN = PEFN x REFN (6)

Both REFN and PEFN thus contribute to AEFN, and each can be improved by
crop and soil management practices, including general crop
19

management practices and those specific to nutrient management, e.g. a


more balanced N:P:K ratio or improved splitting and timing of nutrient
applications.

Because AEFN = PEFN x REFN,

it is necessary to quantify the relative contribution of each component to


explain measured differences in agronomic efficiency that result from
different nutrient or crop management strategies.

EFISIENSI SERAPAN HARA (Recovery efficiency (RE)

Konsep RE menjawab pertanyaan: Berapa banyak hara pupuk yang


diaplikasikan dapat diserap oleh tanaman?

REFN = kg fertilizer nutrient taken up kg-1 fertilizer nutrient applied:

REFN = (UN+FN - UN0 FN) / FN

where UN+FN is the total palm uptake of fertilizer nutrient measured in


aboveground biomass in plots that receive applied fertilizer nutrient at
the rate of FN (kg ha-1); and UN0 FN is the total nutrient uptake without
the addition of fertilizer nutrient.

REFN is obtained by the nutrient difference method based on measured


differences in plant nutrient uptake in treatment plots with and without
applied nutrient. Recovery efficiency of applied nutrient is estimated
more accurately when two treatments with a small difference in the
application rate are compared:

REFN = (UNFN2 - UNFN1) / (FNFN2 - FNFN1)

where REFN is the recovery efficiency (kg nutrient uptake kg-1 nutrient
applied); UN is the total nutrient uptake in bunches, fronds and trunk (kg
20

ha-1); and FN is the amount of fertilizer nutrient added (kg ha -1) in two
different nutrient treatments (FN2 and FN1) e.g. FN2 receiving a larger
nutrient rate than FN1.
REFN is affected by agronomic practises and rainfall.

EFISIENSI FISIOLOGI TANAMAN (Physiological efficiency (PE)

Konsep PE menjawab pertanyaan: Berapa banyak tambahan hasil


tanaman untuk setiap penambahan satu kg hara yang diserap?

PEFN = kg bunch yield increase kg-1 fertilizer FN taken up:

PEFN = (BY+FN - BY0 FN) / (UN+FN - UN0 FN)

where BY+FN is the bunch yield in a treatment with fertilizer nutrient (FN)
application (kg ha-1); BY0 FN is the bunch yield in a treatment without
fertilizer nutrient (FN) application; and UN is the total uptake of fertilizer
nutrient (kg ha-1) in the two treatments.
PEFN represents the ability of a plant to transform a given amount of
acquired fertilizer nutrient into economic yield (oil or bunches) and
largely depends on genotypic characteristics such as the bunch index and
internal nutrient use efficiency, which is also affected by general crop
and nutrient management.

EFISIENSI INTERNAL (Internal efficiency (IE)

Indek IE menjawab pertanyaan:


How much yield is produced per kg fertilizer nutrient (FN) taken up from
both fertilizer and indigenous (soil) nutrient sources?

IEFN = kg bunch kg-1 FN taken up:

IEFN = BY / UN
21

where BY is the bunch yield (kg ha-1), and UN is the total uptake of
fertilizer nutrient (kg ha-1).
This definition of IEFN includes FN taken up from indigenous and fertilizer
sources. IEFN largely depends on genotype, harvest index, interactions
with other nutrients and other factors that affect flowering and bunch
formation.
22

PUPUK DAN KETERSEDIAAN HARA TANAH

Aplikasi pupuk ke tanah dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan


ketersediaan hara dalam tanah, sehingga diharapkan akar tanaman
dapat menyerap lebih banyak hara dari dalam tanah. Bahan pupuk yang
diaplikasikan ke tanah akan mengalami serangkaian reaksi fisik, kimia
dan biologi; sehingga unsure hara yang dikandungnya secara bertahap
akan dilepaskan ke tanah dalam bentuk yang tersedia bagi akar
tanaman atau dapat diserap oleh akar tanaman. Perlu diketahui bahwa
perilaku hara pupuk dalam tanah sangat beragam, tergantung pada jenis
hara dan karakteristik tanah.

Nitrogen from urea can be lost to the atmosphere if fertilizer urea


remains on the soil surface for extended periods of time during warm
weather. The key to the most efficient use of urea is to incorporate it
into the soil during a tillage operation. It may also be blended into the
soil with irrigation water. A rainfall of as little as 0.25 inches is sufficient
to blend urea into the soil to a depth at which ammonia losses will not
occur.

