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07/05/2015

Aspek Geoteknik dalam Perencanaan


Bangunan dan Infrastruktur Tahan Gempa Team for Revision of Seismic Hazard Map of Indonesia 2010
Masyhur Irsyam* dkk (Established by The Ministry of Public Works in December 2009)
*Ketua - Tim Revisi Peta Gempa Indonesia 2010
*Ketua - Pusat Penelitian Mitigasi Bencana ITB
*Ketua - Himpunan Ahli Teknik Tanah Indonesia
Masyhur Irsyam (Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering ITB Chair))
*Ketua Kelompok Keahlian Rekayasa Geoteknik ITB
Wayan Sengara (Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering ITB Vice Chair)
Fahmi Almadiar (Seismic Hazard - Dept. Public Work - Secretary)
M Asrurifak (Seismic Hazard - ITB)
Danny Hilman (Geology - Indonesia Research Institute)
Engkon Kertapati (Geology - Geological Research Center)
M. Ridwan (Geology - Dept. Public Work)
Irwan Meilano (Geodesy, Crustal Deformation ITB)
Sri Widiantoro (Geophysics - ITB)
Training for Trainers
Wahyu Trioso (Geophysics - ITB)
Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pemukiman
Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum dan Perumahan Rakyat Suhardjono (Geophysics - Berau of Geophysics-Climatology-Meteorology)
Bandung, 8 Mei 2015

EURASIA PLATE
PHILIPINE PLATE

Tim Struktur Bawah SNI 1726 2012 PASIFIC PLATE

12 cm/year

Rangkuman kontribusi
F.X. Toha
Wijoyo Prakoso
Paulus P. Rahardjo
I Wayan Sengara
6 cm/year
Sindhu Rudianto
Sylvia Herina
Bigman Hutapea INDO AUSTRALIA PLATE

Masyhur Irsyam
Major Tectonics around Indonesia (Bock et al., 2003)
There are 4 major tectonic plates in this region: Eurasia, Indoaustralia, Pacific and Philipine.
Indoaustralia and Philipine/pacific plates subduct beneath the Eursia plate with the rate of 6cm/year
and 12 cm/year

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07/05/2015

Earthquake events since the release of SNI-2002


Overview: Seismicity of Indonesia
Aceh Earthquake Mw=9.2
Indonesia is one of the most seismically active countries in the world, (December, 2004)
it is situated in South-east Asia tectonic regime.
Simeuleu Earthquake Mw=8.5
(11 April, 2012)
Nias Earthquake Mw=8.6
(March, 2005)
Simeuleu Earthquake Mw=8.1
(11 April, 2012)

Padang Earthquake Mw=7.6 Jambiimprovements


Earthquake Mw=6.6
Why does the(Sept,
current code require
2009)
?
(Oct, 2009)

1. Mentawai
To considers recent
Earthquake great earthquakes in Indonesia
Mw=7.2
(Oct, 2010)

Tasik Earthquake Mw=7.4 Yogya Earthquake Mw=6.3


(Sept, 2009) (May, 2006)

Main shocks USGS

Efek dari Strategi


Fault rupture
Gempa
Strategy for Fault HINDARI
Earthquake Mitigation Human has to be protected rupture
Tsunami/sei HINDARI
che
(FEMA 451b, 2007)
Earthquake Strategy Landslide HINDARI
Earthquake
Effect Liquefaction Hindari/Dila
Very potential in resulting huge Fault rupture Avoid wan (9.8 m)
disaster Ground Dilawan
Tsunami Avoid
Cannot be predicted accurately: shaking
when, where, and the size
Landside (big) Avoid

Cannot be avoided Liquefaction Avoid/ Resist

Ground shaking Resist

Earthquake Resistance Buildings+Infrastructures have to be


Buildings + Infrastructures designed to resist earthquake loads

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07/05/2015

Kelongsoran Lereng

SENDAI EARTHQUAKE 2011

Lubuk Laweh, Jumanak, Mt. Tandikat, Gempa Padang 2009 (HATTI, 2009)

Lubuk Laweh, Jumanak, Mt. Tandikat, Gempa Padang 2009 (HATTI, 2009)

Perancangan Bangunan Tahan Gempa Tergantung: : Newtons 2nd Law:


H=mxa
Parameter bangunan:
karakteristik material dan elemen struktur
H
Motion at Building

Parameter gerakan tanah : Buiding/ Infrastructure characteristics Perioda Getar Bangunan


M, R, Kondisi Geologi dan tanah
Peta gempa Indonesia
Pengaruh kondisi tanah thd response spektra Motion at Foundation

Soft soil layer


Required parameters for earthquake resistance
Response Spektra building design?
Soil Condition

R Motion at Bedrock
M

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07/05/2015

Newtons 2nd Law:


The 1st Seismic Hazard Map
H=mxa in Indonesian Standard for Earthquake Resistance Building Design 1983
H
Motion at Building
5

Buiding/ Infrastructure characteristics Perioda Getar Bangunan


6 4

5 2
Motion at Foundation 3
4 1
6
3 5
3 6
4 5 2
4
Required parameters for earthquake resistance
Response Spektra building design?
5
Soil Condition 6
3

Motion at Bedrock
Earthquake Zone - 1 Earthquake Zone - 3 Earthquake Zone - 5
Earthquake Zone - 2 Earthquake Zone - 4 Earthquake Zone - 6

The 2nd Seismic Hazard Map Other Reasons for Updating:


Indonesian Standard for Earthquake Resistance Building Design (SNI-03-1726-2002) To account for New Data and Technology Development
Horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration at bedrock SB
for 10% in 50 years (+500 years)

1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 2010

Eartquake
Data up
to1999 SNI-03-1726-2002

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07/05/2015

0.96 g

ACCELERATION & RESPONSE SPECTRUM


Christchurch New Zaeland

a max horizontal = 1.43 g

www.Scot.net

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07/05/2015

Cara Mengkuantifikasi Goyangan Gempa?


Dengan Seismic Hazard Analysis
Deterministic (DSHA) Probabilistic (PSHA)
- Akibat suatu sumber tertentu - Gabungan dari pengaruh seluruh sumber
disekitar lokasi
3.0 g - Worst case scenario/kondisi terjelek
(jarak terdekat dan Magnitude - Bukan hanya worst case scenario, tapi juga
terbesar) berbagai level dan kemungkinan

Estimasi sebelumnya Mw=7.2 8.0 Deterministic Probabilistic maps:


Yang terjadi Mw=9.0 maps 50 years
100
200
500
1,000
2,500
5,000
10,000
Cara terbaik dengan mengintegrasikan keduanya
Istilah Gempa 500 tahun bukan menunjuk kepada kejadian gempa yang terjadi sekali
setiap 500 tahun, tetapi lebih sebagai gambaran ttg probabilitas suatu percepatan yang
memiliki kemungkinan 1/500 untuk terjadi setiap tahun

1. Procedure for Developing Probabilistic Hazard Map 2. Procedure for Developing Deterministic Seismic Hazard Map
Seismic Hazard Analysis Probabilistic analysis
Probability
Density Function
Deterministic analysis
M=7.3 Site location

Development of Maps of
PGA & Response Spectra

Semarang Fault South


Expert
Expertjudgement 4. Perhitungan
4. hazard gempa
Seismic hazard Calculation
judgement 0.11 g
Seismicdesign
Seismic design criteria
criteria Menghitung hazard dengan input on
1. Identification
1. Identifikasi of Earthquake Sources
sumber gempa
Calculating seismic hazard based Semarang M=7.3
dari Tahap (1) + (2) + (3) dengan
Lokasi Location
: koord. sumber : gempa
coord of sources input inmemperhitungkan
the Step (1) +ketidakpastian
(2) + (3) by
Geometri
Geometry
: arah strike, sudut dip,
: direction 0f strike, dip angle, considering epistemic uncertainties
epistemic.
kedalaman maksimum
maximum depth
Mekanisme : subduksi, patahan
Mechanism : subduction, normal fault,
normal, reverse
reverse 3.
3. Selection
Pemilihan of Data strongAvailable
motion strong motion Identification of subduction and active faults surrounding the site location
fungsi atenuasi accelerogram
accelerogram yang ada data
Atenuation Function
Selecting the worst scenario with maximum magnitude (Mmax) and closest distance (Rmin)
Informasi Geologi,Information on geologi, for each source
2.2.Karakterisasi
Characterization of Sources
sumber gempa seimologi seimology
Frequency
Frekuensi kejadian
distribution Katalog data gempa
Earthquake cataloque Determining the ground motions based on Mmax and Rmin with 84 percentile
Slip rate
Slip rate
Magnitude maksimum
Maximum Magnitude

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07/05/2015

Seismic Sources: Seismic Sources:


1. Subduction Megathrust
Megarthrust Philipine
2. Active faults (that have been well identified)
Mw=8.2 , a=4.64 b=0.87
Sulu Thrust
Megarthrust Andaman-Sumatera Mw=8.5 West Molucca Sea
Mw=9.2 , a=4.70, b=0.83 Mw=7.9 2. Aceh
3. Tripa
Megarthrust North Sulawesi East Molucca Sea 4. Renun 8. Sumpur
Megarthrust Middle1 Sumatera Mw=8.2 , a=4.28 b=0.91 Mw=8.1 77. Manokwari trench
1.Seulimeum 5. Toru 9. Sianok
Mw=8.6 , a=4.71, b=0.88 North Papua Thrust 57. Gorontalo 74. Sorong 75. Ransiki
Mw=8.2 12. Siulak 54. Batui thrust
72. Sula-Sorong 70. Yapen
6. 13. Dikit 50. Palu-Koro
Megarthrust Middle 2 Sumatera Angkola 14. Ketaun
7. Barumun
Mw=8.5 , a=5.35, b=0.97 53. Poso
10. Sumani 18.Semangko
11. Suliti 15. Musi 51. Matano
31. Baribis 73. Sorong-Maluku
Megarthrust S Sumatera 58. Lawanopo
34. Wetar back arc 78. Lowland
Mw=8.2 , a=5.76, b=1.05 33. Semarang 52. Walanae
16. Manna 55. Tolo thrust
Megarthrust North Banda Sea 71. Tarera-Aidun
17. Kumering
Mw=7.9 , a=6.86 b=1.20 30. Bumiayu 76. Membrano thrust tbelt
19.Sunda 34. Jogja 36. Flores back arc
32. Cimandiri 79 Highland thrust belt
Megarthrust South Banda Sea
Megarthrust Jawa Mw=7.4 , a=7.56 b=1.34
Mw=8.1 , a=6.14, b=1.10 Megarthrust Sumba Megarthrust Timor
Mw=7.8 , a=6.81, b=1.20 Mw=7.9 , a=9.09 b=1.60

Seismic Sources: SEAOC Vision 2000 Committee dan FEMA 273


Source Type III: Shallow and Deep Background Design Probability of Earthquake Level
Live Exceedance
It is very suitable for unmapped faults, but have historical earthquake records
20% Immediate Occupancy 225 years SNI 1983
It is used o account for epicenters that do not belong to well identified active faults
50 tahun
Live Safety
ccccccc 500 years
10% (Rare Earthquake) SNI 2002
Spatially smoothed-gridded seismicity

Probabilistic maps:
50
100
200
500
Deterministic 1,000 years
2,500
maps 5,000
10,000

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07/05/2015

Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at Bedrock SB


(for 50 years Earthquake)

Laporan Studi:
Tim Revisi Peta Hazard Gempa Indonesia 2010

Didukung oleh:

Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at Bedrock SB Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at Bedrock SB
(for 100 years Earthquake) (for 200 years Earthquake)

Didukung oleh: Didukung oleh:

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07/05/2015

Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at Bedrock SB Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at Bedrock SB
Probability of exceedence 10% in 50 years (500 years EQ) Probability of exceedence 10% in 100 years (1,000 years EQ)

Didukung oleh: Didukung oleh:

Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at Bedrock SB Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at Bedrock SB
Probability of exceedence 2% in 50 years (2500 years EQ) Probability of exceedence 0.5% in 50 years (10,000 years EQ)

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07/05/2015

Deterministic Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for Faults at Bedrock SB Deterministic Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for Subduction at Bedrock S B
with 84% percentile (150% Median) with 84% percentile (150% Median)

Application of Hazard Maps: depends on the type of infrastructure


Probability of Probability of Return Period
Design Exceedance Exceedance of Earthquake
Life (During Design Life) (Per Year)
20% (= 51 ) + 1
250 years
250

Buildings 1 )
10% (= 10 + 1
500 years
500
1 )
2% (= 50 1
+ 2,500 years
2,500
50 years 1 ) 1
1% (= 100 + 5,000 years
5,000

1 ) + 1
0.5% (=200 10,000 10,000 years
Buildings
SNI-2011 Risk of Collapse
National Consencus: Year
Adapt ASCE 2010; combines Risk of Collapse
1 ) 1
Probabilistic + 1% (=100 +
5000
Deterministic +
Building Fragility

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07/05/2015

Differences
Newtons 2nd Law:
SNI-2002 SNI-2011 (ASCE-2010)
H=mxa Equal Hazard (10% in 50 yrs) Equal Risk of Collapse (1% in 50 yrs)
H
Zone of equal PGA Response Spectra/ Zone of equal PGA
Motion at Building Frequency Content
Equal Respons Spectra
Response Spectra (S0.2 and S1) may be different
Buiding/ Infrastructure characteristics Perioda Getar Bangunan Equal frequency content
Frequency content may be different

3 peta (untuk setiap perioda ulang gempa):


Motion at Foundation
-PGA (percepatan maksimum)
-Spektra Percepatan 0.2sec
-Spektra Percepatan 1.0sec
Required parameters for earthquake resistance
Response Spektra building design?
Soil Condition Map of PGA Map of S1