Urea Losses to the Air


Urea breakdown begins as soon as it is applied to the soil. If the soil is
totally dry, no reaction happens. But with the enzyme urease, plus any
small amount of soil moisture, urea normally hydrolizes and converts to
ammonium and carbon dioxide. This can occur in 2 to 4 days and
happens quicker on high pH soils. Unless it rains, urea must be
incorporated during this time to avoid ammonia loss. Losses might be
quite low in the spring if the soil temperature is cold. The chemical
reaction is as follows:

CO(NH2)2 + H2O + urease 2NH3 +CO2


(urea)

The problem is the NH3, because it's a gas, but if incorporated the NH3,
acts the same as incorporated anhydrous ammonia. Also, half of 28%
liquid N is urea and the same thing happens with this half as with
regular urea
(http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc0636.html).
23

Sumber: Larry G. Bundy. MANAGING UREA-CONTAINING FERTILIZERS. Department of


Soil Science, University of Wisconsin.
24

Laju hidrolisis urea dalam tanah lempung-debu pada tiga macam


temperatur.

Sumber: Larry G. Bundy. OVERCOMING NITROGEN VOLATILIZATION LOSSES.


Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin.

Kehilangan N akibat penguapan ammonia:


1. Urea and urea-containing fertilizers
2. Surface applications only
3. Tillage or rain in 2-3 days controls loss
4. Large losses are rare
5. Maximum loss = 20-30 % of N.

Faktor pemicu kehilangan Ammonia


1. No rain or irrigation after application
2. Crop residue on the soil surface
3. High temperatures
4. High soil pH
5. Low clay & organic matter (low CEC)
6. Initially moist soil followed by drying.
25

Fosfat dalam tanah

P-tanah mempunyai kelarutan yang rendah, sehingga tidak mudah


tersedia untuk diserap oleh akar tanaman. Pergerakan P-tanah sangat
terbatas, sehingga penempatan pupuk P di tanah sangat kritis untuk
mencapai efisiensi serapan yang tinggi. Aplikasi pupuk P secara band
terbukti sangat efektif karena meminimumkan kontak permukaan anion
fosfat dengan partikel yang dapat mengakibatkan penurunan kelarutan
fosfat.

Keseimbangan fosfat dalam tanah (Sumber:


http://www.extension.org/pages/9873/phosphorus-p)
26

Pengapuran meningkatkan ketersediaan P dalam tanah

The relationship between lime equivalent and STPC needed to have a soil solution-P
concentration of 0.1 ppm. This relationship indicates that the STPC should increase 1.4
ppm for each percent the lime equivalent increases. The one soil requiring a STPC of 50
ppm for 19.5% lime was a recently exposed subsoil, while the other anomaly was for the
Millville soil containing dolomite, which behaved like a soil containing 5-7 % lime.
27

KETERSEDIAAN HARA DALAM TANAH DAN HASIL


TANAMAN

Yield of Corn and Soybeans as Influenced by NaHC03 - Extractable P Levels Average of


1993 and 1994. Source: Lauzon, J. D. and M. H. Miller. Department of Land Resource
Science, University of Guelph. Note: Proportion of variation in yield accounted for by
soil test (R2) for corn = 0.77, for soybeans = 0.10.
(http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/97-005.htm).
28

Ketersediaan hara dalam tanah dan serapan hara tanaman

Phosphorus uptake by Stephens winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth stages
grown under field conditions. At early plant development, P uptake on the high lime plots was
less than the low lime plots at similar STPC concentrations (A). Differences disappeared at soft
dough but maturity differences persisted. Lime differences disappeared when uptake was plotted
against soil solution-P concentrations (B). (Sumber:
http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/53680000/presentations/dtw/2003wnmsaltlake/p
oster.htm)
29

KANDUNGAN HARA DAN HASIL TANAMAN

Relationship between relative corn yield response to P fertilization and soil P


measured with two versions of the Mehlich-3 soil P test.

Hubungan antara kandungan P-tanah dengan hasil tanaman (Sumber:


http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/node/1925/print)
30

Interpretasi hasil uji tanah untuk P dan K (Metode ekstraksi Bray-P1, Olsen, Mehlich-3,
Mehlich-3 ICP; dan untuk K dengan metode ekstrak Ammonium acetate dan Mehlich-3
(dengan kedalaman sampel tanah 6 - 7-inch).