Motion at Bedrock

PGA
PGA S0.2 S1

Spectral Acceleration for PERBEDAAN


50; 100; 200; 500; 10.00; 2.500; 10.000 years ASCE 7-05 / IBC-2009 ASCE 7-10
and Deterministic approach 84th percentile Deterministic
PGA SNI Gedung 2011
1.5 X Median 1.8 X Median

Ground Motion Intensity Near Fault


SA SA

Maximum
0.2 sec Geometric Mean

1.0 sec
SS=1.1 x SA0.2
SS=SA0.2
S1=1.3 x SA1.0
S1=SA1.0
PGA 0.2 1.0 T (sec)
0.2 1.0 T (sec)

SNI 2011: 1.05 x S0.2 1.15 x S1.0


S0.2 S1

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07/05/2015

N SEAOC Vision 2000 Committee dan FEMA 273


SN (Strike-Normal) SP (Strike-Parallel)
Design Probability of Earthquake Level
Live Exceedance
W E 20% Immediate Occupancy 225 years SNI 1983
Live Safety
ccccccc 500 years
10% (Rare Earthquake) SNI 2002

S Near Fault Near Collapse MCE*:


50 tahun 2% (Very Rare Earthquake) - Prb 2,500 years + IBC 2009
- Deterministic
MCEG + MCER**:
Spectral Acceleration

SAN-S Risk of Colapse: Near Collapse - Probabilistic + SNI 2011


1% (Very Rare Earthquake) - Deterministic + ASCE 2010
- Fragility
SAE-W *MCE: Maximum Considered Eq. (Gempa Maksimum Dipertimbangkan Rata-rata Geometric)
SAgeometric mean = V SAN-Sx SAE-W < SAmaximum **MCER: Risk-Adjusted Maximum Considered Eq. (Gempa Maksimum Dipertimbangkan Resiko-Tersesuaikan)

Probabilistic maps:
50 years
T 100
200
500
Deterministic MCEG 1,000
maps map 2,500 years
10,000

SEAOC Vision 2000 Committee dan FEMA 273 *MCEG: Maximum Considered Eq. (Gempa Maksimum Dipertimbangkan Rata-rata Geometrik)
**MCER: Risk-Adjusted Maximum Considered Eq. (Gempa Maksimum Dipertimbangkan Resiko-Tersesuaikan)
Design Probability of Earthquake Level
Live Exceedance
20% Immediate Occupancy 225 years SNI 1983
Live Safety
ccccccc 500 years
10% (Rare Earthquake) SNI 2002

Near Collapse MCE*:


50 tahun 2% (Very Rare Earthquake) - Prb 2,500 years + IBC 2009
- Deterministic
MCEG + MCER**: Response Spectra
Risk of Colapse: Near Collapse - Probabilistic + SNI 2011
PGA 0.2sec + 1.0sec
1% (Very Rare Earthquake) - Deterministic + ASCE 2010
- Fragility
*MCE: Maximum Considered Eq. (Gempa Maksimum Dipertimbangkan Rata-rata Geometric)
Probability of Exceedance 2% in 50 Risk of Building Collapse
**MCER: Risk-Adjusted Maximum Considered Eq. (Gempa Maksimum Dipertimbangkan Resiko-Tersesuaikan) yrs (1/2,500 per yr) 1% in 50 yrs (1/5,000 per yr)
Probabilistic maps: Probabilistic maps:
50 years 50 years
100 100
200 200
500 Building MCER 500 Building MCER
Deterministic MCEG 1,000 maps Deterministic MCEG 1,000 maps
2,500 years Fragility 2,500 years Fragility
maps map 10,000 maps map 10,000

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07/05/2015

Gb 11: PGA MCEG (Maximum Considered Earthquake geometric mean)


Gempa Maksimum yang Dipertimbangkan Rata-rata Geometrik
SA
Ss MCER (Gb 9-10) Probabilistic 2500 yrs
Seismic Base Shear (E.V. Leyendecker)
Deterministic 84th percentile
S1
Plateau 1.5XUBC Design
Upper
Structure MCEG

Fault Distance
Near-Fault Criteria
Jepit sactive/passive Combination of
Sub MCEG (Gb 11) Probabilistic 2500 yrs Deterministic
PGA
Structure
Liquefaction potential

Maximum Considered Earthquake Geometric mean (MCEG) PGA


Risk-Targeted Ground Motion
ASCE-2010: Risk of Collapse is 1% in 50 yrs (= 1/5000 per yr)

Fragility Curve
RTGM (Conditional probability of failure)

Pf =
0
H(a)
dPf(a) da
da
Risk/probability of collapse
=1/5000 Capacity
Hazard

Luco, 2009

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07/05/2015

Risk-Targeted Ground Motion (SNI-1726-2011)


Number of events
Gambar 9-10: Risk-Adjusted Maximum Considered Eq.(MCER)
Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Year (Gempa Maksimum Dipertimbangkan Resiko-Tersesuaikan)

SA RTGM (Risk Targeted Ground Motion)


x P[Collapse] = 1% in 50 years
Non-dimentional Probabilistic 2500 yrs
Capacity Curve fc
From SMT and b
Deterministic 84th percentile
Risk-Adjusted
These RTGM maps are then combined with deterministic maps to Maximum Considered Eq. Plateau 1.5XUBC Design
produce the MCER (Risk-Adjusted Maximum Considered Earthquake) (MCER)
SMT
= Trial-error of SMT until the area of integration = 1/5000

Hazard x Capacity Curve Number of events


Year
Fault Distance

Probability of Collapse =
Integration Hazard x Capacity Curve
(E.V. Leyendecker)

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07/05/2015

Ss Risk-Adjusted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) Ground Motion Ss Risk-Adjusted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) Ground Motion
Parameter for Indonesia for 0.2 s Spectral Response Acceleration (5% of Critical Parameter for Indonesia for 1.0 s Spectral Response Acceleration (5% of Critical
Damping), Site Class B Damping), Site Class B

(Prepared by Team on Indonesian Risk-Targeted Ground Motions) (Prepared by Team on Indonesian Risk-Targeted Ground Motions)

RISK-COEFFICIENT (CR) MAP


Map of CRS (CR value correspond to spectral values at 0.2 second period)

RISK TARGETED Sa
P[Collapse] = 1% in 50 years UNIFORM SEISMIC HAZARD
2% in 50 years

RISK ADJUSTED

CR =
SEISMIC DESIGN MAP
(MCER)
Plateau

Deterministic - 1.8 x Median

Fault
(Prepared by Team on Indonesian Risk-Targeted Ground Motions)

(Source: E.V. Leyendecker)

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07/05/2015

CR1 (CR value correspond to spectral values at 1.0 second period)

Pembuatan
Response Spektra Disain

(Prepared by Team on Indonesian Risk-Targeted Ground Motions)

Input Motion

Gerakan Massa-Pegas

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07/05/2015

T1 T2 T3 T
Response Spectra a2 a3

T
a1 a4
1

a1 a1
T1

a2
T2

a3
T3 T4
Acceleration (g)
a4

a3

Acceleration (g) a2

a3

a1
a2

a1 a4

Acceleration (g)
a4

T T T 1 2 3 T Period ( 4
T1 T2 T3 T4 Period (sec)

a3

Response Spectra Velocity Response Spectra Displacement


a2
T1 T2 T3 T4 T1 T2 T3 T4

a1
a2
V2 Va3
3
a1
a2
D2 Da3
3

V1 a4
V4 D1 D4 a4

a1
Velocity
Acceleration (g) Displacement
Acceleration (g)

Va33 Da33

a2 a2
V2 D2
V1a1 D1a1 a4
Va44 Va44

T1 T2 T3 T4 Period (sec) T1 T2 T3 T4 Period (sec)

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07/05/2015

D = A (Tn2 / (2p)2)
Korelasi antara ordinat Spectra Acceleration Velocity Displacement
(Konsep Strain Energy dari Prof Newmark) 0.191 x g x (2.02 /(2p)2)
T1 T2 T3 T4

a2 a3
a1 a4

V = A (Tn / 2p)
Acceleration (g)
V = A (Tn / 2p)
0.191 x g x (2.0 /(2p))
a3
D = A (Tn2 / (2p)2)
a2
1g=9.8 m/det2=386 in/det2

a1
A
a4

T1 T2 T3
Tn T4 Period (sec)

D = A (Tn2 / (2p)2)
0.191 x g x (2.02 /(2p)2)

Sumbu Kecepatan
V = A (Tn / 2p)
0.191 x g x (2.0 /(2p))

1g=9.8 m/det2=386 in/det2

Sumbu Perioda T (sec)

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07/05/2015

D = A (Tn2 / (2p)2)
0.191 x g x (2.02 /(2p)2)

V = A (Tn / 2p)
0.191 x g x (2.0 /(2p))

1g=9.8 m/det2=386 in/det2

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07/05/2015

Period (sec) Sa (g) Sv (mm/sec) Sd (mm)


0.01 0.231 3.613 2.077
0.03 0.231 10.839 18.697
0.20 0.537 167.716 4476.810
0.50 0.537 419.212 27969.647
3.00 0.090 419.212 27969.647
10.00 0.008 124.905 2483.010