Phosphorus Potassium

All other crops All crops


Relative Level Subsoil P Subsoil K
Wheat, Alfalfa
Low High Low High

Bray-1 or Mehlich-3 Ammonium acetate or Mehlich-3

ppm

Very Low 0-15 0-8 0-5 0-90 0-70

Low 16-20 9-15 6-10 91-130 71-110

Optimum 21-25 15-20 11-15 131-170 111-150

High 26-30 21-30 16-20 171-200 151-180

Very High 31+ 31+ 21+ 201+ 181+

Olsen

Very Low 0-10 0-5 0-3

Low 11-14 6-10 4-7

Optimum 15-17 11-14 8-11

High 18-20 15-20 12-15

Very High 21+ 21+ 16+

Mehlich-3 ICP

Very Low 0-20 0-15 0-10

Low 21-30 16-25 11-20

Optimum 31-40 26-35 21-30

High 41-50 36-45 31-40

(Sumber: http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/icm/node/1925/print)
31

Metode Korelasi dan Regresi:


Dosis Pupuk dan Hasil Tanaman

Agar supaya reomendasi pupuk dapat diandalkan, maka


harus didasarkan pada hasil-hasil percobaan minimal dua atau
tiga musim. Kerja korelasi yang dijelaskan di atas akan sama
untuk setiap musim dan grafik interpretasi musiman
menyediakan sarana yang sangat berguna untuk
membandingkan tahun-tahun dan untuk memahami fluktuasi
musiman efek faktor pertumbuhan yang penting serta mengkaji
kurva-kurva interpretasi. Hasil-hasil tahunan ini digabungkan
untuk memberikan rataan yang merupakan penduga terbaik bagi
peramalan respon.
32
33
34

Respon tanaman, kg/ha

R1 R2 R3 R4

0 1 2 3 4
Dosis pupuk
Kurva respon hasil tanaman terhadap pemupukan.
35

Respon tanaman, kg/ha

*
*
* *
* * *
*
* * *
*
* *
*
garis biaya

* *
*

RENDAH MEDIUM TINGGI


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Nilai uji tanah

Pengelompokkan respons tanaman terhadap pemupukan menurut


nilai uji tanahnya.
36

Respon tanaman, kg/ha

300
Uji tanah rendah

250

200

Uji tanah medium


150

100
Uji tanah rendah

50 garis biaya

0 1 2 3 4

Kode dosis pupuk

Hubungan antara dosis pupuk dengan respon tanaman. Grafik


interpretasi respon tanaman untuk rekomendasi pupuk.
37

Respon tanaman terhadap


pemupukan dipengaruhi oleh
kesuburan tanah.
Hasil tanaman
Tanah kaya P dan K
HK
HM
Tanah miskin P dan K
N
Dosis pupuk N

Profit PK
Tanah kaya P dan
K
38

Kalau gabungan grafik interpretasi telah tersedia, maka


dasar rekomendasi pupuk untuk suatu wilayah mudah dapat
disusun. Proses ini didemonstrasikan seperti dalam gambar .
Untuk rekomendasi pupuk bagi tanah-tanah yang nilai ujitanahnya
sangat rendah maka digunakan kurva respon hasil yang
tertinggi. Pada kurve ini titik yang diberi tanda panah
menyatakan dosis pupuk optimum. Tidak ada rekomendasi pupuk
di atas titik ini. Dosis pupuk yang lebih rendah dibolehkan dan
mereka akan menghasilkan benefit yang lebih rendah setiap
hektar namun mempunyai B/C rasio yang lebih tinggi. Atas dasar
ini maka dipilih dua area A dan B dalam grafik, dimana A
menyatakan area dengan profit per hektar tertinggi, dan B
menyatakan area dengan biaya pupuk lebih rendah dan B/C rasio
meningkat. Titik-titik pusat dari dua area ini (tidak digambarkan)
menyatakan dosis pupuk untuk tanah-tanah miskin hara yang
dianjurkan kepada petani yang bertujuan mencapai profit tertinggi
(A), dan bagi petani yang ingin mencapai manfaat moneter
tertinggi (B).
Rekomendasi untuk tanah-tanah yang nilai ujitanahnya
medium adalah yang dinyatakan oleh titik pusat dari area C dan D
dalam grafik. Untuk tanah-tanah yang kaya hara tidak dianjurkan
untuk melakukan pemupukan menurut grafik ini.
39

BAHAN BACAAN

Dahal, R.C. 1977. Soil organic phosphorus. Advances in Agronomy.


Volume 28, 83-117.
Goh K.J., Rolf Hrdter and Thomas F. (2003) Fertilizing for maximum
return. In: Thomas Fairhurst and Rolf Hardter (eds). Oil palm:
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