0.60

0.50
Acceleration (g)

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Period (sec)

10000
Average
Average + StDev

1000
Constant Velocity Response Spektra
dlm Peraturan Bangunan Tahan Gempa
Spectral velocity (mm/sec)

100

10
Tipikal Response
Spectra in
Tripartite Format

1
0.01 0.1 1 10
Period (sec)

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07/05/2015

Constant
acceleration
Constant
velocity

V = A (Tn / 2p)
a = Konstanta/T
Constant
displacement

Sa D = A (Tn2 / (2p)2)
a = Konstanta/T2

Cv
T

EPA=0.4 Sa
Cd
T2
To Ts Td Perioda
Bangunan (T)

Peraturan Lama SNI-2002

Elastic Response Spectra

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07/05/2015

SMS = Fa SS

Spectral Acceleration
Klasifikasi situs
(Pasal 5.1)
Penetapan kelas situs harus melalui penyelidikan
SPGA SM1 = Fv S1
SMS = Fa x SS
tanah di lapangan dan di laboratorium yang
SPGA = Fpga x PGA SM1 = Fv x S1 dilakukan oleh otoritas yang berwenang atau ahli
Ground Surface geoteknik yang bersertifikat.
T
0.2
T0= 0.2 Ts
1.0
Penetapan kelas situs dilakukan berdasarkan minimal
Fpga Fv
dua dari tiga parameter tanah yang diberikan pada
Fa
SS (Tabel 3) (Tabel 4) (Tabel 5) Tabel 3, dan yang diukur secara independen.
Spectral Acceleration

Spektra di Batuan Dasar SB Penetapan kelas situs dilakukan berdasarkan


Soil Type
PGA parameter tanah yang terburuk.
S1
PGA SS S1
(Gambar 8) (Gambar 9) (Gambar 10)
T
0.0 0.2 1.0 Bedrock SB

Kelas Situs untuk Disain Gempa (Pasal 5.3) Klasifikasi site


(SNI-2002, UBC-97, IBC-2009, ASCE 7-10,)

Klasifikasi Site V s (m/dt) N Su (kPa)

A. Batuan Keras > 1500 N/A N/A

B. Batuan 750 < < 1500 N/A N/A

C. Tanah Sangat Padat


350 < < 750 >50 > 100
dan Batuan Lunak

D. Tanah Sedang 175 < < 350 15 < < 50 50 < < 100

E. Tanah Lunak < 175 <15 < 50


Atau setiap profil lapisan tanah dengan ketebalan lebih dari 3 m dengan
karateristik sebagai berikut :
1.Indeks plastisitas, PI > 20,
2.Kadar air (w) > 40%, dan
3.Kuat geser tak terdrainase < 25 kPa

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07/05/2015

Kelas Situs SF (Pasal 5.3.1)


Jika salah satu dari kondisi berikut ini terpenuhi, maka situs tersebut harus
Kelas Situs SC, SD dan SE (Pasal 5.3.3)
diklasifikasikan sebagai kelas situs SF, serta selanjutnya investigasi geoteknik
spesifik serta analisis respons spesifik-situs sesuai Pasal 6.9.1 harus dilakukan.
Penetapan kelas situs SC, SD dan SE harus dilakukan dengan
1. Tanah yang rawan dan berpotensi gagal atau runtuh akibat gempa seperti menggunakan sedikitnya hasil pengukuran dua dari tiga
mudah likuifaksi, tanah lempung sangat sensitif, dan tanah tersementasi lemah; parameter v s , N , dan s , yang dihitung sesuai Pasal 5.4 :
u

PENGECUALIAN Untuk struktur bangunan dengan perioda getar fundamental v s lapisan 30 m paling atas (metode v s )
0,5 detik, analisis respons spesifik-situs tidak diperlukan dalam menentukan N lapisan 30 m paling atas (metode N )
percepatan spektral untuk tanah yang berpotensi likuifaksi. Sebagai gantinya, N untuk lapisan tanah non-kohesif (PI < 20) 30 m paling
ch

klasifikasi situs dapat ditentukan sesuai dengan Pasal 5.3 dan menggunakan atas, untuk lapisan tanah kohesif (PI > 20) 30 m paling atas
nilai Fa dan Fv yang ditentukan dari Tabel 4 dan 5. (metode s ). Bila N dan s menghasilkan kriteria yang
u ch u

2. Lempung kadar organik tinggi dan/atau gambut, dengan ketebalan, H > 3 m;


berbeda, kelas situs harus diberlakukan sesuai dengan
kategori tanah yang lebih lunak.
3. Lempung dengan plastisitas yang sangat tinggi dengan ketebalan, H > 7,5 m,
dengan indeks plastisitas, PI > 75);
4. Lempung lunak/setengah teguh, dengan ketebalan H > 35 m dengan su < 50 kPa.

Faktor Amplifikasi
d1,Vs1

d2,Vs2
Dtotal S di = S di
Vsrata-rata = = di
30 m Ttotal S ti S Vsi
Jenis Tanah d3,Vs3
30 m
S di
Vsrata-rata = di
d4,Vs4 S Vsi
t

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07/05/2015

Shear wave velocity (m/s) Tahanan penetrasi standar lapangan rata-rata, N dan
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
0 tahanan penetrasi standar rata-rata untuk lapisan
tanah non-kohesif, N ch

10 (Pasal 5.4.2)

20
n
n d d
d i N 1
i i N
ch

m di
s
i 1
n di
Depth (m)

vs
30 n
di i 1 N i
v i 1 N
i
i 1 si

40
di mana Ni dan di dalam Persamaan 3 berlaku untuk lapisan tanah non-
kohesif saja, dan , di mana ds adalah ketebalan total dari lapisan tanah
50 non-kohesif di dalam 30m lapisan paling atas. Ni adalah tahanan penetrasi
standar 60 persen energi (N60) yang terukur langsung di lapangan tanpa
koreksi, dengan nilai tidak lebih dari 305. Jika ditemukan perlawanan
60
lapisan batuan, maka nilai Ni tidak boleh diambil lebih dari 305
30 pukulan/m.
vs 221.76 m/s 180 m/s v s 360 m/s S D
3 4 9 13 1

125 225 250 240 300

SMS = Fa SS

Spectral Acceleration
Kuat geser niralir rata-rata, su
(Pasal 5.4.3)
dc SM1 = Fv S1
su SPGA
k di SMS = Fa x SS
SPGA = Fpga x PGA SM1 = Fv x S1
i 1 s
ui
Ground Surface
T
0.2 1.0
dc adalah ketebalan total dari lapisan-lapisan tanah kohesif di dalam T0= 0.2 Ts
lapisan 30 meter paling atas; Fpga Fv
Fa
PI adalah indeks plastisitas, berdasarkan tata cara yang berlaku; SS (Tabel 3) (Tabel 4) (Tabel 5)
Spectral Acceleration

w adalah kadar air dalam persen, sesuai tata cara yang berlaku;
Spektra di Batuan Dasar SB
sui adalah kuat geser niralir (kPa), dengan nilai tidak lebih dari 250 kPa
Soil Type
seperti yang ditentukan dan sesuai dengan tata cara yang berlaku. PGA
S1
PGA SS S1
(Gambar 8) (Gambar 9) (Gambar 10)
T
0.0 0.2 1.0 Bedrock SB

24
07/05/2015

Gaya Gempa dan Deformasi Gaya Gempa dan Deformasi

Earthquake Force Earthquake Force

Lateral roof displacement Lateral roof displacement

Earthquake Force

25
07/05/2015

DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE LEVEL


Gaya Gempa dan Deformasi UBC-97/ SNI-2002: Hasil studi USGS: Pola penyebaran hazard dan tingkat
Life Safety (500 thn) keamanan (seismic safety) lebih sesuai dengan MCE
(gabungan gempa 2500 thn + deterministik).
Jauh dari sumber gempa, gempa 500 thn nilai terlalu rendah.
ASCE-2005 ASCE-2010
Collapse Prevention (2,500 thn)

Extra performance 1.5

Earthquake Force

Gempa 500 thn Gempa 2.500 thn


Max top roof displ ratio = 0.02

Lateral roof displacement

Earthquake Force

SMS = Fa SS
Spektrum Respons Desain
Spectral Acceleration

SDS = (2/3) SMS Spektra di Pemukaan Tanah (Pasal 6.4)


SM1 = Fv S1 Lateral roof displacement

SD1 = (2/3) SM1


0.4 SDS SMS = Fa SS SM1 = Fv S1
T
Ground Surface S a S DS 0,4 0,6
T0

T S D1
0.2 1.0 T0 0,2
S DS
T0= 0.2 Ts

Fv S D1
Fa TS
SS (Tabel 4) (Tabel 5) S DS
Spectral Acceleration

Spektra di Batuan Dasar SB


Soil Type

S1 SDS adalah parameter respons spektral percepatan desain pada perioda pendek;
SS S1 SD1 adalah parameter respons spektral percepatan desain pada perioda 1 detik;
(Gambar 9) (Gambar 10) T adalah perioda getar fundamental struktur.
T
0.2 1.0 Bedrock SB

26
07/05/2015

Perbandingan Spektra SNI 2002 dengan SNI 2012 untuk Design Spectra Manado
Jakarta
1.0
0.8 0.9
Bedrock SNI-2010

Soft Hard soil SNI-2010


Spektral Percepatan (g)

0.7 0.8
Medium soil SNI-2010

Spektrum percepatan (g)


Percepatan di Gedung Medium 0.7
0.6 Soft soil SNI-2010
0.6 Hard soil SNI-2002
0.5
0.5 Medium soil SNI-2002

0.4 0.4 Soft soil SNI-2002

Soft SNI-2002 0.3


0.3 Medium SNI-2012
0.2
0.2 Soft SNI-2012
Medium SNI-2002 0.1
Percepatan di Fondasi
0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
0.0 Periode (detik)
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0
(10 lantai) (20 lantai) (30 lantai)
Perioda (detik)

Design Response Spectra of Surabaya


Design Spectra Medan for Building Design
1.0
0.7
0.9 Hard soil SNI-2010
Medium soil SNI-2010 SNI-2011
0.8
Spektrum percepatan (g)

0.6 Tanah Keras


Soft soil SNI-2010
0.7 Hard soil SNI-2002
Tanah Sedang
Medium soil SNI-2002 0.5
0.6
Soft soil SNI-2002 Tanah Lunak
0.5
0.4

SA (g)
0.4 SNI-2002 for soft soil
0.3
0.3

0.2
0.2
0.1

0.0 0.1
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
Periode (detik) 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
T (detik)

27
07/05/2015

Design Spectra Denpasar DESIGN SPECTRA KENDARI

0.9 0.7

Hard soil SNI-2010


0.8 Hard soil SNI-2010
0.6
Medium soil SNI-2010 Medium soil SNI-2010

Spektrum percepatan (g)


Spektrum percepatan (g)

0.7
Soft soil SNI-2010 0.5 Soft soil SNI-2010
0.6
Hard soil SNI-2002 Hard soil SNI-2002
0.5 0.4
Medium soil SNI-2002 Medium soil SNI-2002
0.4 0.3 Soft soil SNI-2002

0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1

0.0 0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

Periode (detik) Periode (detik)

ANALISIS PENGARUH KONDISI TANAH LOKAL


(SSA=SITE SPECIFIC ANALYSIS)
Sudah tersedia di Website PU:

Spektra Disain untuk seluruh Indonesia:

www.puskim.pu.go.id/desain_spektra_indonesia_2011

Offshore platform PLTU Tanki LNG

tinggal click menunjukkan lokasinya


Gedung Tinggi
> 30 lantai

Jembatan Bentang Panjang PLTN

28
07/05/2015

Contoh beberapa gedung tinggi di Jakarta yang telah dilakukan Site Specific Analysis
Site Specific Analysis/ Analisis Respons Situs-specifik (Irsyam): (Analisis Respons Situs-specifik)

Respon Spektra Percepatan


(Tanah lunak)

(Tanah sedang)

(Tanah keras)

0 1.0 2.0 3.0


T

Time-histories, Percepatan Tanah


3 maksimum, respon spektra,
keras
Tanah
faktor amplifikasi sedang
di permukaan Perambatan Geotechnical Soil
data profile
Tanah
lunak
2 Perambatan
Gelombang
Gelombang1-D 1-D
Site-specific seismic
Site-specific seismic
Design criteria
design criteria

PGA + Respon Spektra di Batuan dasar Analisis deaggregasi


Pembuatan
11 Pembuatan
Artificial time histories
Artificial time histories
Analisis deaggregasi
Pemilihan inputPemilihan
motion
Spectral matching
input motion
Spectral matching
Probabilistik + Deterministik

ASCE 7-10
Site Specific Response Analysis

0.15
0.15 0.15
0.1 Scaled Acceleration Scaled Acceleration
0.1 Scaled Acceleration 0.1
Acceleration (g)

Acceleration (g)

0.05
Acceleration (g)

0.05 0.05
0 0
0
-0.05 -0.05 -0.05
-0.1 -0.1 -0.1

Bedrock -0.15
-0.2
-0.15
-0.2
-0.15
-0.2
0 5 10 15 20
Time (sec)
25
Masyhur
30 35
Irsyam
40 0 5 10
Dinamika 15
Tanah 20
&
Time (sec)
25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20
Time (sec)
25 30 35 40

Rekayasa Gempa

29
07/05/2015

SNI-03-1726-2002

0.15
0.1
Acceleration (g)

0.05
0
-0.05
-0.1
-0.15
-0.2
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time (sec)

30